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Coordinates: 20°15′46″N 85°47′10″E / 20.2628312°N 85.7860297°E / 20.2628312; 85.7860297

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Udayagiri and Khandagiri
Khandagiri
Caves, formerly called Katak Caves or Cuttack caves, are partly natural and partly artificial caves of archaeological, historical and religious importance near the city of Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
in Odisha, India. The caves are situated on two adjacent hills, Udayagiri and Khandagiri, mentioned as Kumari Parvat in the Hathigumpha inscription. They have a number of finely and ornately carved caves built during 2nd century BCE.[1] It is believed that most of these caves were carved out as residential blocks for Jain
Jain
monks during the reign of King Kharavela.[2] Udayagiri means "Sunrise Hill" and has 18 caves while Khandagiri
Khandagiri
has 15 caves.[3] The caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, called lena or leṇa in the inscriptions, were dug out mostly during the reign of Kharavela
Kharavela
for the abode of Jaina ascetics. The most important of this group is Ranigumpha in Udayagiri which is a double storeyed monastery. Other important caves include Hathi gumpha, Ananta gumpha, Ganesha gumpha, Jaya Vijaya gumpha, Mancapuri gumpha, Bagh gumpha and Sarpa gumpha.[4]

Contents

1 Count of the caves 2 The famous caves 3 Caves at Udayagiri 4 Inscriptions in Caves in Brahmi

4.1 Hathigumpha inscription 4.2 Other minor inscriptions

5 Caves at Khandagiri 6 Tickets 7 Timing 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Count of the caves[edit] B. M. Barua, based on a reading of line 14 of the Hathigumpha inscription, declared that a total of 117 caves were excavated by Kharavela
Kharavela
and others on the Kumari hill (Udayagiri). Marshall has counted more than 35 caves in both the hills, while M.M. Ganguli has enumerated only 27 caves.[5] The number of existing caves at Udayagiri is 18, while Khandagiri
Khandagiri
has 15.[6] The local names of the existing caves are listed below, numbered according to the enumeration of the Archaeological Survey of India. The famous caves[edit] In Udayagiri, Hathigumpha (cave 14) and Ganeshagumpha (cave 10) are especially well known due to art treasures of their sculptures and reliefs as well as due to their historical importance. Rani ka Naur (Queen's Palace cave, cave 1) is also an extensively carved cave and elaborately embellished with sculptural friezes.[4] Khandagiri
Khandagiri
offers a fine view back over Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
from its summit. The Ananta cave (cave 3) depicts carved figures of women, elephants, athletes, and geese carrying flowers.[7] Caves at Udayagiri[edit] The Udayagiri hills fall on your right side when you enter into this area from Bhubaneswar. Compared to Khandagiri, Udayagiri offers more beautiful and better maintained cave shrines. There are 18 caves in Udayagiri :[8]

1. Rani Gumpha "Cave of the Queen"

Rani Gumpha is the largest and most popular cave among the caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri. The word 'Rani' means Queen. Although it is not an architectural marvel, it has some ancient beautiful sculptures. This cave is double storeyed. Each storey has three wings and the central wing is bigger among all the three wings. The lower floor has seven entrances in the middle wing whereas the upper floor has nine columns. The upper portion of the central wing has relief images depicting the victory march of a king. Many of the cells have carved dwara pala images; some of them are disfigured. The area that connects the central wing with right and left wings have some panels where the sculptures of wild animals, fruit laden trees, human figures, women playing musical instruments, monkeys and playful elephants are found. The pilasters contain the toranas (arches) decorated with sculptures of Jain
Jain
religious importance and royal scenes.

Cave No.1 "Rani Gumpha" (Cave of the Queen)

General view

Diagram section of Rani Gumpha

Plans of both floors of Rani Gumpha

Ground floor

Rani Gumpha ground floor.

Left corner

Ground floor pillar arrangement

Left aisle relief

Left aisle relief (detail)

Apsara
Apsara
making an offering

Door arrangement

Right corner

Doorway arrangement

Indian warrior detail

Right corner relief

Second floor

Panorama of first floor

Left corner

Corridor (left part)

Corridor (right part)

Right corner with Yavana
Yavana
warrior

Pillar relief with elephants

Pillar relief: battle scene

Pillar relief: hunting scene

Yavana
Yavana
warrior.[9]

2. Bajaghara Gumpha

Bajaghara Gumpha is very simple and small. It has stone bed and pillow and it was obviously used as the Jain
Jain
monks' shelter in the ancient times. Apart from the plain rectangular shaped pillars, there is no other sculpture found in this cave.

3. Chota Hathi Gumpha

Chota Hathi Gumpha is small in size. It has six small elephant figures in the facade. The word 'chota hathi' means 'small elephant'.

4. Alkapuri Gumpha

Alkapuri Gumpha has a relief sculpture of a lion holding its prey in its mouth. The pillars with the human figures (divine beings) with wings are found in this cave. It is double storeyed.

5. Jaya Vijaya Gumpha

A tree-worship relief from the Jaya Vijaya cave.

Jaya Vijaya Gumpha is double storeyed. It has a relief image of Bodhi tree with umbrella on its top and flanked by people worshipping it.

6. Panasa Gumpha

Panasa Gumpha is very small and simple cave without any significant features.

7. Thakurani Gumpha

Thakurani Gumpha is double storeyd but is very simple in style. It has few tiny relief sculptures.

8. Patalapuri Gumpha

Patalapuri Gumpha is slightly bigger with a pillared verandah. However, there is no notable feature in this cave.

9. Mancapuri and Swargapuri Gumpha

Mancapuri and Swargapuri Gumpha is double storeyed. It has a damaged Jain
Jain
religious symbol which was probably used for worship. There are three inscriptions found in this cave. One inscription talks about the chief queen of Kharavela. The other two inscriptions talk about Kudepasiri, the successor of Kharavela
Kharavela
and Badukha, the son or brother of Kudepasiri.

10. Ganesha Gumpha

Ganesha Gumpha is one of the most important caves in Udayagiri. The cave got this name due to carved figure of Ganesha on the back of its right cell. Of course, it would have been carved in the later period and it cannot be the original work. The cave has two big statues of elephants carrying garlands at the entrance. Also, the carved figures of dwara palas are found at the entrances. The carvings in this cave narrate the story of the elopement of Bassavadatta, Princess of Ujjayini, with King Udayan of Kausambi in the company of Vasantaka.

Cave No.10 "Ganesha Gumpha" (Cave of Ganesha)

Ganesha cave

Elephant statue

Warrior guardian dvarapala

Relief of a devotee

Relief in the veranda

The Ganesha idol at the back of the cave

11. Jambesvara Gumpha

Jambesvara Gumpha is a very simple and small cave with one column and two pilasters. The inscription tells that it is the cave of Nayaki, wife of Mahamade.

12. Vyaghra Gumpha

Tiger (Bagh Gumpha) (cave no-12), Udayagiri

Vyaghra Gumpha is one of the popular caves in Udayagiri. The cave, which is in ruins, has the entrance carves like a large mouth of a tiger. It is one of the most photographed site in Udayagiri. The word 'vyaghra' means tiger. The inscription found here tells that this cave belongs to the city judge Sabhuti.

13. Sarpa Gumpha

Sarpa Gumpha is unusually very small cave. There are two inscriptions found in this cave. The word 'sarpa' means snake.

14. Hathi Gumpha

Hathi Gumpha is a natural cavern. On the wall, the inscription erected by Kharavela
Kharavela
is found. It is the main source of history of Kharavela. The word 'hathi' means elephant.

Cave No.14 "Hathi Gumpha" (Elephant Cave)

Hathi Gumpha (cave no-14), Udayagiri

Hathi Gumpha

Hathigumpha inscription

Detail of Hathigumpha inscription

15. Dhanaghara Gumpha

Dhanaghara Gumpha is a small cave which has two wide pillars and dwara pala sculptures carved at the entrance.

16. Haridasa Gumpha

Haridasa Gumpha is a small cave with three entrances and a verandah in the front side. There is an inscription found here.

17. Jagannatha Gumpha

Jagannatha Gumpha is roughly cut cave with three entrances.

18. Rasui Gumpha

Rasui Gumpha is unusually very small cave. Inscriptions in Caves in Brahmi[edit] Hathigumpha inscription[edit] Main article: Hathigumpha inscription

Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
in Udaigiri

The Hathigumpha cave ("Elephant Cave") has the Hathigumpha inscription, written by Raja Kharavela, the king of Kalinga in India, during the 2nd century BCE.[2] The Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
consists of seventeen lines incised in deep cut Brahmi letters on the overhanging brow of a natural cavern Hathigumpha in the south side of the Udayagiri hill. It faces the rock edicts of Asoka
Asoka
at Dhauli, situated about six miles away.[10] Other minor inscriptions[edit] Besides Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela, there are some other minor Brahmi inscriptions in the twin hillocks of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, which were deciphered earlier by Prof RD Banergy during 1915-16 (Epigraphic Indica-XIII) and BM Baraua (Indian Historical Quarterly-XIV). Sadananda Agrawal has given further clarifications about them and are produced as under: I- Mancapuri cave inscription (Upper storey) This inscription is engraved on the raised space between the second and third doorways of the cave. The text in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is as under: L.1- अरहंत पसादाय कलिंगानं समनानं लेनं कारितं राजिनो ललाकस L.2- हथिसिहस पपोतस धुतुना कलिंग चकवतिनो सिरिखारवेलस L.3- अगमहिसिना कारितं Translation - By the blessings of Arhats, the chief queen of Kharavela, the Cakravarti monarch of Kalinga, the great granddaughter of Hathisiha (Hasti Simha) and the daughter of Lalāka or Lalārka caused to be excavated the cave for the sramanas of Kalinga. II- Mancapuri cave inscription (Upper storey)-A This inscription is incised on a raised bend between the 3rd and 4th doorways from the left and contains single line. The text in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is as under: ऐरस महाराजस कलिंगाधिपतिना महामेघवाहनस कुदेपसिरिनो लेणं Translation - This is the cave of Aira
Aira
Mahameghavahana Maharaja Kudepasiri, the overlord of Kalinga. Note:- Kudepasiri seems to be the immediate successor of Kharavela. III-Manchapuri cave inscription (Lower storey)-B This inscription has been engraved on the right wall of Veranda, to the right of the entrance to the right-hand side chamber of the main wing, consisting of one line. The text in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is as under: कुमारो वडुखस लेणं Translation - [This is] the cave of Prince Vaḍukha. Note:- On palaeographic ground Prof Banergy considers this inscription to be a little earlier than the inscription of King Kudepasiri. According to Sadananda Agrawal, Prince Badukha stands an obscure figure in history, but Badukha seems to be the son or brother of Kudepasiri. IV- Inscriptions in the Sarpagumpha (Over the door way) This inscription consisting of one line, is incised over the doorway of the Sarpagumpha. The text in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is as under: चूलकमस कोठाजेया च Translation - The chamber and veranda/or side chamber of cūlakama. Note:- However Dr. Sahu interpreted Ajeya being united by a Sandhi qualifying Koṭha there by denoting invincible. But he ignored the conjunction ca (Devanagari: च) which follows Koṭha(Devanagari:कोठा) and Jeya (Devanagari:जेया). V- Inscription in the Sarpagumpha ( to the left of the doorway) The text in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is as under: L.1- कंमस हलखि L.2- णय च पसादो Translation :- [The pavilion is the] gift of Kamma and Halakhina. Note:- Most probably Halakhiṇa was the wife of Kamma. Chūlakamma - found in the inscription No.IV and Kamma of this record indicate official designations rather than the proper names. Kamma may be taken as minister of works (Karma saciva) and Cūlakamma appears to be a junior cadre of minister in the Department of works. VI- Haridas cave inscription This inscription contains one line has been incised over one of the three entrances to the main chamber of the cave from the veranda. The text in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is as under: चूलकमस पसातो कोठाजेया च Translation :- The chamber and veranda (or side chamber) are the gift of cūlakama. VII- Vyāghragumphā inscription The record is incised on the outer wall of the inner chamber. The text in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is as under: L.1- नगर अखंदस L.2- स भूतिनो लेणं Translation :- The cave of Bhūti, the city judge. VIII- Jambesavara cave inscription This inscription has been engraved over the entrances to the inner chamber of the cave. The text in Devanagari
Devanagari
script is as under: महामदास बारियाय नाकियस लेणं Translation :- The cave of Mahāmāda Nākiya and Bāriyā. X- Tatowāgumphā inscription (Cave No -1) The record of this inscription is incised over one of the entrances to the inner chamber. The Text reads in Sanskrit as पादमुलिकस कुसुमस लेणं x [॥] Translation: The cave of Kusuma, the padamulika. Notes:- There is a syllable after the word lenam, which may be read as ni or phi,. padamulika literally means, one who serves at the feet [of king]. Note:- Sadananda Agrawal has interpreted Masikanagara as Asikanagara and identified with the city Adam (Nagpur district). In view of the evidence of a highly prosperous city unearthed at Adam, Prof AM Shastri is of the opinion that Adam itself represents the Asikanagara of Hathigumpha inscription. It is worth noting in the present context that a terracotta sealing having a legend, has been discovered from Adam,[11] situated on the right bank of the river Wainganga, which reads Asakajanapadasa (Devanagari: असकजनपदस). XI- Ananta Gumpha inscription (A) The record is incised on the architrave between the left ante and the fifth pillar. The text in Oriya script
Oriya script
is: Odia: ଦୋହଦ ସମଣନ ଲେଖ (Devanagari: दोहद समणनं लेणं Translation :- The cave of the Dohada Śramaṇas. Caves at Khandagiri[edit]

Carving of Jain
Jain
Tirthanakars

Carving of Jain
Jain
Tirthanakars

Khandagiri
Khandagiri
Jain
Jain
temple

Jain
Jain
statue at top of hill

List of Caves at Khandagiri :[12]

Tatowa gumpha No.-1 Tatowa gumpha No.-2 Ananta gumpha Tentuli gumpha Khandagiri
Khandagiri
gumpha Dhyana gumpha Navamuni gumpha Barabhuji gumpha Trusula gumpha Ambika gumpha Lalatendukesari gumpha Unnamed Unnamed Ekadasi gumpha Unnamed

The above nomenclature has no historical significance but is accepted at present for the convenience of scholars and general readers. The art of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, being almost contemporaneous with that of Sanchi, has a striking resemblance to it but at the same time retains its own individuality and advanced technique. Khandagiri: The Khandagiri
Khandagiri
hills fall on your left side when you enter into this area from Bhubaneswar. There are 15 caves in Khandagiri.

1. Tatowa Gumpha

The parrots are carved above the entrance arch and hence it is called as Tatowa Gumpha. It has two dwarapala figures too.

2. Tatowa Gumpha

The cave sharing the same name with the first cave has a veranda with pilasters containing exquisite carvings.

3. Ananta Gumpha

The cave has sculptures of women, elephants, geese, etc.

A relief from the Ananta Gumpha cave.

Tree-worship relief from the Ananta Gumpha cave.

4. Tentuli Gumpha

It is a small rock cut chamber with just one column.

5. Khandagiri
Khandagiri
Gumpha

It is a roughly cut cell and has double storeys.

6. Dhyana Gumpha

It is a roughly cut cell.

7. Navamuni Gumpha

Carving of Tirthankaras & Goddesses inside Navamuni Gumpha

Navamuni Gumpha is a roughly cut cell with the sculptures of nine Jain Tirthankaras and Sasana Devis.

8. Barabhuji Gumpha

Barabhuji Gumpha has two relief images of twelve armed Sasana Devis, hence it is called as Barabhuji (meaning twelve armed) Gumpha. There are few Tirthankara
Tirthankara
sculptures also found in this cave. The Sasana Devis are worshiped as Hindu deity Durga nowadays. The priests in this shrine claim some Jain
Jain
Tirthankara
Tirthankara
sculpture as Surya.

9. Trusula Gumpha

Trusula Gumpha appears to be reconverted in the medieval times. There are three sculptures of Rishabha Deva who is found in the standing posture and look beautiful. Apart from these sculptures there are sculptures of 24 Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras which look rough.

10. Ambika Gumpha

Few relief images of Sasana Devis are found here.

11. Lalatendu Keshari Gumpha

The relief images of Mahavira, Parshvanath and few Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras are found here. Caves 12, 13 and 15 are unnamed. Cave 14 is very simple and called as Ekadasi Gumpha. Tickets[edit] Entry fee for Citizens of India
India
and visitors of SAARC (Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Maldives and Afghanistan) and BIMSTEC Countries (Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Myanmar) - Rs. 15 per head and for each foreigner is Rs. 500 or US $10.00 and free entry for children below 15 years. Timing[edit] The monument remains open from sunrise to sunset. See also[edit]

Hathigumpha inscription Kharavela

References[edit]

^ Bhargava 2006, p. 357. ^ a b Krishan 1996, p. 23. ^ Pandya 2014, p. 6. ^ a b Kapoor 2002, p. 375. ^ Rath, Jayanti (April 2007). "Orissa Review" (PDF). Odisha.gov.in. Retrieved May 4, 2017.  ^ From the Archaeological survey of India ^ Singh et al. ^ http://ignca.nic.in/img_0002_as_or_khurda.htm ^ "The taut posture and location at the entrance of the cave (Rani Gumpha) suggests that the male figure is a guard or dvarapala. The aggressive stance of the figure and its western dress (short kilt and boots) indicates that the sculpture may be that of a Yavana, foreigner from the Graeco-Roman world." in Early Sculptural Art in the Indian Coastlands: A Study in Cultural Transmission and Syncretism (300 BCE-CE 500), by Sunil Gupta, D K Printworld (P) Limited, 2008, p.85 ^ Patnaik 2002, p. 10. ^ Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000 ^ http://ignca.nic.in/img_0002_as_or_khurda.htm

Sachin Singhal: Orissa tourist road guide and political, Vardhman Publications, ISBN 81-8080-011-3 Sadananda Agrawal: Sri Kharavela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000.

Sources[edit]

Bhargava, Gopal K. (2006), Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Orissa, Volume 21, Gyan Publishing House, ISBN 9788178353777  Krishan, Yuvraj (1996), The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 9788121505659  Pandya, Prashant H. (2014), Indian Philately Digest, Indian Philatelists' Forum  Kapoor, Subodh (2002), Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography, Volume 2, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, ISBN 9788177552997  Patnaik, Durga Prasad (1989), Palm Leaf Etchings of Orissa, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 9788170172482  Singh, Sarina (2015), Lonely Planet India, Lonely Planet, ISBN 9781743609750 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Udayagiri and Khandagiri
Khandagiri
Caves.

http://www.indiaplaces.com/india-monuments/bhubaneshwar-udaigiri-caves.html Udayagiri Complex, extensive image gallery by Indira Gandhi National Centre of Arts Detailed Photos of the Cave Temples http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_tktd_orissa_udaigiricaves.asp

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