The UPPSALA CONFLICT DATA PROGRAM (UCDP) is a data collection project
on organized violence housed at
* 1 Background
* 2 Organization
* 2.1 Cooperation
* 3 Research
* 4 UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Database
* 4.1 Quantitative data from the dataset * 4.2 Publications
* 5 UCDP Battle-Related Deaths Dataset
* 6 UCDP\'s definitions of organized violence
* 6.1 List of state-based conflicts in 2011
* 7 Criticism
* 8 UCDP on the internet
* 8.1 UCDP for iPhone and Android
* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links
The UCDP began recording information on ongoing violent conflicts in the 1970s. It became clear that more systematic and global data on armed conflicts was necessary for conducting research in the expanding academic discipline of peace and conflict studies .
Initially, the program collected data only on so-called "armed conflicts", defined as fighting exceeding 25 battle-related deaths between two actors of which at least one was a state . In later years, the data gathering grew, and the program also began collecting data on "non-state conflicts" (where neither party was a state) and "one-sided violence" (where an organized group attacked unarmed civilians ).
The UCDP's data is published annually in such publications as the _ SIPRI Yearbook _ and the _ Journal of Peace Research _. The UCDP also makes its data publicly available through its website and in its annual publication, _States in Armed Conflict_.
The UCDP is located at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research
The UCDP works closely with both the Peace Research Institute Oslo
(PRIO) and the
Human Security Report Project , based within the School
for International Studies at
Simon Fraser University in
Hundreds of scholars have used the UCDP's data for research. The UCDP couples data collection with research on conflict resolution and the dynamics of conflicts. Much of the research done by UCDP staff is published in the UCDP's _States in Armed Conflict_ annual report, the annual _ SIPRI Yearbook_, and the _Journal of Peace Research_.
UCDP/PRIO ARMED CONFLICT DATABASE
The Armed Conflict Dataset is a joint project between the UCDP and
PRIO that records armed conflicts from 1946–2012 that result in a
minimum of 25 battle-related deaths and in which at least one actor is
the government of a state. Data is collected by keying specific search
words in the
Factiva Database , an online resource containing over
10,000 different newspapers, newswires, and other sources, as well as
published books, case studies, and journals (_
Every armed conflict is classified as a dyad in the dataset and
assigned an ID number. A dyad consists of two conflicting primary
parties. Dyads can last multiple years and are coded for intensity
level ("minor" for those with less than 1,000 deaths; "major" for
those with more than 1,000 deaths), region (
The conflict between the
QUANTITATIVE DATA FROM THE DATASET
Mean intensity of armed conflicts between 1946–2012: 1.272163966. Average number of conflict per year between 1946–2012: 36.48 armed conflicts. Year with the most armed conflicts: 1991 and 1992. Year with the least amount of armed conflicts: 1955. Region with the most armed conflicts: Asia. Most common type of armed conflict: Internal.
UCDP data has been published in the _ SIPRI Yearbook_ since 1988. Since 1993, a list of all armed conflicts also appears in the _Journal of Peace Research_. Data on non-state conflicts appears in the _Human Security Report_ from 2004. The UCDP also releases (annually) its own report, _States in Armed Conflict_. UCDP data is also frequently used by journalists, government agencies, and other organizations to produce overviews of peace and conflict in the world. One prominent index that uses UCDP data is the Global Peace Index .
UCDP BATTLE-RELATED DEATHS DATASET
A battle-related death is one that is caused by combat between conflicting parties over a contested incompatibility. These deaths can be caused by traditional battlefield fighting, guerrilla activities , urban warfare , and any kind of bombardment of military units, cities, and villages. Guerrilla activities include hit-and-run attacks and ambushes , and examples of urban warfare include bombs , explosions , and assassinations . Targets of attacks are generally military, state institutions, and state representatives. However, civilians are collateral damage , and both military and civilian deaths are accounted for in the dataset.
UCDP has three ways of estimating battle-related deaths: best estimate, low estimate, and high estimate. The best estimate is the aggregate of the most reliable numbers for all battle-related incidents during a year. The low estimate is the aggregate of low estimates for all battle-related incidents during a year, and the high estimate is the aggregate of high estimates for all battle-related incidents during a year. These estimates are found in both conflict-year based datasets and dyad-year based datasets. The averages of deaths in the most recent of each kind of dataset are:
Conflict-year dataset bdBest bdLow bdHigh
Average 918 868 1,287
Dyad-year dataset bdBest bdLow bdHigh
Average 705 666 979
UCDP gathers and updates data on a yearly basis. They have datasets available from 1989 to 2012. Every event lists the date of the event, reporting source, primary source, actors involved, place of event, what happened, and the estimates of fatalities. The staff reads all the reports, and the information is entered manually. Furthermore, the aggregate results are compared to figures in official documents, special reports, and news media.
UCDP uses both printed and electronic public sources for gathering
information. The main source is the
Factiva Database that is composed
of over 10,000 newspapers, newswires, and other sources from around
the globe. UCDP uses at least one major newswire (
Reuters , Xinhua ,
EFE ) and
BBC Monitoring . Additional sources include news agencies,
newly published books, case studies, journals like _
UCDP\'S DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIZED VIOLENCE
The program divides armed conflict into three categories: "state-based conflict", "non-state conflict", and "one-sided violence".
STATE-BASED CONFLICT refers to what most people intuitively perceive as "war"; fighting either between two states, or between a state and a rebel group that challenges it. The UCDP defines an armed state-based conflict as: "An armed conflict is a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in one calendar year". The program's definition differs somewhat from other data collection programs, such as the Correlates of War Project, which only counts conflicts where at least 1,000 deaths have been recorded during one calendar year. In UCDP, data such an armed conflict is labelled as having the intensity level of "war", whilst armed conflicts that reap between 25 and 999 battle-related deaths are seen as having the intensity of a "minor" armed conflict.
NON-STATE CONFLICTS are those conflicts in which none of the warring parties is a state. Examples of non-state conflicts include the Fatah–Hamas conflict of 2006 and 2007 , inter-ethnic group conflicts such as the Lou Nuer –Murle conflict of 2009–2012, and inter-cartel violence in the Mexican Drug War .
ONE-SIDED VIOLENCE is defined as: "The use of armed force by the
government of a state or by a formally organized group against
civilians which results in at least 25 deaths in a year". Examples
include actions by the governments of
LIST OF STATE-BASED CONFLICTS IN 2011
In 2011, the UCDP reported 37 active state-based armed conflicts:
EUROPE • Russia (territory: Caucasus Emirate)
AFRICA • Algeria (government) • Central African Republic
(government) • Ethiopia (territory: Ogaden) • Ethiopia (territory:
Ivory Coast (government) •
AMERICAS • Colombia (government) • USA (government)
Out of these 37 armed conflicts, a total of six (
Yemen , Afghanistan
In 2012, six conflicts also reached the intensity level of "war".
State-Based Armed Conflicts Reaching the intensity of "War" in 2011 or 2012 START OF CONFLICT WAR/CONFLICT LOCATION FATALITIES IN 2010 FATALITIES IN 2011 FATALITIES IN 2012
Libyan Civil War
Sudanese Civil War
Major Non-State armed conflicts in 2010 or 2011 or 2012 WARRING PARTIES LOCATION FATALITIES IN 2010 FATALITIES IN 2011 FATALITIES IN 2012
Misseria vs. Rizeigat Baggara
Major One-Sided armed conflicts in 2010 or 2011 VIOLENCE PERPETRATOR LOCATION FATALITIES IN 2010 FATALITIES IN 2011 FATALITIES IN 2012
* Note: Fatality figures may be substantially lower than other stated estimates as UCDP data does not include fatalities from disease and/or war-time epidemics, or combine casualty figures between different types of armed conflicts. Additionally the figures in the tables represent the UCDP's "best estimate" figures and not its "high estimate" figures.
Edward Herman , Professor Emeritus of Finance at the Wharton School
of the University of Pennsylvania , and his colleague David Peterson,
who together co-authored _The Politics of Genocide_, have accused the
UCDP of using "politicized methodologies" in an effort to "minimize
U.S.- and Western-led warmaking and killing." Exemplifying these
assertions, they compare the classification of US involvement in
Guatemala and the perception of Soviet involvement in
UCDP ON THE INTERNET
The UCDP's homepage is located at http://www.ucdp.uu.se. The UCDP also has an on-line database of organised violence, accessible at http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/search.php. The database provides free information on state-based and non-state conflicts, as well as one-sided violence. It also includes descriptive information on causes and histories of conflicts and one-sided violence and brief descriptions of rebel groups, governments, and related items.
UCDP FOR IPHONE AND ANDROID
As of July 2010, the UCDP Conflict Database is available as an iPhone application and an Android application.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Erik Melander (nd). "UCDP Program Overview".
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* UCDP website * UCDP database