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The Info List - United States Presidential Election, 1904





Theodore Roosevelt Republican

Elected President Theodore Roosevelt Republican

The United States
United States
presidential election of 1904 was the 30th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1904. Incumbent Republican President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
defeated the Democratic nominee, Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt's victory made him the first president to win a term in his own right after having ascended to the presidency upon the death of a predecessor. Roosevelt had acceded to office in 1901 following the assassination of William McKinley. After the February 1904 death of McKinley's ally, Senator Mark Hanna, Roosevelt faced little opposition at the 1904 Republican National Convention. The conservative Bourbon Democrat allies of former President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
temporarily regained control of the Democratic Party from the followers of the William Jennings Bryan, and the 1904 Democratic National Convention
1904 Democratic National Convention
nominated Alton B. Parker, Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals. Parker triumphed on the second ballot of the convention, defeating newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. As there was little difference between the candidates' positions, the race was largely based on their personalities; the Democrats argued the Roosevelt presidency was "arbitrary" and "erratic."[2] Republicans emphasized Roosevelt's success in foreign affairs and his record of firmness against monopolies. Roosevelt easily defeated Parker, sweeping every region in the nation except the South. Two third-party candidates, Eugene V. Debs
Eugene V. Debs
of the Socialist Party and Silas C. Swallow of the Prohibition Party, each took over 1% of the popular vote. Roosevelt's popular vote margin of 18.8% was the largest since James Monroe's victory in the 1820 presidential election.

Contents

1 Nominations

1.1 Republican Party nomination 1.2 Democratic Party nomination 1.3 Socialist Party nomination

2 General election

2.1 Campaign 2.2 Results 2.3 Geography of results

2.3.1 Cartographic gallery

2.4 Results by state 2.5 Close states

2.5.1 Statistics

3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading

5.1 Primary sources

6 External links

Nominations[edit] Republican Party nomination[edit]

Republican Party Ticket, 1904

Theodore Roosevelt Charles W. Fairbanks

for President for Vice President

26th President of the United States (1901–1909) U.S. Senator from Indiana (1897–1905)

Main article: 1904 Republican National Convention Republican candidates:

President Theodore Roosevelt

Senator Mark Hanna from Ohio (Died February 15, 1904)

As Republicans convened in Chicago
Chicago
on June 21–23, 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt's nomination was assured. He had effectively maneuvered throughout 1902 and 1903 to gain control of the party to ensure it. A dump-Roosevelt movement had centered on the candidacy of conservative Senator Mark Hanna
Mark Hanna
from Ohio, but Hanna's death in February 1904 had removed this obstacle. Roosevelt's nomination speech was delivered by former governor Frank S. Black
Frank S. Black
of New York and seconded by Senator Albert J. Beveridge
Albert J. Beveridge
from Indiana. Roosevelt was nominated unanimously on the first ballot with 994 votes. Since conservatives in the Republican Party denounced Theodore Roosevelt as a radical, they were allowed to choose the vice-presidential candidate. Senator Charles W. Fairbanks
Charles W. Fairbanks
from Indiana was the obvious choice, since conservatives thought highly of him, yet he managed not to offend the party's more progressive elements. Roosevelt was far from pleased with the idea of Fairbanks for vice-president. He would have preferred Representative Robert R. Hitt from Illinois, but he did not consider the vice-presidential nomination worth a fight. With solid support from New York, Pennsylvania, and Indiana, Fairbanks was easily placed on the 1904 Republican ticket in order to appease the Old Guard. The Republican platform insisted on maintenance of the protective tariff, called for increased foreign trade, pledged to uphold the gold standard, favored expansion of the merchant marine, promoted a strong navy, and praised in detail Roosevelt's foreign and domestic policy.

Presidential ballot

Ballot 1st

Theodore Roosevelt 994

Source: US President - R Convention. Our Campaigns. (September 9, 2009).

Vice-presidential ballot

Ballot 1st

Charles W. Fairbanks 994

Source: US Vice President - R Convention. Our Campaigns. (September 9, 2009). Democratic Party nomination[edit] Main article: 1904 Democratic National Convention

Democratic Party Ticket, 1904

Alton B. Parker Henry G. Davis

for President for Vice President

Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals (1898–1904) Former U.S. Senator from West Virginia (1871–1883)

Campaign

Democratic candidates:

Chief Judge Alton B. Parker from New York

Representative William R. Hearst from New York

Senator Francis Cockrell from Missouri

Richard Olney Former U.S Secretary Of State from Massachusetts

William J. Bryan from Nebraska (Declined - Jan 10)[3]

Edward C. Wall from Wisconsin

George Gray from Delaware

Representative John Sharp Williams from Mississippi

Nelson A. Miles from Massachusetts

In 1904, both William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan
and former President Grover Cleveland declined to run for president. Since the two Democratic nominees of the past 20 years did not seek the presidential nomination, Alton B. Parker, a Bourbon Democrat
Bourbon Democrat
from New York, emerged as the frontrunner. Parker was the Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals and was respected by both Democrats and Republicans in his state. On several occasions, the Republicans paid Parker the honor of running no one against him when he ran for various political positions. Parker refused to work actively for the nomination, but did nothing to restrain his conservative supporters, among them the sachems of Tammany Hall. Former President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
endorsed Parker. The Democratic Convention that met in St. Louis, Missouri, on July 6–9, 1904, has been called "one of the most exciting and sensational in the history of the Democratic Party." The struggle inside the Democratic Party over the nomination was to prove as contentious as the election itself. Though Parker, out of active politics for twenty years, had neither enemies nor errors to make him unavailable, a bitter battle was waged against Parker by the more liberal wing of the party in the months before the convention. Despite the fact that Parker had supported Bryan in 1896 and 1900, Bryan hated him for being a Gold Democrat. Bryan wanted the weakest man nominated, one who could not take the control of the party away from him. He denounced Judge Parker as a tool of Wall Street
Wall Street
before he was nominated and declared that no self-respecting Democrat could vote for him. Inheriting Bryan's support was publisher, now congressman, William Randolph Hearst of New York. Hearst owned eight newspapers, all of them friendly to labor, vigorous in their trust-busting activities, fighting the cause of "the people who worked for a living." Because of this liberalism, Hearst had the Illinois
Illinois
delegation pledged to him and the promise of several other states. Although Hearst's newspaper was the only major publication in the East to support William Jennings Bryan and Bimetallism
Bimetallism
in 1896, he found that his support for Bryan was not reciprocated. Instead, Bryan seconded the nomination of Francis Cockrell.

At 80, Davis was the oldest major party candidate ever nominated for national office.

The prospect of having Hearst for a candidate frightened conservative Democrats so much that they renewed their efforts to get Parker nominated on the first ballot. Parker received 658 votes on the first roll call, 9 short of the necessary two-thirds. Before the result could be announced, 21 more votes were transferred to Parker. As a result, Parker handily won the nomination on the first ballot with 679 votes to 181 for Hearst and the rest scattered. After Parker's nomination, Bryan charged that it had been dictated by the trusts and secured by "crooked and indefensible methods." Bryan also said that labor had been betrayed in the convention and could look for nothing from the Democratic Party. Indeed, Parker was one of the judges on the New York Court of Appeals
New York Court of Appeals
who declared the eight-hour law unconstitutional.[4] Before a vice-president could be nominated, Parker sprang into action when he learned that the Democratic platform pointedly omitted reference to the monetary issue. To make his position clear, Parker, after his nomination, informed the convention by letter that he supported the gold standard. The letter read, "I regard the gold standard as firmly and irrevocably established and shall act accordingly if the action of the convention today shall be ratified by the people. As the platform is silent on the subject, my view should be made known to the convention, and if it is proved to be unsatisfactory to the majority, I request you to decline the nomination for me at once, so that another may be nominated before adjournment."[5] It was the first time a candidate had made such a move. It was an act of daring that might have lost him the nomination and made him an outcast from the party he had served and believed in all his life.[6][7]

Parker/Davis campaign poster

Former Senator Henry G. Davis
Henry G. Davis
from West Virginia
West Virginia
was nominated for vice-president; at 80, he was the oldest major-party candidate ever nominated for national office. Davis had received the nomination because it was believed he could deliver his state for the Democrats. Davis had an honorable career in politics and was also a millionaire mine owner, railroad magnate, and banker. Parker protested against "the rule of individual caprice," the presidential "usurpation of authority," and the "aggrandizement of personal power." But his more positive proposals were so backward-looking, such as his proposal to let state legislatures and the common law develop a remedy for the trust problem, that the New York World characterized the campaign as a struggle of "conservative and constitutional Democracy against radical and arbitrary Republicanism."[8] The Democratic platform called for reduction in government expenditures and a congressional investigation of the executive departments "already known to teem with corruption"; condemned monopolies; pledged an end to government contracts with companies violating antitrust laws; opposed imperialism; insisted upon independence for the Philippines; and opposed the protective tariff. It favored strict enforcement of the eight-hour work day; construction of a Panama Canal; the direct election of senators; statehood for the Western territories; the extermination of polygamy; reciprocal trade agreements; cuts in the army; and enforcement of the civil service laws. It condemned the Roosevelt administration in general as "spasmodic, erratic, sensational, spectacular, and arbitrary."[9]

The balloting

Presidential ballot 1st (before shifts) 1st (after shifts) Unanimous Vice-presidential ballot 1st Unanimous

Alton B. Parker 658 679 1,000 Henry G. Davis 654 1,000

William Randolph Hearst 200 181

James R. Williams 165

Francis Cockrell 42 42

George Turner 100

Richard Olney 38 38

William Alexander Harris 58

Edward C. Wall 27 27

Abstaining 23

George Gray 12 12

John Sharp Williams 8 8

Robert E. Pattison 4 4

George B. McClellan Jr. 3 3

Nelson A. Miles 3 3

Charles A. Towne 2 2

Arthur Pue Gorman 2 -

Bird Sim Coler 1 1

Source: US President - D Convention. Our Campaigns. (March 10, 2011). Socialist Party nomination[edit]

Union leader Eugene V. Debs
Eugene V. Debs
from Indiana

Debs/Hanford campaign poster

The Election of 1904 was the first election in which the Socialist Party participated. The Socialist Party of America
Socialist Party of America
was a highly factionalized coalition of local parties based in industrial cities and usually was rooted in ethnic communities, especially German and Finnish. It also had some support in old Populist rural and mining areas in the West. Prominent socialist Eugene V. Debs
Eugene V. Debs
was nominated for president and Benjamin Hanford
Benjamin Hanford
was nominated for vice-president. General election[edit] Campaign[edit]

Parker campaign button

The campaigning done by both parties was much less vigorous than it had been in 1896 and 1900. The campaign season was pervaded by goodwill, and it went a long way toward mending the damage done by the previous class-war elections. This was due to the fact that Parker and Roosevelt, with the exception of charisma, were so similar in political outlook. So close were the two candidates that few differences could be detected. Both men were for the gold standard; though the Democrats were more outspokenly against imperialism, both believed in fair treatment for the Filipinos and eventual liberation; and both believed that labor unions had the same rights as individuals before the courts. The radicals in the Democratic Party denounced Parker as a conservative; the conservatives in the Republican Party denounced Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
as a radical. During the campaign, there were a couple of instances in which Roosevelt was seen as vulnerable. In the first place, Joseph Pulitzer's New York World
New York World
carried a full page story about alleged corruption in the Bureau of Corporations. President Roosevelt admitted certain payments had been made, but denied any "blackmail." Secondly, in appointing George B. Cortelyou
George B. Cortelyou
as his campaign manager, Roosevelt had purposely used his former Secretary of Commerce and Labor. This was of importance because Cortelyou, knowing the secrets of the corporations, could extract large contributions from them. The charge created quite a stir and in later years was proven to be sound. In 1907, it was disclosed that the insurance companies had contributed rather too heavily to the Roosevelt campaign. Only a week before the election, Roosevelt himself called E. H. Harriman, the railroad king, to Washington, D.C., for the purpose of raising funds to carry New York.[6] Insider money, however, was spent on both candidates. Parker received financial support from the Morgan banking interests, just as Bourbon Democrat Cleveland had before him. Thomas W. Lawson, the Boston millionaire, charged that New York state Senator Patrick Henry McCarren, who brought out Judge Parker for the nomination, was on the pay roll of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
as political master mechanic at twenty thousand dollars a year. He also claimed that Parker was the chosen tool of Standard Oil. Lawson offered Senator McCarren $100,000 (equivalent to $2.7 million today) if he would disprove the charge.[4] According to one account, "No denial of the charge was ever made by the Senator." One paper even referred to McCarren as "the Standard Oil serpent of Brooklyn politics."[10] Results[edit]

"The Mysterious Stranger" – A political cartoon showing Missouri having left the Solid South
Solid South
by voting Republican.

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
won a landslide victory, taking every Northern and Western state. He was the first Republican to carry the state of Missouri
Missouri
since Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
in 1868. In voting Republican, Missouri
Missouri
repositioned itself from being associated with the Solid South to being seen as a bellwether swing state throughout the 20th century. The vote in Maryland
Maryland
was extremely close. For the first time in that state's history, secret paper ballots, supplied at public expense, and without political symbols of any kind, were issued to each voter. Candidates for Electors were listed under the presidential and vice presidential candidates for each party; there were four parties recognized in the election: Democratic, Republican, Prohibition, and Socialist. Voters were free to mark their ballots for up to eight candidates of any party. While Roosevelt's victory nationally was quickly determined, the election in Maryland
Maryland
remained in doubt for several weeks. On November 30, Roosevelt was declared the statewide victor by just 51 votes. However, as voters had voted for individual presidential electors, only one Republican elector, Charles Bonaparte, survived the tally. The other seven top vote recipients were Democrats.[11]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Roosevelt (Republican), shades of blue are for Parker (Democratic), and shades of green are for Watson (Populist).[12]

Roosevelt won the election by more than 2.5 million popular votes. No earlier president had won by so large a margin. Roosevelt won 56.4% of the popular vote; that, along with his popular vote margin of 18.8%, was the largest recorded between James Monroe's uncontested re-election in 1820 and the election of Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
in 1920. Of the 2,754 counties making returns, Roosevelt carried 1,611 (58.50%) and won a majority of votes in 1,538; he and Parker were tied in one county (0.04%). Thomas Watson, the Populist candidate, received 117,183 votes and won nine counties (0.33%) in his home state of Georgia. He had a majority in five of the counties, and his vote total was double the Populist's showing in 1900 but less than one eighth of the party's total in 1892. Parker carried 1,133 counties (41.14%) and won a majority in 1,057. The distribution of the vote by counties reveals him to have been a weaker candidate than William Jennings Bryan, the party's nominee four years earlier, in every section of the nation, except for the deep South, where Democratic dominance remained strong, due in large part to pervasive disfranchisement of blacks.[13] In 17 states, the Parker–Davis ticket failed to carry a single county, and outside the South carried only 84.[14] This was the last election in which the Republicans won Colorado, Nebraska, and Nevada until 1920.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral vote Running mate

Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(Incumbent) Republican New York 7,630,457 56.42% 336 Charles W. Fairbanks Indiana 336

Alton B. Parker Democratic New York 5,083,880 37.59% 140 Henry G. Davis West Virginia 140

Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 402,810 2.98% 0 Benjamin Hanford New York 0

Silas C. Swallow Prohibition Pennsylvania 259,102 1.92% 0 George W. Carroll Texas 0

Thomas E. Watson Populist Georgia 114,070 0.84% 0 Thomas Tibbles Nebraska 0

Charles Hunter Corregan Socialist Labor New York 33,454 0.25% 0 William Wesley Cox Illinois 0

Other 1,229 0.01% — Other —

Total 13,525,002 100% 476

476

Needed to win 239

239

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1904 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 28, 2005.  Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005. 

Popular vote

Roosevelt

56.42%

Parker

37.59%

Debs

2.98%

Swallow

1.92%

Watson

0.84%

Others

0.26%

Electoral vote

Roosevelt

70.59%

Parker

29.41%

Geography of results[edit]

Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Cartographic gallery[edit]

Map of presidential election results by county

Map of Republican presidential election results by county

Map of Democratic presidential election results by county

Map of "other" presidential election results by county

Cartogram
Cartogram
of presidential election results by county

Cartogram
Cartogram
of Republican presidential election results by county

Cartogram
Cartogram
of Democratic presidential election results by county

Cartogram
Cartogram
of "other" presidential election results by county

Results by state[edit] [15]

States won by Roosevelt/Fairbanks

States won by Parker/Davis

Theodore Roosevelt Republican Alton B. Parker Democratic Eugene V. Debs Socialist Silas Swallow Prohibition Thomas Watson Populist Charles Corregan Socialist Labor Margin State Total

State electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % #

Alabama 11 22,472 20.66 - 79,797 73.35 11 853 0.78 - 612 0.56 - 5,051 4.64 - - - - -57,325 -52.70 108,785 AL

Arkansas 9 46,860 40.25 - 64,434 55.35 9 1,816 1.56 - 993 0.85 - 2,318 1.99 - - - - -17,574 -15.10 116,421 AR

California 10 205,226 61.84 10 89,404 26.94 - 29,535 8.90 - 7,380 2.22 - 2 0.00 - - - - 115,822 34.90 331,878 CA

Colorado 5 134,661 55.26 5 100,105 41.08 - 4,304 1.77 - 3,438 1.41 - 824 0.34 - 335 0.14 - 34,556 14.18 243,667 CO

Connecticut 7 111,089 58.12 7 72,909 38.15 - 4,543 2.38 - 1,506 0.79 - 495 0.26 - 575 0.30 - 38,180 19.98 191,128 CT

Delaware 3 23,705 54.05 3 19,347 44.11 - 146 0.33 - 607 1.38 - 51 0.12 - - - - 4,358 9.94 43,856 DE

Florida 5 8,314 21.48 - 26,449 68.33 5 2,337 6.04 - - - - 1,605 4.15 - - - - -18,135 -46.85 38,705 FL

Georgia 13 24,004 18.33 - 83,466 63.72 13 196 0.15 - 685 0.52 - 22,635 17.28 - - - - -59,462 -45.40 130,986 GA

Idaho 3 47,783 65.84 3 18,480 25.46 - 4,949 6.82 - 1,013 1.40 - 353 0.49 - - - - 29,303 40.37 72,578 ID

Illinois 27 632,645 58.77 27 327,606 30.43 - 69,225 6.43 - 34,770 3.23 - 6,725 0.62 - 4,698 0.44 - 305,039 28.34 1,076,499 IL

Indiana 15 368,289 53.99 15 274,345 40.22 - 12,013 1.76 - 23,496 3.44 - 2,444 0.36 - 1,598 0.23 - 93,944 13.77 682,185 IN

Iowa 13 308,158 63.39 13 149,276 30.71 - 14,849 3.05 - 11,603 2.39 - 2,207 0.45 - - - - 158,882 32.69 486,093 IA

Kansas 10 212,955 64.81 10 86,174 26.23 - 15,869 4.83 - 7,306 2.22 - 6,257 1.90 - - - - 126,781 38.59 328,561 KS

Kentucky 13 205,457 47.13 - 217,170 49.82 13 3,599 0.83 - 6,603 1.51 - 2,521 0.58 - 596 0.14 - -11,713 -2.69 435,946 KY

Louisiana 9 5,205 9.66 - 47,708 88.50 9 995 1.85 - - - - - - - - - - -42,503 -78.84 53,908 LA

Maine 6 65,432 67.44 6 27,642 28.49 - 2,102 2.17 - 1,510 1.56 - 337 0.35 - - - - 37,790 38.95 97,023 ME

Maryland 8 109,497 48.83 1 109,446 48.81 7 2,247 1.00 - 3,034 1.35 - 1 0.00 - - - - 51 0.02 224,229 MD

Massachusetts 16 257,822 57.92 16 165,746 37.24 - 13,604 3.06 - 4,279 0.96 - 1,294 0.29 - 2,359 0.53 - 92,076 20.69 445,109 MA

Michigan 14 364,957 69.51 14 135,392 25.79 - 9,042 1.72 - 13,441 2.56 - 1,159 0.22 - 1,036 0.20 - 229,565 43.72 525,027 MI

Minnesota 11 216,651 73.98 11 55,187 18.84 - 11,692 3.99 - 6,253 2.14 - 2,103 0.72 - 974 0.33 - 161,464 55.13 292,860 MN

Mississippi 10 3,280 5.59 - 53,480 91.07 10 462 0.79 - - - - 1,499 2.55 - - - - -50,200 -85.49 58,721 MS

Missouri 18 321,449 49.93 18 296,312 46.02 - 13,009 2.02 - 7,191 1.12 - 4,226 0.66 - 1,674 0.26 - 25,137 3.90 643,861 MO

Montana 3 34,932 54.21 3 21,773 33.79 - 5,676 8.81 - 335 0.52 - 1,520 2.36 - 208 0.32 - 13,159 20.42 64,444 MT

Nebraska 8 138,558 61.38 8 52,921 23.44 - 7,412 3.28 - 6,323 2.80 - 20,518 9.09 - - - - 85,637 37.94 225,732 NE

Nevada 3 6,864 56.66 3 3,982 32.87 - 925 7.64 - - - - 344 2.84 - - - - 2,882 23.79 12,115 NV

New Hampshire 4 54,163 60.07 4 34,074 37.79 - 1,090 1.21 - 750 0.83 - 83 0.09 - - - - 20,089 22.28 90,161 NH

New Jersey 12 245,164 56.68 12 164,566 38.05 - 9,587 2.22 - 6,845 1.58 - 3,705 0.86 - 2,680 0.62 - 80,598 18.63 432,547 NJ

New York 39 859,533 53.13 39 683,981 42.28 - 36,883 2.28 - 20,787 1.28 - 7,459 0.46 - 9,127 0.56 - 175,552 10.85 1,617,770 NY

North Carolina 12 82,442 39.67 - 124,091 59.71 12 124 0.06 - 342 0.16 - 819 0.39 - - - - -41,649 -20.04 207,818 NC

North Dakota 4 52,595 75.12 4 14,273 20.39 - 2,009 2.87 - 1,137 1.62 - - - - - - - 38,322 54.73 70,014 ND

Ohio 23 600,095 59.75 23 344,674 34.32 - 36,260 3.61 - 19,339 1.93 - 1,392 0.14 - 2,633 0.26 - 255,421 25.43 1,004,393 OH

Oregon 4 60,455 67.06 4 17,521 19.43 - 7,619 8.45 - 3,806 4.22 - 753 0.84 - - - - 42,934 47.62 90,154 OR

Pennsylvania 34 840,949 68.00 34 337,998 27.33 - 21,863 1.77 - 33,717 2.73 - - - - 2,211 0.18 - 502,951 40.67 1,236,738 PA

Rhode Island 4 41,605 60.60 4 24,839 36.18 - 956 1.39 - 768 1.12 - - - - 488 0.71 - 16,766 24.42 68,656 RI

South Carolina 9 2,554 4.63 - 52,563 95.36 9 - - - - - - 1 0.00 - - - - -50,009 -90.73 55,118 SC

South Dakota 4 72,083 71.09 4 21,969 21.67 - 3,138 3.09 - 2,965 2.92 - 1,240 1.22 - - - - 50,114 49.42 101,395 SD

Tennessee 12 105,363 43.40 - 131,653 54.23 12 1,354 0.56 - 1,889 0.78 - 2,491 1.03 - - - - -26,290 -10.83 242,750 TN

Texas 18 51,242 21.90 - 167,200 71.45 18 2,791 1.19 - 4,292 1.83 - 8,062 3.45 - 421 0.18 - -115,958 -49.55 234,008 TX

Utah 3 62,446 61.42 3 33,413 32.86 - 5,767 5.67 - - - - - - - - - - 29,033 28.56 101,672 UT

Vermont 4 40,459 77.97 4 9,777 18.84 - 859 1.66 - 792 1.53 - - - - - - - 30,682 59.13 51,888 VT

Virginia 12 48,180 36.95 - 80,649 61.84 12 202 0.15 - 1,379 1.06 - - - - - - - -32,469 -24.90 130,410 VA

Washington 5 101,540 69.95 5 28,098 19.36 - 10,023 6.91 - 3,229 2.22 - 669 0.46 - 1,592 1.10 - 73,442 50.60 145,151 WA

West Virginia 7 132,620 55.26 7 100,855 42.03 - 1,573 0.66 - 4,599 1.92 - 339 0.14 - - - - 31,765 13.24 239,986 WV

Wisconsin 13 280,315 63.21 13 124,205 28.01 - 28,240 6.37 - 9,872 2.23 - 560 0.13 - 249 0.06 - 156,110 35.20 443,441 WI

Wyoming 3 20,489 66.72 3 8,930 29.08 - 1,072 3.49 - 217 0.71 - - - - - - - 11,559 37.64 30,708 WY

TOTALS: 476 7,630,557 56.42 336 5,083,880 37.59 140 402,810 2.98 - 259,103 1.92 - 114,062 0.84 - 33,454 0.25 - 2,546,677 18.83 13,525,095 US

Close states[edit] Margin of victory less than 1% (8 electoral votes):

Maryland, 0.02%

Margin of victory less than 5% (31 electoral votes):

Kentucky, 2.69% Missouri, 3.90%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (3 electoral votes):

Delaware, 9.94%

Statistics[edit] Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

Keweenaw County, Michigan
Keweenaw County, Michigan
94.55% Mercer County, North Dakota
Mercer County, North Dakota
93.68% Logan County, North Dakota
Logan County, North Dakota
93.61% McIntosh County, North Dakota
McIntosh County, North Dakota
92.70% Zapata County, Texas
Texas
92.48%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

Horry County, South Carolina
Horry County, South Carolina
100.00% Georgetown County, South Carolina
Georgetown County, South Carolina
100.00% Fairfield County, South Carolina
Fairfield County, South Carolina
100.00% Madison Parish, Louisiana
Madison Parish, Louisiana
100.00% Potter County, Texas
Texas
100.00%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Populist)

Glascock County, Georgia
Glascock County, Georgia
69.38% McDuffie County, Georgia
McDuffie County, Georgia
58.59% McIntosh County, Georgia
McIntosh County, Georgia
56.55% Jackson County, Georgia
Jackson County, Georgia
55.29% Johnson County, Georgia
Johnson County, Georgia
53.05%

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States
United States
presidential election, 1904.

History of the United States
United States
(1865–1918) Newspaper endorsements in the United States
United States
presidential election, 1904 United States
United States
House elections, 1904 United States
United States
Senate elections, 1904 Second inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt

References[edit]

^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.  ^ 6. "Theodore Roosevelt: Campaigns and Elections—Miller Center". Millercenter.org. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ "Bryan Back, is Not a Candidate". New York Times. January 10, 1904.  ^ a b "E. V. Debs: The Socialist Party and the Working Class". Archived from the original on September 22, 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2010. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Official report of the proceedings of the Democratic national convention". Kdl.kyvl.org. p. 277. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ a b Stone, Irving (1943). They Also Ran. New York: Doubleday.  ^ "Official report of the proceedings of the Democratic national convention],". Kdl.kyvl.org. p. 278. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ Mowry, George (1958). The Era of Theodore Roosevelt, 1900–1912. New York: Harper. p. 178.  ^ DeGregorio, William (1997). The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents. Gramercy.  ^ "The Bowery Boys: New York City History". Theboweryboys.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ "Too Close to Call: Presidential Electors and Elections in Maryland featuring the Presidential Election of 1904". Msa.maryland.gov. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932 – Google Books. Stanford University Press. 1934. Retrieved August 12, 2014.  ^ Presidential Elections, 1789–2008: County, State, and National Mapping of Election Data, Donald R. Deskins, Jr., Hanes Walton, Jr., and Sherman C. Puckett, pg. 281 ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pp. 11–12 ^ "1904 Presidential General Election Data - National". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 26, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Doss, Richard B. (1954). "Democrats in the Doldrums: Virginia and the Democratic National Convention of 1904". Journal of Southern History. 20 (4): 511–529. JSTOR 2954738.  Gould, Lewis L. (1991). The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0435-9.  Harbaugh, William Henry (1961). Power and Responsibility: The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy.  Morris, Edmund (2001). Theodore Rex. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-55509-0.  Biography of Roosevelt during the years 1901–1909. Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, and Fred L. Israel, eds. History of American presidential elections, 1789-1968. Vol. 3. (1971), history of the campaign by William Harbaugh, with primary documents. Shoemaker, Fred C. "Alton B. Parker: the images of a gilded age statesman in an era of progressive politics" (MA thesis, The Ohio State University, 1983) online.

Primary sources[edit]

Republican Campaign Text-book, 1904 (1904), handbook for Republican speakers and editorialists; full of arguments, speeches and statistics online free

External links[edit]

United States
United States
presidential election of 1904 at Encyclopædia Britannica Presidential Election of 1904: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress 1904 popular vote by counties TheodoreRoosevelt.com How close was the 1904 election? — Michael Sheppard, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology Newspaper Article about Judge Parker Nomination For President Newspaper Article about President Roosevelt Nomination For President Election of 1904 in Counting the Votes

v t e

(1900 ←) United States
United States
presidential election, 1904 (→ 1908)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Alton B. Parker

VP nominee

Henry G. Davis

Candidates

William Randolph Hearst

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Theodore Roosevelt

VP nominee

Charles W. Fairbanks

Candidates

Mark Hanna

Third party and independent candidates

Socialist Party

Nominee

Eugene V. Debs

VP nominee

Ben Hanford

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Silas C. Swallow

VP nominee

George W. Carroll

Populist Party

Nominee

Thomas E. Watson

VP nominee

Thomas Tibbles

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Charles Hunter Corregan

VP nominee

William Wesley Cox

Other 1904 elections: House Senate

v t e

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States, 1901–1909 25th Vice President of the United States, 1901 33rd Governor of New York, 1899–1900 Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1897–1898 New York City Police Commissioner, 1895–1897 New York State Assemblyman, 1882 1883 1884

Presidency

First inauguration

historic site

Second inauguration "Square Deal" Booker T. Washington dinner Conservation

Newlands Reclamation Act Transfer Act of 1905 Antiquities Act Pelican Island Devils Tower
Devils Tower
National Monument Muir Woods National Monument Other National Monuments United States
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United States
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court case

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Oyster Bay

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Writings and speeches

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
bibliography The Naval War of 1812
The Naval War of 1812
(1882 book) "The Strenuous Life" (1899 speech) "Citizenship in a Republic" (1910 speech) "Progressive Cause Greater Than Any Individual" (1912 post-assassination-attempt speech) Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography (1913 book) The Forum magazine articles Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Cyclopedia Archival collections

Elections

New York state election, 1898 Republican National Convention, 1900 1904 1912 1916 United States
United States
presidential election, 1900 1904 1912

Legacy

Mount Rushmore Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Center and Digital Library White House Roosevelt Room Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
National Park

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Wilderness

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Island Roosevelt National Forest Roosevelt Study Center Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Association Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Memorial Park

Monument Assemblage

Roosevelt River Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Award Roosevelt Road U.S. Postage stamps Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Rider
Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Rider
sculpture Equestrian statue

Popular culture

Teddy bear "Speak softly, and carry a big stick" Books Films

Roosevelt in Africa
Roosevelt in Africa
1910 documentary The Roosevelts 2014 documentary

Related

Political positions "Bully pulpit" Ananias Club

"Nature fakers"

Progressive Era A Guest of Honor Porcellian Club "Muckraker" National Collegiate Athletic Association "Roosevelt Republican"

Family

Alice Hathaway Lee (first wife) Edith Kermit Carow (second wife) Alice Lee Roosevelt (daughter) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
III (son) Kermit Roosevelt
Kermit Roosevelt
(son) Ethel Carow Roosevelt (daughter) Archibald Roosevelt
Archibald Roosevelt
(son) Quentin Roosevelt
Quentin Roosevelt
(son) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Sr. (father) Martha Stewart Bulloch (mother) Anna Roosevelt (sister) Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt
Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt
(brother) Corinne Roosevelt (sister) Cornelius Roosevelt
Cornelius Roosevelt
(grandfather) James Stephens Bulloch
James Stephens Bulloch
(grandfather) James A. Roosevelt
James A. Roosevelt
(uncle) Robert Roosevelt
Robert Roosevelt
(uncle) James Dunwoody Bulloch
James Dunwoody Bulloch
(half-uncle) Irvine Bulloch
Irvine Bulloch
(uncle) Theodore Douglas Robinson
Theodore Douglas Robinson
(nephew) Corinne Robinson (niece) Anna Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
(niece) Hall Roosevelt (nephew)

← William McKinley William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft

Category

v t e

United States
United States
presidential elections

Elections by year

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Elections by state

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Summary Elections in which the winner lost the popular vote Electoral College margins Electoral College results by state Electoral vote changes between elections Electoral vote recipients Popular vote margins

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Related topics

Campaign slogans Historical election polling Election Day Major party tickets Major party losers Presidential debates October surprise Red states and blue states Swing state Election recount

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v t e

Socialist Party of America

Presidential tickets

1904, Debs/Hanford 1908, Debs/Hanford 1912, Debs/Seidel 1916, Benson/Kirkpatrick 1920, Debs/Stedman 1924, Endorsed Progressive Party ticket 1928, Thomas/Maurer 1932, Thomas/Maurer 1936, Thomas/Nelson 1940, Thomas/Krueger 1944, Thomas/Hoopes 1948, Thomas/Smith 1952, Hoopes/Friedman 1956, Hoopes/Friedman

Parties by state and territory

State

California Colorado Connecticut Florida Kansas Louisiana Maine Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Missouri New Jersey New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Texas Washington (state) Wisconsin

Related topics

History of the socialist movement in the United States Social Democratic Federation Social Democratic Party of America Socialist Party USA Committee for the Preservation of the Socialist Party Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee Social Democrats, USA Young People's Socialist League Non-English press of the Socialist Party of America Democratic socialism Mu

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