Tokelau (English: /ˈtoʊkəlaʊ/; lit. 'north-northeast') is an
island country and dependent territory of
New Zealand in the southern
Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls (Atafu,
Nukunonu and Fakaofo), with a combined land area of 10 km2
(4 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,500 people.
Its capital rotates yearly between the three atolls.
north of the Samoan Islands,
Swains Island being the nearest, east of
Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant
Line Islands, and northwest of the Cook Islands. Until 1976, the
official name was
Tokelau Islands. With the fourth smallest
population of any sovereign state or dependency on Earth,
Tokelau is a
leader in renewable energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation
in the world.
Tokelau is sometimes referred to by its older colonial name, the Union
Islands. In 2007, the
United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly designated
Tokelau a non-self-governing territory. However,
officially referred to as a nation by both the
New Zealand government
Tokelauan government. It is a free and democratic
nation with elections every three years. The basis of Tokelau's
legislative, administrative and judicial systems is the Tokelau
Islands Act 1948 and its amendments. In 1992, the head of government
was established, who is elected every three years. Before this, the
Administrator of Tokelau
Administrator of Tokelau was the highest official in the government;
in November 1974 the administration of
Tokelau was transferred from
the Maori and Island Affairs Department to the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs; and from then until September 1980, when the Tokelau
administration regulations were amended, the
New Zealand Secretary of
Foreign Affairs was the administrator of Tokelau; and regulations then
came into force whereby the Minister of Foreign Affairs was empowered
to appoint a suitable person to be the Administrator.
The most widely-spoken language in
Tokelau is Tokelauan, at 93.5%. At
25.4% as of 2015[update],
Tokelau is relatively high in immigrant
percentage; a percentage more than two times higher than France's
immigrant percentage, and even higher than
Canada (18.76%), making it
nearly on par with countries such as
Israel (at 26.5%) and Montserrat
Tokelau had a small increase in census population from
2011 to 2016: about 6 percent.
Tokelau has the smallest economy in the
world and has a life expectancy of 69, comparable with other Oceanian
2.1 Time zone
7.1 Internet domain names
7.2 Solar power
9.1 Healthcare and education
10 Communication and transportation
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning "north wind". The
islands were named the
Union Islands and Union Group by European
explorers at an unknown time.
Tokelau Islands was adopted as the
name in 1946, and was contracted to
Tokelau on 9 December 1976.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of
Atafu, Nukunonu, and
Fakaofo – were settled about 1,000 years ago
and may have been a "nexus" into Eastern Polynesia. Inhabitants
Polynesian mythology with the local god Tui Tokelau; and
developed forms of music (see Music of Tokelau) and art. The three
atolls functioned largely independently while maintaining social and
Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans,
and there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as
inter-marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island", held some dominance
Nukunonu after the dispersal of Atafu. Life on the
atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on fish and coconut.
John Byron discovered
Atafu on 24 June 1765 and named it
"Duke of York's Island". Parties onshore reported that there were no
signs of current or previous inhabitants. Captain Edward
Edwards, knowing of Byron's discovery, visited
Atafu on 6 June
1791 in search of the Bounty mutineers. There were no
permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear,
suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing
parties. On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered
Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island". A landing party
could not make contact with the people but saw "morais", burying
places, and canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the
On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the
USS Dolphin (1821) ship wrote of his crew's arrival at the
Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children
from the settlement, which was quite small, and put them in canoes
lying off a rock in the lagoon. They would frequently come near the
shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and
On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the
United States whaler General
Jackson records discovering Fakaofo, calling it "D'Wolf's
Island". On 25 January 1841, the
United States Exploring
Atafu and discovered a small population living on
the island. The residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the
lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes (used for
inter-island travel). They desired to barter, and possessed blue beads
and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. The
Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any
information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition
Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch". The islanders were
found to be similar in appearance and nature to those in Atafu.
Christianity in Tokelau
Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1860s.
Catholic missionaries on
Wallis Island (also known as 'Uvea)
and missionaries of the
London Missionary Society
London Missionary Society in Samoa
used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans.
Atafu was converted to
Protestantism by the London Missionary Society,
Nukunonu was converted
to Catholicism and
Fakaofo was converted to both denominations.
Helped by Swains Island-based Eli Jennings senior, Peruvian
"blackbird" slave traders arrived in 1863 and kidnapped nearly all
(253) of the able-bodied men to work as labourers, depopulating the
atolls.  The
Tokelauan men died of dysentery and smallpox, and
very few returned. With this loss, the system of governance became
based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual
families on each atoll were represented. During this time,
Polynesian immigrants and American, Scottish, French, Portuguese and
German beachcombers settled, marrying local women and repopulating the
Between 1856 and 1979, the
United States claimed that it held
sovereignty over the island and the other
Tokelauan atolls. In 1979,
the U.S. conceded that
Tokelau was under
New Zealand sovereignty, and
a maritime boundary between
American Samoa was established
by the Treaty of Tokehega.
Cyclone Percy struck and severely damaged
Tokelau in late February and
early March 2005. Forecasters underestimated the cyclone's strength
and the length of time it would be in vicinity to Tokelau. It
coincided with a spring tide which put most of the area of the two
Nukunonu under a metre of seawater. The
cyclone also caused major erosion on several islets of all three
atolls, damaging roads and bridges and disrupting electric power and
telecommunications systems. The cyclone did significant and widespread
damage to food crops including bananas, coconuts and pandanus. It did
not seriously injure anyone but villagers lost significant amounts of
property. The geographic future of
Tokelau depends on the height of
No significant land is more than two metres (6.6 feet) above high
water of ordinary tides. This means
Tokelau is particularly vulnerable
to any possible sea level rises.
Main article: Time in New Zealand
Until December 2011,
Tokelau was 11 hours behind Coordinated
Universal Time (UTC). At midnight 29 December 2011
to UTC+13:00 in response to Samoa's decision to switch sides of the
International Dateline. This brought
Tokelau closer to New Zealand
time (and in the process omitted 30 December).
Many sources claim that
Tokelau is 14 hours ahead of UTC (UTC
−10 before the 2011 date switch), but the correct time zone offset
Main article: Constitutional history of Tokelau
In 1877, the islands were included under the protection of the United
Kingdom by an
Order in Council that claimed jurisdiction over all
unclaimed Pacific Islands. Commander C. F. Oldham on HMS Egeria landed
at each of the three atolls in June 1889 and officially raised the
Union Flag, declaring the group a British protectorate. In
conformity with desire expressed by "the Native government" they were
annexed by the
United Kingdom and included in the
Gilbert Islands by
Tokelau Islands (Union Islands) Order in Council, 1916.
The annexation took place on 29 February 1916. From the point in
time that the islands were annexed, their people had the status of
Tokelau was removed from the Gilbert and Elllice
Islands Colony and placed under the jurisdiction of the
New Zealand in 1925, two Orders in Council being
made for the purpose on the same day. This step meant that New
Zealand took over administration of
Tokelau from the British on 11
February 1926. At this point,
Tokelau was still a territory under
the sovereignty of the
United Kingdom but administered by New
Union Islands (Revocation) Order in Council, 1948 after
reciting the agreement by the governments of the
United Kingdom and
New Zealand that the islands should become part of New Zealand,
Union Islands (No. 2) Order in Council, 1925, with effect
from a date fixed by the Governor-General of
New Zealand after he was
satisfied that the
New Zealand Parliament had provided for the
incorporation of the islands with New Zealand, as it did by the
Tokelau Islands Act 1948.
Tokelau formally became part of New
Zealand on 1 January 1949.
Dominion of New Zealand, of which
Tokelau formerly was a part, has
since been superseded by the Realm of New Zealand, of which Tokelau
remains a part. Defence is the responsibility of New Zealand. When the
British Nationality and
New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into
effect on 1 January 1949, Tokelauans who were
British subjects gained
New Zealand citizenship; a status they still hold.
Villages are entitled to enact their own laws regulating their daily
New Zealand law only applies where it has been extended by
specific enactment. Serious crime is rare and there are no prisons,
and offenders are publicly rebuked, fined or made to work.
Main article: Politics of Tokelau
The head of state is Elizabeth II, the Queen in right of New Zealand,
who also reigns over Australia, the
United Kingdom and the other
Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented in the territory by
Linda Te Puni (as of 2016[update]). The current
head of government is Afega Gaualofa, who presides over the Council
for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau, which functions as a cabinet.
The Council consists of the faipule (leader) and pulenuku (village
mayor) of each of the three atolls. The Administrator is appointed
by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of New Zealand, and the
office of Head of Government rotates between the three faipule for a
Tokelau Amendment Act of 1996 confers legislative power on the
General Fono, a unicameral body. The number of seats each atoll
receives in the Fono is determined by population – at present,
Atafu each have seven and
Nukunonu has six. Faipule
and pulenuku also sit in the Fono.
On 11 November 2004,
New Zealand took steps to formulate a
treaty that would turn
Tokelau from a non-self-governing territory to
a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Besides
the treaty, a United Nations-sponsored referendum on
self-determination took place, with the three islands voting on
successive days starting 13 February 2006. (Tokelauans in Apia, Samoa,
voted on 11 February.) Out of 581 votes cast, 349 were for Free
Association, being short of the two-thirds majority required for the
measure to pass. The referendum was profiled (somewhat
light-heartedly) in the 1 May 2006 issue of The New Yorker
magazine. A repeat referendum took place on 20–24 October 2007,
again narrowly failing to approve self-government. This time the vote
was short by just 16 votes or 3%.
In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General
Ban Ki-moon urged
colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one
of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories", including
Tokelau. This led The
New Zealand Herald to comment that the
United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to
Tokelau to vote for independence". In April 2008, speaking as
leader of the National Party, future
New Zealand Prime Minister John
Key stated that
New Zealand had "imposed two referenda on the people
Tokelau Islands", and questioned "the accepted wisdom that
small states should undergo a de-colonisation process".
Tokelau includes three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between
longitudes 171° and 173° W and between latitudes 8° and
10° S, about midway between
Hawaii and New Zealand. They lie
about 500 kilometres (311 miles) north of Samoa. The atolls are Atafu,
Nukunonu, both in a group of islands once called the Duke of Clarence
Group, and Fakaofo, once Bowditch Island. Their combined land area is
10.8 km2 (4.2 sq mi). The atolls each have a number of
coral islands, where the villages are situated. The highest point of
Tokelau is just 5 metres (16 feet) above sea level. There are no
ports or harbours for large vessels, however, all three atolls have a
jetty to and from which supplies and passengers are
Tokelau lies in the Pacific tropical cyclone
belt. A fourth island that is culturally, historically, and
geographically, but not politically, part of the
Tokelau chain is
Swains Island (Olohega), under
United States control since about 1900
and administered as part of
American Samoa since 1925.
Swains Island was claimed by the
United States pursuant to the Guano
Islands Act, as were the other three islands of Tokelau; these claims
were ceded to
Tokelau by treaty in 1979. In the draft constitution of
Tokelau subject to the
Tokelauan self-determination referendum in
2006, Olohega was also claimed as a part of Tokelau, though the claim
was surrendered in the same 1979 treaty. This established a clearly
defined boundary between
American Samoa and Tokelau.
Tokelau's claim to Swains is generally comparable to the Marshall
Islands' claim to US-administered Wake Island, but the re-emergence of
this somewhat dormant issue has been an unintended result of the
United Nations' recent efforts to promote decolonisation in Tokelau.
Tokelauans have proved somewhat reluctant to push their national
identity in the political realm: recent decolonisation moves have
mainly been driven from outside for ideological reasons. But at the
same time, Tokelauans are reluctant to disown their common cultural
identity with Swains Islanders who speak their language.
Geographic locations of Tokelau's atolls
8°33′6″S 172°30′3″W / 8.55167°S 172.50083°W /
-8.55167; -172.50083 (Atafu)
9°10′6″S 171°48′35″W / 9.16833°S 171.80972°W /
-9.16833; -171.80972 (Nukunonu)
9°21′55″S 171°12′54″W / 9.36528°S 171.21500°W /
-9.36528; -171.21500 (Fakaofo)
List of birds of Tokelau and List of mammals of Tokelau
Tokelau is located in the Western Polynesian tropical moist forests
ecoregion. Most of the original vegetation has been replaced by
coconut plantations some of which have been abandoned and became
scrubby forests. The atolls of
Tokelau provide habitat for 38
indigenous plant species, over 150 insect species and 10 land crab
species. One of the greatest threats to biodiversity is posed by
introduced mammalian predators such as the Polynesian Rat.
Tokelau declared its entire exclusive economic zone of
319,031 km2 (123,179 sq mi) a shark sanctuary.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)
Nukunonu Lagoon in Tokelau.
Atafu street at dawn
According to the US Central Intelligence Agency's list of countries by
Tokelau has the smallest economy of any country in the
Tokelau has an annual purchasing power of about US$1,000
(€674) per capita. The government is almost entirely dependent on
subsidies from New Zealand. It has annual revenues of less than
US$500,000 (€336,995) against expenditures of some US$2.8 million
(€1.9 million). The deficit is made up by aid from New Zealand.
Tokelau annually exports around US$100,000 (€67,000) of stamps,
copra and woven and carved handicrafts and imports over US$300,000
(€202,000) of foodstuffs, building materials, and fuel to, and from,
New Zealand also pays directly for the cost of medical
and education services. Local industries include small-scale
enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft goods,
stamps, coins, and fishing. Agriculture and livestock produces
coconuts, copra, breadfruit, papayas, bananas, figs, pigs, poultry and
a few goats. Many Tokelauans live in
New Zealand and support their
Tokelau through remittances.
Tokelau is currently the world's only country to only use renewable
sources of energy in the production and consumption of electricity.
 Tokelau's electricity is 93% generated by photovoltaics, with the
remainder generated from coconut oil. The goal of 100 %
renewable energy was met on 7 November 2012, according to the Foreign
Affairs Minister of New Zealand, Murray McCully.
Internet domain names
Access to internet in Tokelau, 2011
Main article: .tk
Tokelau has increased its GDP by more than 10% through registrations
of domain names under its top-level domain, .tk. Registrations can
be either free, in which case the user owns only usage rights and not
the domain itself, or paid, which grants full rights. Free domains are
Tokelau name servers, which redirects the domain via HTML
frames to a specified address or to a specified A or NS record, and
the redirection of up to 250 email addresses to an external address
(not at a
In September 2003
Fakaofo became the first part of
Tokelau with a
high-speed Internet connection. Foundation
Tokelau financed the
Tokelau gives most domain names under its authority away to
anyone for free to gain publicity for the territory. This has allowed
the nation to gain enhanced telecommunications technologies, such as
more computers and Internet access for
Tokelauan residents. By 2012,
there were about 120 computers, mostly laptops, and 1/6th of the
economy consists of income from
.tk domain names.
According to a 2016 analysis of domain name registration performed by
Nominet using data from ZookNIC,. tk domains are
the "world's largest country-code domain ... almost as large as second
and third place holders
China (.cn) and Germany (.de) combined".
Three solar power stations provide 100% of current electrical demand
from photovoltaics, with battery backup. The first power station was
completed in August 2012. In total, 4,032 solar panels are used and
1,344 batteries weighing 250 kilograms (550 lb) each, making
Tokelau the first nation in the world to be 100% powered by solar
power. The systems are designed to withstand winds of 230 km/h
(143 mph). Previously electricity was generated using diesel
generators, and was only available about 16 hours/day.
Language statistics in Tokelau, 2006 and 2011
According to the 2016
Tokelau has a de jure usually
resident population of 1,499 people. The census shows a 6.2% increase
in the de jure usually resident population between 2011 and 2016.
The nationals of
Tokelau are called Tokelauans, and the major ethnic
group is Polynesian. The country has no minorities. The major religion
Congregational Christian Church and the main language is
Tokelauan, but English is also spoken.
Tokelau has fewer than 1,500 Polynesian inhabitants in three villages.
Their isolation and lack of resources greatly limits economic
development and confines agriculture to the subsistence level. The
very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to
New Zealand and Samoa. Depletion of tuna has made
fishing for food more difficult.
On the island of
Atafu almost all inhabitants are members of the
Congregational Christian Church of Samoa. On
Nukunonu almost all are
Roman Catholic. On
Fakaofo both denominations are present with the
Congregational Christian Church predominant. The total proportions
Congregational Christian Church 62%, Roman
Catholic 34%, other
While slightly more females than males live on
Atafu and Fakaofo,
males make up 57% of
Nukunonu residents. Only 9% of Tokelauans
aged 40 or more have never been married. One-quarter of the
population were born overseas; almost all the rest live on the same
atoll they were born on. Most households own five or more
Despite its low income,
Tokelau has a life expectancy of 69 years,
comparable with other
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World
Factbook. [to be updated from 2016 Census report: Profile of
part Tokelauan/Samoan 8.7%
part Tokelauan/Tuvaluan 6.9%
part Tokelauan/other Pacific islander 1.9%
part Tokelauan/European 1%
Other Pacific islander 1.1%
Unspecified 0.4% (2011 est.)
Congregational Christian Church 58.2%
New Age 0.1%
Tokelauan 93.5% (a Polynesian language)
Healthcare and education
Literacy by age in Tokelau, 2011 census
Main article: Healthcare in Tokelau
Each atoll has a school and hospital. The health services have a
Director of Health in
Apia and a Chief Clinical Advisor who moves from
atoll to atoll as required to assist the doctors attached to each
hospital. In 2007 there was not always a doctor on each island and
locums were appointed to fill the gaps. Upcoming Tokelaun medical
graduates should alleviate this shortage in the coming years.
Tokelauan youth travel to
New Zealand to further their education
and the country is closer to full around Christmas time with students
returning home and then heading off for another year of study.
Cricket in Tokelau, 1966
Rugby union in Tokelau
Rugby union in Tokelau and
Rugby league in Tokelau
Due to its small size,
Tokelau is unaffiliated to most international
sports organisations, and rarely takes part in international events.
The only significant international competition the country takes part
in is the Pacific Games.
Tokelau won its first ever gold medals at the
Pacific Games in Apia, winning a total of five medals (three
gold, a silver and a bronze), all in lawn bowls, and finishing twelfth
(out of twenty-two) on the overall medal table. This included two gold
Violina Linda Pedro (in the women's pairs and the women's
singles), making her Tokelau's most successful individual athlete to
In October 2010, table tennis became "the first sport in
Tokelau to be
granted membership at a Continental or World level", when the Tokelau
Table Tennis Association was formally established and became the 23rd
member of the
Oceania Table Tennis Federation.
Tokelau was due to take part, for the first time, in the 2010
Commonwealth Games, in Delhi, but, for unknown reasons, ultimately
did not do so.
Tokelau does have a National Sports Federation, and the most important
sports event within the country is arguably the
Tokelau Games which
are held yearly. When they are held, "all of
Tokelau virtually stands
still", as "[i]n excess of 50% of the population take part and all
work and school stops at the time". The 2010 Games included
competitions in rugby sevens, netball and kilikiti, alongside "a
cultural evening [...] where each atoll showcases their traditional
songs and dances".
Netball is thought to have been introduced to
Tokelau by the British,
but became more popular when New Zealand's government took over the
territory. The sport is often played during inter-island sport
competitions, alongside other sports like rugby league and
In Tokelau, there are two levels to the soccer league. From Fale,
Fakaofo, two of the best clubs are Hakava Club and Matalele Club.
Communication and transportation
A barge leaves the landing ramp in Nukunono to collect cargo and
passengers from the MV Tokelau
Tokelau has a radio telephone service between the islands and to
Samoa. In 1997, a government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok)
with three satellite earth stations was established. Each atoll has a
radio-broadcast station that broadcasts shipping and weather reports
and every household has a radio or access to one. News is disseminated
through the government newsletter "Te Vakai".
Tokelau has the International calling code of 690, and has had
five-digit telephone numbers from November 2015 (the existing
four-digit numbers were prefixed by the digit "2")
Tokelau is served by the MV Tokelau, owned by the country, with the
Samoa taking a little over a day. Ships load and
unload cargo by motoring up to the down-wind (leeward) side of the
islet where the people live and maintaining station, by intermittent
use of engines, close to the reef edge so that a landing barge can be
motored out to transfer cargo to or from the shore. On returning to
shore, the barge negotiates a narrow channel through the reef to the
beach. Usually this landing is subject to ocean swell and beaching
requires considerable skill and, often, coral abrasions to bodies.
When bad weather prevents the barge making the trip, the ship stands
off to wait for suitable weather or goes off to one of the other
atolls to attempt to load or unload its passengers or cargo, or both.
There is no airport in Tokelau, so boats are the main means of travel
and transport. Some seaplanes and amphibious aircraft are able to land
in the island's lagoons. An airstrip was considered by the New
Zealand Government in 2010.
Outline of Tokelau
Badge of Tokelau
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^ Green, David (13 July 2012). "Citizenship – Aliens and
citizens". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry
for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
^ "Official site for the
Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government".
Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 4 November
2007. The legislation and judicial systems are based on the Tokelau
Act, 1948, and its amendments. A major law reform project is
continuing; its purpose is to ensure that
Tokelau has a coherent body
of law which responds to current needs and gives due recognition to
local custom. Unless it is expressly extended to Tokelau, New Zealand
statute law does not apply to the territory. In practice, no New
Zealand legislation is extended to
The villages have the statutory power to enact their own laws covering
village affairs. International covenants on economic, social and
cultural rights and civil and political rights, ratified by New
Zealand in December 1978, apply in Tokelau. Civil and criminal
jurisdiction is exercised by commissioners and the
New Zealand high
^ a b c d "How
Tokelau is Governed".
Tokelauan Council of Ongoing
Governance. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 29
^ "Fono decisions". Archived from the original on 22 August 2007.
Retrieved 29 September 2007.
Tokelau rejects self-rule". Television New Zealand. Archived from
the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
^ Parker, Ian (1 May 2006). "Letter from Polynesia: Birth of a
nation?". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013.
Retrieved 29 September 2007.
Tokelau stays as NZ's last colony". Television New Zealand.
Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 25 October
^ "Colonialism has no place in today's world," says Secretary General
in message to Decolonization Seminar in Indonesia", United Nations
press release, 14 May 2008 Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback
Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda". The
New Zealand Herald.
NZPA. 17 May 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
^ John Key's speech to the NZ Institute of International Affairs, 8
April 2008 Archived 30 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
Tokelau High Point - Peakbagger.com". www.peakbagger.com.
^ "Port of Atafu". MarineTraffic.com. Archived from the original on 9
March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
^ "WPS –
Nukunonu Harbor". World Port Source. Archived from the
original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
^ "Port of Fakaofo". MarineTraffic.com. Archived from the original on
9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
United States Code, Title 48, section 1662: Mar. 4, 1925, ch. 563,
43 Stat. 1357 as referred to in Tokelau: A history of Government - The
constitutional history and legal development of Tokelau; Compiled and
recorded for the
Tokelau Law Team by Tony Angelo and Talei Pasikale,
^ "Western Polynesian tropical moist forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions.
World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
Tokelau Declares Shark Sanctuary, 7 September 2011 Archived 26
February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "ABC Pacific News reports
Tokelau target of 100% renewable energy".
Abcasiapacificnews.com. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on
12 May 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
^ Coconuts and sunshine will power South Pacific islands New
Scientist, published 2011-09-13, accessed 14 September 2011 Archived
12 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
^ BBC Archived 20 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Net gains for tiny Pacific nation". BBC News. 14 September 2007.
Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May
^ Andres, Tommy. "The tiny island with a huge Web presence." CNN. 13
June 2012. Retrieved on 15 June 2012. Archived 12 May 2014 at the
^ "Zooknic Internet Geography Project". Zooknic.com. 2011-04-23.
^ byRussell Haworth Chief Executive Officer (2016-03-09). "Mapping the
online world - Nominet". Nominet.uk. Retrieved 2016-12-11.
^ "NZ company turns on first
Tokelau solar system".
^ TEDx Talks (7 August 2013). "Tokelau, bringing solar power to a
nation: Dean Parchomchuk and Charlotte Yates at TEDxTauranga" – via
^ "Final count for 2011
Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings".
Tokelau Census. Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the
original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings" (PDF). 20 December
2006. pp. Table 2.5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12
October 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.3.1.
Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.5.
Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 3.2.
Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 6.13.
^ "Regions and territories: Tokelau". BBC News. 16 June 2011. Archived
from the original on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 23 November
^ "Australia-Oceania :: TOKELAU". CIA The World Factbook.
^ "Profile of Tokelau" (PDF). Tokelau.org.nz. 2 May 2017.
^ Medals at the 2007 Pacific Games, official website Archived 24
August 2011 at WebCite
^ a b "Tokelau, a Speck in the Ocean but an Important New Member for
Oceania", International Table Tennis Federation, 7 October 2010
Archived 3 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "SPORT: OUR QUEST FOR GOLD",
Islands Business Archived 8 March 2012
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Participants, website of the
2010 Commonwealth Games
2010 Commonwealth Games Archived 6
October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
^ McQuarrie, Peter (2007).
Tokelau People, Atolls and History.
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Centre for Pacific Studies. ISBN 978-1-877449-41-3.
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New Zealand looking into feasibility of air service to
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Huntsman, Judith; Hooper, Antony (1996).
Tokelau A Historical
Ethnography. ISBN 978-1-86940-153-5.
Huntsman, Judith; Kalolo, Kelihiano (2007). The Future of Tokelau
Decolonising Agendas, 1975–2006. ISBN 978-1-86940-398-0.
McQuarrie, Peter (2007).
Tokelau People, Atolls and History.
Heller, Maxwell H. (2005). Where on Earth Is
Tokelau A Doctor's
Experiences in the South Seas. ISBN 978-0-901100-58-0.
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"Tokelau". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Wikimedia Atlas of Tokelau
Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government, executive branch of the
The Administrator of Tokelau,
Tokelau website of the NZ Ministry of
Foreign Affairs and Trade
Coordinates: 09°10′S 171°50′W / 9.167°S 171.833°W /
Atolls of Tokelau
Administrative divisions of the Realm of New Zealand
11 non-unitary regions
5 unitary regions
Outlying islands outside any regional authority
(the Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Islands, and Subantarctic Islands)
13 cities and 53 districts
Some districts lie in more than one region
These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one
Special territorial authority
Solander Islands form part of the Southland Region
New Zealand's Antarctic territory
Non-self-governing territory of New Zealand
States in free association with New Zealand
Realm of New Zealand
Sala y Gómez
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna Islands
Countries and territories of Oceania
Federated States of Micronesia
Papua New Guinea
Juan Fernández Islands
of New Zealand
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
Wallis and Futuna
* Now a Commonwealth realm
Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Historical flags of the British Empire
1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK)
1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca
Since 1713 Gibraltar
1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate)
1813–1964 Malta (Colony)
1809–1864 Ionian Islands
1921–1937 Irish Free State
17th century and before
19th and 20th century
1579 New Albion
1605–1979 *Saint Lucia
Since 1619 Bermuda
1623–1883 Saint Kitts
1625–1650 Saint Croix
1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay
since 1632 Montserrat
1636–1776 Rhode Island
1637–1662 New Haven
1643–1860 Bay Islands
Since 1650 Anguilla
1655–1850 Mosquito Coast
1664–1776 New York
1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey
Since 1666 Virgin Islands
Since 1670 Cayman Islands
1670–1870 Rupert's Land
1674–1702 East Jersey
1674–1702 West Jersey
1680–1776 New Hampshire
1686–1689 New England
1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay
1712–1776 North Carolina
1712–1776 South Carolina
1713–1867 Nova Scotia
1754–1820 Cape Breton Island
1763–1873 Prince Edward Island
1763–1783 East Florida
1763–1783 West Florida
1784–1867 New Brunswick
1791–1841 Lower Canada
1791–1841 Upper Canada
Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands
1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1
1833–1960 Windward Islands
1849–1866 Vancouver Island
1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands
1858–1866 British Columbia
1859–1870 North-Western Territory
Antigua and Barbuda
1866–1871 British Columbia
Dominion of Canada2
Saint Kitts and Nevis
1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago
1958–1962 West Indies Federation
1. Occupied jointly with the United States.
2. In 1931,
Canada and other British dominions obtained
self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of
3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion
until it joined
Canada in 1949.
1631–1641 Providence Island
1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4
Since 1833 Falkland Islands5
Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5
4. Now a department of Colombia.
5. Occupied by Argentina during the
Falklands War of April–June
17th and 18th centuries
Since 1658 Saint Helena14
1792–1961 Sierra Leone
1795–1803 Cape Colony
Since 1815 Ascension Island14
Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14
1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope
1816–1965 The Gambia
1874–1957 Gold Coast
1884–1900 Niger Coast
1891–1907 Central Africa
1895–1920 East Africa
1900–1914 Northern Nigeria
1900–1914 Southern Nigeria
1900–1910 Orange River
1910–1931 South Africa
1915–1931 South-West Africa
1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7
1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia
6. League of Nations mandate.
Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared
independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised
state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised
independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until
it withdrew in 2003.
17th and 18th century
1702–1705 Pulo Condore
1762–1764 Manila and Cavite
1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang
1812–1824 Banka and Billiton
1826–1946 Straits Settlements
1841–1997 Hong Kong
1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate)
1882–1963 North Borneo
1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States
1891–1971 Muscat and Oman
1892–1971 Trucial States
1895–1946 Federated Malay States
1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate)
1945–1946 South Vietnam
1946–1963 North Borneo
1946–1948 Malayan Union
1948–1957 Federation of Malaya
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus)
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of Mauritius
and the Seychelles)
8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and
replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
18th and 19th centuries
1788–1901 New South Wales
1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania
1807–1863 Auckland Islands9
1824–1980 New Hebrides
1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia
1836–1901 South Australia
since 1838 Pitcairn Islands
1841–1907 New Zealand
1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories
1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9
1889–1948 Union Islands9
1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11
1893–1978 Solomon Islands12
1907–1947 *New Zealand
1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru
1919–1949 New Guinea
1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13
9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand.
10. Suspended member.
Kiribati and *Tuvalu.
12. Now the *Solomon Islands.
13. Now *Papua New Guinea.
Antarctica and South Atlantic
Since 1658 Saint Helena14
Since 1815 Ascension Island14
Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14
Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15
Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory (transferred to the
Commonwealth of Australia)
Ross Dependency (transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)
14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da
Ascension Island (1922–) and
Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha (1938–) were
previously dependencies of Saint Helena.
15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British
Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich
Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)
Papua New Guinea
Commonwealth of Nations
Wallis and Futuna
Northern Mariana Islands
Asian Development Bank
Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)