The UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME is an agency of United
Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting
developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies
and practices . It was founded by
Maurice Strong , its first director,
as a result of the
UN Environment has aided in the formulation of guidelines and treaties on issues such as the international trade in potentially harmful chemicals, transboundary air pollution , and contamination of international waterways.
World Meteorological Organization and UN Environment established
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988. UN
Environment is also one of several Implementing Agencies for the
Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Multilateral Fund for the
Implementation of the
Montreal Protocol , and it is also a member of
* 1 History
* 2 Governance
* 2.1 Executive Director * 2.2 List of Executive Directors * 2.3 Structure
* 3 Activities
* 3.1 Notable achievements * 3.2 Reports * 3.3 International years
* 4 Reform * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading
UN Environment headquarters were established in Nairobi, Kenya, in the late 1970s with a staff of 300, 100 of them professionals in a variety of fields and with a five‐year fund of more than $100 million. At the time, $40 million were pledged by the United States and the rest by 50 other nations.
The position was held for 17 years (1975–1992) by Dr. Mostafa Kamal Tolba , who was instrumental in bringing environmental considerations to the forefront of global thinking and action. Under his leadership, UN Environment's most widely acclaimed success—the historic 1987 agreement to protect the ozone layer—the Montreal Protocol was negotiated.
During December 1972, the UN General Assembly unanimously elected
Maurice Strong to head UN Environment. Also Secretary General of both
LIST OF EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS
# PICTURE Name (Birth–Death)' NATIONALITY TOOK OFFICE LEFT OFFICE
MOSTAFA KAMAL TOLBA
UN Environment's structure includes seven substantive Divisions:
* Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) * Environmental Policy Implementation (DEPI) * Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) * Regional Cooperation (DRC) * Environmental Law and Conventions (DELC) * Communications and Public Information (DCPI) * Global Environment Facility Coordination (DGEF)
UN Environment's main activities are related to:
* climate change ;
* including the Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC);
* disasters and conflicts; * ecosystem management ; * environmental governance ; * environment under review; * harmful substances ; and * resource efficiency .
UN Environment has registered several successes, such as the 1987 Montreal Protocol for limiting emissions of gases blamed for thinning the planet's protective ozone layer, or the 2012 Minamata Convention , a treaty to limit toxic mercury.
UN Environment has sponsored the development of solar loan programs,
with attractive return rates, to buffer the initial deployment costs
and entice consumers to consider and purchase solar PV systems. The
most famous example is the solar loan program sponsored by UN
Environment helped 100,000 people finance solar power systems in India
. Success in India's solar program has led to similar projects in
other parts of the developing world like
UN Environment sponsors the Marshlands project in the
In order to ensure full participation of global communities, UN Environmentworks in an inclusive fashion that brings on board different societal cohorts. UN Environmenthas a programme for young people known as Tunza. Within this program are other projects like the AEO for Youth .
GLACIERS SHRINKING Further information: Retreat of glaciers since 1850
Glaciers are shrinking at record rates and many could disappear within decades, the U.N. Environment Programme said on March 16, 2008. The scientists measuring the health of almost 30 glaciers around the world found that ice loss reached record levels in 2006. On average, the glaciers shrank by 4.9 feet in 2006, the most recent year for which data are available. The most severe loss was recorded at Norway 's Breidalblikkbrea glacier, which shrank 10.2 feet in 2006. Glaciers lost an average of about a foot of ice a year between 1980 and 1999. But since the turn of the millennium the average loss has increased to about 20 inches.
At the fifth Magdeburg Environmental Forum held from 3–4 July 2008, in Magdeburg, Germany, UN Environment and car manufacturer Daimler called for the establishment of infrastructure for electric vehicles . At this international conference, 250 high-ranking representatives from ce, politics and non-government organizations discussed solutions for future road transportation under the motto of "Sustainable Mobility–the Post-2012 CO2 Agenda ".
UN Environment publishes many reports, atlases and newsletters. For instance, the fifth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) assessment is a comprehensive report on environment, development and human well-being, providing analysis and information for policy makers and the concerned public. One of many points in the GEO-5 warns that we are living far beyond our means. It notes that the human population is now so large that the amount of resources needed to sustain it exceeds what is available.
In June 2010, a report from UN Environment declared that a global shift towards a vegan diet was needed to save the world from hunger, fuel shortages and climate change.
* 2007 – (International) Year of the Dolphin
(International) Patron of the
Year of the Dolphin was H.S.H. Prince
Albert II of
* 2010 – International Year of Biodiversity * 2011 – International Year of Forests * 2012 – International Year for Sustainable Energy for All * 2013 – International Year of Water Cooperation
(See international observance and list of environmental dates .)
Following the publication of Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in February 2007, a
"Paris Call for Action" read out by French President Jacques Chirac
and supported by 46 countries, called for the United Nations
Environment Programme to be replaced by a new and more powerful
In December 2012, following the Rio+20 Summit, a decision by the
General Assembly of the
* Sustainable development portal
2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.
Retrieved May 15, 2012.
* ^ Gladwinn Hill (October 20, 1975), U.N. Environment Effort: A
Start, a Long Way to Go
New York Times .
* ^ Schrijver, Nico (2010). Development Without Destruction: The UN
and Global Resource Management.
* ^ Felicity Carus UN urges global move to meat and dairy-free diet, The Guardian , 2 June 2010
* Also see "Energy and Agriculture Top Resource Panel\'s Priority
List for Sustainable 21st Century",
Wikimedia Commons has media related to UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME .
* t * e
UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM
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