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Tokelau
Tokelau
(English: /ˈtoʊkəlaʊ/; lit. 'north-northeast'[6]) is an island country and dependent territory of New Zealand
New Zealand
in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls (Atafu, Nukunonu
Nukunonu
and Fakaofo), with a combined land area of 10 km2 (4 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,500 people. Its capital rotates yearly between the three atolls.[7] Tokelau
Tokelau
lies north of the Samoan Islands, Swains Island
Swains Island
being the nearest, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, and northwest of the Cook Islands. Until 1976, the official name was Tokelau
Tokelau
Islands.[8] With the fourth smallest population of any sovereign state or dependency on Earth, Tokelau
Tokelau
is a leader in renewable energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation in the world.[9] Tokelau
Tokelau
is sometimes referred to by its older colonial name, the Union Islands. In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
designated Tokelau
Tokelau
a non-self-governing territory.[10] However, Tokelau
Tokelau
is officially referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand
New Zealand
government and the Tokelauan government.[9][11][12] It is a free and democratic nation with elections every three years. The basis of Tokelau's legislative, administrative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948 and its amendments. In 1992, the head of government was established, who is elected every three years. Before this, the Administrator of Tokelau
Administrator of Tokelau
was the highest official in the government; in November 1974 the administration of Tokelau
Tokelau
was transferred from the Maori and Island Affairs Department to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; and from then until September 1980, when the Tokelau administration regulations were amended, the New Zealand
New Zealand
Secretary of Foreign Affairs was the administrator of Tokelau; and regulations then came into force whereby the Minister of Foreign Affairs was empowered to appoint a suitable person to be the Administrator. The most widely-spoken language in Tokelau
Tokelau
is Tokelauan, at 93.5%. At 25.4% as of 2015[update], Tokelau
Tokelau
is relatively high in immigrant percentage; a percentage more than two times higher than France's immigrant percentage, and even higher than Canada
Canada
(18.76%), making it nearly on par with countries such as Israel
Israel
(at 26.5%) and Montserrat (at 25.9%).[13] Tokelau
Tokelau
had a small increase in census population from 2011 to 2016: about 6 percent. Tokelau
Tokelau
has the smallest economy in the world and has a life expectancy of 69, comparable with other Oceanian island nations.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Time zone

3 Government 4 Politics 5 Geography 6 Environment 7 Economy

7.1 Internet domain names 7.2 Solar power

8 Demography

8.1 Statistics

9 Culture

9.1 Healthcare and education 9.2 Sport

10 Communication and transportation 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

14.1 Governance 14.2 Atolls

Etymology[edit] The name Tokelau
Tokelau
is a Polynesian word meaning "north wind". The islands were named the Union Islands
Union Islands
and Union Group by European explorers at an unknown time.[14] Tokelau
Tokelau
Islands was adopted as the name in 1946, and was contracted to Tokelau
Tokelau
on 9 December 1976. History[edit] Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau
Tokelau
– Atafu, Nukunonu, and Fakaofo
Fakaofo
– were settled about 1,000 years ago and may have been a "nexus" into Eastern Polynesia.[15] Inhabitants followed Polynesian mythology
Polynesian mythology
with the local god Tui Tokelau; and developed forms of music (see Music of Tokelau) and art. The three atolls functioned largely independently while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans, and there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as inter-marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island",[16] held some dominance over Atafu
Atafu
and Nukunonu
Nukunonu
after the dispersal of Atafu. Life on the atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on fish and coconut.[17] Commodore John Byron
John Byron
discovered Atafu
Atafu
on 24 June 1765 and named it "Duke of York's Island". Parties onshore reported that there were no signs of current or previous inhabitants.[18][19] Captain Edward Edwards, knowing of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu
Atafu
on 6 June 1791[citation needed] in search of the Bounty mutineers. There were no permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear, suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing parties.[19] On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island".[20] A landing party could not make contact with the people but saw "morais", burying places, and canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the lagoons.[19] On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the USS Dolphin (1821) ship wrote of his crew's arrival at the atoll Nukunonu:

Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, which was quite small, and put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon. They would frequently come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation.[21]

On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States
United States
whaler General Jackson records discovering Fakaofo, calling it "D'Wolf's Island".[22][23] On 25 January 1841, the United States
United States
Exploring Expedition visited Atafu
Atafu
and discovered a small population living on the island. The residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes (used for inter-island travel). They desired to barter, and possessed blue beads and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. The expedition reached Nukunonu
Nukunonu
on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition discovered Fakaofo
Fakaofo
and named it "Bowditch".[24] The islanders were found to be similar in appearance and nature to those in Atafu.[25] Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau
Christianity in Tokelau
from 1845 to the 1860s. French Catholic
Catholic
missionaries on Wallis Island
Wallis Island
(also known as 'Uvea) and missionaries of the Protestant
Protestant
London Missionary Society
London Missionary Society
in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. Atafu
Atafu
was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu
Nukunonu
was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo
Fakaofo
was converted to both denominations.[26] Helped by Swains Island-based Eli Jennings senior, Peruvian "blackbird" slave traders arrived in 1863 and kidnapped nearly all (253) of the able-bodied men to work as labourers, depopulating the atolls. [27] The Tokelauan men died of dysentery and smallpox, and very few returned. With this loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual families on each atoll were represented.[17][23] During this time, Polynesian immigrants and American, Scottish, French, Portuguese and German beachcombers settled, marrying local women and repopulating the atolls.[23] Between 1856 and 1979, the United States
United States
claimed that it held sovereignty over the island and the other Tokelauan atolls. In 1979, the U.S. conceded that Tokelau
Tokelau
was under New Zealand
New Zealand
sovereignty, and a maritime boundary between Tokelau
Tokelau
and American Samoa
American Samoa
was established by the Treaty of Tokehega.

Cyclone Percy
Cyclone Percy
struck and severely damaged Tokelau
Tokelau
in late February and early March 2005. Forecasters underestimated the cyclone's strength and the length of time it would be in vicinity to Tokelau. It coincided with a spring tide which put most of the area of the two villages on Fakaofo
Fakaofo
and Nukunonu
Nukunonu
under a metre of seawater. The cyclone also caused major erosion on several islets of all three atolls, damaging roads and bridges and disrupting electric power and telecommunications systems. The cyclone did significant and widespread damage to food crops including bananas, coconuts and pandanus. It did not seriously injure anyone but villagers lost significant amounts of property. The geographic future of Tokelau
Tokelau
depends on the height of sea level. No significant land is more than two metres (6.6 feet) above high water of ordinary tides. This means Tokelau
Tokelau
is particularly vulnerable to any possible sea level rises. Time zone[edit] Main article: Time in New Zealand Until December 2011, Tokelau
Tokelau
was 11 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).[28] At midnight 29 December 2011 Tokelau
Tokelau
shifted to UTC+13:00 in response to Samoa's decision to switch sides of the International Dateline.[29] This brought Tokelau
Tokelau
closer to New Zealand time (and in the process omitted 30 December).[30] Many sources claim that Tokelau
Tokelau
is 14 hours ahead of UTC (UTC −10 before the 2011 date switch), but the correct time zone offset is UTC+13:00.[31] Government[edit] Main article: Constitutional history of Tokelau In 1877, the islands were included under the protection of the United Kingdom by an Order in Council that claimed jurisdiction over all unclaimed Pacific Islands. Commander C. F. Oldham on HMS Egeria landed at each of the three atolls in June 1889[32] and officially raised the Union Flag, declaring the group a British protectorate.[33] In conformity with desire expressed by "the Native government" they were annexed by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and included in the Gilbert Islands
Gilbert Islands
by the Tokelau
Tokelau
Islands (Union Islands) Order in Council, 1916.[33][34] The annexation took place on 29 February 1916.[35] From the point in time that the islands were annexed, their people had the status of British subjects. Tokelau
Tokelau
was removed from the Gilbert and Elllice Islands Colony and placed under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1925, two Orders in Council being made for the purpose on the same day.[33][36] This step meant that New Zealand took over administration of Tokelau
Tokelau
from the British on 11 February 1926.[37] At this point, Tokelau
Tokelau
was still a territory under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
but administered by New Zealand.[37] The Union Islands
Union Islands
(Revocation) Order in Council, 1948[38] after reciting the agreement by the governments of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and New Zealand
New Zealand
that the islands should become part of New Zealand, revoked the Union Islands
Union Islands
(No. 2) Order in Council, 1925, with effect from a date fixed by the Governor-General of New Zealand
New Zealand
after he was satisfied that the New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament had provided for the incorporation of the islands with New Zealand, as it did by the Tokelau
Tokelau
Islands Act 1948.[39] Tokelau
Tokelau
formally became part of New Zealand on 1 January 1949.[37] The Dominion
Dominion
of New Zealand, of which Tokelau
Tokelau
formerly was a part, has since been superseded by the Realm of New Zealand, of which Tokelau remains a part. Defence is the responsibility of New Zealand. When the British Nationality and New Zealand
New Zealand
Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect on 1 January 1949, Tokelauans who were British subjects gained New Zealand
New Zealand
citizenship; a status they still hold.[40] Villages are entitled to enact their own laws regulating their daily lives and New Zealand
New Zealand
law only applies where it has been extended by specific enactment. Serious crime is rare and there are no prisons, and offenders are publicly rebuked, fined or made to work.[41] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Tokelau The head of state is Elizabeth II, the Queen in right of New Zealand, who also reigns over Australia, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented in the territory by acting Administrator Linda Te Puni (as of 2016[update]). The current head of government is Afega Gaualofa[2], who presides over the Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau, which functions as a cabinet. The Council consists of the faipule (leader) and pulenuku (village mayor) of each of the three atolls.[42] The Administrator is appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of New Zealand, and the office of Head of Government rotates between the three faipule for a one-year term.[42] The Tokelau
Tokelau
Amendment Act of 1996 confers legislative power on the General Fono, a unicameral body. The number of seats each atoll receives in the Fono is determined by population – at present, Fakaofo
Fakaofo
and Atafu
Atafu
each have seven and Nukunonu
Nukunonu
has six.[42] Faipule and pulenuku also sit in the Fono.[42] On 11 November 2004, Tokelau
Tokelau
and New Zealand
New Zealand
took steps to formulate a treaty that would turn Tokelau
Tokelau
from a non-self-governing territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Besides the treaty, a United Nations-sponsored referendum on self-determination took place, with the three islands voting on successive days starting 13 February 2006. (Tokelauans in Apia, Samoa, voted on 11 February.)[43] Out of 581 votes cast, 349 were for Free Association, being short of the two-thirds majority required for the measure to pass.[44] The referendum was profiled (somewhat light-heartedly) in the 1 May 2006 issue of The New Yorker magazine.[45] A repeat referendum took place on 20–24 October 2007, again narrowly failing to approve self-government. This time the vote was short by just 16 votes or 3%.[46] In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon
Ban Ki-moon
urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories", including Tokelau.[47] This led The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald to comment that the United Nations
United Nations
was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau
Tokelau
to vote for independence".[48] In April 2008, speaking as leader of the National Party, future New Zealand
New Zealand
Prime Minister John Key stated that New Zealand
New Zealand
had "imposed two referenda on the people of the Tokelau
Tokelau
Islands", and questioned "the accepted wisdom that small states should undergo a de-colonisation process".[49] Geography[edit] Tokelau
Tokelau
includes three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between longitudes 171° and 173° W and between latitudes 8° and 10° S, about midway between Hawaii
Hawaii
and New Zealand. They lie about 500 kilometres (311 miles) north of Samoa. The atolls are Atafu, Nukunonu, both in a group of islands once called the Duke of Clarence Group, and Fakaofo, once Bowditch Island. Their combined land area is 10.8 km2 (4.2 sq mi). The atolls each have a number of coral islands, where the villages are situated. The highest point of Tokelau
Tokelau
is just 5 metres (16 feet) above sea level.[50] There are no ports or harbours for large vessels, however, all three atolls have a jetty to and from which supplies and passengers are shipped.[51][52][53] Tokelau
Tokelau
lies in the Pacific tropical cyclone belt. A fourth island that is culturally, historically, and geographically, but not politically, part of the Tokelau
Tokelau
chain is Swains Island
Swains Island
(Olohega), under United States
United States
control since about 1900 and administered as part of American Samoa
American Samoa
since 1925.[54] Swains Island
Swains Island
was claimed by the United States
United States
pursuant to the Guano Islands Act, as were the other three islands of Tokelau; these claims were ceded to Tokelau
Tokelau
by treaty in 1979. In the draft constitution of Tokelau
Tokelau
subject to the Tokelauan self-determination referendum in 2006, Olohega was also claimed as a part of Tokelau, though the claim was surrendered in the same 1979 treaty. This established a clearly defined boundary between American Samoa
American Samoa
and Tokelau. Tokelau's claim to Swains is generally comparable to the Marshall Islands' claim to US-administered Wake Island, but the re-emergence of this somewhat dormant issue has been an unintended result of the United Nations' recent efforts to promote decolonisation in Tokelau. Tokelauans have proved somewhat reluctant to push their national identity in the political realm: recent decolonisation moves have mainly been driven from outside for ideological reasons. But at the same time, Tokelauans are reluctant to disown their common cultural identity with Swains Islanders who speak their language.

Geographic locations of Tokelau's atolls

Atoll Coordinates

Atafu 8°33′6″S 172°30′3″W / 8.55167°S 172.50083°W / -8.55167; -172.50083 (Atafu)

Nukunonu 9°10′6″S 171°48′35″W / 9.16833°S 171.80972°W / -9.16833; -171.80972 (Nukunonu)

Fakaofo 9°21′55″S 171°12′54″W / 9.36528°S 171.21500°W / -9.36528; -171.21500 (Fakaofo)

Environment[edit] See also: List of birds of Tokelau and List of mammals of Tokelau Tokelau
Tokelau
is located in the Western Polynesian tropical moist forests ecoregion. Most of the original vegetation has been replaced by coconut plantations some of which have been abandoned and became scrubby forests. The atolls of Tokelau
Tokelau
provide habitat for 38 indigenous plant species, over 150 insect species and 10 land crab species. One of the greatest threats to biodiversity is posed by introduced mammalian predators such as the Polynesian Rat.[55] In 2011 Tokelau
Tokelau
declared its entire exclusive economic zone of 319,031 km2 (123,179 sq mi) a shark sanctuary.[56] Economy[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)

Nukunonu
Nukunonu
Lagoon in Tokelau.

Atafu
Atafu
street at dawn

According to the US Central Intelligence Agency's list of countries by GDP (PPP) Tokelau
Tokelau
has the smallest economy of any country in the world. Tokelau
Tokelau
has an annual purchasing power of about US$1,000 (€674) per capita. The government is almost entirely dependent on subsidies from New Zealand. It has annual revenues of less than US$500,000 (€336,995) against expenditures of some US$2.8 million (€1.9 million). The deficit is made up by aid from New Zealand. Tokelau
Tokelau
annually exports around US$100,000 (€67,000) of stamps, copra and woven and carved handicrafts and imports over US$300,000 (€202,000) of foodstuffs, building materials, and fuel to, and from, New Zealand. New Zealand
New Zealand
also pays directly for the cost of medical and education services. Local industries include small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft goods, stamps, coins, and fishing. Agriculture and livestock produces coconuts, copra, breadfruit, papayas, bananas, figs, pigs, poultry and a few goats. Many Tokelauans live in New Zealand
New Zealand
and support their families in Tokelau
Tokelau
through remittances. Tokelau
Tokelau
is currently the world's only country to only use renewable sources of energy in the production and consumption of electricity. [57] Tokelau's electricity is 93% generated by photovoltaics, with the remainder generated from coconut oil.[58] The goal of 100 % renewable energy was met on 7 November 2012, according to the Foreign Affairs Minister of New Zealand, Murray McCully.[59] Internet domain names[edit]

Access to internet in Tokelau, 2011

Main article: .tk Tokelau
Tokelau
has increased its GDP by more than 10% through registrations of domain names under its top-level domain, .tk.[60] Registrations can be either free, in which case the user owns only usage rights and not the domain itself, or paid, which grants full rights. Free domains are pointed to Tokelau
Tokelau
name servers, which redirects the domain via HTML frames to a specified address or to a specified A or NS record, and the redirection of up to 250 email addresses to an external address (not at a .tk domain). In September 2003 Fakaofo
Fakaofo
became the first part of Tokelau
Tokelau
with a high-speed Internet connection. Foundation Tokelau
Tokelau
financed the project. Tokelau
Tokelau
gives most domain names under its authority away to anyone for free to gain publicity for the territory. This has allowed the nation to gain enhanced telecommunications technologies, such as more computers and Internet access for Tokelauan residents. By 2012, there were about 120 computers, mostly laptops, and 1/6th of the economy consists of income from .tk domain names.[61] According to a 2016 analysis of domain name registration performed by the .uk registrar Nominet using data from ZookNIC,.[62] tk domains are the "world's largest country-code domain ... almost as large as second and third place holders China
China
(.cn) and Germany (.de) combined".[63] Solar power[edit] Three solar power stations provide 100% of current electrical demand from photovoltaics, with battery backup. The first power station was completed in August 2012. In total, 4,032 solar panels are used and 1,344 batteries weighing 250 kilograms (550 lb) each, making Tokelau
Tokelau
the first nation in the world to be 100% powered by solar power. The systems are designed to withstand winds of 230 km/h (143 mph). Previously electricity was generated using diesel generators, and was only available about 16 hours/day.[64][65] Demography[edit]

Language statistics in Tokelau, 2006 and 2011

According to the 2016 Tokelau
Tokelau
Census, Tokelau
Tokelau
has a de jure usually resident population of 1,499 people. The census shows a 6.2% increase in the de jure usually resident population between 2011 and 2016.[66] The nationals of Tokelau
Tokelau
are called Tokelauans, and the major ethnic group is Polynesian. The country has no minorities. The major religion is the Congregational Christian Church and the main language is Tokelauan, but English is also spoken. Tokelau
Tokelau
has fewer than 1,500 Polynesian inhabitants in three villages. Their isolation and lack of resources greatly limits economic development and confines agriculture to the subsistence level. The very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand
New Zealand
and Samoa. Depletion of tuna has made fishing for food more difficult. On the island of Atafu
Atafu
almost all inhabitants are members of the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa. On Nukunonu
Nukunonu
almost all are Roman Catholic. On Fakaofo
Fakaofo
both denominations are present with the Congregational Christian Church predominant. The total proportions are: Congregational Christian Church 62%, Roman Catholic
Catholic
34%, other 5%.[67] While slightly more females than males live on Atafu
Atafu
and Fakaofo, males make up 57% of Nukunonu
Nukunonu
residents.[68] Only 9% of Tokelauans aged 40 or more have never been married.[69] One-quarter of the population were born overseas; almost all the rest live on the same atoll they were born on.[70] Most households own five or more pigs.[71] Despite its low income, Tokelau
Tokelau
has a life expectancy of 69 years, comparable with other Oceania
Oceania
islands.[72] Statistics[edit] The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.[73] [to be updated from 2016 Census report: Profile of Tokelau][74] Population

1,499

Nationality

Tokelauan 65.3% part Tokelauan/Samoan 8.7% part Tokelauan/Tuvaluan 6.9% part Tokelauan/other Pacific islander 1.9% part Tokelauan/European 1% Samoan 6.7% Tuvaluan 2.8% Other Pacific islander 1.1% Other 5.1% Unspecified 0.4% (2011 est.)

Religions

Congregational Christian Church 58.2% Roman Catholic
Catholic
36.6% Presbyterian
Presbyterian
1.8% Other Christian
Christian
2.8% Spiritualism
Spiritualism
and New Age
New Age
0.1% Unspecified 0.5%

Languages

Tokelauan 93.5% (a Polynesian language) English 58.9% Samoan 45.5% Tuvaluan 11.6% Kiribati
Kiribati
2.7% Other 2.5% None 4.1% Unspecified 0.6%

Culture[edit] Healthcare and education[edit]

Literacy by age in Tokelau, 2011 census

Main article: Healthcare in Tokelau Each atoll has a school and hospital. The health services have a Director of Health in Apia
Apia
and a Chief Clinical Advisor who moves from atoll to atoll as required to assist the doctors attached to each hospital. In 2007 there was not always a doctor on each island and locums were appointed to fill the gaps. Upcoming Tokelaun medical graduates should alleviate this shortage in the coming years. Many Tokelauan youth travel to New Zealand
New Zealand
to further their education and the country is closer to full around Christmas time with students returning home and then heading off for another year of study. Sport[edit]

Cricket
Cricket
in Tokelau, 1966

See also: Rugby union in Tokelau
Rugby union in Tokelau
and Rugby league
Rugby league
in Tokelau Due to its small size, Tokelau
Tokelau
is unaffiliated to most international sports organisations, and rarely takes part in international events. The only significant international competition the country takes part in is the Pacific Games. Tokelau
Tokelau
won its first ever gold medals at the 2007 Pacific Games
Pacific Games
in Apia, winning a total of five medals (three gold, a silver and a bronze), all in lawn bowls, and finishing twelfth (out of twenty-two) on the overall medal table. This included two gold medals for Violina Linda Pedro (in the women's pairs and the women's singles), making her Tokelau's most successful individual athlete to date.[75] In October 2010, table tennis became "the first sport in Tokelau
Tokelau
to be granted membership at a Continental or World level", when the Tokelau Table Tennis Association was formally established and became the 23rd member of the Oceania
Oceania
Table Tennis Federation.[76] Tokelau
Tokelau
was due to take part, for the first time, in the 2010 Commonwealth Games, in Delhi,[77] but, for unknown reasons, ultimately did not do so.[78] Tokelau
Tokelau
does have a National Sports Federation, and the most important sports event within the country is arguably the Tokelau
Tokelau
Games which are held yearly. When they are held, "all of Tokelau
Tokelau
virtually stands still", as "[i]n excess of 50% of the population take part and all work and school stops at the time". The 2010 Games included competitions in rugby sevens, netball and kilikiti, alongside "a cultural evening [...] where each atoll showcases their traditional songs and dances".[76] Netball
Netball
is thought to have been introduced to Tokelau
Tokelau
by the British, but became more popular when New Zealand's government took over the territory. The sport is often played during inter-island sport competitions, alongside other sports like rugby league and volleyball.[79] In Tokelau, there are two levels to the soccer league. From Fale, Fakaofo, two of the best clubs are Hakava Club and Matalele Club.[80] Communication and transportation[edit]

A barge leaves the landing ramp in Nukunono to collect cargo and passengers from the MV Tokelau

Tokelau
Tokelau
has a radio telephone service between the islands and to Samoa. In 1997, a government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok) with three satellite earth stations was established. Each atoll has a radio-broadcast station that broadcasts shipping and weather reports and every household has a radio or access to one. News is disseminated through the government newsletter "Te Vakai". Tokelau
Tokelau
has the International calling code of 690, and has had five-digit telephone numbers from November 2015 (the existing four-digit numbers were prefixed by the digit "2")[81] Tokelau
Tokelau
is served by the MV Tokelau, owned by the country, with the trip from Apia
Apia
in Samoa
Samoa
taking a little over a day. Ships load and unload cargo by motoring up to the down-wind (leeward) side of the islet where the people live and maintaining station, by intermittent use of engines, close to the reef edge so that a landing barge can be motored out to transfer cargo to or from the shore. On returning to shore, the barge negotiates a narrow channel through the reef to the beach. Usually this landing is subject to ocean swell and beaching requires considerable skill and, often, coral abrasions to bodies. When bad weather prevents the barge making the trip, the ship stands off to wait for suitable weather or goes off to one of the other atolls to attempt to load or unload its passengers or cargo, or both. There is no airport in Tokelau, so boats are the main means of travel and transport. Some seaplanes and amphibious aircraft are able to land in the island's lagoons.[82] An airstrip was considered by the New Zealand Government in 2010.[83] See also[edit]

Oceania
Oceania
portal

Outline of Tokelau Badge of Tokelau

References[edit]

^ "Government of Tokelau". www.tokelau.org.nz. Retrieved 20 September 2017.  ^ a b " Tokelau
Tokelau
still pushing for air services in talks with NZ". Radio New Zealand. 8 March 2018.  ^ "Tokelau's Gross Domestic Product determined for first time this century". www.tokelau.org.nz.  ^ Tokelau: Wrong local time for over 100 years Archived 2 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Tokelau
Tokelau
Info". Tokelau-info.tk. Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ "Culture of Tokelau
Tokelau
- history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, family, social". www.everyculture.com (in eng). Retrieved 2017-02-28. Identification. "Tokelau" means "north-northeast." CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "Welcome to sunny Tokelau, an untouched Pacific Paradise". Archived from the original on 17 January 2010.  ^ Tokelau
Tokelau
Amendment Act 1976 ^ a b "Tokelau, world first solar power nation New Zealand
New Zealand
Trade and Enterprise". Nzte.govt.nz. 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ "Official site for the Tokelau
Tokelau
Council of Ongoing Government". Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2007.  ^ "Government of Tokelau". Tokelau.org.nz. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ "Tokelauans – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs". Un.org. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ " Tokelau
Tokelau
facts, information, pictures Encyclopedia.com articles about Tokelau". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2017-11-29.  ^ "Archeology of Atafu, Tokelau: Some Initial Results 2008". Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ Fakaofo
Fakaofo
Archived 16 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Tokelau". New Zealand
New Zealand
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ Byron, John; Wallis, John Samuel; Carteret, Philip; Cook, James; Banks, Sir Joseph (1773). An Account of the Voyages Undertaken. W. Strahan. pp. 132–133.  ^ a b c MacGregor, 30 ^ Sharp, Andrew (1960). The Discovery of the Pacific Islands. Clarendon Press. p. 164.  ^ The Journal of the South Pacific, 110 (3), p. 296 ^ Polynesian Society (N. Z.) (1961). The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Polynesian Society. p. 102.  ^ a b c "Information Bulletin on Tokelau". New Zealand
New Zealand
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ Nathaniel Bowditch
Nathaniel Bowditch
(1773–1838) was an American mathematician remembered for his work on ocean navigation. ^ Wilkes, Charles (1849). Voyage Round the World. Geo. W. Gorton. p. 538.  ^ People Archived 6 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ H.E. Maude's Slavers in Paradise (A.N.U., Canberra, 1981) ^ "UTC offset for years 2000–2009 in Fakaofo, Tokelau". Retrieved 7 August 2012.  ^ "UTC offset for years 2010–2019 in Fakaofo, Tokelau". Retrieved 7 August 2012.  ^ " Tokelau
Tokelau
to join Samoa
Samoa
and leap forward over dateline". BBC News. 6 October 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2011.  ^ "Tokelau: Wrong local time for over 100 years". Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2012.  ^ Lister, J.J. (1892). "Notes on the Natives of Fakaofu". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 21: 43–63. JSTOR 2842209.  ^ a b c Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 894 ^ S.R.O. 1916 No. 167; S.R.O. & S.I. Rev. IX, 661—made under the Colonial Boundaries Act 1895 ^ Tokelau
Tokelau
Act 1948 (Preamble) ^ The Union Islands
Union Islands
Order in Council Nos. 1 and 2, S.R.O. 1925, pp. 511 and 1768; No. 1 Order in S.R.O. % S.I. Rev. IX, 663. ^ a b c Tokelau: A history of Government – The constitutional history and legal development of Tokelau; Compiled and recorded for the Tokelau
Tokelau
Law Team by Tony Angelo and Talei Pasikale, 2008 ^ S.R.O. & S.I. Rev. XVI, 866 ^ Act. No. 24 of 1948 ^ Green, David (13 July 2012). "Citizenship – Aliens and citizens". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 27 August 2016.  ^ "Official site for the Tokelau
Tokelau
Council of Ongoing Government". Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2007. The legislation and judicial systems are based on the Tokelau Act, 1948, and its amendments. A major law reform project is continuing; its purpose is to ensure that Tokelau
Tokelau
has a coherent body of law which responds to current needs and gives due recognition to local custom. Unless it is expressly extended to Tokelau, New Zealand statute law does not apply to the territory. In practice, no New Zealand legislation is extended to Tokelau
Tokelau
without Tokelauan consent. The villages have the statutory power to enact their own laws covering village affairs. International covenants on economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights, ratified by New Zealand in December 1978, apply in Tokelau. Civil and criminal jurisdiction is exercised by commissioners and the New Zealand
New Zealand
high court.  ^ a b c d "How Tokelau
Tokelau
is Governed". Tokelauan Council of Ongoing Governance. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2010.  ^ "Fono decisions". Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ " Tokelau
Tokelau
rejects self-rule". Television New Zealand. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ Parker, Ian (1 May 2006). "Letter from Polynesia: Birth of a nation?". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ " Tokelau
Tokelau
stays as NZ's last colony". Television New Zealand. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2007.  ^ "Colonialism has no place in today's world," says Secretary General in message to Decolonization Seminar in Indonesia", United Nations press release, 14 May 2008 Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Tokelau
Tokelau
decolonisation high on agenda". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald. NZPA. 17 May 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2011.  ^ John Key's speech to the NZ Institute of International Affairs, 8 April 2008 Archived 30 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Tokelau
Tokelau
High Point - Peakbagger.com". www.peakbagger.com.  ^ "Port of Atafu". MarineTraffic.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "WPS – Nukunonu
Nukunonu
Harbor". World Port Source. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ "Port of Fakaofo". MarineTraffic.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ United States
United States
Code, Title 48, section 1662: Mar. 4, 1925, ch. 563, 43 Stat. 1357 as referred to in Tokelau: A history of Government - The constitutional history and legal development of Tokelau; Compiled and recorded for the Tokelau
Tokelau
Law Team by Tony Angelo and Talei Pasikale, 2008 ^ "Western Polynesian tropical moist forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ PEW: Tokelau
Tokelau
Declares Shark Sanctuary, 7 September 2011 Archived 26 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "ABC Pacific News reports Tokelau
Tokelau
target of 100% renewable energy". Abcasiapacificnews.com. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ Coconuts and sunshine will power South Pacific islands New Scientist, published 2011-09-13, accessed 14 September 2011 Archived 12 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ BBC Archived 20 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Net gains for tiny Pacific nation". BBC News. 14 September 2007. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2008.  ^ Andres, Tommy. "The tiny island with a huge Web presence." CNN. 13 June 2012. Retrieved on 15 June 2012. Archived 12 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Zooknic Internet Geography Project". Zooknic.com. 2011-04-23. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ byRussell Haworth Chief Executive Officer (2016-03-09). "Mapping the online world - Nominet". Nominet.uk. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ "NZ company turns on first Tokelau
Tokelau
solar system".  ^ TEDx Talks (7 August 2013). "Tokelau, bringing solar power to a nation: Dean Parchomchuk and Charlotte Yates at TEDxTauranga" – via YouTube.  ^ "Final count for 2011 Tokelau
Tokelau
Census of Population and Dwellings". 2011 Tokelau
Tokelau
Census. Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ "2006 Tokelau
Tokelau
Census of Population and Dwellings" (PDF). 20 December 2006. pp. Table 2.5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2009.  ^ Tokelau
Tokelau
Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.3.1. ^ Tokelau
Tokelau
Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.5. ^ Tokelau
Tokelau
Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 3.2. ^ Tokelau
Tokelau
Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 6.13. ^ "Regions and territories: Tokelau". BBC News. 16 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.  ^ "Australia-Oceania :: TOKELAU". CIA The World Factbook.  ^ "Profile of Tokelau" (PDF). Tokelau.org.nz. 2 May 2017.  ^ Medals at the 2007 Pacific Games, official website Archived 24 August 2011 at WebCite ^ a b "Tokelau, a Speck in the Ocean but an Important New Member for Oceania", International Table Tennis Federation, 7 October 2010 Archived 3 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "SPORT: OUR QUEST FOR GOLD", Islands Business Archived 8 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Participants, website of the 2010 Commonwealth Games
2010 Commonwealth Games
Archived 6 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ McQuarrie, Peter (2007). Tokelau
Tokelau
People, Atolls and History. Wellington, New Zealand: Publications Committee of MacMillan Browne Centre for Pacific Studies. ISBN 978-1-877449-41-3.  ^ "Tokelau", Rec.Sport. Soccer
Soccer
Statistics Foundation, 29 July 2010. ^ " Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
Telecommunications Association". PITA. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ "Tokelau". Southseas.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-12-11.  ^ " New Zealand
New Zealand
looking into feasibility of air service to Tokelau
Tokelau
Radio New Zealand
New Zealand
News". Radionz.co.nz. 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2016-12-11. 

Further reading[edit]

Huntsman, Judith; Hooper, Antony (1996). Tokelau
Tokelau
A Historical Ethnography. ISBN 978-1-86940-153-5.  Huntsman, Judith; Kalolo, Kelihiano (2007). The Future of Tokelau Decolonising Agendas, 1975–2006. ISBN 978-1-86940-398-0.  McQuarrie, Peter (2007). Tokelau
Tokelau
People, Atolls and History. ISBN 978-1-877449-41-3.  Heller, Maxwell H. (2005). Where on Earth Is Tokelau
Tokelau
A Doctor's Experiences in the South Seas. ISBN 978-0-901100-58-0. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutTokelauat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

"Tokelau". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Tokelau
Tokelau
from UCB Libraries GovPubs Tokelau
Tokelau
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of Tokelau Ethnology of Tokelau
Tokelau
Islands

Governance[edit]

Tokelau
Tokelau
Council of Ongoing Government, executive branch of the government The Administrator of Tokelau, Tokelau
Tokelau
website of the NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Atolls[edit]

Fakaofo Nukunonu

Coordinates: 09°10′S 171°50′W / 9.167°S 171.833°W / -9.167; -171.833

v t e

Atolls of Tokelau

Atafu Nukunonu Fakaofo

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Administrative divisions of the Realm of New Zealand

Sovereign states  New Zealand      Cook Islands  Niue

Regions 11 non-unitary regions 5 unitary regions Chatham Islands   Outlying islands outside any regional authority (the Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Islands, and Subantarctic Islands) Ross Dependency  Tokelau 15 islands 14 villages

Territorial authorities 13 cities and 53 districts

Notes Some districts lie in more than one region These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one Special
Special
territorial authority The outlying Solander Islands
Solander Islands
form part of the Southland Region New Zealand's Antarctic territory Non-self-governing territory of New Zealand States in free association with New Zealand

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Realm of New Zealand

 Cook Islands  New Zealand  Niue Ross Dependency  Tokelau

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Polynesia

Polynesian triangle

Cook Islands Easter Island French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotus

Hawaiian Islands New Zealand Niue Pitcairn Islands Rotuma Sala y Gómez Samoan Islands Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
Islands

Polynesian outliers

Aniwa Anuta Emae Futuna Kapingamarangi Loyalty Islands Mele Nuguria Nukumanu Nukuoro Ontong Java Ouvéa Pileni Rennell Sikaiana Takuu Tikopia

Polynesian-influenced

Lau Islands

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Countries and territories of Oceania

Sovereign states

Entire

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

In part

Chile

Easter Island Juan Fernández Islands

Indonesia

West Papua Papua

Japan

Bonin Islands Minami-Tori-Shima

United States

Hawaii Palmyra Atoll

Associated states of New Zealand

Niue Cook Islands

Dependencies and other territories

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Coral
Coral
Sea Islands Norfolk Island

United States

American Samoa Baker Island Guam Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

New Zealand

Tokelau

France

French Polynesia New Caledonia Wallis and Futuna

United Kingdom

Pitcairn Islands

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British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward
Leeward
Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward
Leeward
Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada
Canada
and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada
Canada
in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

Pacific Islands
Pacific Islands
Forum (PIF)

Members

Australia Cook Islands Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru New Zealand Niue Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associate members

French Polynesia New Caledonia

Observers

Commonwealth of Nations East Timor Tokelau United Nations Wallis and Futuna Guam American Samoa Northern Mariana Islands Asian Development Bank Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)

Dialogue partners

Canada China Cuba European Union France India Indonesia Italy Japan Korea Malaysia Philippines Spain Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States

Meetings

45th

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 156083

.