The terms UPPER SOUTH and UPLAND SOUTH refer to the northern part of the Southern United States , in contrast to the Lower South or Deep South .
* 1 Geography
* 2 History and culture
* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Distinct from neighboring regions * 2.3 Today * 2.4 As a cultural region
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography
Status of the states, 1861. States that seceded before April 15, 1861 States that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery Union states that banned slavery Territories
There is a slight difference in usage between the two terms. "Upland South" is usually defined based on landforms, generally referring to the southern Appalachian Mountains or Appalachia (although not the full region defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission ), the Ozarks and Ouachita Mountains , and the plateaus, hills, and basins between the Appalachians and Ozarks, such as the Cumberland Plateau , part of the Allegheny Plateau , the Nashville Basin , and the Bluegrass Basin , among others. The southern Piedmont region is often considered part of the Upland South, while the Atlantic Coastal Plain (the Chesapeake region and Carolina's Lowcountry ) is generally not. The United States map of Köppen climate classification.
In contrast, the term "Upper South" tends to be defined politically
by state . The term dates to the early 19th century and the rise of
the Lower South, which became noted for its differences from the more
northerly parts of the American South. In antebellum times, the term
Upper South generally referred to the Slave states north of the Lower
or Deep South. During the
American Civil War era, the term Upper
South was often used to refer specifically to the Confederate states
that did not secede until after the attack on Fort Sumter — Virginia
North Carolina ,
Tennessee , and
Arkansas . This can also include
the border states of
Missouri , West
The _Encyclopædia Britannica_ defines the Upper South as the states of North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The Upland South is defined by landforms rather than states but encompasses the same general region. The Upper/ Upland South is also described in the _Encyclopædia Britannica_ as the "Yeoman South", in contrast to the "Plantation South".
These two definitions cover the same general area. The Upland South, not being defined by state lines, includes parts of Lower South states, such as northwestern South Carolina (the Upstate ), North Georgia , North Alabama (and, in some definitions, Central Alabama ), and eastern Oklahoma . It also includes parts of some Northern states, such as Southern Illinois (the Shawnee Hills ), Southern Indiana , and Southern Ohio . Sometimes northeastern Mississippi and western Maryland are included as well. In the same way, the Upland South usually does not include parts of some Upper South states, such as the Mississippi embayment (which includes eastern Arkansas, the Missouri Bootheel , the Purchase area of Kentucky, and part of West Tennessee ), and the coastal lowlands of North Carolina and Virginia.
Despite these differences, the two terms, Upland South and Upper South, refer to the same general region — the northern part of the American South — and are frequently used synonymously. The corresponding terms, Lower South and Deep South, similarly refer to the same general region to the south of, and lower in elevation, than the Upland or Upper South. Likewise, the terms Lower South and Deep South are often used interchangeably.
HISTORY AND CULTURE
Upland South emerged as a distinct region in the late 18th
century and early 19th century. Migration and settlement patterns from
colonial coastal regions into the interior had been established for
many decades, but the scale grew dramatically toward the end of the
18th century. The general pattern was a westward migration from the
lowcountry and Piedmont regions of Virginia, North Carolina, and
Maryland, as well as a southwestern migration from
Large numbers of European immigrants arrived in
Great Wagon Road west and south into the Appalachian
Highlands, via the
Great Appalachian Valley . These migration streams
These migration streams eventually spread through Appalachia and westward through the Appalachian Plateau region into the Ozarks and Ouachitas, and ultimately contributed to the settlement of the Texas Hill Country . The main ethnicities of these early settlers included English , Scots-Irish , Scottish, and German . The early culture of the Upland South was influenced by other European ethnicities. For example, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden — relatively few in number but pioneering Pennsylvania before the Germans and Irish arrived — contributed techniques of forest pioneering such as the log cabin , the "zig-zag" split-rail fence , and frontier methods of shifting cultivation such as girdling trees and using slash and burn to convert forest into temporary crop and pasture land.
The pattern of settlement that had begun in the Appalachian foothills was continued and extended through the mountains and highlands to the west and across the Mississippi River into the Ozark highland region. Where there was the danger of Indian attacks, people settled at first in clustered "stations", but as danger lessened settlement tended to be in a rural, dispersed, kin-structured pattern, with relatively few towns and cities. These early settlers of the Upland South tended to practice small-scale farming, stock raising, and hunting. This settlement pattern of the Upland South was markedly different from the Deep South and the Midwest .
A significant portion of the 19th century settlers of the Midwest were from the Upland South. The southern Midwest was most heavily settled by Upland Southerners, especially in Missouri, southern Indiana and southern Illinois. This early migration to the southern Midwest included many African Americans. They were mainly freed slaves, but slavery was permitted in some places such as St. Louis , under the Missouri Compromise of 1820. In the mid 19th century there were concentrations of African Americans in east-central Indiana, southwest Michigan, and elsewhere. Due to their early settlement of the Midwest, Upland Southerners initially controlled territorial and state governments, and played a major role in establishing the political and social culture, such as the Black Laws of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Over the 19th century the percentage of Upland Southerners fell, especially as large numbers of native born Midwesterners joined the population.
DISTINCT FROM NEIGHBORING REGIONS
Deep South is generally associated historically with cotton . By
1850 the term "
Cotton States" was in common use and the differences
Deep South (lower) and
Upland South (upper) recognized. A
key difference was the Deep South's plantation -style cash crop
agriculture (mainly cotton, rice , sugar ), using African American
slaves working large farms while plantation owners tended to live in
towns and cities. This system of plantation farming was originally
developed in the West Indies and introduced to the United States in
South Carolina and
Louisiana , from where it spread throughout the
Deep South, although there were local exceptions wherever conditions
did not support the system. The sharp division between town and
country, the intensive use of a few cash crops, and the high
proportion of slaves, all contrasted with the Upland South. Virginia
and its surrounding region stands out as different from both the
Upland South and the Deep South. Its history predates the West Indian
plantation model, and while tobacco was a cash crop from the start,
and African slaves became widely used,
As a result of the difference in the use of slaves, the boundary between the Upland South and Deep South can still be seen today on maps showing the population percentage of African-Americans. The term Black Belt originally referred to a region of black soil in Alabama that was especially good for cotton farming (the Black Belt of Alabama ), but has become more commonly used today to refer to the region of the South with a high percentage of African-Americans. In contrast, the Upland South was less involved with slavery from the start.
In addition, the Cotton Belt of the Deep South was controlled by Indians (mainly the Five Civilized Tribes of the Cherokee , Creek , Chickasaw , Choctaw , and Seminole ) powerful enough to keep pioneering settlers from moving into the region. The Deep South's cotton boom did not occur until after the Indians were forced west in the early 19th century. In contrast, the Upland South, Kentucky and Tennessee especially, were the scene of Indian resistance and pioneering settlement in the late 18th century. Thus the Upland South was already colonized and had established its particular settlement patterns before most of the Deep South was opened to general colonization. Johnson County in Eastern Kentucky Hardwood forest in Middle Tennessee
The differences between the
Upland South and lowlands of the South's
Atlantic Seaboard and cotton belt often resulted in regional tension
and conflict within states. For example, during the late 18th
century, the upland "backcountry" of
North Carolina grew in population
until the Upland Southerners there outnumbered the older,
well-established, wealthier coastal populations. In some cases the
conflict between the two resulted in warfare, such as War of the
Regulation in North Carolina. Later, similar processes resulted in
divergent populations in states to the west. Northern Alabama, for
example, was settled from
Tennessee by Upland Southerners, while
southern Alabama was one of the core regions of the
Deep South cotton
boom. During the
American Civil War some areas of the Upland South
were noted for their resistance to the Confederacy . The uplands of
The two regions also differ physically. The upland south is dominated by deciduous hardwood forest, in contrast to the Deep South's predominantly evergreen pine forests. The upland south is often much hillier than the deep south, due to the Deep South being part of the coastal plain.
The Upland South contains its own sub-regions. The fertile lowlands of the Nashville Basin and the Bluegrass Basin gave rise to the truly urban cities of Nashville , Lexington , and Louisville , which grew into banking and mercantile centers in the 19th century, home to an elite class of Upland Southerners, including bankers, lawyers, educators, and politicians. The abundance of iron ore, coal, and limestone in the Birmingham District transformed a gritty boom town into the iron and steel city of Birmingham which anchored the southern urban industrial powerhouse and gave rise to a class of blue collar workers who were the life blood of the city as well a cosmopolitan class of bankers, lawyers, and politicians. Most of the Upland South, however, remained rural in character.
Although historically very rural, the
Upland South was one of the
nation's early industrial regions and continues to be today.
coal , iron , copper , and other minerals has been part of the
region's economy since the 18th century. As early as 1750 lead and
zinc were mined in Wythe County,
Logging has also been an important part of the Upland South's economy. The region became the United States' primary source of timber after railroads allowed large scale industrial logging in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Today, the historic importance of the Upland South's forests can be seen in its many national forests, such as Cherokee National Forest in Tennessee, Nantahala National Forest in North Carolina, and Daniel Boone National Forest in Kentucky, among many others. The Upland South's terrain and forests, as well as history and culture, occur in parts of states usually associated with the Midwest and Deep South. These areas are often associated with national forests, for example Mark Twain National Forest in southern Missouri, Shawnee National Forest in southern Illinois, Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana, Wayne National Forest in southeast Ohio, William B. Bankhead National Forest in northern Alabama, Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest in northern Georgia, Sumter National Forest in South Carolina, and Ouachita National Forest in Arkansas and Oklahoma.
Textile mills and industry have been an important factor in the Upland South's economy since the time of the Deep South's cotton boom.
Today the Upland South contains a diversity of people and economics. Some parts, like the Shenandoah Valley , are famous for their rural qualities, while other parts, like the Tennessee Valley , are heavily industrialized. Knoxville and Huntsville are both centers of industry and scientific research.
AS A CULTURAL REGION
Map of primary areas of Tobacco production in the U.S., with the areas of greater production in dark green and those of lesser production in light green.
The Upper South today remains a culture region, with distinct ancestry, dialect, cuisine, religion and other characteristics. The heavily rhotacized Upland Southern dialect still predominates in much of West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and the western portions of North Carolina, Maryland, and Virginia. Noticeable influence can even be found in parts of Deep South states such as northern Georgia and northern Alabama and parts of the southern portions of Missouri as far north as St. Louis , Indiana, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Like the Deep South, the region is heavily evangelical Protestant with Baptists making up a plurality in the vast majority of counties. The cuisine of the Upper South is generally closely related to the lowland south, excluding southern low-country areas in which the cuisine tends to involve seafood and rice, which are not common in the Upper South. Tobacco is still a large crop in Kentucky and North Carolina.
* ^ Hudson, John C. (2002). _Across this Land: A Regional Geography of the United States and Canada_. JHU Press. pp. 101–116. ISBN 978-0-8018-6567-1 . * ^ The origin and evolution of the Upland South is explored in Meinig (1986), pp. 158, 386, 449 * ^ Meinig (1993), pg. 293. * ^ Davidson, James West. Nation of Nations: a History of the American Republic. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2008. Print. (according to the glossary of the textbook) * ^ "Britannica Library". Library.eb.com. Retrieved 2015-08-11. * ^ Turner, Frederick Jackson (1921). _The Frontier in American History_. Holt. pp. 164–166. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Sisson, Richard; Christian K. Zacher; Andrew Robert Lee Cayton (2007). _The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia_. Indiana University Press. pp. 196–198. ISBN 978-0-253-34886-9 . * ^ Meinig (1998), pg. 224 * ^ Drake (2001), pp. 36-38, describes these early pioneer ethnic groups and notes that the term "Scotch-Irish" (Scots-Irish), while predominately Presbyterian northern Irish, also included a significant number of Catholic southern Irish; and that the term "English" was a general catch-all term including ancestries such as French Huguenot ( John Sevier 's family, for example). On the topic of colonial Catholic Irish immigration, see also Williams (2002), pp. 43-44. * ^ Williams (2002), pg. 104 * ^ For Antebellum differences between the Upper South and Lower South, see Meinig (1998) pp. 222-224 * ^ _A_ _B_ Turner, Frederick Jackson (1921). _The Frontier in American History_. Holt. pp. 116–117. * ^ Weigley, Russell F., _A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861-1865_, Indiana Univ. Press, 2000, pg. 55 * ^ Drake, Richard B. (2003). _A History of Appalachia_. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-8131-9060-0 . * ^ Williams, John Alexander (2002). _Appalachia: A History_. University of North Carolina Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-8078-5368-9 . * ^ "Readings - A Short History Of Kentucky/Central Appalachia Country Boys FRONTLINE". PBS. Retrieved 2015-08-11. * ^ Archived March 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Archived March 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Map 2" (GIF). Ling.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2015-08-11. * ^ Archived May 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine .
* Drake, Richard B. _A History of Appalachia_. Lexington :
Kentucky Press , 2001. ISBN 0-8131-2169-8 .
* Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G. _The Upland South: The Making of an
American Folk Region and Landscape._ Harrisonburg : U of
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