HOME
The Info List - Union For The Mediterranean



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The UNION FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN (UFM) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 countries from Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
: the 28 member states of the European Union
European Union
and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa
North Africa
, the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Europe
Europe
.

It was created in July 2008 at the Paris
Paris
Summit for the Mediterranean, with a view to reinforcing the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Euromed) that was set up in 1995 and known as the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process.

The Union has the aim of promoting stability and integration throughout the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region. It is a forum for discussing regional strategic issues, based on the principles of shared ownership, shared decision-making and shared responsibility between the two shores of the Mediterranean. Its main goal is to increase both North-South and South-South integration in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region, in order to support the countries' socioeconomic development and ensure stability in the region. The institution, through its course of actions, focuses on two main pillars: fostering human development and promoting sustainable development. To this end, it identifies and supports regional projects and initiatives of different sizes, to which it gives its label, following a consensual decision among the forty-three countries. These projects and initiatives focus on 6 sectors of activity, as mandated by the UfM Member States:

* Business Development * Higher Education & Research * Social & Civil Affairs * Energy & Climate Action * Transport & Urban Development * Water & Environment

CONTENTS

* 1 Members

* 2 History

* 2.1 Context

* 2.1.1 Antecedents: Barcelona
Barcelona
Process * 2.1.2 Euromediterranean Summit 2005 * 2.1.3 Regional aspects * 2.1.4 The Euromed Heritage Programme * 2.1.5 Response * 2.1.6 Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union

* 2.2 Launch of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean

* 2.2.1 2008–2010: First years * 2.2.2 2011–present

* 3 Aims and concrete projects

* 3.1 Regional dialogue

* 3.2 Regional projects

* 3.2.1 Human Development

* 3.2.1.1 Business Development * 3.2.1.2 Higher Education & Research * 3.2.1.3 Social & Civil Affairs

* 3.2.2 Sustainable development

* 3.2.2.1 Transport & Urban Development * 3.2.2.2 Energy &Climate Action * 3.2.2.3 Water "> Flags of UfM members, located at the Royal Palace of Pedralbes , in Barcelona
Barcelona
(UfM headquarters)

The members of the Union of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
are the following:

* From the European Union
European Union
side:

* The 28 European Union
European Union
member states (those on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in bold): Austria
Austria
, Belgium
Belgium
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, CROATIA , CYPRUS , the Czech Republic , Denmark
Denmark
, Estonia
Estonia
, Finland
Finland
, FRANCE , Germany
Germany
, GREECE , Hungary
Hungary
, Ireland
Ireland
, ITALY , Latvia
Latvia
, Lithuania
Lithuania
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, MALTA , the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Poland
Poland
, Portugal
Portugal
, Romania
Romania
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, SLOVENIA , SPAIN , Sweden
Sweden
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. * The European Commission
European Commission
.

* From the side of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partner countries:

* 15 member states: Albania
Albania
, Algeria
Algeria
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, Egypt
Egypt
, Israel
Israel
, Jordan
Jordan
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Mauritania
Mauritania
, Monaco
Monaco
, Montenegro
Montenegro
, Morocco
Morocco
, State of Palestine
State of Palestine
( Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
until 4 January 2013 ), Syria
Syria
(self-suspended on 22 June 2011), Tunisia
Tunisia
and Turkey
Turkey
. * Libya
Libya
as an observer state. The UfM has expressed a desire to grant Libya
Libya
full membership, and Mohamed Abdelaziz , Libya's Foreign Minister, has stated that his country is "open" to joining. * The League of Arab States
League of Arab States

HISTORY

CONTEXT

Antecedents: Barcelona
Barcelona
Process

Former French President Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
, one of the founders of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process.

The Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership, also known as the Barcelona Process, was created in 1995 as a result of the Conference of Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs held in Barcelona
Barcelona
on 27 and 28 November under the Spanish presidency of the EU. The founding act of the Partnership in 1995 and Final Declaration of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministerial Conference is called the Barcelona
Barcelona
Declaration, which is often used to refer to the Process itself.

The Partnership culminated a series of attempts by European countries to articulate their relations with their North African and Middle Eastern neighbours: the global Mediterranean
Mediterranean
policy (1972–1992) and the renovated Mediterranean
Mediterranean
policy (1992–1995).

Javier Solana
Javier Solana
opened the conference by saying that they were brought together to straighten out the "clash of civilizations" and misunderstandings that there had been between them, and that it "was auspicious" that they had convened on the 900th anniversary of the First Crusade
First Crusade
. He described the conference as a process to foster cultural and economic unity in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region. The Barcelona Treaty was drawn up by the 27 countries in attendance, and Solana, who represented Spain
Spain
as its foreign minister during the country's turn at the Presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
, was credited with the diplomatic accomplishment.

According to the 1995 Barcelona
Barcelona
Declaration, the aim of the initiative was summed up as: "turning the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
basin into an area of dialogue, exchange and cooperation guaranteeing peace, stability and prosperity." The Declaration established the three main objectives of the Partnership, called "baskets" (i.e., strands or facets):

* Definition of a common area of peace and stability through the reinforcement of political and security dialogue (Political and Security Basket). * Construction of a zone of shared prosperity through an economic and financial partnership and the gradual establishment of a free-trade area (Economic and Financial Basket). * Rapprochement between peoples through a social, cultural and human partnership aimed at encouraging understanding between cultures and exchanges between civil societies (Social, Cultural and Human Basket).

The European Union
European Union
stated the intention of the partnership was "to strengthen its relations with the countries in the Mashreq
Mashreq
and Maghreb regions". Both Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
and Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
had high praises for Solana's coordination of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process. The Barcelona
Barcelona
Process, developed after the Conference in successive annual meetings, is a set of goals designed to lead to a free trade area in the Mediterranean Basin by 2010.

The agenda of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process is:

* Security and stability in the Mediterranean; * Agreeing on shared values and initializing a long-term process for cooperation in the Mediterranean; * Promoting democracy, good governance and human rights ; * Achieving mutually satisfactory trading terms for the region's partners, the "region" consisting of the countries that participated; * Establishing a complementary policy to the United States
United States
' presence in the Mediterranean.

The Barcelona
Barcelona
Process comprises three "baskets", in EU jargon, or strands:

* economic – to work for shared prosperity in the Mediterranean Region, including the Association Agreements on the bilateral level * political – promotion of political values, good governance and democracy * cultural – cultural exchange and strengthening civil society

The Euro-Mediterranean free trade area (EU-MEFTA) is based on the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process and European Neighbourhood Policy . The Agadir Agreement of 2004 is seen as its first building block.

At the time of its creation, the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership comprised 27 member countries: 15 from the European Union
European Union
and 12 Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries ( Algeria
Algeria
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, Egypt
Egypt
, Israel
Israel
, Jordan
Jordan
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Malta
Malta
, Morocco
Morocco
, Palestine , Syria
Syria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Turkey ). As a result of the European Union's enlargements of 2004 and 2007 the number of EU member states grew up to 27, and two of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
partner countries— Cyprus
Cyprus
and Malta
Malta
—became part of the European Union
European Union
. The EU enlargement changed the configuration of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process from "15+12" to "27+10." Albania
Albania
and Mauritania joined the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process in 2007, raising the number of participants to 39.

Euromediterranean Summit 2005

The 10th anniversary Euromediterranean summit was held in Barcelona on 27–28 November 2005. Full members of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process were:

* 27 Member States of the European Union
European Union
. * 10 countries from the southern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
shore: Algeria
Algeria
, Palestine , Egypt
Egypt
, Israel
Israel
, Jordan
Jordan
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Morocco
Morocco
, Syria
Syria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, and Turkey
Turkey
(already part of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, the latter began EU accession talks on 3 October). * Croatia
Croatia
, a candidate to join the EU, which began accession talks on 3 October. * The European Parliament
European Parliament
, the European Commission
European Commission
, and the Secretary General of the Council of the EU
Council of the EU

Moreover, the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process included 6 countries and institutions participating as permanent observers ( Libya
Libya
, Mauritania
Mauritania
, the Secretary-General of the Arab League
Arab League
) and invited observers, such as the European Investment Bank
European Investment Bank
, the Arab Maghreb
Maghreb
Union , the Anna Lindh Foundation for the Dialogue between Cultures, the Economical and Social Committee or the Euromed Economical and Social Councils.

According to the ISN , "Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas
and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
were the only leaders from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries to attend, while those of Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt
Egypt
were not present."

From the official web site, "The new realities and challenges of the 21st century make it necessary to update the Barcelona
Barcelona
Declaration and create a new Action Plan (based on the good results of the Valencia Action Plan), encompassing four fundamental areas":

* Peace, Security, Stability, Good Government, and Democracy. * Sustainable Economic Development and Reform. * Education and Cultural Exchange * Justice, Security, Migration, and Social Integration (of Immigrants).

Regional Aspects

Regional dialogue represents one of the most innovative aspects of the Partnership, covering at the same time the political, economic and cultural fields (regional co-operation). Regional co-operation has a considerable strategic impact as it deals with problems that are common to many Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partners while it emphasises the national complementarities.

The multilateral dimension supports and complements the bilateral actions and dialogue taking place under the Association Agreements.

Since 2004 the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partners are also included in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and since 2007 are funded via the ENPI .

The Euromed Heritage Programme

As a result of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership, the Euromed Heritage program was formed. This program has been active since 1998, and has been involved in programs to identify the cultural heritages of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
states, promote their preservation, and educate the peoples of partner countries about their cultural heritages.

Response

By some analysts, the process has been declared ineffective. The stalling of the Middle East
Middle East
Peace Process is having an impact on the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process and is hindering progress especially in the first basket. The economic basket can be considered a success, and there have been more projects for the exchange on a cultural level and between the peoples in the riparian states. Other criticism is mainly based on the predominant role the European Union
European Union
is playing. Normally it is the EU that is assessing the state of affairs, which leads to the impression that the North is dictating the South what to do. The question of an enhanced co-ownership of the process has repeatedly been brought up over the last years.

Being a long-term process and much more complex than any other similar project, it may be many years before a final judgment can be made.

Bishara Khader argues that this ambitious European project towards its Mediterranean
Mediterranean
neighbours has to be understood in a context of optimism. On the one hand, the European Community
European Community
was undergoing important changes due to the reunification of Germany
Germany
after the fall of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
in 1989 and the beginning of the adhesion negotiations of Eastern and Central European countries. On the other, the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
appeared to be getting closer to achieving peace after the Madrid Conference (1991) and the Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
(1992). As well, Khader states that the Gulf War
Gulf War
of 1991, the Algerian crisis (from 1992 onwards) and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism throughout the Arab world are also important factors in Europe's new relations with the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries based on security concerns.

Criticism of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process escalated after the celebration of the 10th Anniversary of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Summit in Barcelona
Barcelona
in 2005, which was broadly considered a failure. First, the absence of Heads of State and Government from the Southern Mediterranean countries (with the exception of the Palestinian and Turkish ones) heavily contrasted with the attendance of the 27 European Union's Heads of State and Government. Second, the lack of consensus to define the term "terrorism" prevented the endorsement of a final declaration. The Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
, Syria
Syria
and Algeria
Algeria
argued that resistance movements against foreign occupation should not be included in this definition. Nevertheless, a code of conduct on countering terrorism and a five-year work program were approved at Barcelona summit of 2005. both of which are still valid under the Union for the Mediterranean.

For many, the political context surrounding the 2005 summit — the stagnation of the Middle East
Middle East
Peace Process, the US-led war on Iraq , the lack of democratisation in Arab countries, and the war on terror 's negative effects on freedoms and human rights, among others—proved for many the inefficiency of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process for fulfilling its objectives of peace, stability and prosperity. Given these circumstances, even politicians that had been engaged with the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process since its very beginnings, like the Spanish politician Josep Borrell
Josep Borrell
, expressed their disappointment about the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership and its incapacity to deliver results. Critiques from Southern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries blamed the Partnership's failure on Europe's lack of interest towards the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in favour of its Eastern neighbourhood; whereas experts from the North accused Southern countries of only being interested on "their own bi-lateral relationship with the EU" while downplaying multilateral policies.

However, many European Union
European Union
diplomats have defended the validity of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process' framework by arguing that the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership was the only forum that gathered Israelis and Arabs on equal footing ), and identifying as successes the Association Agreements , the Code of Conduct on Countering Terrorism and the establishment of the Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
Foundation for the Dialogue between Cultures .

On 2006 the first proposals for improving the Partnership's efficiency, visibility and co-ownership arouse, such as establishing a co-presidency system and a permanent secretariat or nominating a "Mr./Ms. Med."

Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union

As of 2007 , on the initiative of France, States embark on a round negotiations to revive the process.

A proposal to establish a " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union", which would consist principally of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
states, was part of the election campaign of Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
during the French presidential election campaign in 2007. During the campaign Mr. Sarkozy said that the Mediterranean Union would be modelled on the European Union
European Union
with a shared judicial area and common institutions. Sarkozy saw Turkish membership of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union as an alternative to membership of the European Union, which he opposes, and as a forum for dialogue between Israel and its Arab Neighbours.

Once elected, President Sarkozy invited all heads of state and government of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region to a meeting in June 2008 in Paris, with a view to laying the basis of a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union.

The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union was enthusiastically supported by Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
. Turkey
Turkey
strongly opposed the idea and originally refused to attend the Paris
Paris
conference until it was assured that membership of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union was not being proposed as an alternative to membership of the EU.

Among EU member states, the proposal was supported by Italy
Italy
, Spain
Spain
, and Greece
Greece
.

However the European Commission
European Commission
and Germany
Germany
were more cautious about the project. The European Commission
European Commission
saying that while initiatives promoting regional co-operation were good, it would be better to build them upon existing structures, notable among them being the Barcelona process . German chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
said the UfM risked splitting and threatening the core of the EU. In particular she objected to the potential use of EU funds to fund a project which was only to include a small number of EU member states. When Slovenia took the EU presidency at the beginning of 2008, the then Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Janša
Janez Janša
added to the criticism by saying: "We do not need a duplication of institutions, or institutions that would compete with EU, institutions that would cover part of the EU and part of the neighbourhood."

Other criticisms of the proposal included concern about the relationship between the proposed UfM and the existing Euromediterranean Partnership ( Barcelona
Barcelona
Process), which might reduce the effectiveness of EU policies in the region and allow the southern countries to play on the rivalries to escape unpopular EU policies. There were similar economic concerns in the loss of civil society and similar human rights based policies. Duplication of policies from the EU's police and judicial area was a further worry.

At the start of 2008 Sarkozy began to modify his plans for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union due to widespread opposition from other EU member states and the European Commission. At the end of February of that year, France's minister for European affairs, Jean-Pierre Jouyet , stated that "there is no Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union" but rather a "Union for the Mediterranean" that would only be "completing and enriching" to existing EU structures and policy in the region. Following a meeting with German Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
it was agreed that the project would include all EU member states , not just those bordering the Mediterranean, and would be built upon the existing Barcelona
Barcelona
process. Turkey
Turkey
also agreed to take part in the project following a guarantee from France
France
that it was no longer intended as an alternative to EU membership.

The proposed creation of common institutions, and a Mediterranean Investment, which was to have been modelled on the European Investment Bank , was also dropped.

In consequence the new Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
would consist of regular meeting of the entire EU with the non-member partner states, and would be backed by two co-presidents and a secretariat.

LAUNCH OF THE UNION FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN

At the Paris
Paris
Summit for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(13 July 2008), the 43 Heads of State and Government from the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region decided to launch the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process: Union for the Mediterranean. It was presented as a new phase Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership with new members and an improved institutional architecture which aimed to "enhance multilateral relations, increase co-ownership of the process, set governance on the basis of equal footing and translate it into concrete projects, more visible to citizens. Now is the time to inject a new and continuing momentum into the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process. More engagement and new catalysts are now needed to translate the objectives of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Declaration into tangible results."

The Paris
Paris
summit was considered a diplomatic success for Nicolas Sarzoky. The French president had managed to gather in Paris
Paris
all the Heads of State and Government from the 43 Euro-Mediterranean countries, with the exception of the kings of Morocco
Morocco
and Jordan
Jordan
.

At the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Conference of Foreign Affairs held in Marseilles
Marseilles
in November 2008, the Ministers decided to shorten the initiative's name to simply the "Union for the Mediterranean".

This meeting concluded with a new joint declaration, which completed the Paris
Paris
Declaration by defining the organisational structure and the principles on which the UfM would be run. A rotating co-presidency was set up, held jointly by one EUmember country and one Mediterranean partner. France
France
and Egypt
Egypt
were the first countries to hold this co-presidency. The presence of the Arab League
Arab League
at all meetings is written into the rules. A secretariat with a separate legal status and its own statutes was created. Its headquarters were established in Barcelona
Barcelona
.

The fact that the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
is launched as a new phase of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership means that the Union accepts and commits to maintain the acquis of Barcelona, the purpose of which is to promote "peace, stability and prosperity" throughout the region (Barcelona, 2). Therefore, the four chapters of cooperation developed in the framework of the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process during thirteen years remain valid:

* Politics and Security * Economics and Trade * Socio-cultural * Justice and Interior Affairs. This fourth chapter was included at the 10th Anniversary Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Summit held in Barcelona
Barcelona
in 2005.

The objective to establish a Free Trade Area
Free Trade Area
in the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region by 2010 (and beyond), first proposed at the 1995 Barcelona
Barcelona
Conference, was also endorsed by the Paris
Paris
Summit of 2008.

In addition to these four chapters of cooperation, the 43 Ministers of Foreign Affairs gathered in Marseilles
Marseilles
on November 2008 identified six concrete projects that target specific needs of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
regions and that will enhance the visibility of the Partnership:

* De-pollution of the Mediterranean. This broad project encompasses many initiatives that target good environmental governance, access to drinkable water, water management, pollution reduction and protection of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
biodiversity. * Maritime and land highways. The purpose of this project is to increase and improve the circulation of commodities and people throughout the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region by improving its ports, and building highways and railways. Specifically, the Paris
Paris
and Marseilles Declarations refer to the construction of both a Trans-Maghrebi railway and highway systems, connecting Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia. * Civil protection. The civil protection project aims at improving the prevention, preparedness and response to both natural and man-made disasters. The ultimate goal is to "bring the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partner Countries progressively closer to the European Civil Protection Mechanism. * Alternative energies: Mediterranean
Mediterranean
solar plan. The goal of this project is to promote the production and use of renewable energies . More specifically, it aims at turning the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
partner countries into producers of solar energy and then circulating the resulting electricity through the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region. In this connection the union and the industrial initiative Dii signed a Memorandum of Understanding for future collaboration in May 2012 which included developing their long-term strategies " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Solar Plan" and "Desert Power 2050". At the signing in Marrakesh the union's Secretary General called the new partnership "a key step for the implementation of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Solar Plan." * Higher education and research: Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
University. On June 2008 the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
University of Slovenia
Slovenia
was inaugurated in Piran (Slovenia), which offers graduate studies programs. The Foreign Ministers gathered at Marseilles
Marseilles
on 2008 also called for the creation of another Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
University in Fes
Fes
, Morocco, Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
University of Morocco
Morocco
(Euromed-UM). The decision to go ahead with the Fes
Fes
university was announced in June 2012. At the 2008 Paris
Paris
summit, the 43 Heads of State and Government agreed that the goal of this project is to promote higher education and scientific research in the Mediterranean, as well as to establish in the future a "Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Higher Education, Science and Research Area." * The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
business development initiative. The purpose of the initiative is to promote small and medium-sized enterprises from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
partner countries by "assessing the needs of these enterprises, defining policy solutions and providing these entities with resources in the form of technical assistance and financial instruments."

2008–2010: First Years

A summit of heads of state and government is intended to be held every two years to foster political dialogue at the highest level. According to the Paris
Paris
Declaration:

* these summits should produce a joint declaration addressing the situation and challenges of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region, assessing the works of the Partnership and approving a two-year work program; * Ministers of Foreign Affairs should meet annually to monitor the implementation of the summit declaration and to prepare the agenda of subsequent summits; and * the host country of the summits would be chosen upon consensus and should alternate between EU and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries.

The first summit was held in Paris
Paris
in July 2008. The second summit should have taken place in a non-EU country in July 2010 but the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries agreed to hold the summit in Barcelona
Barcelona
on 7 June 2010, under the Spanish presidency of the EU , instead. However, on 20 May the Egyptian and French co-presidency along with Spain
Spain
decided to postpone the summit, in a move which they described as being intended to give more time to the indirect talks between Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
that had started that month. In contrast, the Spanish media blamed the postponement on the Arab threat to boycott the summit if Avigdor Lieberman
Avigdor Lieberman
, Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs, attended the Foreign Affairs conference prior to the summit.

At the time of the Paris
Paris
summit, France—which was in charge of the EU presidency—and Egypt
Egypt
held the co-presidency. Since then, France had been signing agreements with the different rotator presidencies of the EU (the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Sweden
Sweden
and Spain
Spain
) in order to maintain the co-presidency for alongside Egypt. The renewal of the co-presidency was supposed to happen on the second Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Summit. However, due to the two postponements of the summit, there has been no chance to decide which countries will take over the co-presidency.

The conflict between Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus
Cyprus
has been responsible for the delay in the endorsement of the statutes of the Secretariat, which were only approved in March 2010 even though the Marseille declaration set May 2009 as the deadline for the Secretariat to start functioning. At the Paris
Paris
summit, the Heads of State and Government agreed to establish five Deputy Secretaries General from Greece
Greece
, Israel
Israel
, Italy , Malta
Malta
and the Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
. Turkey
Turkey
's desire to have a Deputy Secretary General and Cyprus
Cyprus
' rejection of it, resulted in months of negotiation until Cyprus
Cyprus
finally approved the creation of a sixth Deputy Secreaty General post assigned to a Turkish citizen.

Due to its seriousness, the Arab-Israeli conflict is the one that most deeply affects the Union for the Mediterranean. As a result of an armed conflict between Israel
Israel
and Gaza from December 2008 to January 2009, the Arab Group refused to meet at high level, thus blocking all the ministerial meetings scheduled for the first half of 2009. As well, the refusal of the Arab Ministers of Foreign Affairs to meet with their Israeli counterpart, Avigdor Lieberman
Avigdor Lieberman
, resulted in the cancellation of two ministerial meetings on Foreign Affairs on November 2009 and June 2010. Sectorial meetings of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
have also been affected by Israel's actions against the Palestinian civilian population under its occupation. At the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
ministerial meeting on Water, held in Barcelona
Barcelona
on April 2010, the Water Strategy was not approved due to a terminological disagreement of whether to refer to territories claimed by Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese as "occupied territories" or "territories under occupation." Two other ministerial meetings, on higher education and agriculture, had to be cancelled because of the same discrepancy.

After the initial postponement, both France
France
and Spain
Spain
announced their intentions to hold peace talks between Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian Authority as part of the postponed summit under the auspices of the US. In September, U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
was invited to the summit for this purpose. The summit which was then scheduled to take place in Barcelona
Barcelona
on 21 November 2010, was according to Nicolas Sarkozy, the summit was "an occasion to support the negotiations."

Nevertheless, at the beginning of November 2010 the peace talks stalled, and the Egyptian co-presidents conditioned the occurrence of the summit on a gesture from Israel
Israel
that would allow the negotiations to resume. According to some experts Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
's announcement of the construction of 300 new housing units in East Jerusalem ended all the possibilities of celebrating the summit on 21 November. The two co-presidencies and Spain
Spain
decided on 15 November to postpone the summit sine die, alleging that the stagnation of the Middle East
Middle East
Peace Process would hinder a "satisfactory participation."

Having been slowed down by the financial and political situation in 2009, the UfM was given a decisive push in March 2010 with the conclusion of the negotiations on the set-up of its General Secretariat and the official inauguration of the same on 4 March 2010 in Barcelona, in the specially refurbished Palau de Pedralbes .

The European Union
European Union
Ambassador to Morocco, Eneko Landaburu, stated on September 2010 that he does "not believe" in the Union for the Mediterranean. According to him, the division among the Arabs "does not allow to implement a strong inter-regional policy", and calls to leave this ambitious project of 43 countries behind and focus on bilateral relations.

2011–present

On 22 June 2011, the UfM labels its first project, the creation of a seawater desalination plant in Gaza.

In 2012, the UfM has a total of 13 projects labelled by the 43 countries in the sectorial areas of transport, education, water and development companies.

In January 2012, the Secretary General, Youssef Amrani was appointed Minister Delegate to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation in the Benkirane government. He is replaced by the Moroccan diplomat Fathallah Sijilmassi.

In 2013, the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
launches its first projects:

* April 30: Young women as job creators * May 28: Governance the Regional Committee for Cooperation on Climate Finance, to make funding for climate projects in the region more efficient; and the launch of the UfM Energy University by Schneider Electric.

On 10-11 October 2016, the UfM Secretariat organized in Barcelona
Barcelona
the Third High-Level Conference on Women Empowerment, which followed the 2014 and 2015 editions and in preparation of the Fourth UfM Ministerial Conference on Strengthening the Role of Women in Society, due to take place late 2017. The Conference provided a regional dialogue forum where the 250 participants from more than 30 countries stressed the need to invest in the essential contribution of women as a response to the current Mediterranean
Mediterranean
challenges. A report was prepared following the request formulated by the UfM Paris
Paris
Ministerial Declaration on Strengthening the role of women in society. The request was “to establish an effective follow-up mechanism as a Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
forum and to ensure an effective dialogue on women-related policies, legislation and implementation.”

On 1st November 2016, the UfM officially launched the “Integrated Programme for the Protection of Lake Bizerte against Pollution” in Bizerte. Tunisia. The event was held in the presence of Youssef Chahed, Head of Government of Tunisia, Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the European Union
European Union
for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission, and Fathallah Sijilmassi, Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean. With a total budget of more than €90 million over a 5-year period, the programme will contribute towards cleaning up Lake Bizerte in northern Tunisia, improving the living conditions of the surrounding populations and reducing the main sources of pollution impacting the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. The project is supported by International financing institutions, such as the European Investment Bank
European Investment Bank
and the European Commission, as well as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In November 2016, the UfM Secretariat officially became observer to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) during the COP22 , while actively participating through the launch of specific regional initiatives and projects aimed at helping achieve the Paris
Paris
Agreement targets in the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region.

On 23 January 2017, the Union for the Mediterranean’s Member States gave a strong political commitment to strengthen regional cooperation in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
by endorsing the UfM roadmap for action at the second Regional Forum of the UfM, which took place in Barcelona
Barcelona
on 23-24 January 2017 under the theme of “ Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in Action: Youth for Stability and Development”.

This Roadmap focuses on the following four areas of action:

* Enhancing political dialogue amongst the UfM members; * Ensuring the contribution of UfM activities to regional stability and human development; * Strengthening regional integration; * Consolidating UfM capacity for action.

On 22 February 2017, the Secretariat of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(UfM) and the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida) signed a €6.5 million multi annual financial agreement to support UfM activities in favour of a more sustainable and inclusive development in the region.

On 10 April, 2017, the Heads of State or Government of Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
convened in Madrid at the 3rd Summit of Southern European Union
European Union
Countries, where they reaffirmed their support to the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and stressed its “central role in the consolidation of Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
regional cooperation, as an expression of co-ownership in the management of our common regional agenda in order to effectively and collectively address our current challenges”.

In 2017, 47 regional cooperation projects, worth over €5.3 billion, have been accorded the UfM label, through the unanimous support of the 43 Member States. Implementation of the projects is accelerating and is producing positive results on the ground.

AIMS AND CONCRETE PROJECTS

The main objective of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
is to enhance cooperation and integration in the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region through regional dialogue and the implementation of concrete and structural projects for the region. Projects supported by the UfM obey the principle of variable geometry that allows each country to take part, when desired, to approved projects.

REGIONAL DIALOGUE

The UfM complements the bilateral work of the European Neighbourhood Policy set up in 2004 and the development policies of UfM member states, driving the emergence of a shared Mediterranean
Mediterranean
agenda to achieve an impact, not just on the situation of one country, but on regional integration as a whole.

With 43 members, the UfM acts as a central platform for setting regional priorities and sharing experiences of the principal challenges that the region faces.

The UfM Secretariat implements decisions taken at political level through regional and sub-regional sectorial dialogues fora and follow-up activities thereby following through on Ministerial commitments and promoting initiatives to foster regional cooperation.

The work to achieve this goal is carried out in conjunction with other organisations and regional cooperation forums (The Arab League, the Arab Maghreb
Maghreb
Union) and alongside sub-regional cooperation fora such as the 5+5 Dialogue with which the UfM is actively associated.

Structured regional dialogues fora have involved over 20,000 stakeholders from around the Mediterranean, including parliamentarians and representatives of international organisations, NGOs, civil society organisations, international financial institutions, development agencies, industry and the private sector, universities as well as think tanks.

Since 2013, under the Co-Presidency of the EU and Jordan, twelve ministerial meetings have been held on key sectors for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
agenda:

* Ministerial on Strengthening the role of women in society, Paris, 12 September 2013 * Ministerial on Transport, Brussels, 14 November 2013 * Ministerial on Energy, Brussels, 11 December 2013 * Ministerial on Industrial cooperation, Brussels 19–20 February 2014 * Ministerial on Environment and climate change, Athens, 12–13 May 2014 * Ministerial on Digital Economy, Brussels, 30 September 2014 * Ministerial on Blue Economy; Brussels, 17 November 2015 * Ministerial on Regional Cooperation and Planning, Dead Sea, Jordan, 2 June 2016 * Ministerial on Employment and Labour, Dead Sea, Jordan, 26 September 2016 * Ministerial on Energy, Rome, 1st December 2016 * Ministerial on Water, Valetta, Malta, 27 April 2017 * Ministerial on Urban Development, Cairo, 22 May 2017

In March 2015, the Inter-parliamentary Conference for the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the Common Security and Defence Policy, in its final conclusions, described the UfM as "the most efficient and multifaceted cooperation forum in the region".

In May 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the UfM recognized, in the final declaration of its 12th Plenary Session, the “importance of the pivotal role played by the UfM in promoting cooperation and regional integration in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
”.

In January 2017, at the occasion of the second UfM Regional Forum gathering the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the 43 Member States, Ms. Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the European Union
European Union
for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission, declared: “we have committed together to break this circle of lack of integration and tensions and conflictuality and invest in a coherent manner on more political dialogue and more regional integrational cooperation on very concrete fields of actions through our Union for the Mediterranean."

REGIONAL PROJECTS

Via the process of labelisation, the UFM supports projects that address common regional challenges that are likely to have a direct impact on the lives of citizens. The UfM label guarantees regional recognition and visibility for the selected projects. It also gives them access to funding opportunities through the network of financial partners of the UfM.

The main added value of the UfM lies in the interrelation created between the policy dimension and its operational translation into concrete projects on the ground, which in return nourishes the definition of relevant policies through a multi-stakeholder approach. The adoption of projects on the ground follows the principle of “variable geometry”, providing a degree of flexibility by which a smaller number of countries may decide, with the approval of all, to cooperate and participate in projects of common interest.

In December 2015, 37 projects were labeled by the UfM. As of July 2017, more than 45 projects were labeled by the UfM:

Human Development

After a consultation process with stakeholders, the UfM launched in 2013 a regional initiative (Med4Jobs) that defines the priorities of intervention in terms of employability, intermediary services and job creation in the region, under which specific projects are developed.

By 2015, the secretariat of the UfM had labeled 13 projects addressing the challenges of youth employability and inclusive growth. Framed by the political mandate and the priorities expressed in regional dialogues, these projects target 200,000 beneficiaries, mostly young people, and involve over 1,000 small and medium private enterprises.

On Women empowerment, it had also labeled 10 projects benefiting over 50,000 women in the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region, this with the participation of over 1000 shareholders and with a budget of over 127 million euros.

The specific focus on Youth employability and Women empowerment is in line with the UfM’s aim at reinforcing human capital in the region, which is the key issue for stability and security in the region.

As of July 2017, the UfM has 26 labelled projects addressing the regional Human Development pillar.

Business Development

* Developing Youth Employability & Entrepreneurial Skills – Maharat MED * Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Entrepreneurship Network * Promoting Financial Inclusion via Mobile Financial Services in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Countries * Establishment of a Regional Platform for the Development of Cultural and Creative Industries and Clusters in the Southern Mediterranean * Generation Entrepreneur * EDILE – Economic Development through Inclusive and Local Empowerment * EMIPO – EUROMED Invest Promotion & Observatory * EMDC – Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Development Center for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises * Agadir SME Programme – Fostering SME competitiveness and trade in the Agadir Agreement member countries * YouMatch – “Toolbox Project”: Elaboration and implementation of a demand-driven toolbox for youth-orientated, innovative labour market services in the MENA region

Higher Education & Research

* MedNC – New Chance Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Network * HOMERe – High Opportunity for Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Executive Recruitment * Higher Education on Food Security and Rural Development * EMUNI Master Programmes * Three areas of EMUNI PhD Research Programmes * Master Study Programme in Risk Science * The Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
University of Fes
Fes

* Eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
International School (EMIS)

Social & Civil Affairs

* WOMED: the "next generation of leaders" * CEED GROW: Growing and Scaling Small and Medium-Sized Businesses * Forming Responsible Citizens – Promoting citizenship education to prevent school violence, particularly against girls and women * Developing Women Empowerment * Skills for Success – Employability Skills for Women * Young Women as Job Creators * Promoting women empowerment for inclusive and sustainable industrial development in the MENA region * Women's Right to Health – The WoRTH Project

Sustainable Development

By 2015, 14 projects were labelled by the 43 countries of the UfM, included the cleanup of Lake Bizerte in Tunisia, the construction of the desalination plant in Gaza, and the integrated urban development of the city of Imbaba.

As of July 2017, the UfM has 21 labelled projects addressing the regional Sustainable Development pillar. These projects are expected to have an important socio-economic impact across the region, including on climate action, renewable energy, transport, urban development, water, the blue economy and environment.

Transport & Urban Development

* UPFI Sfax Taparura Project * Bouregreg Valley Development * Imbaba Urban Upgrading Project * Jordanian Railway Network * Completion of the Central Section of the Trans- Maghreb
Maghreb
Motorway Axis * LOGISMED Training Activities * Motorway of the Sea (MoS) Turkey-Italy- Tunisia
Tunisia
Project * MoS OPTIMED IMPLEMENTATION – Towards a new Mediterranean Corridor: from South-Eastern to North-Western ports * UPFI Multi-Site Urban Regeneration Project in Jericho * Izmir Urban Integrated Waste Management Project

Energy &Climate Action

* Tafila Wind Farm * UfM Energy University by Schneider Electric * SEMed Private Renewable Energy Framework - SPREF

Water & Environment

* Capacity Building Programme on Water Integrity in the Middle East and North Africa * BlueGreen Med-CS * MED RESCP – POST RIO +20: Supporting the adoption of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and Resource Efficiencu (RE) models in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region * Towards a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Water Knowledge Platform * Integrated Programme for Protection of the Lake Bizerte against Pollution * Governance "> Co-presidents of the UfM, Federica Mogherini,High Representative of the European Union
European Union
for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Nasser Judeh, Jordan's minister of foreign affairs, next to Secretary General of the UfM, M. Fathallah Sijilmassi.

With the purpose of guaranteeing the co-ownership of the Union for the Mediterranean, the Heads of State and Government decided in Paris that two countries, one from the EU and one from the Mediterranean partner countries, will jointly preside the Union for the Mediterranean. The 27 agreed that the EU co-presidency had to "be compatible with the external representation of the European Union
European Union
in accordance with the Treaty provisions in force." The Mediterranean partner countries decided to choose by consensus and among themselves a country to hold the co-presidency for a non-renewable period of two years."

From 2008 to 2012, France
France
"> Headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean

The Secretariat of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
was inaugurated on March 4, 2010 in an official ceremony in Barcelona.

The task of the permanent Secretariat is to provide operational follow-up of the sectorial ministerial meeting, identifying and monitoring the implementation of concrete projects for the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region, and searching for partners to finance these projects and coordinating various platforms for dialogue.

The Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs decided at the Marseilles
Marseilles
conference of November 2008 that the headquarters of the Secretariat would be at the Royal Palace of Pedralbes in Barcelona
Barcelona
. They also agreed on the structure of this new key institution and the countries of origin of its first members:

* The Secretary General is elected by consensus from a non-EU country. His term is for three years, which may be extended for another three. The first Secretary General was the Jordanian Ahmad Khalaf Masa\'deh , the former Ambassador of Jordan
Jordan
to the EU, Belgium, Norway and Luxembourg, and Minister of Public Sector Reform from 2004–2005. He resigned after one year in office. In July 2011, the Moroccan diplomat Youssef Amrani takes office. When he is named deputy foreign minister by the Benkirane government, he is replaced as Secretary General by fellow Moroccan Ambassador Fathallah Sijilmassi , former Ambassador to the European Union
European Union
(2003-2004) and to France (2005-2009). Fathallah Sijilmassi is an officer of the Légion d´honneur and grand officer in the Ordre National du Mérite of the Republic of France.

Fathallah Sijilmassi , Secretary General for the Union for the Mediterranean.

* In order to enhance the co-ownership of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, six posts of Deputy Secretaries General were assigned to three countries from the EU and three from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
partner countries. For the first term of three years (extendible to another three) the Deputy Secretaries General were:

* Mr. Panagiotis Roumeliotis (Greece) – Energy Division; * Prof. Ilan Chet (Israel) – Higher Education and Research Division; * Mr. Lino Cardarelli (Italy) – Business Development Division; * Amb. Celia Attard Pirotta (Malta) – Social and Civil Affairs Division; * Dr. Rafiq Husseini (Palestine) – Water and Environment Division; * Amb. Yigit Alpogan (Turkey) – Transport and Urban Development Division.

The Secretariat of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
was inaugurated on March 2010 in an official ceremony in Barcelona.

In 2017, the secretariat of the UfM has a staff of 60 persons from more than 20 nationalities, including the permanent presence of senior officials seconded from the European Commission, the EIB, the BERD and CDC.

OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AND EURO-MEDITERRANEAN INSTITUTIONS

EURO-MEDITERRANEAN PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY

The Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Parliamentary Assembly (EMPA) is not a new institution inside the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership framework. It was established in Naples
Naples
on 3 December 2003 by the Euro-Mediterranean Ministers of Foreign Affairs and had its first plenary session in Athens on 22–23 March 2004. The EMPA gathers parliamentarians from the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries and has four permanent committees on the following issues:

* Political Affairs, Security and Human Rights * Economic, Financial and Social Affairs and Education * Promotion of the Quality of Life, Human Exchanges and Culture * Women's Rights in the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Countries

The EMPA also has an ad hoc committee on Energy and Environment. Since the launch of the Union for the Mediterranean, the EMPA's role has been strengthened for it is considered the "legitimate parliamentary expression of the Union".

EURO-MEDITERRANEAN REGIONAL AND LOCAL ASSEMBLY

At the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Foreign Affairs Conference held in Marseilles
Marseilles
on November 2008, the Ministers welcomed the EU Committee of the Regions proposal to establish a Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Assembly of Local and Regional Authorities ( ARLEM in French). Its aim is to bridge between the local and regional representatives of the 43 countries with the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and EU institutions.

The EU participants are the members of the EU Committee of the Regions , as well as representatives from other EU institutions engaged with the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership. From the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
partner countries, the participants are representatives of regional and local authorities appointed by their national governments. The ARLEM was formally established and held its first plenary session in Barcelona
Barcelona
on 31 January 2010. The ARLEM's co-presidency is held by the President of the EU Committee of the Regions, Luc Van den Brande, and the Moroccan mayor of Al Hoceima, Mohammed Boudra.

ANNA LINDH FOUNDATION

The Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
Foundation for the Dialogue between Cultures , with headquarters are in Alexandria
Alexandria
, Egypt, was established in April 2005. It is a network for the civil society organisations of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries, aiming at the promotion of intercultural dialogue and mutual understanding.

At the Paris
Paris
Summit it was agreed that the Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
Foundation, along with the UN Alliance of Civilizations
Alliance of Civilizations
will be in charge of the cultural dimension of the Union for the Mediterranean.

In September 2010 the Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
Foundation published a report called "EuroMed Intercultural Trends 2010." This evaluation about mutual perceptions and the visibility of the Union of the Mediterranean across the region is based on a Gallup Public Opinion Survey in which 13,000 people from the Union of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries participated.

PARTNERSHIPS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AND EURO-MEDITERRANEAN INSTITUTIONS

As a platform for dialogue and cooperation, the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
engages in strategic partnerships with global, regional and sub-regional organizations.

During the past few years, the UfM strengthened its ties with relevant stakeholders through the signature of various Memoranda of Understanding:

* CIHEAM (International Center for Advanced Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Agronomic Studies) – 8 January 2015 * EESC (European Economic and Social Committee) – 13 January 2015 * Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness – 26 January 2015 * AFAEMME (Association of Organisations of Mediterranean Businesswomen) – 11 February 2015 * Agency for International Cooperation and Local Development in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
– 16 February 2015 * British University in Egypt
Egypt
– 14 March 2015 * EMUNI University (Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
University) – 8 April 2015 * IRU (International Road Transport Union) – 10 April 2015 * IPEMED (Institut de Prospective économique du monde Méditerranéen) – 4 May 2015 * UNIDO – 22 May 2015 * BUSINESSMED – 9 June 2015 * BSEC (Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation) – 18 June 2015 * UNESCO – 14 October 2015 * CETMO (Center for Transportation Studies for the Western Mediterranean) – 26 November 2015 * Energy Charter Secretariat – 26 November 2015 * EMUNI University – 1 February 2016 * International Energy Agency – 17 February 2016 * Service de la Coopération Marocaine – 8 March 2016 * UN Habitat – 5 April 2016 * Conseil de la Région Tangier-Tétouan-Al Hoceima – 22 June 2016 * Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain
Spain
– 29 July 2016 * ANIMA Investment Network – 7 September 2016 * Groupe interacadémique pour le développement – 29 September 2016 * IEMed (European Institute of the Mediterranean) – 20 January 2017 * SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) – 23 January 2017 * UN Office for South-South Cooperation – 24 January 2017 * Fundación Mujeres por Africa – 24 January 2017 * AGADIR Technical Unit – 24 January 2017 * MENBO Permanent Secretariat – 10 March 2017 * EMUNI University – 14 March 2017 * Konrad Adenauer Stiftung – 10 April 2017 * World Alliance for Efficient Solutions – 24 May 2017 * SDSN Mediterranean
Mediterranean
– 1 June 2017 * Institut Méditerranéen de l’Eau – 8 June 2017 * Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
University of Fes
Fes
– 20 June 2017 * IEMed – 20 July 2017

FUNDING

The Paris
Paris
Declaration states that contributions for the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
will have to develop the capacity to attract funding from "the private sector participation; contributions from the EU budget and all partners; contributions from other countries, international financial institutions and regional entities; the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Investment and Partnership Facility (FEMIP); the ENPI", among other possible instruments,

* The European Commission
European Commission
contributes to the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
through the European Neighbourhood Policy Instrument (ENPI). In July 2009 the ENPI allocated €72 million for the following Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
projects during 2009–2010:

* De-pollution of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(€22 million). * Maritime and land highways (€7.5 million). * Alternative energies: Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Solar Plan (€5 million). * Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
University of Slovenia
Slovenia
(€1 million)

* The European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) came into force in 2014. It is the financial arm of the European Neighbourhood Policy , the EU’s foreign policy towards its neighbours to the East and to the South. It has a budget of €15.4 billion and will provide the bulk of funding through a number of programmes. The ENI, effective from 2014 to 2020, replaces the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument – known as the ENPI. * The European Investment Bank
European Investment Bank
contributes to the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
through its Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Investment and Partnership (FEMIP). Specifically, the FEMIP was mandated by the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Finance on 2008 to support three of the six concrete projects: the de-pollution of the Mediterranean; alternative energies; and maritime and land highways. Following the June 2012 meeting the EIB announced it would give 500 million euros to support projects for the UfM. * The InfraMed Infrastructure Fund was established in June 2010 by five financial entities: the French Caisse des Dépôts, the Moroccan Caisse de Dépôts et de Gestion, the Egyptian EFG Hermes, the Italian Cassa Depositi e Prestiti and the European Investment Bank
European Investment Bank
. On an initial phase, the Fund will contribute €385 million to the Secretariat's projects on infrastructure. * The World Bank
World Bank
has allocated $750 million for the renewable energy project through the Clean Technology Fund.

LIST OF SECTORIAL MINISTERIAL MEETINGS

* Economic-Financial Meeting, 7 October 2008, Luxembourg. Conclusions. * Industry, 5–6 November 2008, Nice (France). Conclusions. * Employment and Labor, 9–10 November 2008, Marrakech (Morocco). Conclusions. * Health, 11 November 2008, Cairo (Egypt). Conclusions. * Water, 22 December 2008, Amman (Jordan). Conclusions. * Sustainable Development, 25 June 2009, Paris
Paris
(France). Conclusions. * Economic-Financial Meeting, 7 July 2009, Brussels (Belgium). Conclusions. * Strengthening the Role of Women in Society, 11–12 November, Marrakech (Morocco). Conclusions. * Trade, 9 December 2009, Brussels (Belgium). Conclusions. * Water, 21–22 April 2010, Barcelona
Barcelona
(Spain). * Tourism, 20 May 2010, Barcelona
Barcelona
(Spain). * Employment and Labour, 21–22 November 2010, Brussels (Belgium) * Sustainable Urban Development, 9–10 November 2011, Strasbourg (France) * Strengthening the role of women in society – September 2013 * Transport – November 2013 * Energy – December 2013 * Industrial cooperation – February 2014 * Environment and climate change – May 2014 * Digital Economy – September 2014 * Blue Economy – November 2015

SEE ALSO

* European Neighbourhood Policy * Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
* Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
* Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation * Eastern Partnership * Future enlargement of the European Union
European Union

REFERENCES

* ^ Press, The Associated (2013-01-05). "Palestinian Authority Officially Changes Name to \'State of Palestine\'". Haaretz. Retrieved 2016-03-15. * ^ "Memo". European Commission
European Commission
. 2014-03-27. Retrieved 2016-02-13.

* ^ A B C D E F G "El Partenariado Euro-Mediterráneo: del Proceso de Barcelona
Barcelona
a la Unión por el Mediterráneo" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ Camilleri, Ivan (13 September 2011). "Med Union wants Libya
Libya
as full member". Times of Malta
Malta
. Retrieved 6 August 2012. * ^ Abu Najm, Michel (2013-10-26). "Libyan FM on Border Security, Militias". Asharq Al-Awsat . Retrieved 2013-11-05. * ^ The Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs gathered at Marseilles
Marseilles
on November 2008, agreed that the League of the Arab States "shall participate in all meetings at all levels" of the Union for the Mediterranean. Prior to this decision, the Arab League
Arab League
had been participating in Ministerial Meetings of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership but was not allowed in the preparatory meetings. * ^ A B Final Statement of the Marseille Meeting of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs (PDF). 3–4 November 2008. p. 1. * ^ " Barcelona
Barcelona
Declaration and Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership", EUR-Lex, Access to European Union
European Union
Law. * ^ Khader, Bichara (2009). Europa por el Mediterráneo. De Barcelona
Barcelona
a Barcelona
Barcelona
(1995–2009) (in Spanish). Icaria. p. 23. ISBN 978-84-9888-107-3 . * ^ Barcelona
Barcelona
Declaration, adopted at the Euro-Mediterranean Conference (PDF). 27–28 November 1995. * ^ Šandala, Braňo. " Barcelona
Barcelona
Process: Political Background and Goals Časopis pro politiku a mezinárodní vztahy". www.globalpolitics.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2017-09-13. * ^ Khader, Bichara (2009). Europa por el Mediterráneo. De Barcelona
Barcelona
a Barcelona
Barcelona
(1995–2009) (in Spanish). Icaria. p. 27. ISBN 978-84-9888-107-3 . * ^ Montobbio, Manuel (2009). "Coming Home. Albania
Albania
in the Barcelona Process:Union for the Mediterranean" (PDF). Anuario. IEMed. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ http://www.euromedbarcelona.org/EN/PtoEncuentro/ACptoEncuentro/index.html * ^ " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Heritage projects page". Retrieved 19 December 2010. * ^ Khader, Bishara (2009). Europa por el Mediterráneo. De Barcelona
Barcelona
a Barcelona
Barcelona
(1995–2009) (in Spanish). Icaria. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-84-9888-107-3 . * ^ "Barcelona: Report on a Predicted Failure". Voltaire. 14 December 2005. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "Editorial: Summit Drama – and Beyond" (PDF) (2). EuroMesco. December 2005. * ^ Cruz, Marisa (28 November 2005). "España y sus socios europeos asumen que la Cumbre puede saldarse hoy con un fracaso". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "La cumbre de Barcelona
Barcelona
consigue acordar un Código de Conducta Antiterrorista". El Pais (in Spanish). 28 November 2005. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L Joint Declaration of the Paris
Paris
Summit for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(PDF). 13 July 2008. p. 12. * ^ Fernández, Haizam Amirah; Youngs, Richard (30 November 2005). "The Barcelona
Barcelona
Process: An Assessment of a Decade of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partnership" (PDF). Real Instituto Elcano (137). Retrieved 30 October 2010. * ^ A B Borrell, Josep (Autumn 2010). "Yes the Barcelona
Barcelona
Process was "mission impossible", but the EU can learn from that". EuropesWorld. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "Partial setback for Barcelona
Barcelona
summit". Magharebia. 30 November 2005. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ Khader, Bichara (2009). Europa por el Mediterráneo. De Barcelona
Barcelona
a Barcelona
Barcelona
(1995–2009) (in Spanish). Icaria. p. 21. ISBN 978-84-9888-107-3 . * ^ Soler i Lechaq, Eduard (February 2008). "España y el Mediterráneo:" (PDF). España en Europa 2004–2008 (in Spanish). 4 (Observatorio de Política Exterior, Institut Universitari d'Estudis Europeus). Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ A B Holm, Carl (13 February 2007). "Sparks Expected to Fly Whoever Becomes France\'s President". Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
. Retrieved 21 October 2011. * ^ Bennhold, Katrin; Burnett, Victoria; Kiefer, Peter (10 May 2007). "Sarkozy\'s proposal for Mediterranean
Mediterranean
bloc makes waves". International Herald Tribune. The New York Times. Retrieved 21 October 2011. * ^ Goldirova, Renata (25 October 2007). " France
France
muddies waters with \' Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union\' idea". EUobserver. * ^ Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union: EJP Archived 11 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine . 7 May 2007 * ^ A B Turkey, reassured on EU, backs \'Club Med\' plan, The Guardian 4 March 2008. * ^ "Sarkozy Gets Italy, Spain
Spain
on Board for " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union"". Deutsche Welle. 21 December 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2010. * ^ Sarkozy Karamanlis talks Archived 19 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Mahony, Honor (6 December 2007). "Merkel criticises Sarkozy\'s Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union plans". EUobserver. * ^ Keller, Caroline (17 January 2008). " Slovenia
Slovenia
criticises French Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Union proposal". EUobserver. * ^ Behr, Timo; Ruth Hanau Santini (12 November 2007). "Comment: Sarkozy\'s Mediterranean
Mediterranean
union plans should worry Brussels". EUobserver. * ^ Vucheva, Elitsa (27 February 2008) France
France
says it has no preferred EU president candidate, EU Observer * ^ "EU Leaders Show Muted Enthusiasm for Club Med Plans". Der Spiegel. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2010. * ^ Balmer, Crispian (4 March 2008) Sarkozy\'s Med dream deflated by Germany, Reuters * ^ "43 pays à Paris
Paris
pour lancer l\'Union pour la Méditerranée". EurActiv.fr (in French). 13 July 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "Nicolas Sarkozy\'s New \'Club Med\'". Der Spiegel. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "FINAL STATEMENT MARSEILLE, 3–4 NOVEMBER 2008" (PDF). ufmsecretariat.org. 2008. * ^ Final Statement of the Marseille Meeting of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs (PDF). 3–4 November 2008. p. 4. * ^ Final Statement of the Marseille Meeting of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs (PDF). 3–4 November 2008. pp. 20–21. * ^ " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
efforts for renewable energy united – UfM and Dii join forces" (Press release). EcoSeed . 17 May 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012. * ^ Final Statement of the Marseille Meeting of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs (PDF). 3–4 November 2008. p. 21. * ^ A B C D "UfM: Jordan
Jordan
to hold co-presidency of south Med from Sept.". ANSAmed . 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2012. * ^ A B C Joint Declaration of the Paris
Paris
Summit for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(PDF). 13 July 2008. p. 13. * ^ "La Cumbre de la Unión por el Mediterráneo se celebrará en Barcelona
Barcelona
en junio de 2010". El País (in Spanish). 10 September 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ "El actual conflicto árabe-israelí obliga a aplazar la cumbre de Barcelona". El Periódico Mediterráneo (in Spanish). 21 May 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ A B "La UpM aprueba hoy sus estatutos y lanza la capitalidad mediterránea de Barcelona". EcoDiario (in Spanish). 3 March 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ Final Statement of the Marseille Meeting of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs (PDF). 3–4 November 2008. p. 7. * ^ de la Vaissiere, Jean-Louis (14 April 2010). "La Unión por el Mediterráneo todavía está lejos de servir como motor de paz". AFP (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ Martín, Iván (9 December 2009). "Las prioridades de la Presidencia española de la UE en el Mediterráneo: ser y deber ser (ARI)". Real Instituto Elcano (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2010.

* ^ Radigales, Montserrat (21 May 2010). "El actual conflicto árabe-israelí obliga a aplazar la cumbre de Barcelona". El Periódico Mediterráneo (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "La Unión por el Mediterráneo no logra una estrategia común sobre el agua". El Mundo (in Spanish). 13 April 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ Radigales, Montserrat (28 October 2010). "La Unión por el Mediterráneo, atascada, se juega el futuro". El Periódico (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "El Consejo de Europa confirma que se celebrará la cumbre euro-mediterráneo de noviembre en Barcelona". Medlognews (in Spanish). 16 September 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ "El Gobierno español quiere a Obama en la Cumbre Mediterránea de noviembre". MedLog Newa (in Spanish). 9 June 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010. * ^ "España da por imposible la cumbre mediterránea de Barcelona". El Pais (in Spanish). 10 November 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010. * ^ "Postponement of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Summit". La Moncloa. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2010. * ^ "El embajador de la UE en Marruecos "no cree" en la Unión por el Mediterráneo". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 28 September 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "Gaza Desalination Project – Project background – Factsheet prepared by the Secretariat of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(14 May 2011)". unispal.un.org. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Moroccan king appoints new cabinet led by moderate Islamists". Al Arabiya. 3 January 2012. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean: first inter-institutional meeting puts projects first". enpi-info.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Young Women As Job Creators". Association of Organisations of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Businesswomen. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "1st Regional Conference Governance ">(PDF). medspring.eu. 2014. * ^ "UfM to launch training project to promote competitiveness and job creation in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
logistics industry". enpi-info.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Strengthening the Role of Women in Society: Third Ministerial Conference confirms priorities, establishes Euromed Forum and supports UfM role". medspring.eu. 2013. * ^ A B " European Commission
European Commission
– PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Transport: Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
ministerial conference in Brussels". europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(UfM) Ministerial Conference on Energy" (PDF). consilium.europa.eu. 2013. * ^ A B "Industrial cooperation: Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
meeting" (Press release). europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministerial Meeting on Environment and Climate Change" (PDF). ec.europa.eu. 2014. * ^ A B "European Union, Jordan
Jordan
and Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) Ministers in charge of the Digital Economy launch new digital cooperation initiatives" (Press release). europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministerial Conference on Blue Economy" (PDF). ec.europa.eu. 2015. * ^ "New dynamics for regional cooperation in the Mediterranean". European Commission. Retrieved 2016-06-06. * ^ "“External Relations – Events”". * ^ "“UfM Ministerial Declaration on Energy”" (PDF). * ^ "Ministerial Meeting of the European Union
European Union
and Mediterranean Water Ministries". * ^ "Sustainable Urban Development in the Euro-Mediterranean region: UfM Ministers agree on a structured framework for enhanced regional cooperation". * ^ "UfM Member States endorse 4 new development projects". enpi-info.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Review of the European Neighbourhood Policy" (PDF). auropa.eu. 2015. * ^ " European Union
European Union
– EEAS (European External Action Service) Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
stresses unity & economic cooperation". eeas.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "United Nations Official Document". un.org. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Skills for Success". * ^ "Joint Declaration following the Union for the Mediterranean Ministerial Meeting in Jordan
Jordan
co-chaired by Commissioner Hahn". * ^ "UfM actively involved in MedCOP Climate Conference 2016 in Tangier". * ^ "in Society, due to take place late 2017. The Conference provided a regional dialogue forum where the 250 participants from more than 30 countries stressed the need to invest in the essential contribution of women as a response to the current Mediterranean challenges". * ^ "“UfM Regional Dialogue on Women Empowerment – Progress Report”" (PDF). * ^ "Integrated Programme for Protection of the Lake Bizerte against Pollution". * ^ "UNFCCC Observers – Admitted IGOs”". * ^ "UfM launches two major Mediterranean
Mediterranean
initiatives at COP22". * ^ "Mogherini urges greater cooperation and integration in the Mediterranean". * ^ "Working for sustainable and inclusive development: Sweden
Sweden
to work with Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in support of regional integration". * ^ "Madrid Declaration" (PDF). * ^ " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in action: UfM report 2016 shows strengthened regional commitment". * ^ "Une stratégie nouvelle à l’égard d’un voisinage en mutation" (PDF). europa.eu. 2011. * ^ "Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2013 Regional report: A Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Partners" (PDF). europa.eu. 2014. * ^ "La réunion ministérielle du Dialogue 5+5 souligne le rôle clé de l’UpM dans la promotion de la coopération régionale en Méditerranée – Union pour la Méditerranée – UpM" (in French). Union pour la Méditerranée – UpM. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in action: UfM report 2016 shows strengthened regional commitment". * ^ "Conférence interparlementaire sur la politique étrangère et de sécurité commune (PESC) et sur la politique de sécurité et de défense commune (PSDC)" (PDF). parleu2015.lv. 2015. * ^ "Final Declaration of the 12Th Plenary Sessions of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean". * ^ "Remarks by Federica Mogherini at the press conference following the Ministerial meeting of the Union for the Mediterranean".

* ^ "Projects – Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
– UfM". Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
– UfM. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Mediterranean: UfM announces 41 regional cooperation projects". enpi-info.eu. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ "Tunisia: UfM to hold Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Economic Conference September 17-18". * ^ "UfM 2015 Activity Report" (PDF). * ^ "The empowerment of women in the Mediterranean". Start Your Bag. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
dairy products EDILE". www.edile-initiative.org. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ "EMIPO – EUROMED Invest Promotion & Observatory". enpi-info.eu. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ ":: Université Euro-Méditerranéenne de Fès ::". www.ueuromed.org. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ "Empowering women to advance inclusive and sustainable industrial development in the MENA region". unido.org. 2016-06-01. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ "Women’s Right to Health – The WoRTH Project". enpi-info.eu. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ "Promoting regional cooperation and dialogue" (PDF). egrejob.eu. * ^ " Mediterranean
Mediterranean
in action: UfM report 2016 shows strengthened regional commitment". * ^ "Turkey-Italy- Tunisia
Tunisia
\'motorway of the sea\' project approved – Transport – ANSAMed.it". ansamed.info. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ "Energy University". schneideruniversities.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ "plastic busters – Plastic Busters project". plasticbusters.unisi.it. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean". enpi-info.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ A B "La Unión por el Mediterráneo ya ejerce en Barcelona". Medlognews (in Spanish). 6 March 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ A B Final Statement of the Marseille Meeting of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministers of Foreign Affairs (PDF). 3–4 November 2008. p. 6. * ^ "Barcelona, capital del Mediterráneo". El País (in Spanish). 5 November 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ "Biography: H.E. Dr. Ahmad Masa\'deh" (pdf). Generalitat de Catalunya, Secretaria per a la Unió Europea. 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2010. * ^ "Dimite el secretario de la Unión por el Mediterráneo tras un año en el cargo". La vanguardia (in Spanish). EFE. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011. * ^ "Planning minister, international experts discuss economic situation in Jordan". Amman, Jordan. Jordan
Jordan
News Agency. 6 June 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012. * ^ "El Secretariado de Barcelona
Barcelona
camina a trancas y barrancas". El periódico (in Spanish). 28 October 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "UfM projects and initiatives: Opportunities for regional cooperation in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region" (PDF). euromed-training.eu. 2014. * ^ "Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Assembly". Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Commission, United Cities and Local Governments. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ "What is the ARLEM?". EU Committee of the Regions. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ "ARLEM". Council of European Municipalities and Regions. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2010.

* ^ " Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
Foundation". Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
Foundation. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ " Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
Report 2010". Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
Foundation. Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean: Commission increases its contribution to priority projects". ENPI, Union for the Mediterranean. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "FEMIP and the Union for the Mediterranean". EIB. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "Cinco entidades financieras crean el primer fondo de inversión en infraestructuras para el Mediterráneo". 26 May 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. * ^ "Conclusions of the 2nd Conference of ministers for Labour and Employment of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Belgian Presidency of the Council of the European Union". www.eutrio.be. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Cities Local Governments". cities-localgovernments.org. * ^ "Strengthening the Role of Women in Society: Third Ministerial Conference confirms priorities, establishes Euromed Forum and supports UfM role". enpi-info.eu. Retrieved 2016-01-11. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(UfM) Ministerial Conference on Energy" (PDF). consilium.europa.eu. 2013. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministerial Meeting on Environment and Climate Change" (PDF). ec.europa.eu. 2014. * ^ "Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Ministerial Conference on Blue Economy" (PDF). ec.europa.eu. 2015.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to UNION FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN .

* Official website

* v * t * e

International reach and expansion of the European Union
European Union

THEORY

* Integration * Eurosphere
Eurosphere
* Pax Europaea
Pax Europaea
* Superpower status * Federalisation

REACH

* ACP (