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The UPPSALA CONFLICT DATA PROGRAM (UCDP) is a data collection project on organized violence housed at Uppsala
Uppsala
University in Sweden
Sweden
that has been collecting information on armed conflict since 1946 and making it publicly available through its annual report, _States in Armed Conflict._ Beginning in Since 2004, the constantly-updated UCDP is also publicly available. The UCDP collects both quantitative and qualitative data on organized violence (e.g., fatality statistics, georeferenced event data, and armed actor and conflict descriptions) that is used by social science researchers, journalists , and policymakers .

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 2 Organization

* 2.1 Cooperation

* 3 Research

* 4 UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Database

* 4.1 Quantitative data from the dataset * 4.2 Publications

* 5 UCDP Battle-Related Deaths Dataset

* 6 UCDP\'s definitions of organized violence

* 6.1 List of state-based conflicts in 2011

* 7 Criticism

* 8 UCDP on the internet

* 8.1 UCDP for iPhone and Android

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

BACKGROUND

The UCDP began recording information on ongoing violent conflicts in the 1970s. It became clear that more systematic and global data on armed conflicts was necessary for conducting research in the expanding academic discipline of peace and conflict studies .

Initially, the program collected data only on so-called "armed conflicts", defined as fighting exceeding 25 battle-related deaths between two actors of which at least one was a state . In later years, the data gathering grew, and the program also began collecting data on "non-state conflicts" (where neither party was a state) and "one-sided violence" (where an organized group attacked unarmed civilians ).

The UCDP's data is published annually in such publications as the _ SIPRI Yearbook _ and the _ Journal of Peace Research _. The UCDP also makes its data publicly available through its website and in its annual publication, _States in Armed Conflict_.

ORGANIZATION

The UCDP is located at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research of Uppsala
Uppsala
University in Sweden. The program is led by the Dag Hammarskjöld Professor of Peace and Conflict Research, Peter Wallensteen, and employs approximately 15 research assistants and researchers. A number of scholars and Ph.D. candidates are also attached to the program and tasked with carrying out research for the collection of conflict data. In addition to collecting data, the program disseminates knowledge on trends and dynamics of armed conflict to the public via lectures at academic and government forums.

COOPERATION

The UCDP works closely with both the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) and the Human Security Report Project , based within the School for International Studies at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver
Vancouver
, British Columbia
British Columbia
, Canada
Canada
. The UCDP collaborates with PRIO to create its datasets and provides the Human Security Research Project with data for its annual publication, the _Human Security Report _. The UCDP's data is published annually in collaboration with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) and appears in the _ SIPRI Yearbook_.

RESEARCH

Hundreds of scholars have used the UCDP's data for research. The UCDP couples data collection with research on conflict resolution and the dynamics of conflicts. Much of the research done by UCDP staff is published in the UCDP's _States in Armed Conflict_ annual report, the annual _ SIPRI Yearbook_, and the _Journal of Peace Research_.

UCDP/PRIO ARMED CONFLICT DATABASE

The Armed Conflict Dataset is a joint project between the UCDP and PRIO that records armed conflicts from 1946–2012 that result in a minimum of 25 battle-related deaths and in which at least one actor is the government of a state. Data is collected by keying specific search words in the Factiva Database , an online resource containing over 10,000 different newspapers, newswires, and other sources, as well as published books, case studies, and journals (_ Africa
Africa
Research Bulletin _, _ Africa Confidential _, NGO publications). There have been four versions of the dataset, with Version 4-2013 being the most recent.

Every armed conflict is classified as a dyad in the dataset and assigned an ID number. A dyad consists of two conflicting primary parties. Dyads can last multiple years and are coded for intensity level ("minor" for those with less than 1,000 deaths; "major" for those with more than 1,000 deaths), region ( Americas , Asia
Asia
, Middle East , Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
), incompatibility (government, territory, government and territory), and type (extrasystemic, interstate, internal, internationalized internal). The start date, end date, year, and location of conflict are also provided as well as the precision of the start and end date.

The conflict between the United States
United States
and Al-Qaeda is an example of a dyad from the dataset. The United States
United States
is the government or Side A, while Al Qaeda is the organized political group or Side B. The conflict has an ID number in the dataset of 224, was located in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the Middle East
Middle East
region, and is coded with an intensity level of a 2 (major conflict resulting in over 1,000 deaths) from 2001–2010.

QUANTITATIVE DATA FROM THE DATASET

Mean intensity of armed conflicts between 1946–2012: 1.272163966. Average number of conflict per year between 1946–2012: 36.48 armed conflicts. Year with the most armed conflicts: 1991 and 1992. Year with the least amount of armed conflicts: 1955. Region with the most armed conflicts: Asia. Most common type of armed conflict: Internal.

PUBLICATIONS

UCDP data has been published in the _ SIPRI Yearbook_ since 1988. Since 1993, a list of all armed conflicts also appears in the _Journal of Peace Research_. Data on non-state conflicts appears in the _Human Security Report_ from 2004. The UCDP also releases (annually) its own report, _States in Armed Conflict_. UCDP data is also frequently used by journalists, government agencies, and other organizations to produce overviews of peace and conflict in the world. One prominent index that uses UCDP data is the Global Peace Index .

UCDP BATTLE-RELATED DEATHS DATASET

A battle-related death is one that is caused by combat between conflicting parties over a contested incompatibility. These deaths can be caused by traditional battlefield fighting, guerrilla activities , urban warfare , and any kind of bombardment of military units, cities, and villages. Guerrilla activities include hit-and-run attacks and ambushes , and examples of urban warfare include bombs , explosions , and assassinations . Targets of attacks are generally military, state institutions, and state representatives. However, civilians are collateral damage , and both military and civilian deaths are accounted for in the dataset.

UCDP has three ways of estimating battle-related deaths: best estimate, low estimate, and high estimate. The best estimate is the aggregate of the most reliable numbers for all battle-related incidents during a year. The low estimate is the aggregate of low estimates for all battle-related incidents during a year, and the high estimate is the aggregate of high estimates for all battle-related incidents during a year. These estimates are found in both conflict-year based datasets and dyad-year based datasets. The averages of deaths in the most recent of each kind of dataset are:

Conflict-year dataset bdBest bdLow bdHigh

Average 918 868 1,287

Dyad-year dataset bdBest bdLow bdHigh

Average 705 666 979

UCDP gathers and updates data on a yearly basis. They have datasets available from 1989 to 2012. Every event lists the date of the event, reporting source, primary source, actors involved, place of event, what happened, and the estimates of fatalities. The staff reads all the reports, and the information is entered manually. Furthermore, the aggregate results are compared to figures in official documents, special reports, and news media.

UCDP uses both printed and electronic public sources for gathering information. The main source is the Factiva Database that is composed of over 10,000 newspapers, newswires, and other sources from around the globe. UCDP uses at least one major newswire ( Reuters , Xinhua , EFE ) and BBC Monitoring . Additional sources include news agencies, newly published books, case studies, journals like _ Africa
Africa
Research Bulletin_, research reports, documents of international and multinational organizations, publications by NGOs such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International , and documents of fighting parties. Sources are judged according to the context in which they are published, and reports are traced back to the primary source to establish reliability.

UCDP\'S DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIZED VIOLENCE

The program divides armed conflict into three categories: "state-based conflict", "non-state conflict", and "one-sided violence".

STATE-BASED CONFLICT refers to what most people intuitively perceive as "war"; fighting either between two states, or between a state and a rebel group that challenges it. The UCDP defines an armed state-based conflict as: "An armed conflict is a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in one calendar year". The program's definition differs somewhat from other data collection programs, such as the Correlates of War Project, which only counts conflicts where at least 1,000 deaths have been recorded during one calendar year. In UCDP, data such an armed conflict is labelled as having the intensity level of "war", whilst armed conflicts that reap between 25 and 999 battle-related deaths are seen as having the intensity of a "minor" armed conflict.

NON-STATE CONFLICTS are those conflicts in which none of the warring parties is a state. Examples of non-state conflicts include the Fatah–Hamas conflict of 2006 and 2007 , inter-ethnic group conflicts such as the Lou Nuer –Murle conflict of 2009–2012, and inter-cartel violence in the Mexican Drug War .

ONE-SIDED VIOLENCE is defined as: "The use of armed force by the government of a state or by a formally organized group against civilians which results in at least 25 deaths in a year". Examples include actions by the governments of Sudan
Sudan
, Myanmar , and Syria against civilians, as well as actions of non-state organizations such as Los Zetas , Al-Qaeda, and the Lord\'s Resistance Army against civilians.

LIST OF STATE-BASED CONFLICTS IN 2011

In 2011, the UCDP reported 37 active state-based armed conflicts:

EUROPE • Russia (territory: Caucasus Emirate)

MIDDLE EAST • Iran (government) • Iraq
Iraq
(government) • Israel (territory: Palestine) • Syria
Syria
(government) • Turkey (territory: Kurdistan) • Yemen (government)

ASIA • Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(government) • Cambodia, Thailand (territory: common border) • India
India
(territory: Kashmir) • India
India
(government) • Myanmar (territory: Karen) • Myanmar (territory: Kachin) • Myanmar (territory: Shan) • Pakistan
Pakistan
(territory: Baluchistan) • Pakistan
Pakistan
(government) • Philippines (territory: Mindanao) • Philippines (government) • Tajikistan (government) • Thailand (territory: Patani)

AFRICA • Algeria (government) • Central African Republic (government) • Ethiopia (territory: Ogaden) • Ethiopia (territory: Oromiya) • Ivory Coast (government) • Libya
Libya
(government) • Mauritania (government) • Nigeria (government) • Rwanda (government) • Senegal (territory: Casamance) • Somalia (government) • Southern Sudan
Sudan
(government) • Sudan
Sudan
(government) • Sudan
Sudan
(territory: Abyei) • Uganda
Uganda
(government)

AMERICAS • Colombia (government) • USA (government)

Out of these 37 armed conflicts, a total of six ( Yemen , Afghanistan , Pakistan
Pakistan
, Libya
Libya
, Somalia and Sudan
Sudan
) reached the intensity level of "War", meaning that more than 1,000 battle-related deaths were recorded in 2011.

In 2012, six conflicts also reached the intensity level of "war".

State-Based Armed Conflicts Reaching the intensity of "War" in 2011 or 2012 START OF CONFLICT WAR/CONFLICT LOCATION FATALITIES IN 2010 FATALITIES IN 2011 FATALITIES IN 2012

2001 War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
6,377 7,418 7,396

1991 Somali Civil War Somalia 2,158 1,917 2,620

2004 War in North-West Pakistan Pakistan
Pakistan
4,787 2,641 2,705

2004 Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Yemen and Saudi Arabia 175 1,140 2,321

2011 Libyan Civil War Libya
Libya
0 1,928 -

2011 Sudanese Civil War Sudan
Sudan
931 1,398 1,119

2011 Syrian Civil War Syria
Syria
- 842 15,055

Major Non-State armed conflicts in 2010 or 2011 or 2012 WARRING PARTIES LOCATION FATALITIES IN 2010 FATALITIES IN 2011 FATALITIES IN 2012

Juarez Cartel vs. Sinaloa Cartel Mexico
Mexico
2,515 1,668 534

Los Zetas vs. Sinaloa Cartel Mexico
Mexico
29 85 329

Gulf Cartel vs. Los Zetas Mexico
Mexico
412 345 543

Lou Nuer Tribe vs. Murle Tribe Sudan
Sudan
- 1,415 424

Misseria vs. Rizeigat Baggara Sudan
Sudan
342 - 58

Christians vs. Muslims Nigeria - 830 123

Anagutas , Afisare , and Birom vs. Fulani , Hausa Nigeria 664 - -

Major One-Sided armed conflicts in 2010 or 2011 VIOLENCE PERPETRATOR LOCATION FATALITIES IN 2010 FATALITIES IN 2011 FATALITIES IN 2012

Islamic State of Iraq Iraq
Iraq
707 322 769

Taleban Movement of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan
549 198 166

Lord’s Resistance Army Uganda
Uganda
430 145 66

Los Zetas Mexico
Mexico
86 268

Communist Party of India (Maoist) India
India
337 184 110

Government of Ivory Coast Ivory Coast - 277 -

Government of Syria
Syria
Syria
Syria
- 2,924

* Note: Fatality figures may be substantially lower than other stated estimates as UCDP data does not include fatalities from disease and/or war-time epidemics, or combine casualty figures between different types of armed conflicts. Additionally the figures in the tables represent the UCDP's "best estimate" figures and not its "high estimate" figures.

CRITICISM

Edward Herman , Professor Emeritus of Finance at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania , and his colleague David Peterson, who together co-authored _The Politics of Genocide_, have accused the UCDP of using "politicized methodologies" in an effort to "minimize U.S.- and Western-led warmaking and killing." Exemplifying these assertions, they compare the classification of US involvement in Guatemala and the perception of Soviet involvement in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by the program.

UCDP ON THE INTERNET

The UCDP's homepage is located at http://www.ucdp.uu.se. The UCDP also has an on-line database of organised violence, accessible at http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/search.php. The database provides free information on state-based and non-state conflicts, as well as one-sided violence. It also includes descriptive information on causes and histories of conflicts and one-sided violence and brief descriptions of rebel groups, governments, and related items.

UCDP FOR IPHONE AND ANDROID

As of July 2010, the UCDP Conflict Database is available as an iPhone application and an Android application.

SEE ALSO

* Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Erik Melander (nd). "UCDP Program Overview". Uppsala
Uppsala
, Sweden
Sweden
: Department of Peace and Conflict Research , University of Upsala . Retrieved January 22, 2017. * ^ Box 256. "UCDP definition of armed conflict". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ "and the". Sipri.org. 2012-06-04. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ "Overview - Human Security Report 2012". Hsrgroup.org. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ " SIPRI Yearbook 2012 — www.sipri.org". Sipri.org. 2012-06-04. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. "Publications using UCDP data - Uppsala
Uppsala
universitet". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. "Publications - Uppsala
Uppsala
universitet". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Archived July 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Box 256. "UCDP definition of armed conflict". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. "Definition of intensity levels". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. "UCDP definition of one-sided violence". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Government of United States
United States
vs. Taleban, Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and al-Qaida, "best estimate" for 2010". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Government of United States
United States
vs. Taleban, Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and al-Qaida, "best estimate" for 2011". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Government of United States
United States
vs. Taleban, "best estimate" for 2012". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Somalia vs. Al-Shabaab, "best estimate" for 2010". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Somalia vs. Al-Shabaab, "best estimate" for 2011". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Somalia vs. Al-Shabaab, "best estimate" for 2012". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
vs. TTP, "best estimate" for 2010". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
vs. TTP and BLA, "best estimate" for 2011". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
vs. TTP, TTP-TA, and Lashkar-e-Islam, "best estimate" for 2012". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Yemen vs. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, "best estimate" for 2010". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Libya
Libya
vs. National Transitional Council and Government of Libya
Libya
vs. Forces of col. Muammar Gaddafi, "best estimate" for 2011". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Sudan
Sudan
vs. SLM/A, JEM and SSDM/A, "best estimate" for 2010". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Sudan
Sudan
vs. SLM/A, JEM, SPLM/A, SSLM/A, SSDM/A, "best estimate" for 2011". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Sudan
Sudan
vs. SRF, "best estimate" for 2012". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Syria
Syria
vs. Free Syrian Army, "best estimate" for 2011". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Government of Syria
Syria
vs. Free Syrian Army and Jabhat al-Nusra li al-Sham, "best estimate" for 2012". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Best estimate figures given * ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program, Mexico, Non-State Conflict, Juarez Cartel - Sinaloa Cartel, 2008-2012". Ucdp.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program, Mexico, Non-State Conflict, Los Zetas - Sinaloa Cartel, 2010-2012". Ucdp.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program, Mexico, Non-State Conflict, Gulf Cartel - Los Zetas, 2010-2012". Ucdp.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30.

* ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program, Sudan, Non-State Conflict, Lou Nuer - Murle, 2006-2012". Ucdp.uu.se. 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program, Sudan, Non-State Conflict, Misseria - Rizeigat Baggara, 2008-2012". Ucdp.uu.se. 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program, Nigeria, Non-State Conflict, Christians (Nigeria) - Muslims (Nigeria), 1991-2012". Ucdp.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program, Nigeria, Non-State Conflict, Anagutas, Afisare, Birom - Fulani, Hausa, 2001-2010". Ucdp.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Box 256. " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program data, Best estimate figures given". Pcr.uu.se. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ "Database - Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Data Program". UCDP. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ Edward S Herman and David Peterson. "Reality Denial : Steven Pinker\'s Apologetics for Western-Imperial Volence; under the sub-heading "Sources and methods"". Zcommunications.org. Retrieved 2013-06-30. * ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Database för iPhone, iPod touch och iPad i iTunes App Store". Itunes.apple.com. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2013-06-30.

* ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
Conflict Database - Android Apps on Google Play". Play.google.com. 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2013-06-30.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* UCDP website * UCDP database

Retrieved

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