United States Attorneys (also known as chief federal prosecutors and,
historically, as United States District Attorneys) represent
the United States federal government in United States district courts
and United States courts of appeals.
The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case
against an individual suspected of breaking the law, initiating and
directing further criminal investigations, guiding and recommending
the sentencing of offenders, and are the only attorneys allowed to
participate in grand jury proceedings.[not in citation given]
There are 93 U.S. Attorney offices located throughout the United
States, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern
Mariana Islands. One U.S. Attorney is assigned to each of the judicial
districts, with the exception of
1 History and statutory authority 2 Appointment
2.1 United States Attorneys controversy 2.2 History of interim U.S. Attorney appointments
3 Role of U.S. Attorneys 4 Executive Office for United States Attorneys 5 List of current U.S. Attorneys' offices 6 Defunct U.S. Attorney's offices 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links
History and statutory authority
The Office of the
United States Attorney
Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy
Main issues Timeline Summary of attorneys Documents Congressional hearings List of Dismissed Attorneys Complete list of related articles
Main article: Dismissal of U.S. Attorneys controversy The governing statute, 28 U.S.C. § 546 provided, up until March 9, 2006:
(c) A person appointed as United States attorney under this section may serve until the earlier of—
(1) the qualification of a United States attorney for such district appointed by the President under section 541 of this title; or (2) the expiration of 120 days after appointment by the Attorney General under this section.
(d) If an appointment expires under subsection (c)(2), the district court for such district may appoint a United States attorney to serve until the vacancy is filled. The order of appointment by the court shall be filed with the clerk of the court.
On March 9, 2007, President George W. Bush signed into law the USA PATRIOT Act which amended Section 546 by striking subsections (c) and (d) and inserting the following new subsection:
(c) A person appointed as United States attorney under this section
may serve until the qualification of a
United States Attorney
This, in effect, extinguished the 120-day limit on interim U.S.
Attorneys, and their appointment had an indefinite term. If the
president failed to put forward any nominee to the Senate, then the
Senate confirmation process was avoided, as the Attorney
General-appointed interim U.S. Attorney could continue in office
without limit or further action. Related to the dismissal of U.S.
attorneys controversy, in March 2007 the Senate and the House voted to
overturn the amendments of the
USA PATRIOT Act
When first looking into this issue, I found that the statutes had given the courts the authority to appoint an interim U.S. attorney and that this dated back as far as the Civil War. Specifically, the authority was first vested with the circuit courts in March 1863. Then, in 1898, a House of Representatives report explained that while Congress believed it was important to have the courts appoint an interim U.S. attorney: ‘There was a problem relying on circuit courts since the circuit justice is not always to be found in the circuit and time is wasted in ascertaining his whereabouts.’ Therefore, at that time, the interim appointment authority was switched to the district courts; that is, in 1898 it was switched to the district courts. Thus, for almost 100 years, the district courts were in charge of appointing interim U.S. attorneys, and they did so with virtually no problems. This structure was left undisturbed until 1986 when the statute was changed during the Reagan administration. In a bill that was introduced by Senator Strom Thurmond, the statute was changed to give the appointment authority to the Attorney General, but even then it was restricted and the Attorney General had a 120-day time limit. After that time, if a nominee was not confirmed, the district courts would appoint an interim U.S. attorney. The adoption of this language was part of a larger package that was billed as technical amendments to criminal law, and thus there was no recorded debate in either the House or the Senate and both Chambers passed the bill by voice vote. Then, 20 years later, in March 2006 – again without much debate and again as a part of a larger package – a statutory change was inserted into the PATRIOT Act reauthorization. This time, the Executive's power was expanded even further, giving the Attorney General the authority to appoint an interim replacement indefinitely and without Senate confirmation.
Role of U.S. Attorneys
The U.S. Attorney is both the primary representative and the
administrative head of the Office of the U.S. Attorney for the
district. The U.S. Attorney's Office (USAO) is the chief prosecutor
for the United States in criminal law cases, and represents the United
States in civil law cases as either the defendant or plaintiff, as
appropriate. However, they are not the only one that can
represent the United States in Court. In certain circumstances, using
an action called a qui tam, any U.S. citizen, provided they are
represented by an attorney, can represent the interests of the United
States, and share in penalties assessed against guilty parties.
U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia has the additional
responsibility of prosecuting local criminal cases in the Superior
Court of the District of Columbia, the equivalent of a municipal court
for the national capital. The Superior Court is a federal Article I
Executive Office for United States Attorneys
The Executive Office for United States Attorneys (EOUSA) provides
the administrative support for the 93 United States Attorneys
(encompassing 94 United States Attorneys' offices, as the
General executive assistance and direction, Policy development, Administrative management direction and oversight, Operational support, Coordination with other components of the United States Department of Justice and other federal agencies.
These responsibilities include certain legal, budgetary, administrative, and personnel services, as well as legal education. The EOUSA was created on April 6, 1953, by Attorney General Order No. 8-53 to provide for close liaison between the Department of Justice in Washington, DC, and the 93 U.S. attorneys located throughout the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was organized by Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals judge James R. Browning, who also served as its first chief. List of current U.S. Attorneys' offices
U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of Alabama
U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Alabama
U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama
U.S. Attorney for the District of Alaska
U.S. Attorney for the District of Arizona
U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Arkansas
U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas
U.S. Attorney for the Central District of California
U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of California
U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of California (USAO)
U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of California
U.S. Attorney for the District of Colorado
U.S. Attorney for the District of Connecticut
U.S. Attorney for the District of Delaware
U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia (USAO)
U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of Florida (USAO)
U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Florida
U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Florida (USAO)
U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of Georgia
U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Georgia
U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Georgia
U.S. Attorney for the Districts of
Note: Except as indicated parenthetically, the foregoing links are to the corresponding district court, rather than to the U.S. Attorney’s Office. Defunct U.S. Attorney's offices See also: List of former United States district courts This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
U. S. Attorney for the District of Michigan
Government of the United States portal Law portal
United States Attorneys appointed by Donald Trump
Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy
^ "United States v. Curry, 47 U.S. (6 How.) 106". justia.com.
^ William Bennett Munro (1919). The Government of the United States.
Macillan. p. 370. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
^ William M. McKinney; William Mark McKinney; Burdett Alberto Riched
(1918). 22. Ruling Case Law. Edward Thompson Co. p. 103.
^ "Standards on Prosecutorial Investigations (Table of Contents) -
Criminal Justice Section".
^ "US Attorneys' Manual". usdoj.gov.
United States Attorney
Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Attorneys.
US Attorneys Office United States Attorneys Mission Statement United States Attorneys' Manual Memorandum on Starting Date for Calculating the Term of an Interim U.S. Attorney D.C. Superior Court Division Index of prosecuting offices in all state and federal jurisdictions, and some foreign jurisdictions.
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Agencies under the United States Department of Justice
Headquarters: Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building
Jeff Sessions, Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, Deputy Attorney General
Deputy Attorney General
Justice Management Division Criminal Division National Security Division Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Drug Enforcement Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Bureau of Prisons National Institute of Corrections United States Marshals Service Executive Office for Immigration Review Office of Attorney Recruitment and Management Office of the Federal Detention Trustee Office of the Pardon Attorney Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties Office of Professional Responsibility Office on Sexual Violence and Crimes against Children Office of Tribal Justice Professional Responsibility Advisory Office United States Attorneys INTERPOL, U.S. National Central Bureau United States Parole Commission Office of Legal Counsel
Associate Attorney General
Office of Justice Programs Office of Dispute Resolution Office on Violence Against Women Community Oriented Policing Services Office of Information Policy Foreign Claims Settlement Commission Antitrust Division Civil Division Civil Rights Division Environment and Natural Resources Division Tax Division United States Trustee Program Community Relations Service Office of Legal Policy
Assistant Attorneys General
Antitrust Division Civil Division Civil Rights Division Criminal Division National Security Division Environmental and Natural Resources Division Justice Management Division Tax Division Office of Legal Counsel Office of Legal Policy Office of Legislative Affairs Office of Justice Programs
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United States district and territorial courts
List of United States district and territorial courts
Alabama (M, N, S) Alaska Arizona Arkansas (E, W) California (C, E, N, S) Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida (M, N, S) Georgia (M, N, S) Hawaii Idaho Illinois (C, N, S) Indiana (N, S) Iowa (N, S) Kansas Kentucky (E, W) Louisiana (E, M, W) Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan (E, W) Minnesota Mississippi (N, S) Missouri (E, W) Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York (E, N, S, W) North Carolina (E, M, W) North Dakota Ohio (N, S) Oklahoma (E, N, W) Oregon Pennsylvania (E, M, W) Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee (E, M, W) Texas (E, N, S, W) Utah Vermont Virginia (E, W) Washington (E, W) West Virginia (N, S) Wisconsin (E, W) Wyoming
Guam Northern Mariana Islands Virgin Islands
Former United States district courts District of Orleans District of Potomac Eastern District of Illinois District of the Canal Zone