The UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering , that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.
UML was originally motivated by the desire to standardize the disparate notational systems and approaches to software design developed by Grady Booch , Ivar Jacobson and James Rumbaugh at Rational Software in 1994–1995, with further development led by them through 1996.
In 1997 UML was adopted as a standard by the Object Management Group (OMG), and has been managed by this organization ever since. In 2005 UML was also published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as an approved ISO standard. Since then it has been periodically revised to cover the latest revision of UML.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Before UML 1.x
* 1.2 UML 1.x
* 1.2.1 Cardinality notation
* 1.3 UML 2.x
* 2 Design
* 3 Diagrams
* 3.1 Structure diagrams
* 3.2 Behavior diagrams
* 3.2.1 Interaction diagrams
* 4 Meta modeling * 5 Adoption * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
History of object-oriented methods and notation
BEFORE UML 1.X
UML has been evolving since the second half of the 1990s and has its roots in the object-oriented programming methods developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The timeline (see image) shows the highlights of the history of object-oriented modeling methods and notation.
It is originally based on the notations of the Booch method , the object-modeling technique (OMT) and object-oriented software engineering (OOSE), which it has integrated into a single language.
Rational Software Corporation hired James Rumbaugh from General Electric in 1994 and after that the company became the source for two of the most popular object-oriented modeling approaches of the day: Rumbaugh's object-modeling technique (OMT) and Grady Booch 's method. They were soon assisted in their efforts by Ivar Jacobson , the creator of the object-oriented software engineering (OOSE) method, who joined them at Rational in 1995.
Under the technical leadership of those three (Rumbaugh, Jacobson and
Booch), a consortium called the
UML Partners was organized in 1996 to
Unified Modeling Language
After the first release a task force was formed to improve the language, which released several minor revisions, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5.
The standards it produced (as well as the original standard) have been noted as being ambiguous and inconsistent.
As with database Chen, Bachman, and ISO ER diagrams , class models are specified to use "look-across" cardinalities , even though several authors ( Merise , Elmasri
* individual components of the system;
* and how they can interact with other software components ;
* how the system will run; * how entities interact with others (components and interfaces); * external user interface .
Although originally intended for object-oriented design documentation, UML has been extended to a larger set of design documentation (as listed above), and been found useful in many contexts.
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODS
UML is not a development method by itself; however, it was designed to be compatible with the leading object-oriented software development methods of its time, for example OMT , Booch method , Objectory and especially RUP that it was originally intended to be used with when work began at Rational Software.
It is important to distinguish between the UML model and the set of diagrams of a system. A diagram is a partial graphic representation of a system's model. The set of diagrams need not completely cover the model and deleting a diagram does not change the model. The model may also contain documentation that drives the model elements and diagrams (such as written use cases).
UML diagrams represent two different views of a system model:
* Static (or structural) view: emphasizes the static structure of the system using objects, attributes, operations and relationships. It includes class diagrams and composite structure diagrams . * Dynamic (or behavioral) view: emphasizes the dynamic behavior of the system by showing collaborations among objects and changes to the internal states of objects. This view includes sequence diagrams , activity diagrams and state machine diagrams .
UML models can be exchanged among UML tools by using the XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) format.
STRUCTURAL UML DIAGRAMS
BEHAVIORAL UML DIAGRAMS
* v * t * e
UML 2 has many types of diagrams, which are divided into two categories. Some types represent structural information, and the rest represent general types of behavior, including a few that represent different aspects of interactions. These diagrams can be categorized hierarchically as shown in the following class diagram:
These diagrams may all contain comments or notes explaining usage, constraint, or intent.
Structure diagrams emphasize the things that must be present in the system being modeled. Since structure diagrams represent the structure, they are used extensively in documenting the software architecture of software systems. For example, the component diagram describes how a software system is split up into components and shows the dependencies among these components.
Behavior diagrams emphasize what must happen in the system being modeled. Since behavior diagrams illustrate the behavior of a system, they are used extensively to describe the functionality of software systems. As an example, the activity diagram describes the business and operational step-by-step activities of the components in a system.
Interaction diagrams, a subset of behavior diagrams, emphasize the flow of control and data among the things in the system being modeled. For example, the sequence diagram shows how objects communicate with each other regarding a sequence of messages.
The Object Management Group (OMG) has developed a metamodeling architecture to define the UML, called the Meta-Object Facility . MOF is designed as a four-layered architecture, as shown in the image at right. It provides a meta-meta model at the top, called the M3 layer. This M3-model is the language used by Meta-Object Facility to build metamodels, called M2-models.
The most prominent example of a Layer 2 Meta-Object Facility model is the UML metamodel, which describes the UML itself. These M2-models describe elements of the M1-layer, and thus M1-models. These would be, for example, models written in UML. The last layer is the M0-layer or data layer. It is used to describe runtime instances of the system.
The meta-model can be extended using a mechanism called stereotyping . This has been criticised as being insufficient/untenable by Brian Henderson-Sellers and Cesar Gonzalez-Perez in "Uses and Abuses of the Stereotype Mechanism in UML 1.x and 2.0".
UML has been marketed for many contexts.
It has been treated, at times, as a design silver bullet , which leads to problems. UML misuse includes overuse (designing every part of the system with it, which is unnecessary) and assuming that novices can design with it.
It is considered a large language, with many constructs . Some people (including Jacobson ) feel that UML's size hinders learning (and therefore, using) it.
This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL , version 1.3 or later.
* ^ A B C D E
Unified Modeling Language
* ^ "James Dullea, Il-Yeol Song, Ioanna Lamprou - An analysis of structural validity in entity-relationship modeling 2002" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-22. * ^ ""Reasoning about participation constraints and Chen\'s constraints" S Hartmann - 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-17. * ^ "UML 2.0". Omg.org. Retrieved 2011-09-22. * ^ A B C "UML". Omg.org. Retrieved 2011-09-22. * ^ OMG. "OMG Formal Specifications (Modeling and Metadata paragraph)". Retrieved 2016-02-12. * ^ "Issues for UML 2.6 Revision task Force mailing list". Omg.org. Retrieved 2014-04-10. * ^ Satish Mishra (1997). "Visual Modeling & Unified Modeling Language (UML): Introduction to UML". Rational Software Corporation. Accessed 9 November 2008. * ^ A B "UML, Success Stories". Retrieved 9 April 2014. * ^ John Hunt (2000). The Unified Process for Practitioners: Object-oriented Design, UML and Java. Springer, 2000. ISBN 1-85233-275-1 . p.5.door * ^ Jon Holt Institution of Electrical Engineers (2004). UML for Systems Engineering: Watching the Wheels IET, 2004, ISBN 0-86341-354-4 . p.58 * ^ Iman Poernomo (2006) "The Meta-Object Facility Typed" in: Proceeding SAC '06 Proceedings of the 2006 ACM symposium on Applied computing. pp. 1845-1849 * ^ "UML 2.4.1 Infrastructure". Omg.org. 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2014-04-10. * ^ B. Henderson-Sellers; C. Gonzalez-Perez (2006). "Uses and Abuses of the Stereotype Mechanism in UML 1.x and 2.0". in: Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. * ^ "UML 2.5: Do you even care?". "UML truly is ubiquitous" * ^ "Death by UML Fever". * ^ " Ivar Jacobson on UML, MDA, and the future of methodologies".
* Ambler, Scott William (2004). The Object Primer: Agile Model
Driven Development with UML 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Chonoles, Michael Jesse; James A. Schardt (2003). UML 2 for
Dummies. Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0-7645-2614-6 .
* Fowler, Martin . UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard
Object Modeling Language (3rd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-321-19368-7
* Jacobson, Ivar ; Grady Booch;
James Rumbaugh (1998). The Unified