Coordinates: 20°15′46″N 85°47′10″E / 20.2628312°N 85.7860297°E / 20.2628312; 85.7860297
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Bhaktamara Stotra Micchami Dukkadam Ṇamōkāra mantra Jai Jinendra
Anekantavada Cosmology Ahimsa Karma Dharma Mokṣa Kevala Jnana Dravya Tattva Brahmacharya Aparigraha Gunasthana Saṃsāra
Ethics of Jainism Sallekhana
The 24 Tirthankaras Rishabha Pārśva Mahavira Arihant Ganadhara Kundakunda Siddhasena Samantabhadra Haribhadra Yashovijaya
Samayasāra(Digambara) Pravachanasara(Digambara) Agama(Shwetambara) Tattvartha Sutra Dravyasamgraha(Digambara) Kalpa Sūtra(Shwetambara)
Diwali Mahavir Jayanti Paryushana Samvatsari
Abu Palitana Girnar Shikharji Shravanabelagola
v t e
1 Count of the caves 2 The famous caves 3 Caves at Udayagiri 4 Inscriptions in Caves in Brahmi
4.1 Hathigumpha inscription 4.2 Other minor inscriptions
5 Caves at Khandagiri 6 Tickets 7 Timing 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links
Count of the caves
B. M. Barua, based on a reading of line 14 of the Hathigumpha
inscription, declared that a total of 117 caves were excavated by
1. Rani Gumpha "Cave of the Queen"
Rani Gumpha is the largest and most popular cave among the caves of
Udayagiri and Khandagiri. The word 'Rani' means Queen. Although it is
not an architectural marvel, it has some ancient beautiful sculptures.
This cave is double storeyed. Each storey has three wings and the
central wing is bigger among all the three wings. The lower floor has
seven entrances in the middle wing whereas the upper floor has nine
columns. The upper portion of the central wing has relief images
depicting the victory march of a king. Many of the cells have carved
dwara pala images; some of them are disfigured. The area that connects
the central wing with right and left wings have some panels where the
sculptures of wild animals, fruit laden trees, human figures, women
playing musical instruments, monkeys and playful elephants are found.
The pilasters contain the toranas (arches) decorated with sculptures
Cave No.1 "Rani Gumpha" (Cave of the Queen)
Diagram section of Rani Gumpha
Plans of both floors of Rani Gumpha
Rani Gumpha ground floor.
Ground floor pillar arrangement
Left aisle relief
Left aisle relief (detail)
Indian warrior detail
Right corner relief
Panorama of first floor
Corridor (left part)
Corridor (right part)
Right corner with
Pillar relief with elephants
Pillar relief: battle scene
Pillar relief: hunting scene
2. Bajaghara Gumpha
Bajaghara Gumpha is very simple and small. It has stone bed and pillow
and it was obviously used as the
3. Chota Hathi Gumpha
Chota Hathi Gumpha is small in size. It has six small elephant figures in the facade. The word 'chota hathi' means 'small elephant'.
4. Alkapuri Gumpha
Alkapuri Gumpha has a relief sculpture of a lion holding its prey in its mouth. The pillars with the human figures (divine beings) with wings are found in this cave. It is double storeyed.
5. Jaya Vijaya Gumpha
A tree-worship relief from the Jaya Vijaya cave.
Jaya Vijaya Gumpha is double storeyed. It has a relief image of Bodhi tree with umbrella on its top and flanked by people worshipping it.
6. Panasa Gumpha
Panasa Gumpha is very small and simple cave without any significant features.
7. Thakurani Gumpha
Thakurani Gumpha is double storeyd but is very simple in style. It has few tiny relief sculptures.
8. Patalapuri Gumpha
Patalapuri Gumpha is slightly bigger with a pillared verandah. However, there is no notable feature in this cave.
9. Mancapuri and Swargapuri Gumpha
Mancapuri and Swargapuri Gumpha is double storeyed. It has a damaged
10. Ganesha Gumpha
Ganesha Gumpha is one of the most important caves in Udayagiri. The cave got this name due to carved figure of Ganesha on the back of its right cell. Of course, it would have been carved in the later period and it cannot be the original work. The cave has two big statues of elephants carrying garlands at the entrance. Also, the carved figures of dwara palas are found at the entrances. The carvings in this cave narrate the story of the elopement of Bassavadatta, Princess of Ujjayini, with King Udayan of Kausambi in the company of Vasantaka.
Cave No.10 "Ganesha Gumpha" (Cave of Ganesha)
Warrior guardian dvarapala
Relief of a devotee
Relief in the veranda
The Ganesha idol at the back of the cave
11. Jambesvara Gumpha
Jambesvara Gumpha is a very simple and small cave with one column and two pilasters. The inscription tells that it is the cave of Nayaki, wife of Mahamade.
12. Vyaghra Gumpha
Tiger (Bagh Gumpha) (cave no-12), Udayagiri
Vyaghra Gumpha is one of the popular caves in Udayagiri. The cave, which is in ruins, has the entrance carves like a large mouth of a tiger. It is one of the most photographed site in Udayagiri. The word 'vyaghra' means tiger. The inscription found here tells that this cave belongs to the city judge Sabhuti.
13. Sarpa Gumpha
Sarpa Gumpha is unusually very small cave. There are two inscriptions found in this cave. The word 'sarpa' means snake.
14. Hathi Gumpha
Hathi Gumpha is a natural cavern. On the wall, the inscription erected
Cave No.14 "Hathi Gumpha" (Elephant Cave)
Hathi Gumpha (cave no-14), Udayagiri
Detail of Hathigumpha inscription
15. Dhanaghara Gumpha
Dhanaghara Gumpha is a small cave which has two wide pillars and dwara pala sculptures carved at the entrance.
16. Haridasa Gumpha
Haridasa Gumpha is a small cave with three entrances and a verandah in the front side. There is an inscription found here.
17. Jagannatha Gumpha
Jagannatha Gumpha is roughly cut cave with three entrances.
18. Rasui Gumpha
Rasui Gumpha is unusually very small cave. Inscriptions in Caves in Brahmi Hathigumpha inscription Main article: Hathigumpha inscription
The Hathigumpha cave ("Elephant Cave") has the Hathigumpha
inscription, written by Raja Kharavela, the king of Kalinga in India,
during the 2nd century BCE. The
List of Caves at Khandagiri :
Tatowa gumpha No.-1
Tatowa gumpha No.-2
The above nomenclature has no historical significance but is accepted
at present for the convenience of scholars and general readers. The
art of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, being almost contemporaneous with
that of Sanchi, has a striking resemblance to it but at the same time
retains its own individuality and advanced technique.
1. Tatowa Gumpha
The parrots are carved above the entrance arch and hence it is called as Tatowa Gumpha. It has two dwarapala figures too.
2. Tatowa Gumpha
The cave sharing the same name with the first cave has a veranda with pilasters containing exquisite carvings.
3. Ananta Gumpha
The cave has sculptures of women, elephants, geese, etc.
A relief from the Ananta Gumpha cave.
Tree-worship relief from the Ananta Gumpha cave.
4. Tentuli Gumpha
It is a small rock cut chamber with just one column.
It is a roughly cut cell and has double storeys.
6. Dhyana Gumpha
It is a roughly cut cell.
7. Navamuni Gumpha
Carving of Tirthankaras & Goddesses inside Navamuni Gumpha
Navamuni Gumpha is a roughly cut cell with the sculptures of nine Jain Tirthankaras and Sasana Devis.
8. Barabhuji Gumpha
Barabhuji Gumpha has two relief images of twelve armed Sasana Devis,
hence it is called as Barabhuji (meaning twelve armed) Gumpha. There
9. Trusula Gumpha
Trusula Gumpha appears to be reconverted in the medieval times. There
are three sculptures of Rishabha Deva who is found in the standing
posture and look beautiful. Apart from these sculptures there are
sculptures of 24
10. Ambika Gumpha
Few relief images of Sasana Devis are found here.
11. Lalatendu Keshari Gumpha
The relief images of Mahavira, Parshvanath and few
Hathigumpha inscription Kharavela
^ Bhargava 2006, p. 357. ^ a b Krishan 1996, p. 23. ^ Pandya 2014, p. 6. ^ a b Kapoor 2002, p. 375. ^ Rath, Jayanti (April 2007). "Orissa Review" (PDF). Odisha.gov.in. Retrieved May 4, 2017. ^ From the Archaeological survey of India ^ Singh et al. ^ http://ignca.nic.in/img_0002_as_or_khurda.htm ^ "The taut posture and location at the entrance of the cave (Rani Gumpha) suggests that the male figure is a guard or dvarapala. The aggressive stance of the figure and its western dress (short kilt and boots) indicates that the sculpture may be that of a Yavana, foreigner from the Graeco-Roman world." in Early Sculptural Art in the Indian Coastlands: A Study in Cultural Transmission and Syncretism (300 BCE-CE 500), by Sunil Gupta, D K Printworld (P) Limited, 2008, p.85 ^ Patnaik 2002, p. 10. ^ Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000 ^ http://ignca.nic.in/img_0002_as_or_khurda.htm
Sachin Singhal: Orissa tourist road guide and political, Vardhman Publications, ISBN 81-8080-011-3 Sadananda Agrawal: Sri Kharavela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000.
Bhargava, Gopal K. (2006), Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Orissa, Volume 21, Gyan Publishing House, ISBN 9788178353777 Krishan, Yuvraj (1996), The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 9788121505659 Pandya, Prashant H. (2014), Indian Philately Digest, Indian Philatelists' Forum Kapoor, Subodh (2002), Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography, Volume 2, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, ISBN 9788177552997 Patnaik, Durga Prasad (1989), Palm Leaf Etchings of Orissa, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 9788170172482 Singh, Sarina (2015), Lonely Planet India, Lonely Planet, ISBN 9781743609750
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Udayagiri and
http://www.indiaplaces.com/india-monuments/bhubaneshwar-udaigiri-caves.html Udayagiri Complex, extensive image gallery by Indira Gandhi National Centre of Arts Detailed Photos of the Cave Temples http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_tktd_orissa_udaigiricaves.asp
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