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U.S. Department of Defense

Dept. of the Navy (since 1834)

Headquarters The Pentagon Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.

Nickname(s) "Jarheads", "Devil Dogs", "Teufel Hunden", "Leathernecks"

Motto(s) Semper Fidelis

Colors Scarlet, Gold[4][5]          

March "Semper Fidelis"  Play (help·info) "The Marine's Hymn"  Play (help·info)

Mascot(s) English Bulldog[6][7]

Anniversaries 10 November

Engagements

See list

American Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War War
War
of 1812 Second Barbary War West Indies Anti-Piracy Operations Seminole Wars African Anti-Slavery Operations Aegean Sea Anti-Piracy Operations First Sumatran expedition Second Sumatran expedition United States
United States
exploring expedition Capture of Monterey Mexican–American War Bombardment of Greytown Battle of Ty-ho Bay First Fiji expedition Second Opium War Second Fiji expedition Paraguay expedition Reform War John Brown's raid American Civil War Bombardment of Qui Nhon Shimonoseki Campaign Formosa expedition United States
United States
expedition to Korea Egyptian Expedition (1882) Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations Kingdom of Hawaii overthrowal Second Samoan Civil War Banana Wars

Spanish–American War Second Occupation of Cuba Border War Negro Rebellion Occupation of Nicaragua Occupation of Haiti Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916) Sugar Intervention

Philippine–American War Boxer Rebellion World War
War
I Russian Civil War World War
War
II Korean War Vietnam War 1958 Lebanon
Lebanon
Crisis Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965) Iranian Hostage Rescue Multinational Force in Lebanon Invasion of Grenada 1986 bombing of Libya Tanker War

Earnest Will Prime Chance Eager Glacier Nimble Archer Praying Mantis

Invasion of Panama Persian Gulf War Somali Civil War Iraqi no-fly zones Bosnian War Kosovo War International Force for East Timor Operation Enduring Freedom

Afghanistan Philippines Horn of Africa Pankisi Gorge Trans Sahara Caribbean and Central America

Iraq War Pakistan- United States
United States
skirmishes Operation Odyssey Dawn 2014 Intervention against ISIL Operation Inherent Resolve Resolute Support Mission

Decorations

Presidential Unit Citation

Joint Meritorious Unit Award

Navy Unit Commendation

Valorous Unit Award

Meritorious Unit Commendation

French Croix de guerre 1914–1918

Philippine Presidential Unit Citation

Korean Presidential Unit Citation

Vietnam Gallantry Cross

Vietnam Civil Actions Medal

Website Marines.mil

Commanders

Commander-in-Chief President Donald Trump

Secretary of Defense James Mattis[8]

Secretary of the Navy Richard V. Spencer

Commandant Gen Robert Neller

Assistant Commandant Gen Glenn M. Walters

Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps SMMC[9] Ronald L. Green

Insignia

Flag

Seal

Marine Corps Emblem ("Eagle, Globe, and Anchor" or "EGA") variations also used as a "Branch of Service Insignia" on Marine Corps uniforms[10]

The United States
United States
Marine Corps (USMC), also known as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces
United States Armed Forces
responsible for conducting amphibious operations[11] with the United States
United States
Navy. The U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
is one of the four armed service branches in the U.S. Department of Defense
U.S. Department of Defense
(DoD) and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The Marine Corps has been a component of the U.S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834,[12] working closely with naval forces. The USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons, primarily Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are also embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers.[13] The history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines
Marines
were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting on both at sea and on shore.[14] In the Pacific theater of World War II
World War II
the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island.[15][16][17] As of 2017, the USMC has around 186,000 active duty members and some 38,500 reserve Marines.[2] It is the smallest U.S. military service within the DoD.[18][19][20]

Contents

1 Mission

1.1 Historical mission 1.2 Capabilities 1.3 Doctrine

2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 American Civil War
American Civil War
to World War
War
I 2.3 World War
War
I 2.4 World War
War
II 2.5 Korean War 2.6 Vietnam War 2.7 Interim: Vietnam War
Vietnam War
to the War
War
on Terror 2.8 Global War
War
on Terrorism

2.8.1 Afghanistan Campaign (Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan) 2.8.2 Iraq Campaign (Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation New Dawn, Operation Inherent Resolve)

3 Organization

3.1 Department of the Navy 3.2 Headquarters Marine Corps
Headquarters Marine Corps
(HQMC) 3.3 Operating Forces

3.3.1 Marine Air-Ground Task Force
Marine Air-Ground Task Force
(MAGTF)

3.4 Supporting Establishment

3.4.1 Marine Corps bases and stations

3.5 Marine Forces Reserve
Marine Forces Reserve
(MARFORRES/USMCR)

4 Special
Special
Operations 5 Personnel

5.1 Leadership 5.2 Women 5.3 Rank structure

5.3.1 Commissioned officers 5.3.2 Warrant officers 5.3.3 Enlisted

5.4 Military Occupational Specialty 5.5 Initial training

6 Uniforms 7 Culture

7.1 Official traditions and customs 7.2 Unofficial traditions and customs 7.3 Veteran Marines 7.4 Martial arts program

8 Equipment

8.1 Infantry
Infantry
weapons 8.2 Ground vehicles 8.3 Aircraft

9 Relationship with other services

9.1 United States
United States
Navy 9.2 United States
United States
Army 9.3 United States
United States
Air Force 9.4 United States
United States
Coast Guard

10 Budget 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Mission[edit] As outlined in 10 U.S.C. § 5063 and as originally introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are:

Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns; Development of tactics, technique, and equipment used by amphibious landing forces in coordination with the Army
Army
and Air Force; and Such other duties as the President or Department of Defense may direct.

A Marine Corporal
Corporal
and Lance Corporal
Corporal
of 3rd Battalion, 6th Marines engaging the enemy during Operation Moshtarak
Operation Moshtarak
in Afghanistan's Helmand Province.

This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, and "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps." It noted that the Corps has more often than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War
War
of 1812, Chapultepec, and numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties (such as those in Central America), World War
War
I, and the Korean War. While these actions are not accurately described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests.[21]

A U.S. Marine security guard reviews a security system at a U.S. embassy in December 2004.

The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House.[22] Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, and the Marines
Marines
of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1
HMX-1
provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively.[23] The Executive Flight Detachment also provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies, legations, and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.[24] The relationship between the Department of State and the U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines
Marines
have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War
War
II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on December 15, 1948, and 83 Marines
Marines
were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide.[25] Historical mission[edit] The Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny; to the latter end, their quarters on ship were often strategically positioned between the officers' quarters and the rest of the vessel. Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War
War
on 3 March 1776 as the Marines
Marines
gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas. The role of the Marine Corps has expanded significantly since then; as the importance of its original naval mission declined with changing naval warfare doctrine and the professionalization of the naval service, the Corps adapted by focusing on formerly secondary missions ashore. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines
Marines
in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, battleships and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition
First Sumatran Expedition
of 1832, and continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries. Marines
Marines
would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War
War
II.[26] During World War
War
II, Marines
Marines
continued to serve on capital ships. They often were assigned to man anti-aircraft batteries. When gun cruisers were retired by the 1960s, the remaining Marine detachments were only seen on battleships and carriers. Its original mission of providing shipboard security finally ended in the 1990s. Capabilities[edit]

U.S. Marines
Marines
from the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit
31st Marine Expeditionary Unit
training in amphibious warfare during Operation Talisman Sabre
Operation Talisman Sabre
at Shoalwater Bay in Australia.

The Marine Corps fulfills a critical military role as an amphibious warfare force. It is capable of asymmetric warfare with conventional, irregular, and hybrid forces. While the Marine Corps does not employ any unique capabilities, as a force it can rapidly deploy a combined-arms task force to almost anywhere in the world within days. The basic structure for all deployed units is a Marine Air-Ground Task Force
Marine Air-Ground Task Force
(MAGTF) that integrates a ground combat element, an aviation combat element and a logistics combat element under a common command element. While the creation of joint commands under the Goldwater–Nichols Act
Goldwater–Nichols Act
has improved inter-service coordination between each branch, the Corps' ability to permanently maintain integrated multi-element task forces under a single command provides a smoother implementation of combined-arms warfare principles.[27] The close integration of disparate Marine units stems from an organizational culture centered on the infantry. Every other Marine capability exists to support the infantry. Unlike some Western militaries, the Corps remained conservative against theories proclaiming the ability of new weapons to win wars independently. For example, Marine aviation has always been focused on close air support and has remained largely uninfluenced by air power theories proclaiming that strategic bombing can single-handedly win wars.[26]

Play media

Bravo Battery, 1st Battalion, 11th Marines, a.k.a. the Beastmasters fight off Iraqi unit on 26 March 2003.

This focus on the infantry is matched with the doctrine of "Every Marine [is] a rifleman", a focus of Commandant Alfred M. Gray, Jr., emphasizing the infantry combat abilities of every Marine. All Marines, regardless of military specialization, receive training as a rifleman; and all officers receive additional training as infantry platoon commanders.[28] For example, at Wake Island, when all of the Marine aircraft were destroyed, pilots continued the fight as ground officers, leading supply clerks and cooks in a final defensive effort.[29] Flexibility of execution is implemented via an emphasis on "commander's intent" as a guiding principle for carrying out orders; specifying the end state but leaving open the method of execution.[30] The amphibious assault techniques developed for World War II
World War II
evolved, with the addition of air assault and maneuver warfare doctrine, into the current "Operational Maneuver from the Sea" doctrine of power projection from the seas.[11] The Marines
Marines
are credited with the development of helicopter insertion doctrine and were the earliest in the American military to widely adopt maneuver-warfare principles, which emphasize low-level initiative and flexible execution. In light of recent warfare that has strayed from the Corps' traditional missions,[31] it has renewed an emphasis on amphibious capabilities.[32]

Machine gunner from 1st Platoon, Company B, 1st Battalion, 23rd Marine Regiment in cold weather gear armed with a Squad Automatic Weapon taking part in a security patrol around Ramadi, Iraq, 27 December 2006.

The Marine Corps relies on the Navy for sealift to provide its rapid deployment capabilities. In addition to basing a third of the Fleet Marine Force in Japan, Marine Expeditionary Units (MEU) are typically stationed at sea so they can function as first responders to international incidents.[33] To aid rapid deployment, the Maritime Pre-Positioning System was developed: fleets of container ships are positioned throughout the world with enough equipment and supplies for a Marine Expeditionary Force
Marine Expeditionary Force
to deploy for 30 days. The USMC is planning to reduce its logistical requirements and by 2025 eliminate all liquid fuel use for Marine Expeditionary Forces, except for highly efficient vehicles.[34] Doctrine[edit] Two small manuals published during the 1930s would establish USMC doctrine in two areas. The Small Wars Manual
Small Wars Manual
laid the framework for Marine counter-insurgency operations from Vietnam to Iraq and Afghanistan while the Tentative Landing Operations Manual established the doctrine for the amphibious operations of World War
War
II. "Operational Maneuver from the Sea" is the current doctrine of power projection.[11] History[edit] Main article: History of the United States
United States
Marine Corps Origins[edit]

Continental Marines
Marines
land at New Providence
New Providence
during the Battle of Nassau, the first amphibious landing of the Marine Corps, during the revolution.

The United States
United States
Marine Corps traces its roots to the Continental Marines
Marines
of the American Revolutionary War, formed by Captain Samuel Nicholas by a resolution of the Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
on 10 November 1775, to raise two battalions of Marines. That date is regarded and celebrated as the date of the Marine Corps' birthday. At the end of the American Revolution, both the Continental Navy
Continental Navy
and Continental Marines
Marines
were disbanded in April 1783. The institution itself would not be resurrected until 11 July 1798. At that time, in preparation for the Quasi-War
Quasi-War
with France, Congress created the United States Marine Corps.[35] Marines
Marines
had been enlisted by the War Department as early as August 1797[36] for service in the new-build frigates authorized by the Congressional "Act to provide a Naval Armament" of 18 March 1794,[37] which specified the numbers of Marines to recruit for each frigate.

British and American troops garrisoned aboard Hornet and Penguin exchanging small arms musket fire with Tristan da Cuna in the background during the final engagement between British and American forces of the war.

The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War
First Barbary War
(1801–1805) against the Barbary pirates,[38] when William Eaton and First Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Presley O'Bannon
Presley O'Bannon
led eight Marines and 500 mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli. Though they only reached Derna, the action at Tripoli
Tripoli
has been immortalized in the Marines' hymn and the Mameluke sword
Mameluke sword
carried by Marine officers.[39] During the War
War
of 1812, Marine detachments on Navy ships took part in some of the great frigate duels that characterized the war, which were the first and last engagements of the conflict. Their most significant contribution, however, was holding the center of General Jackson's defensive line at the Battle of New Orleans, the final major battle and one of the most one-sided engagements of the war. With widespread news of the battle and the capture of HMS Cyane, HMS Levant and HMS Penguin, the final engagements between British and American forces, the Marines
Marines
had gained a reputation as expert marksmen, especially in defensive and ship-to-ship actions.[39] After the war, the Marine Corps fell into a malaise that ended with the appointment of Archibald Henderson
Archibald Henderson
as its fifth Commandant in 1820. Under his tenure, the Corps took on expeditionary duties in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Key West, West Africa, the Falkland Islands, and Sumatra. Commandant Henderson is credited with thwarting President Jackson's attempts to combine and integrate the Marine Corps with the Army.[39] Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps in 1834, stipulating that the Corps was part of the Department of the Navy as a sister service to the Navy.[40] This would be the first of many times that the independent existence of the Corps was challenged.

U.S. Marines
Marines
storming Chapultepec castle under a large American flag, paving the way for the fall of Mexico City.

Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines
Marines
for service in the Seminole Wars
Seminole Wars
of 1835, personally leading nearly half of the entire Corps (two battalions) to war. A decade later, in the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
(1846–1848), the Marines
Marines
made their famed assault on Chapultepec Palace in Mexico City, which would be later celebrated as the "Halls of Montezuma" in the Marines' hymn. In the 1850s, the Marines
Marines
would see further service in Panama and Asia, attached to Matthew Perry's East India Squadron
East India Squadron
on its historic trip to the Far East.[41]

Five Marine privates with fixed bayonets, and their NCO with his sword at the Washington Navy Yard, 1864.

The Marine Corps played a small role in the Civil War
War
(1861–1865); their most prominent task was blockade duty. As more and more states seceded from the Union, about a third of the Corps' officers left the United States
United States
to join the Confederacy and form the Confederate States Marine Corps, which ultimately played little part in the war. The battalion of recruits formed for the First Battle of Bull Run
First Battle of Bull Run
(First Manassas) performed poorly, retreating with the rest of the Union forces.[33] Blockade
Blockade
duty included sea-based amphibious operations to secure forward bases. In late November 1861, Marines
Marines
and sailors landed a reconnaissance in force from the USS Flag at Tybee Island, Georgia, to occupy the Lighthouse and Martello Tower on the northern end of the island. It would later be the Army
Army
base for bombardment of Fort Pulaski.[42] American Civil War
American Civil War
to World War
War
I[edit] The remainder of the 19th century was marked by declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. The Navy's transition from sail to steam put into question the need for Marines on naval ships. Meanwhile, Marines
Marines
served as a convenient resource for interventions and landings to protect American interests overseas. The Corps was involved in over 28 separate interventions in the 30 years from the end of the American Civil War
American Civil War
to the end of 19th century.[43] They would be called upon to stem political and labor unrest within the United States.[44] Under Commandant Jacob Zeilin's tenure, Marine customs and traditions took shape: the Corps adopted the Marine Corps emblem on 19 November 1868. It was during this time that "The Marines' Hymn" was first heard. Around 1883, the Marines
Marines
adopted their current motto "Semper Fidelis" (Always Faithful).[39] John Philip Sousa, the musician and composer, enlisted as a Marine apprentice at the age of 13, serving from 1867 until 1872, and again from 1880 to 1892 as the leader of the Marine Band. During the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
(1898), Marines
Marines
led American forces ashore in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, demonstrating their readiness for deployment. At Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the Marines
Marines
seized an advanced naval base that remains in use today. Between 1899 and 1916, the Corps continued its record of participation in foreign expeditions, including the Philippine–American War, the Boxer Rebellion in China (1899–1901), Panama, the Cuban Pacifications, the Perdicaris Incident in Morocco, Veracruz, Santo Domingo, and the Banana Wars
Banana Wars
in Haiti and Nicaragua; the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period were consolidated into the Small Wars Manual.[45] World War
War
I[edit]

The flag of the United States
United States
Marine Corps from 1914 to 1939.

Georges Scott, American Marines
Marines
in Belleau Wood, 1918.

During World War I
World War I
Marines
Marines
served as a part of the American Expeditionary Force under General Pershing
General Pershing
when America entered into the war on 6 April 1917. The Marine Corps had a deep pool of officers and NCOs with battle experience, and experienced a large expansion. During the war, the Marines, fighting on the Western Front in France, fought at the battle at Belleau Wood in mid-1918. Though the Marines and American media reported that Germans had nicknamed them Teufel Hunden as meaning "Devil Dogs", for their reputation as shock troops and marksmen at ranges up to 900 meters, there is no evidence of this in German records (as Teufelshunde would be the proper German phrase). Nevertheless, the name stuck.[46] The U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
entered the war with 511 officers and 13,214 enlisted personnel, and by 11 November 1918 had reached a strength of 2,400 officers and 70,000 enlisted.[47] African-Americans were entirely excluded from the Marine Corps during this conflict.[48] Opha May Johnson was the first woman to enlist in the Marines; she joined the Marine Corps Reserve in 1918 during World War
War
I, officially becoming the first female Marine.[49] From then until the end of World War
War
I, 305 women enlisted in the Corps.[50] Between the World Wars, the Marine Corps was headed by Commandant John A. Lejeune, and under his leadership, the Corps studied and developed amphibious techniques that would be of great use in World War
War
II. Many officers, including Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel Earl Hancock "Pete" Ellis, foresaw a war in the Pacific with Japan and undertook preparations for such a conflict. Through 1941, as the prospect of war grew, the Corps pushed urgently for joint amphibious exercises with the Army
Army
and acquired amphibious equipment that would prove of great use in the upcoming conflict.[51] World War
War
II[edit]

Former French Foreign Legion Lieutenant
Lieutenant
and U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
officer Peter J. Ortiz.

Photograph of the Marine Corps War
War
Memorial, which depicts the second U.S. flag-raising atop Mount Suribachi, on Iwo Jima. The memorial is modeled on Joe Rosenthal's famous Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima.

In World War
War
II, the Marines
Marines
played a central role in the Pacific War, along with the U.S. Army. The battles of Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Tarawa, Guam, Tinian, Cape Gloucester, Saipan, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between Marines
Marines
and the Imperial Japanese Army. The island of Iwo Jima served as the next area of battle, which began on 19 February 1945. The Japanese had learned from their defeats in the Marianas campaign and prepared many fortified positions on the island including pillboxes and underground tunnels. The Japanese put up fierce resistance, but American forces reached the summit of Mount Suribachi on 23 February. The mission was accomplished at very high losses with 26,000 American casualties and 22,000 Japanese.[52] By the end of the war, the Corps expanded from two brigades to six divisions, five air wings, and supporting troops, totaling about 485,000 Marines. In addition, 20 defense battalions and a parachute battalion were raised.[53] Nearly 87,000 Marines
Marines
were casualties during World War II
World War II
(including nearly 20,000 killed), and 82 were awarded the Medal of Honor.[54] In 1942 the Navy Seabees
Seabees
were created with the Marine Corps providing their organization and military training. Many Seabee units were issued the USMC standard issue and were re-designated "Marine". Despite the Corps' giving them their military organization, military training, issuing them uniforms and redesignating their units the Seabees
Seabees
remained Navy.[note 1][55][56] USMC historian Gordon L. Rottmann wrote that one of the "Navy's biggest contributions to the Marine Corps during WWII was the creation of the Seabees."[57] Despite Secretary Forrestal's prediction, the Corps faced an immediate institutional crisis following the war due to the low budget. Army generals pushing for a strengthened and reorganized defense establishment attempted to fold the Marine mission and assets into the Navy and Army. Drawing on hastily assembled Congressional support, and with the assistance of the so-called "Revolt of the Admirals", the Marine Corps rebuffed such efforts to dismantle the Corps, resulting in statutory protection of the Marine Corps in the National Security Act of 1947.[58] Shortly afterward, in 1952 the Douglas–Mansfield Act afforded the Commandant an equal voice with the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters relating to the Marines
Marines
and established the structure of three active divisions and air wings that remain today. Korean War[edit]

F4U Corsairs provide close air support to Marines
Marines
of the 1st Marine Division fighting Chinese forces in North Korea, December 1950.

The Korean War
Korean War
(1950–1953) saw the hastily formed Provisional Marine Brigade holding the defensive line at the Pusan Perimeter. To execute a flanking maneuver, General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
called on United Nations forces, including U.S. Marines, to make an amphibious landing at Inchon. The successful landing resulted in the collapse of North Korean lines and the pursuit of North Korean forces north near the Yalu River
Yalu River
until the entrance of the People's Republic of China into the war. Chinese troops surrounded, surprised and overwhelmed the overextended and outnumbered American forces. The U.S. Army's X Corps, which included the 1st Marine Division
1st Marine Division
and the Army's 7th Infantry Division, regrouped and inflicted heavy casualties during their fighting withdrawal to the coast, now known as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. The fighting calmed after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir, but late in March 1953 the relative quiet of the war was broken when the People's Liberation Army
Army
launched a massive offensive on three outposts manned by the 5th Marine Regiment. These outposts were codenamed "Reno", "Vegas", and "Carson". The campaign was collectively known as the Nevada Cities Campaign. There was brutal fighting on Reno hill, which was eventually captured by the Chinese. Although Reno was lost, the 5th Marines
Marines
held both Vegas and Carson through the rest of the campaign. In this one campaign, the Marines
Marines
suffered approximately 1,000 casualties, and might have suffered much more without the U.S. Army's Task Force Faith. Marines
Marines
would continue a battle of attrition around the 38th Parallel until the 1953 armistice.[59] The Korean War
Korean War
saw the Corps expand from 75,000 regulars to a force of 261,000 Marines, mostly reservists. 30,544 Marines
Marines
were killed or wounded during the war and 42 were awarded the Medal of Honor.[60] Vietnam War[edit]

U.S. Marines
Marines
of "G" Company, 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines
Marines
in action during Operation Allen Brook in South Vietnam, 1968

The Marine Corps served in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
taking part in such battles as the Battle of Hue
Battle of Hue
and the Battle of Khe Sanh
Battle of Khe Sanh
in 1968. Individuals from the USMC generally operated in the Northern I Corps Regions of South Vietnam. While there, they were constantly engaged in a guerrilla war against the Viet Cong, along with an intermittent conventional war against the North Vietnamese Army
Army
(NVA). Portions of the Corps were responsible for the less-known Combined Action Program (CAP) that implemented unconventional techniques for counter-insurgency and worked as military advisers to the Republic of Vietnam Marine Corps. Marines
Marines
were withdrawn in 1971, and returned briefly in 1975 to evacuate Saigon and attempt a rescue of the crew of the Mayagüez.[61] Vietnam was the longest war for Marines; by its end, 13,091[62][63] had been killed in action, 51,392 had been wounded, and 57 Medals of Honor had been awarded.[64][65] Due to policies concerning rotation, more Marines
Marines
were deployed for service during Vietnam than World War II.[66] While recovering from Vietnam, the Corps hit a detrimental low point in its service history caused by courts-martial and non-judicial punishments related partially to increased unauthorized absences and desertions during the war. Overhauling of the Corps began in the late 1970s, discharging the most delinquent, and once quality of new recruits improved, the Corps focused on reforming the NCO Corps, a vital functioning part of its forces.[27] Interim: Vietnam War
Vietnam War
to the War
War
on Terror[edit]

Beirut
Beirut
Memorial at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

After the Vietnam War, the U.S. Marines
Marines
resumed their expeditionary role, participating in the failed 1980 Iran hostage rescue attempt Operation Eagle Claw, the invasion of Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury) and the invasion of Panama (Operation Just Cause). On 23 October 1983, the Marine headquarters building in Beirut, Lebanon, was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps in its history (220 Marines
Marines
and 21 other service members were killed) and leading to the American withdrawal from the country. The year 1990 saw Marines
Marines
of the Joint Task Force Sharp Edge save thousands of lives by evacuating British, French and American nationals from the violence of the Liberian Civil War.

U.S. Marines
Marines
from 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marines
Marines
during the Desert Storm deployment in 1990–1991

During the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
of 1990 to 1991, Marine task forces formed for Operation Desert Shield, and later liberated Kuwait, along with Coalition forces, in Operation Desert Storm.[39] Marines
Marines
participated in combat operations in Somalia (1992–1995) during Operations Restore Hope, Restore Hope II, and United Shield to provide humanitarian relief.[67] In 1997, Marines
Marines
took part in Operation Silver Wake, the evacuation of American citizens from the US Embassy in Tirana, Albania. Global War
War
on Terrorism[edit]

U.S. Marines
Marines
from 1st Battalion, 7th Marines
Marines
enter a palace in Baghdad in April 2003.

U.S. Marines
Marines
conducting a dawn patrol in Afghanistan's Nawa District, Helmand Province
Helmand Province
(May 2010).

Following the attacks on 11 September 2001, President George W. Bush announced the Global War
War
on Terrorism. The stated objective of the Global War
War
on Terror is "the defeat of Al-Qaeda, other terrorist groups and any nation that supports or harbors terrorists."[68] Since then, the Marine Corps, alongside the other military services, has engaged in global operations around the world in support of that mission. In spring 2009, President Barack Obama's goal of reducing spending in the Defense Department was led by Secretary Robert Gates
Robert Gates
in a series of budget cuts that did not significantly change the Corps' budget and programs, cutting only the VH-71 Kestrel and resetting the VXX program.[69][70][71] However, the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform singled the Corps out for the brunt of a series of recommended cuts in late 2010.[72] In light of budget sequestration in 2013, General Amos set a goal of a force of 174,000 Marines.[73] He testified that this was the minimum number that would allow for an effective response to even a single contingency operation, but it would reduce the peacetime ratio of time at home bases to time deployed down to a historical low level.[74] Afghanistan Campaign (Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan)[edit]

U.S. Marines
Marines
dismounting from an Assault Amphibious Vehicle
Assault Amphibious Vehicle
in Djibouti.

Marines
Marines
and other American forces began staging in Pakistan and Uzbekistan on the border of Afghanistan as early as October 2001 in preparation for Operation Enduring Freedom.[75] The 15th and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units were some of the first conventional forces into Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
in November 2001.[76] Since then, Marine battalions and squadrons have been rotating through, engaging Taliban
Taliban
and Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
forces. Marines
Marines
of the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit
Marine Expeditionary Unit
flooded into the Taliban-held town of Garmsir on 29 April 2008, in Helmand Province, in the first major American operation in the region in years.[77] In June 2009, 7,000 Marines
Marines
with the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade deployed to Afghanistan in an effort to improve security,[78] and began Operation Strike of the Sword the next month. In February 2010, the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade launched the largest offensive of the Afghan Campaign since 2001, the Battle of Marjah, to clear the Taliban
Taliban
from their key stronghold in Helmand Province.[79] After Marjah, Marines progressed north up the Helmand River and cleared the towns of Kajahki and Sangin. Marines
Marines
remained in Helmand Province
Helmand Province
until 2014. Iraq Campaign (Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation New Dawn, Operation Inherent Resolve)[edit]

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U.S. Marines
Marines
during the Second Battle of Fallujah
Second Battle of Fallujah
in November 2004

The U.S. Marines
Marines
served in the Operation Iraqi Freedom, along with its sister services. The I Marine Expeditionary Force, along with the U.S. Army's 3rd Infantry
Infantry
Division, spearheaded the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[80] The Marines
Marines
left Iraq in the summer of 2003, but returned in the beginning of 2004. They were given responsibility for the Al Anbar Province, the large desert region to the west of Baghdad. During this occupation, the Marines
Marines
lead assaults on the city of Fallujah
Fallujah
in April (Operation Vigilant Resolve) and November 2004 (Operation Phantom Fury) and saw intense fighting in such places as Ramadi, Al-Qa'im and Hīt.[81] Their time in Iraq has courted controversy with the Haditha killings and the Hamdania incident.[82][83] The Anbar Awakening and 2007 surge reduced levels of violence. On 1 March 2009, at Camp Lejeune, President Obama announced an accelerated withdrawal, promising all troops out by August 2010.[84] The Marine Corps officially ended its role in Iraq on 23 January 2010 when they handed over responsibility for Al Anbar Province to the United States Army.[84][85] U.S. Marines
Marines
would ultimately return to Iraq in the summer of 2014, in response to growing violence there.[86] Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
Operations Throughout the Global War
War
on Terrorism, the U.S. Marines
Marines
have supported operations in Africa to counter Islamic extremism and piracy in the Red Sea. In late 2002, Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa was stood up at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti to provide regional security.[87] Despite transferring overall command to the Navy in 2006, the Marines
Marines
continued to operate in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
into 2007.[88] Organization[edit] Main article: Organization of the United States
United States
Marine Corps Department of the Navy[edit] The Department of the Navy, led by the Secretary of the Navy, is a military department of the cabinet-level U.S. Department of Defense that oversees the Marine Corps and the Navy. The most senior Marine officer is the Commandant, unless a Marine officer is the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Marine Corps so that its forces are ready for deployment under the operational command of the Combatant Commanders. The Marine Corps is organized into four principal subdivisions: Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC), the Operating Forces, the Supporting Establishment, and the Marine Forces Reserve
Marine Forces Reserve
(MARFORRES or USMCR). Headquarters Marine Corps
Headquarters Marine Corps
(HQMC)[edit] Headquarters Marine Corps
Headquarters Marine Corps
consists of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, the Director Marine Corps Staff, the several Deputy Commandants, the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, and various special staff officers and Marine Corps agency heads that report directly to either the Commandant or Assistant Commandant. HQMC is supported by the Headquarters and Service Battalion, USMC providing administrative, supply, logistics, training, and services support to the Commandant and his staff. Operating Forces[edit] The Operating Forces are divided into three categories: Marine Corps Forces (MARFOR) assigned to unified combatant commands, viz., the Fleet Marine Forces (FMF), Security Forces guarding high-risk naval installations, and Security Guard detachments at American embassies. Under the "Forces for Unified Commands" memo, in accordance with the Unified Command Plan
Unified Command Plan
approved by the President, Marine Corps Forces are assigned to each of the Combatant Commands at the discretion of the Secretary of Defense. Since 1991, the Marine Corps has maintained component headquarters at each of the regional unified combatant commands.[89] Marine Corps Forces are divided into Forces Command (MARFORCOM) and Pacific Command (MARFORPAC), each headed by a Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General dual-posted as the commanding general of either FMF Atlantic (FMFLANT) or FMF Pacific (FMFPAC), respectively. MARFORCOM/FMFLANT has operational control of the II Marine Expeditionary Force; MARFORPAC/FMFPAC has operational control of the I Marine Expeditionary Force and III Marine Expeditionary Force.[33] Marine Air-Ground Task Force
Marine Air-Ground Task Force
(MAGTF)[edit] Main article: Marine Air-Ground Task Force The basic framework for deployable Marine units is the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF), a flexible structure of varying size. A MAGTF integrates a ground combat element (GCE), an aviation combat element (ACE), and a logistics combat element (LCE) under a common command element (CE), capable of operating independently or as part of a larger coalition. The MAGTF structure reflects a strong preference in the Corps towards self-sufficiency and a commitment to combined arms, both essential assets to an expeditionary force. The Marine Corps has a wariness and distrust of reliance on its sister services, and towards joint operations in general.[27] Supporting Establishment[edit] The Supporting Establishment includes the Combat Development Command, the Logistics Command, the Systems Command, the Recruiting Command, the Installations Command, the Marine Band, and the Marine Drum and Bugle Corps. Marine Corps bases and stations[edit] Main article: List of United States
United States
Marine Corps installations The Marine Corps operates many major bases, 14 of which host operating forces, several support and training installations, as well as satellite facilities.[90] Marine Corps' bases are concentrated around the locations of the Marine Expeditionary Forces, though reserve units are scattered throughout the United States. The principal bases are Camp Pendleton on the West Coast, home to I MEF; Camp Lejeune on the East Coast, home to II MEF; and Camp Butler in Okinawa, Japan, home to III MEF. Other important bases include air stations, recruit depots, logistics bases, and training commands. Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms in California is the Marine Corps' largest base and home to the Corps' most complex, combined-arms, live-fire training. Marine Corps Base Quantico
Marine Corps Base Quantico
in Virginia
Virginia
is home to Marine Corps Combat Development Command, and nicknamed the "Crossroads of the Marine Corps".[91][92] The Marine Corps maintains a significant presence in the National Capital Region, with Headquarters Marine Corps
Headquarters Marine Corps
scattered amongst the Pentagon, Henderson Hall, Washington Navy Yard, and Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. Additionally, Marines
Marines
operate detachments at many installations owned by other branches, to better share resources, such as specialty schools. Marines
Marines
are also present at, and operate many, forward bases during expeditionary operations. Marine Forces Reserve
Marine Forces Reserve
(MARFORRES/USMCR)[edit] Marine Forces Reserve
Marine Forces Reserve
consists of the Force Headquarters Group, 4th Marine Division, 4th Marine Aircraft Wing, and the 4th Marine Logistics Group. The MARFORRES/USMCR is capable of forming a 4th Marine Expeditionary Force
Marine Expeditionary Force
(MEF) or reinforcing/augmenting active-duty forces. Special
Special
Operations[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Marine Corps Forces Special
Special
Operations Command See also: Marine Raider Regiment
Marine Raider Regiment
and United States
United States
Marine Corps Special Operations Capable Forces

Marine Raiders
Marine Raiders
conduct CQB training.

Marine Corps Forces Special
Special
Operations Command (MARSOC) includes: the Marine Raider Regiment, the Marine Raider Support Group, and the Marine Special
Special
Operations School. Both the Raider Regiment and the Raider Support Group consist of a headquarters company and three operations battalions. The Special
Special
Operations School conducts screening, assessment, selection, training and development functions for MARSOC units. Marine Corps Special Operations Capable forces include: Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Companies, the Chemical Biological Incident Response Force, the Marine Division Reconnaissance Battalions, Force Reconnaissance Companies, Maritime Special
Special
Purpose Force, and Special Reaction Teams. Additionally, all deployed Marine Expeditionary Units are certified as " Special
Special
Operations Capable", viz. "MEU(SOC)", however Special Operations Capable forces are not considered to be special operations forces. Although the notion of a Marine special operations forces contribution to the United States Special Operations Command
United States Special Operations Command
(USSOCOM) was considered as early as the founding of USSOCOM in the 1980s, it was resisted by the Marine Corps. Then-Commandant Paul X. Kelley
Paul X. Kelley
expressed the belief that Marines
Marines
should only support Marines, and that the Corps should not fund a special operations capability that would not directly support Marine operations.[93] However, much of the resistance from within the Corps dissipated when Marine leaders watched the Corps' 15th and 26th MEU(SOC)s "sit on the sidelines" during the very early stages of Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
while other special operations units from the Army, Navy, and Air Force actively engaged in operations in Afghanistan.[94] After a three-year development period, the Corps agreed in 2006 to supply a 2,500-strong unit, Marine Forces Special
Special
Operations Command, which would answer directly to USSOCOM.[95] Personnel[edit] See also: List of notable United States
United States
Marines
Marines
and List of historically notable United States
United States
Marines Leadership[edit]

Robert Neller, Commandant of the Marine Corps

Glenn M. Walters., Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps

Ronald L. Green Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps

The Commandant of the Marine Corps
Commandant of the Marine Corps
is the highest-ranking officer of the Marine Corps, unless a Marine is either the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. The Commandant has the U.S. Code Title 10 responsibility to staff, train, and equip the Marine Corps and has no command authority. The Commandant is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and reports to the Secretary of the Navy.[96] The Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps
Commandant of the Marine Corps
acts as a deputy to the Commandant. The Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
is the senior enlisted Marine, and acts as an adviser to the Commandant. Headquarters Marine Corps
Headquarters Marine Corps
comprises the rest of the Commandant's counsel and staff, with deputy Commandants that oversee various aspects of the Corps assets and capabilities. The current and 37th Commandant is Robert Neller, who assumed the position on 30 September 2015.[97][98] The 34th and current Assistant Commandant is Glenn M. Walters., while the 18th and current Sergeant Major is Ronald L. Green. Women[edit] Main article: Women in the United States
United States
Marines

Two of the first female graduates of the School of Infantry-East's Infantry
Infantry
Training
Training
Battalion
Battalion
course, 2013

Women have served in the USMC since 1918.[99] In January 2017, three women joined an infantry battalion at Camp Lejune. Women had not served as infantry Marines
Marines
prior to this.[100] In 2017, the Marines released a recruitment ad that focused on women for the first time.[101] As of 2017[update] women make up about 7% of the force.[102] Rank structure[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Marine Corps rank insignia As in the rest of the United States Armed Forces
United States Armed Forces
(excluding the Air Force, which does not currently appoint warrant officers), Marine Corps ranks fall into one of three categories: commissioned officer, warrant officer, and enlisted, in decreasing order of authority. To standardize compensation, each rank is assigned a pay grade.[103] Commissioned officers[edit] Commissioned officers are distinguished from other officers by their commission, which is the formal written authority, issued in the name of the President of the United States, that confers the rank and authority of a Marine officer. Commissioned officers carry the "special trust and confidence" of the President of the United States.[21] Marine Corps commissioned officers are promoted based on an "up or out" system in accordance with the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980.

U.S. DoD Pay Grade O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10

Insignia

Title Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General General

Abbreviation 2ndLt 1stLt Capt Maj LtCol Col BGen MajGen LtGen Gen

NATO Code OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9

Note: Insignia for second and first lieutenant shown above are incorrectly depicted as U.S. Army
U.S. Army
/ U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
insignia; the U.S. Naval Services (U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Coast Guard), as well as the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, use insignia bars that do not have beveled edges. (See the illustration of the captain's insignia for comparison and correct depiction of the non-beveled edge bars.)[104] Warrant officers[edit] See also: Warrant officer (United States) Warrant officers are primarily former enlisted experts in a specific specialized field and provide leadership generally only within that speciality.

U.S. DoD Pay Grade W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5

Insignia

Title Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer 2 Chief Warrant Officer 3 Chief Warrant Officer 4 Chief Warrant Officer 5

Abbreviation WO CWO2 CWO3 CWO4 CWO5

NATO Code WO-1 WO-2 WO-3 WO-4 WO-5

Enlisted[edit]

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Enlisted Marines
Marines
in the pay grades E-1 to E-3 make up the bulk of the Corps' ranks, usually referred to simply as "Marines". Although they do not technically hold leadership ranks, the Corps' ethos stresses leadership among all Marines, and junior Marines
Marines
are often assigned responsibility normally reserved for superiors. Those in the pay grades of E-4 and E-5 are non-commissioned officers (NCOs). They primarily supervise junior Marines
Marines
and act as a vital link with the higher command structure, ensuring that orders are carried out correctly. Marines
Marines
E-6 and higher are Staff Non-Commissioned Officers (SNCOs), charged with supervising NCOs and acting as enlisted advisers to the command. The E-8 and E-9 levels have two and three ranks per pay grade, respectively, each with different responsibilities. The First Sergeant and Sergeant Major ranks are command-oriented, serving as the senior enlisted Marines
Marines
in a unit, charged to assist the commanding officer in matters of discipline, administration and the morale and welfare of the unit. Master Sergeants and Master Gunnery Sergeants provide technical leadership as occupational specialists in their specific MOS. The Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
also E-9, is a billet conferred on the senior enlisted Marine of the entire Marine Corps, personally selected by the Commandant. It is possible however for an enlisted Marine to hold a position senior to Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps which was the case from 2011 to 2015 with the appointment of Sergeant Major Bryan B. Battaglia
Bryan B. Battaglia
to the billet of Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman, who is the senior enlisted member of the United States
United States
military. Different forms of address can be found at United States
United States
Marine Corps rank insignia and List of United States
United States
Marine Corps acronyms and expressions.

U.S. DoD Pay grade E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9

Insignia No insignia

Title Private Private First Class Lance Corporal Corporal Sergeant Staff Sergeant Gunnery Sergeant Master Sergeant First Sergeant Master Gunnery Sergeant Sergeant Major Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps

Abbreviation Pvt PFC LCpl Cpl Sgt SSgt GySgt MSgt 1stSgt MGySgt SgtMaj SMMC

NATO Code OR-1 OR-2 OR-3 OR-4 OR-5 OR-6 OR-7 OR-8 OR-9

Military Occupational Specialty[edit] Main articles: Military Occupational Specialty and List of United States Marine Corps MOS The Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) is a system of job classification. Using a four digit code, it designates what field and specific occupation a Marine performs. Segregated between officer and enlisted, the MOS determines the staffing of a unit. Some MOSs change with rank to reflect supervisory positions, others are secondary and represent a temporary assignment outside of a Marine's normal duties or special skill.

A Warrant Officer observes recruits firing on a rifle range.

Initial training[edit] Main articles: United States Marine Corps Recruit Training
United States Marine Corps Recruit Training
and Officer Candidates School ( United States
United States
Marine Corps) Every year, over 2,000 new Marine officers are commissioned, and 38,000 recruits accepted and trained.[33] All new Marines, enlisted or officer, are recruited by the Marine Corps Recruiting Command.[105] Commissioned officers are commissioned mainly through one of three sources: Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps
Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps
(NROTC), Officer Candidates School (OCS), or the United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
(USNA). Following commissioning, all Marine commissioned officers, regardless of accession route or further training requirements, attend The Basic School (TBS) at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. At TBS, second lieutenants, warrant officers, and selected foreign officers learn the art of infantry and combined arms warfare.[21]

Marine recruits at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego.

Enlisted Marines
Marines
attend recruit training, known as boot camp, at either Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego
Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego
or Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island. Historically, the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
served as a dividing line that delineated who would be trained where, while more recently, a district system has ensured a more even distribution of male recruits between the two MCRD facilities. Females attend only the Parris Island depot as part of the segregated Fourth Recruit Training Battalion. All recruits must pass a fitness test to start training; those who fail receive individualized attention and training until the minimum standards are reached. Marine recruit training is the longest among the American military services; it is 13 weeks long including processing and out-processing.[106] Following recruit training, enlisted Marines
Marines
then attend The School of Infantry
Infantry
at Camp Geiger
Camp Geiger
or Camp Pendleton. Infantry
Infantry
Marines
Marines
begin their combat training, which varies in length, immediately with the Infantry
Infantry
Training
Training
Battalion
Battalion
(ITB). Marines
Marines
in all other MOSs other than infantry train for 29 days in Marine Combat Training
Training
(MCT), learning common infantry skills, before continuing on to their MOS schools, which vary in length.[107] Uniforms[edit] Main article: Uniforms of the United States
United States
Marine Corps

Left to right: Utility Uniform, Dress Uniform, Service Uniform, and Evening Dress Uniform

The Marine Corps has the most stable and most recognizable uniforms in the American military; the Dress Blues dates back to the early 19th century[33] and the service uniform to the early 20th century. Only a handful of skills (parachutist, air crew, explosive ordnance disposal, etc.) warrant distinguishing badges, and rank insignia is not worn on uniform headgear (with the exception of an officer's garrison service cover). While other servicemembers commonly identify with a sub-group as much as or more than their service (Ranger, submariner, aircrew, etc.), Marine uniforms do not reflect such division. Marines
Marines
have four main uniforms: Dress, Service, Utility, and Physical Training
Training
(PT). These uniforms have a few minor, but very distinct, variations from enlisted personnel to commissioned and non-commissioned officers. The Marine Corps Dress uniform
Dress uniform
is the most elaborate, worn for formal or ceremonial occasions. There are four different forms of the Dress uniform. The variations of the dress uniforms are known as "Alphas", "Bravos", "Charlies", or "Deltas". The most common being the "Blue Dress Alphas or Bravos", called "Dress Blues" or simply "Blues". It is most often seen in recruiting advertisements and is equivalent to black tie. There is a "Blue-White" Dress for summer, and Evening Dress for formal (white tie) occasions. Versions with a khaki shirt in lieu of the coat (Blue Dress Charlie/Delta) are worn as a daily working uniform by Marine recruiters and NROTC staff.[108] The Service Uniform was once the prescribed daily work attire in garrison; however, it has been largely superseded in this role by the utility uniform. Consisting of olive green and khaki colors, it is commonly referred to as "Greens". It is roughly equivalent in function and composition to a business suit.[108] The Utility Uniform, currently the Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniform, is a camouflage uniform intended for wear in the field or for dirty work in garrison, though it has now been standardized for regular duty. It is rendered in MARPAT
MARPAT
pixelated camouflage (sometimes referred to as digitals or digies) that breaks up the wearer's shape. In garrison, the woodland and desert uniforms are worn depending on the Marine's duty station.[109] Marines
Marines
consider the utilities a working uniform and do not permit their wear off-base, except in transit to and from their place of duty and in the event of an emergency.[108] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of the United States
United States
Marine Corps As in any military organization, the official and unofficial traditions of the Marine Corps serve to reinforce camaraderie and set the service apart from others. The Corps' embrace of its rich culture and history is cited as a reason for its high esprit de corps.[21]

Eagle, Globe and Anchor along with the U.S. flag, the Marine Corps flag and the Commandant's flag.

Official traditions and customs[edit]

Semper Fidelis
Semper Fidelis
March

John Philip Sousa's " Semper Fidelis
Semper Fidelis
March", the official march of the U.S. Marine Corps. Performed by the U.S. Marine Band in June 1909.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The Marines' Hymn dates back to the 19th century and is the oldest official song in the United States
United States
armed forces. The Marine motto Semper Fidelis
Semper Fidelis
means Always Faithful in Latin, often appearing as Semper Fi; also the name of the official march of the Corps, composed by John Philip Sousa. The mottos "Fortitudine" (With Fortitude); By Sea and by Land, a translation of the Royal Marines' Per Mare, Per Terram; and To the Shores of Tripoli
Tripoli
were used until 1868.[110] The Marine Corps emblem is the Eagle, Globe, and Anchor, sometimes abbreviated "EGA", adopted in 1868.[111] The Marine Corps seal includes the emblem, also is found on the flag of the United States Marine Corps, and establishes scarlet and gold as the official colors.[112] Two styles of swords are worn by Marines: the officers' Mameluke Sword, similar to the Persian shamshir presented to Lt. Presley O'Bannon after the Battle of Derna, and the Marine NCO sword.[33] The Marine Corps Birthday is celebrated every year on 10 November in a cake-cutting ceremony where the first slice of cake is given to the oldest Marine present, who in turn hands it off to the youngest Marine present. The celebration includes a reading of Commandant Lejeune's Birthday Message.[113] Close Order Drill is heavily emphasized early on in a Marine's initial training, incorporated into most formal events, and is used to teach discipline by instilling habits of precision and automatic response to orders, increase the confidence of junior officers and noncommissioned officers through the exercise of command and give Marines
Marines
an opportunity to handle individual weapons.[114] An important part of the Marine Corps culture is the traditional seafaring naval terminology derived from its history with the Navy. Marines
Marines
are not "soldiers", or "sailors".[115] Unofficial traditions and customs[edit]

A recruiting poster makes use of the "Teufel Hunden" nickname.

Marines
Marines
have several generic nicknames:

Devil Dog
Devil Dog
has several oft-disputed explanations,[116][117][118] but the tradition has expanded to include the English bulldog's association with the Corps, especially as a mascot.[33] gyrene has dropped out of popular use.[119] Leatherneck
Leatherneck
refers to a leather collar formerly part of the Marine uniform during the Revolutionary War
War
period.[120] Jarhead has several oft-disputed explanations.[121]

Some other unofficial traditions include mottos and exclamations:

Oorah is common among Marines, being similar in function and purpose to the Army
Army
and Air Force's hooah and the Navy's hooyah cries. Many possible etymologies have been offered for the term.[122] Semper Fi is a common greeting among serving and veteran Marines. It is short for the Marine Corps Motto "Semper Fidelis" Improvise, Adapt and Overcome has become an adopted mantra in many units.[123]

Veteran Marines[edit] The Corps encourages the idea that "Marine" is an earned title and most Marine Corps personnel take to heart the phrase "Once a Marine, Always a Marine". They reject the term "ex-Marine" in most circumstances. There are no regulations concerning the address of persons who have left active service, so a number of customary terms have come into common use:[58]

"Marine" is acceptable and considered complimentary by most Corps personnel. "Former Marine" or "Veteran Marine" is acceptable in referring to anyone who has been honorably discharged from the Corps. "Retired Marine" is generally reserved for those who have completed 20 or more years of service are called "Lifers" and formally retired or those who have been medically retired. According to one of the "Commandant's White letters" from Commandant Alfred M. Gray, Jr., referring to a Marine by their last earned rank is appropriate.[124]

Martial arts program[edit]

Marine performs a shoulder throw.

Main article: Marine Corps Martial Arts Program In 2001, the Marine Corps initiated an internally designed martial arts program, called Marine Corps Martial Arts Program
Marine Corps Martial Arts Program
(MCMAP). Due to an expectation that urban and police-type peacekeeping missions would become more common in the 21st century, placing Marines
Marines
in even closer contact with unarmed civilians, MCMAP was implemented to provide Marines
Marines
with a larger and more versatile set of less-than-lethal options for controlling hostile, but unarmed individuals. It is a stated aim of the program to instill and maintain the "Warrior Ethos" within Marines.[125] The Marine Corps Martial Arts program is an eclectic mix of different styles of martial arts melded together. MCMAP consists of punches and kicks from Taekwondo
Taekwondo
and Karate, opponent weight transfer from Jujitsu, ground grappling involving joint locking techniques and chokes from Brazilian jiu-jitsu, and a mix of knife and baton/stick fighting derived from Eskrima, and elbow strikes and kick boxing from Muay Thai. Marines
Marines
begin MCMAP training in boot camp, where they will earn the first of five available belts.[126] Equipment[edit] Main pages: Category: United States
United States
Marine Corps equipment and List of United States
United States
Marine Corps individual equipment As of 2013, the typical infantry rifleman carries $14,000 worth of gear (excluding night-vision goggles), compared to $2,500 a decade earlier. The number of pieces of equipment (everything from radios to trucks) in a typical infantry battalion has also increased, from 3,400 pieces of gear in 2001 to 8,500 in 2013.[127] Infantry
Infantry
weapons[edit] Main article: List of weapons of the United States
United States
Marine Corps

Marines
Marines
firing the MEU(SOC) pistol
MEU(SOC) pistol
while garrisoned aboard ship.

The basic infantry weapon of the Marine Corps is the M4 Carbine, with a majority of non-infantry Marines
Marines
equipped with the M16A4 service rifle. The M4 carbine[128] and Colt 9mm SMG[129] have also been issued. The standard side arm is the M9A1 pistol. The Colt M1911A1
M1911A1
is also being put back into service as the M45A1 Close Quarter Battle Pistol (CQBP) in small numbers. Suppressive fire
Suppressive fire
is provided by the M27 IAR, M249 SAW, and M240 machine guns, at the squad and company levels respectively. In addition, indirect fire is provided by the M203 grenade launcher
M203 grenade launcher
and the M32 grenade launcher in fireteams, M224 60 mm mortar in companies, and M252 81 mm mortar in battalions. The M2 .50 caliber heavy machine gun and MK19 automatic grenade launcher (40 mm) are available for use by dismounted infantry, though they are more commonly vehicle-mounted. Precision firepower is provided by the M40 series, and the Barrett M107, while designated marksmen use the DMR (being replaced by the M39 EMR), and the SAM-R.[130]

Marine Amphibious Assault Vehicles emerge from the surf onto the sand of Freshwater Beach, Australia.

The Marine Corps utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an offensive and defensive anti-armor capability. The SMAW and AT4
AT4
are unguided rockets that can destroy armor and fixed defenses (e.g., bunkers) at ranges up to 500 meters. The smaller and lighter M72 LAW
M72 LAW
can destroy targets at ranges up to 200 meters.[131][132] The Predator SRAW, FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW
BGM-71 TOW
are anti-tank guided missiles. The Javelin can utilize top-attack profiles to avoid heavy frontal armor. The Predator is a short-range fire-and-forget weapon; the Javelin and TOW are heavier missiles effective past 2,000 meters that give infantry an offensive capability against armor.[133] The USMC is currently seeking to purchase commercial off-the-shelf bullet-trap or shoot-through rifle-grenades.[134] These grenades will provide individual Marines
Marines
additional firepower and will allow indirect fire against targets in defilade, behind walls and buildings or rooftops and elevated positions at ranges between 30 and 150 meters.[134]

A Marine M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams
tank offloading from a Landing Craft Air Cushioned vehicle.

Ground vehicles[edit] Main article: List of vehicles of the United States
United States
Marine Corps The Corps operates the same HMMWV and M1A1 Abrams tank as does the Army. However, for its specific needs, the Corps uses a number of unique vehicles. The LAV-25
LAV-25
is a dedicated wheeled armored personnel carrier, similar to the Army's Stryker
Stryker
vehicle, used to provide strategic mobility.[135] Amphibious capability is provided by the AAV-7A1 Assault Amphibious Vehicle, an armored tracked vehicle that doubles as an armored personnel carrier, due to be replaced by the Amphibious Combat Vehicle, a faster vehicle with superior armor and weaponry. The threat of land mines and improvised explosive devices in Iraq and Afghanistan has seen the Corps begin purchasing heavy armored vehicles that can better withstand the effects of these weapons as part of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle program.[136] The Marine Corps has ordered 1,960 MRAP
MRAP
vehicles, hoping to use them to replace HMMWVs and some Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacements on patrols in Iraq.[137] The Logistics Vehicle System
Logistics Vehicle System
Replacement began replacing the Logistics Vehicle System
Logistics Vehicle System
in 2009.[138] Prior to 2005, the Marines
Marines
operated exclusively tube artillery – the M198 155 mm howitzer, now being replaced by the M777 155 mm howitzer. However, the Corps has expanded its artillery composition to include the High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS), a truck-mounted rocket artillery system. Both are capable of firing guided munitions.[139] Aircraft[edit]

Marine parachutists jumping from an MV-22 Osprey at 10,000 feet.

Main article: United States
United States
Marine Corps Aviation See also: List of active United States
United States
military aircraft The organic aviation capability of the Marine Corps is essential to its amphibious mission. The Corps operates both rotary-wing and fixed-wing aircraft mainly to provide assault support and close air support to its ground forces. However, other aircraft types are also used in a variety of support and special-purpose roles. The light transport and attack capabilities are provided by the Bell UH-1Y Venom and Bell AH-1 SuperCobra, which is being replaced by the Bell AH-1Z Viper.[140] Medium-lift squadrons flying the CH-46E Sea Knight and CH-53D Sea Stallion helicopters are converting to the MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor with superior range and speed. Heavy-lift squadrons are equipped with the CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter, eventually to be replaced with the upgraded CH-53K.[141]

A U.S. Marine AH-1Z Viper lands on USS Makin Island in 2010.

Marine attack squadrons fly the AV-8B Harrier II; while the fighter/attack mission is handled by the single-seat and dual-seat versions of the F/A-18 Hornet strike-fighter aircraft. The AV-8B is a V/STOL
V/STOL
aircraft that can operate from amphibious assault ships, land air bases and short, expeditionary airfields, while the F/A-18 can only be flown from land or aircraft carriers. Both are slated to be replaced by 340 of the STOVL
STOVL
B version of the F-35 Lightning II[142] and 80 of the carrier F-35C
F-35C
versions for deployment with Navy carrier air wings.[143][144][145][146]

Marine Corps F-35B, the vertical-landing version of the F-35 Lightning II multirole fighter landing aboard USS Wasp.

In addition, the Corps operates its own organic aerial refueling and electronic warfare (EW) assets in the form of the K C-130 Hercules
C-130 Hercules
and EA-6B Prowler, respectively, however it also receives a large amount of support from the U.S. Air Force. The Hercules doubles as a ground refueler and tactical-airlift transport aircraft. The Prowler is one of the only two active tactical electronic warfare aircraft left in the United States
United States
inventory, and has been labeled a "national asset"; it is used along with the Navy's EA-18G Growlers to assist in any American combat action since the retirement of the Air Force's tactical EW aircraft.[147] The Marine Corps plans to retire the Prowlers by September 2016 and after that time EW capability will come from Marine Air-Ground Task Force
Marine Air-Ground Task Force
Electronic Warfare, which is a strategy where every platform contributes and functions as a sensor, shooter and sharer.[148] The Marines
Marines
operate unmanned aerial vehicles: the RQ-7 Shadow and Scan Eagle for tactical reconnaissance.[149][150] Marine Fighter Training
Training
Squadron 401 (VMFT-401), operates F-5E, F-5F and F-5N Tiger II aircraft in support of air combat adversary (aggressor) training. Marine Helicopter
Helicopter
Squadron One (HMX-1) operates the VH-3D Sea King and VH-60N Whitehawk helicopters in the VIP transport role, most notably Marine One, but are due to be replaced. A single Marine Corps C-130 Hercules
C-130 Hercules
aircraft, "Fat Albert", is used to support the U.S. Navy's flight demonstration team, the "Blue Angels". In April 2016 it was reported that the vast majority of USMC aircraft were not capable of flight. Official statistics confirm that, of 276 F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters in the Marine Corps inventory, only about 30% are ready to fly; and only 42 of 147 heavy-lift CH-53E Super Stallion helicopters are airworthy. Average monthly flight time per pilot has dropped from an average of between 25 and 30 hours in 2006 to just over 4 hours in 2016.[151] Relationship with other services[edit] In general, the Marine Corps shares many resources with the other branches of the United States
United States
Armed Forces. However, the Corps has consistently sought to maintain its own identity with regard to mission, funding, and assets, while utilizing support available from the larger branches. While the Marine Corps has far fewer installations both in the U.S. and worldwide than the other branches, many Army
Army
posts, Naval stations, and Air Force bases have a Marine presence. They also cross train with other countries. United States
United States
Navy[edit]

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Main article: United States
United States
Navy

Assault Amphibious Vehicles approach the well deck of USS Bonhomme Richard.

The Marine Corps' counterpart under the Department of the Navy is the United States
United States
Navy. As a result, the Navy and Marine Corps have a close relationship, more so than with other branches of the military. Whitepapers and promotional literature have commonly used the phrase "Navy-Marine Corps Team",[152][153] or refer to "the Naval Service". Both the Chief of Naval Operations
Chief of Naval Operations
(CNO) and Commandant of the Marine Corps report directly to the Secretary of the Navy. Operationally, the Marine Corps provides the Fleet Marine Forces for service with the Navy's fleets, including the forward-deployed Marine Expeditionary Units embarked aboard Navy amphibious warships. The Corps also contributes some Marine Aviation fixed-wing fighter/attack assets (aircraft squadrons and related aircraft maintenance augmentation units) as part of the Carrier Air Wings deployed aboard aircraft carriers. The Marine Corps Security Force Regiment
Marine Corps Security Force Regiment
provides infantry-based security battalions and Fleet Anti-terrorism Security Team companies to guard and defend high-priority and overseas Navy bases. Security for the Presidential Retreat located aboard the Naval Support Activity Thurmond, viz., Camp David
Camp David
is provided by the Marine infantry battalion stationed as part of the garrison aboard Marine Barracks Washington. Cooperation between the two services includes the training and instruction of some future Marine Corps officers (most are trained and commissioned through Marine Corps OCS), all Marine Corps Naval Aviators (aircraft pilots) and Naval Flight Officers (airborne weapons and sensor system officers), and some Navy and Marine Corps enlisted personnel. The Corps receives a significant portion of its officers from the United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
(USNA) and Naval Reserve Officers Training
Training
Corps (NROTC). USNA and NROTC staff and faculty includes Marine Corps instructors. Marine Corps aviators and flight officers are trained in the Naval Air Training Command
Naval Air Training Command
(NATRACOM) and are designated, or winged as Naval Aviators or Naval Flight Officers. The Marine Corps provides flight instructors to the Naval Air Training Command as well as drill instructors to the Navy's Officer Candidate School. Many enlisted Marines, particularly those in the aviation maintenance specialties, are trained at Navy technical training centers. The Marine Corps also provides ground combat training support to various Navy field medical (Hospital Corpsmen), Naval Construction Force (Seabee), and Navy Expeditionary Warfare personnel, units, and commands.

Marine and sailor train with rifles in Iraq.

Training
Training
alongside each other is viewed as critical, as the Navy provides transport, logistical, and combat support to put Marine units into the fight, such as maritime prepositioning ships and naval gunfire support. Most Marine aviation assets ultimately derive from the Navy, with regard to acquisition, funding, and testing, and Navy aircraft carriers typically deploy with a Marine squadron alongside Navy squadrons. Marines
Marines
do not recruit or train noncombatants such as chaplains or medical/dental personnel; naval personnel fill these roles. Some of these sailors, particularly Hospital Corpsmen and Religious Programs Specialists, generally wear Marine uniforms emblazoned with Navy insignia. Conversely, the Marine Corps is responsible for conducting land operations to support naval campaigns, including the seizure of naval bases. Both services operate a network security team in conjunction. Marines
Marines
and sailors share many naval traditions, especially terminology and customs. Marine Corps Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
recipients wear the Navy variant of this and other awards;[26] and with few exceptions, the awards and badges of the Navy and Marine Corps are identical. Much of testing for new Marine Corps aircraft is done at NAS Patuxent River. The Navy's Blue Angels
Blue Angels
flight demonstration team is staffed by both Navy and Marine officers and enlisted men, and includes a Marine C-130 Hercules
C-130 Hercules
aircraft.[26] In 2007, the Marine Corps joined with the Navy and Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war.[154] This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent regional crises, man-made or natural, from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to avoid negative impacts to the United States. The Marines
Marines
have reduced the requirement for large amphibious ships from 42 to a bare minimum of 33 ships; the fleet currently stands at 29 ships and is likely to shrink in the future.[155] United States
United States
Army[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Army

A soldier from the 1st Infantry
Infantry
Regiment provides security for a joint Army-Marine patrol in Rawa in 2006. The shoulder sleeve insignia has the logo of the 2nd Marine Division.

The Marine Corps combat capabilities overlap with those of the United States Army, the latter having historically viewed the Corps as encroaching on the Army's capabilities and competing for funding, missions, and renown. The attitude dates back to the founding of the Continental Marines, when General George Washington
George Washington
refused to allow the initial Marine battalions to be drawn from among his Continental Army. Most significantly, in the aftermath of World War
War
II, Army efforts to restructure the American defense establishment included the dissolution of the Corps and the folding of its capabilities into the other services. Leading this movement were such prominent Army officers as General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
and Army
Army
Chief of Staff George C. Marshall.[58] With most of the 2000s spent in operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
Robert Gates
voiced concerns that the Marines
Marines
are becoming a "second Army".[31] Doctrinally, the Marine Corps' focus is on being expeditionary and independent, and places emphasis on amphibious mobility and combined arms; these make it a much lighter force than many units of the Army. However, the Army
Army
maintains much larger and diverse combat arms (infantry, armor, artillery, special operations), ground transport, and logistics, while the Marines
Marines
have a more diverse aviation arm (which constitutes a larger percentage of forces), and is usually organic to the MAGTF. Marines
Marines
operate as expeditionary units and are completely amphibious. The Marine Corps focus is on standardized infantry units with the other arms in support roles, as the "Every Marine a rifleman" creed shows. This commitment to standardized units can be seen in the short-lived experiment of the Marine Raiders. Widely known as the first American special operations unit, created during World War II
World War II
(February 1941[156]), was seen as controversial, due to the thought of ‘an elite unit, within an elite unit’ was not in the Marine Corps interest.[157] While the U.S. Army's 75th Ranger Regiment, also created in World War II
World War II
(December 1941), enjoys high prestige to this day due to its continuous service. The Marine Corps, by the insistence of then Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld,[158] were to create the present day successors to the Marine Raiders and join them to Special
Special
Operations Command starting with the establishment of MCSOCOM Detachment One
MCSOCOM Detachment One
in 2003.[94] The Marines
Marines
often leverage the Army's acquisition of ground equipment (as well as benefiting from Army
Army
research and development resources), training resources, and other support concepts. The majority of vehicles and weapons are shared with, modified, or inherited from Army programs.[citation needed] Culturally, Marines
Marines
and soldiers share most of the common U.S. military slang and terminology, but the Corps utilizes a large number of naval terms and traditions incompatible with army lifestyle, as well as their own unique vernacular. Many Marines
Marines
regard their culture to have a deep warrior tradition, with the ethos that "Every Marine a rifleman" and emphasis on cross-training and combat readiness despite actual military occupation, be it infantry or otherwise. Doctrinally, Marines
Marines
tend to decentralize and push leadership to lower ranks, while fostering initiative to a greater degree.[159] United States
United States
Air Force[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Air Force

Marines
Marines
unload CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters from an Air Force C-5 Galaxy

While some of Marine Corps Aviation assets ultimately derive from the Navy, a large amount of support is drawn from the United States
United States
Air Force. The Marine Corps makes extensive use of the USAF Air Mobility Command to airlift marines and equipment, along with utilizing close air support from the Air Force. The Air Force may also attach TACP units to conventional marine ground forces to provide coordination for close air support.[160] The Air Force traditionally provides the Joint Force Air Component Commander who controls "sorties for air defense, and long range interdiction and reconnaissance" while the MAGTF commander retains control of the Marines' organic aviation assets, however Marine Aviation missions not directly in the support of the MAGTAF will be typically controlled by the JFACC.[161][162][163] United States
United States
Coast Guard[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Coast Guard The Marine Corps shares a sphere of operation with units of the United States Coast Guard, including operation of the Joint Maritime Training Center (JMTC) (previously known as the Special
Special
Missions Training Center (SMTC)), a joint Coast Guard, Navy, and Marine Corps training facility located on the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune
Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune
in Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Budget[edit] The Marine Corps accounts for around six percent of the military budget of the United States.[164][165] However, given expected defense budget cuts the Marines
Marines
are well positioned for "fielding cheap options for an uncertain world."[166][167] In 2013, the USMC became the first American military branch to ever have a fully audited annual budget.[168] See also[edit]

Military of the United States
United States
portal United States
United States
Marine Corps portal

United States
United States
Marine Corps Women's Reserve

Notes[edit]

^ see: 17th Marines, 18th Marines, 19th Marines, and 20th Marines

References[edit]

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II, Volume I. Historical Branch, HQMC, United States
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Marine Corps. Retrieved 2 June 2007. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Garand, George W. & Truman R. Strobridge (1971). "Part II, Chapter 1: The Development of FMFPac". Western Pacific Operations. History of U.S. Marine Corps
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United States Coast Guard
is smaller, about one-fifth the size of the U.S. Marine Corps, but it is part of United States
United States
Department of Homeland Security and does not normally operate under the DoD except during times of war or as directed by the U.S. president. The USMC is the largest marine corps force in the world and is larger than the armed forces of many significant powers; for example, the USMC is larger than the active duty Israel Defense Forces. ^ "Israeli Defense Forces, CSIS" (PDF). 25 July 2006. p. 12.  ^ " United States
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Marine Corps Band 10 July 1998". In Office of the Federal Register. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, William J. Clinton, 1998, Book
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2: July 1 to December 31, 1998. Government Printing Office. p. 1217. ISBN 978-1-4034-4551-3. The Marine Band played at Thomas Jefferson's Inauguration in 1801 and hasn't missed a single one since. Jefferson was a violin player who loved music almost as much as he loved freedom. He named the band "The President's Own".  ^ Hearn, Chester G. (2007). Marines: An Illustrated History: the United States
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Lieutenant
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Marines
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Marines
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U.S. Marine Corps
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1800–1934. Washington, D.C.: History and Museums Division, HQ, USMC.  ^ "Report on Marine Corps Duplication of Effort between Army
Army
and Navy". U.S. Marine Corps. 17 December 1932. Contains a very detailed account of almost all the actions of the Continental Marines and USMC until 1932. It is available in scanned TIFF format from the archives of the Marine Corps University. ^ Mitchell, John Ames (1918). "Teufel-Hunden". Life Magazine. 72: 759. Retrieved 7 October 2011.  ^ "History of Marine Corps Aviation – World War
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In World War I
World War I
(1974). United States Marine Corps History and Museums Division. Retrieved 2014-12-31.  ^ "Women Marines". Usmcpress.com. Retrieved 2015-08-11.  ^ Ballendorf, Dirk Anthony (1997). Pete Ellis: an amphibious warfare prophet, 1880–1923. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.  ^ Derrick Wright and Jim Laurier, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines
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raise the flag on Mount Suribachi
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(2012) ^ " Marines
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in World War II
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with the Marines, U.S. Navy Seabee Museum Archives, Port Hueneme, CA 93043 [2] ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). U.S. Marine Corps
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II. ^ "The preannounced landing of U.S. Marines
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Naval Aviation, 1910–1995. U.S. Navy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2001-10-05.  (PDF file, see "1992, 9 December" on p. 16) ^ "Address to Congress". Whitehouse. Retrieved 3 August 2008.  ^ "Gates Announces Major Pentagon Priority Shifts". CNN. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2009.  ^ Shanker, Thom (8 May 2010). "Gates Takes Aim at Pentagon Spending". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2010.  ^ Jaffe, Greg (9 May 2010). "Gates: Cuts in Pentagon bureaucracy needed to help maintain military force". Washington Post. Retrieved 9 May 2010.  ^ Smith, Rich (13 November 2010). " Marines
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face charges in Haditha killings". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 January 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.  ^ White, Josh; Geis, Sonya (22 June 2006). "8 Troops Charged In Death Of Iraqi". CNN. Retrieved 3 August 2008.  ^ a b " Marines
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Special
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Marines
Association". Retrieved 2017-07-29.  ^ Tatum, Sophie. "Military welcomes first women infantry Marines". CNN. Retrieved 2017-07-29.  ^ " Marines
Marines
Release First-Ever Ad Spotlighting Woman In Combat Position". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-07-29.  ^ "Female Marines
Marines
Tackle What They Call A Corps' 'Culture of Sexism'". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-07-29.  ^ "DoD Defense Insignia".  ^ Marine Corps Uniform Regulations MARINE CORPS ORDER P1020.34G W/CH 1-5, CHAPTER 4. INSIGNIA AND REGULATIONS FOR WEAR, Sec. 4005. INSIGNIA OF GRADE, OFFICERS, Para. 2. Description by Grade, h. Captain, i. First Lieutenant, & j. Second Lieutenant
Lieutenant
(p. 4-25) and Figure 4-11. Officers' Grade Insignia (Shoulder/Collar) (p. 4-21) ^ Clancy, Tom (1996). Marine: a guided tour of a Marine expeditionary unit. Penguin. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-425-15454-0.  ^ Bernard L. DeKoning, ed. (2006). Recruit Medicine: Textbooks of Military Medicine. Government Printing Office. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-16-076718-0.  ^ Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Making the Corps: 10th Anniversary Edition with a New Afterword by the Author (10 ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-4165-4450-0.  ^ a b c "Mco p1020.34g". United States
United States
Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 27 November 2005.  ^ ALMAR 007/08 directing seasonal uniform changes ^ "USMC Customs and Traditions". History Division, U.S. Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007.  ^ " U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
Emblem". U.S. Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 7 January 2008.  ^ "Marine Corps Emblem and Seal". Customs and Traditions. Reference Branch, History Division, United States
United States
Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 19 February 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2008.  ^ "Marine Corps Birthday Celebration". USMC History Division. Archived from the original on 6 August 2007.  ^ "Drill a Platoon Sized Unit". Student Handout. Marine Corps University. Archived from the original on 10 July 2007.  ^ "Don't call a Marine a soldier or sailor". The News-Times. Danbury, CT. September 25, 2005. Retrieved May 26, 2017.  ^ "Marine Corps History, Customs, and Courtesies". U.S. Marine Guidebook. United states Marine Corps. 2010. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-60239-941-9. Marines
Marines
fought like teufel hunden, legendary wild, devil dogs that at one time roamed the forests of northern Germany  ^ Myers, Thomas (1988). "Hearts of Darkness". Walking Point: American Narratives of Vietnam. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-19-505351-7. He reminds his charges that "at Belleau Wood the Marines
Marines
were so vicious that the German infantrymen called them Teufel-Hunden – 'devil dogs'  ^ Waseleski, Michael (2009). To Lead by the Unknowing, to Do the Unthinkable. AuthorHouse. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4389-5676-3. the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments earned the nickname of "Teufel Hunden" (devil dog) by the Germans in World War I
World War I
during the 1918 Château-Thierry campaign near the French village of Bouresches, the Battle of Belleau Wood  ^ Rottman, Gordon (2011). "GI and Gyrene Jargon US Army
Army
and Marine Corps Slang". FUBAR F***ed Up Beyond All Recognition: Soldier Slang of World War
War
II. Osprey Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-84908-653-0. based on Chinese pronunciation of Marine  ^ "Marine Corps History, Customs, and Courtesies". U.S. Marine Guidebook. United states Marine Corps. 2010. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-60239-941-9. In 1804 the Secretary of the Navy ordered Marines
Marines
to wear black leather stock collars when on duty  ^ Rottman, Gordon (2011). "GI and Gyrene Jargon US Army
Army
and Marine Corps Slang". FUBAR F***ed Up Beyond All Recognition: Soldier Slang of World War
War
II. Osprey Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-84908-653-0. Most likely it was the pillbox cap and high stiff collar making a Marine appear similar to a Mason jar  ^ Hiresman III, LCpl. Paul W. "The meaning of 'Oorah' traced back to its roots". Marine Corps News. United States
United States
Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007.  ^ Santamaria, Jason A.; Vincent Martino; Eric K. Clemons (2005). The Marine Corps Way: Using Maneuver Warfare to Lead a Winning Organization. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-07-145883-2. Long before Hollywood popularized it, Marines
Marines
used the phrase to reflect their preference for being a fluid, loosely reined force that could spontaneously react to rapidly changing situations, rather than a rigid outfit that moved in a specific direction with a precise plan.  ^ Freedman, David H. (2000). Corps Business: The 30 Management Principles of the U.S. Marines. New York: Collins.  ^ Yi, Capt. Jamison, USMC. "MCMAP and the Warrior Ethos", Military Review, November–December 2004. ^ Franck, Loren (2003). "The Few and the Proud: A Tradition of Excellence Fuels the US Marine Corps Martial Arts Program". Black Belt. 41 (7): 70.  ^ Corps to Industry: Prepare for the Worst – DoDBuzz.com, 26 September 2013 ^ "Top Marine Glad to Have M16A4 Standard". Kit Up!. Military.com. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ "NAVMC DIRECTIVE 3500.90: MARINE CORPS SECURITY GUARD BATTALION TRAINING AND READINESS MANUAL, (SHORT TITLE: MSGBN T&R MANUAL)" (PDF). Headquarters Marine Corps. 4 April 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2014.  ^ "M40A1 Sniper Rifle". USMC Fact File. U.S. Marine corps. Archived from the original on 25 February 2007.  ^ John Antal "Packing a Punch: America's Man-Portable Antitank Weapons" page 88 Military Technology 3/2010 ISSN 0722-3226 ^ "Light Assault Weapon (LAW)". FBO.gov.  ^ "Tube Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire Guided (TOW) Missile Weapon System". USMC Fact File. U.S. Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 11 February 2007.  ^ a b 13-Ammunition and Explosives – M6785412I1003 (Archived) – Federal Business Opportunities: Opportunities. Fbo.gov (9 November 2011). ^ "Light Armored Vehicle-25 (LAV-25)". USMC Fact File. U.S. Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 28 April 2003.  ^ " U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
Orders More Force Protection Vehicles". Force Protection, Inc. – In the News. Force Protection, Inc. August 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2007.  ^ Andrew Feickert (21 August 2007). "Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress" (PDF). United States Congress.  ^ Lamothe, Dan (22 October 2009). "First LVSR truck arrives in Afghanistan". Marine Corps Times. Gannett Company. Archived from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2009.  ^ Lewis, Maj. J Christopher (July 2006). "The Future Artillery Force...Today". Marine Corps Gazette. Marine Corps Association (July 2006): 24–25.  ^ "AH-1W Super Cobra Helicopter". USMC Fact File. U.S. Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2008.  ^ "Marine Corps Rotary Wing". Federation of American Scientists.  ^ "F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Program". Department of Defense. Retrieved 3 August 2008.  ^ Daniel, Lisa (14 March 2011). "Plan Improves Navy, Marine Corps Air Capabilities". American Forces Press Service. United States
United States
Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.  ^ Cavas, Christopher P. (14 March 2011). "More Marines
Marines
to fly carrier-variant JSFs". Marine Corps Times. Archived from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.  ^ Cifuentes, Michael S. (14 March 2011). "Marine Corps continues flying with Joint Strike Fighter program". Headquarters Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2014.  ^ " U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
Received Its First F-35C
F-35C
Lightning II Carrier Variant". 29 January 2015.  ^ "EA-6B Prowler". USMC Fact File. U.S. Marine corps. Archived from the original on 23 October 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2008.  ^ Prowler "Final Four" perform division flight Marine Corps, 2 March 2016 ^ Talton, Trista. "U.S. Marines' Shadow UAV Sees First Combat". Defensenews.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2008.  ^ Scully, Megan. " Army
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assumes Navy, Marine UAV training". Seapower. Retrieved 6 December 2007.  ^ "Budget Cuts Leaving Marine Corps Aircraft Grounded". Military.com. 15 April 2016.  ^ Clark, Adm. Vern; Hinton, Don (October 2002). "Sea Power 21". Proceedings. Naval Institute Press. 130 (October 2002): 3005. doi:10.1090/S0002-9939-02-06392-X. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2006.  ^ Lt. Col. James Kuhn (2 November 2005). Enduring Freedom (Film). Department of the Navy. Archived from the original on 24 July 2006.  ^ Jim Garamone (17 October 2007). "Sea Services Unveil New Maritime Strategy". Navy News Service. Retrieved 3 August 2008.  ^ Erwin, Sandra. " Marines
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Worry About Future Shortage of Navy Ships." Archived 23 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. National Defense Magazine, 19 April 2011. ^ Fred Pushies (3 December 2012). "Marine Corps Special
Special
Operations: A Brief History".  ^ Rottman, Gordon L. Rottman (2006). US Special
Special
Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941–45: Scouts, Raiders, Rangers and Reconnaissance Units. Osprey Publishing.  Unknown parameter Chapter= ignored (chapter= suggested) (help) ^ Bradley Graham (3 November 2005). "Elite Marine Unit to Help Fight Terrorism".  ^ Connable, Maj Ben (2008). "Culture Warriors: Marine Corps Organizational Culture and Adaptation to Cultural Terrain" (PDF). Small Wars Journal. Small Wars Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2010.  ^ " U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
- Career Detail - Tactical Air Control Party Specialist (TACP)". www.airforce.com.  ^ "Purpose of JFACC (archived)". Archived from the original on 19 November 2005. Retrieved 2010-01-28. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . U.S. Air Force ^ United States
United States
Marine Corps (2005). Expeditionary Operations (Marine Corps Doctrinal Publication 3). Willside Press LLC. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-55742-371-9.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.  ^ Samantha L. Quigley. "Marine Corps Ready for Review's Scrutiny, Commandant Says". defense.gov. Retrieved 9 December 2009.  ^ Donnelly, Thomas (10 February 2011). "Misguided Military Talk". The Weekly Standard. NPR. Retrieved 13 February 2011.  ^ Dan Gouré "Uncertain World May be Good for the U.S. Marine Corps." Def Pro, 7 September 2011. ^ Francisco, Andre. "Lessons in Bad Budgeting from the Pentagon." POGO, 23 September 2011. ^ Sisk, Richard (7 February 2014). "Corps Becomes First Service to Pass Audit". www.dodbuzz.com. Military Advantage, A Monster Company. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States
United States
Marine Corps.

Further reading[edit]

Foster, Douglas (2006). Braving the Fear: The True Story of Rowdy US Marines
Marines
in the Gulf War. Frederick, Maryland: PublishAmerica. ISBN 1-4137-9902-7.  Martinez, Marco (2007). Hard Corps: From Gangster to Marine Hero. New York: Crown Forum. ISBN 978-0-307-38304-4.  Ricks, Thomas E. (1997). Making the Corps. New York: Scribner. ISBN 1-4165-4450-X.  Ulbrich, David J. (2011). Preparing for Victory: Thomas Holcomb and the Making of Modern Marine Corps, 1935–1943. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-903-7. 

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Leadership

Secretary of the Navy Under Secretary of the Navy Commandant of the Marine Corps Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps Marine Corps generals United States
United States
Congress

House Subcommittee on Seapower and Expeditionary Forces Senate Subcommittee on Seapower

Major commands

Organization of the Marine Corps Headquarters Marine Corps Marine Forces Command

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Marine Forces Pacific

I Marine Expeditionary Force III Marine Expeditionary Force

Marine Forces Reserve Fleet Marine Force

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& Education Command (TECOM) United States
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History and traditions

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War
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Book Portal

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Category

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Navbox

A MC N AF CG

Leadership

Commander-in-chief: President of the United States Secretary of Defense Deputy Secretary of Defense Secretary of Homeland Security Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security Joint Chiefs of Staff:

Chairman Vice Chairman

United States
United States
Congress: Committees on Armed Services:

Senate House

Active duty four-star officers United States
United States
military seniority National Security Act of 1947 Goldwater–Nichols Act

Organization

Service departments

Department of Defense (Secretary): Army
Army
(Secretary) Navy (Secretary) Air Force (Secretary) Department of Homeland Security (Secretary): Coast Guard

Branches

Army
Army
(Chief of Staff) Marine Corps (Commandant) Navy (Chief of Naval Operations) Air Force (Chief of Staff) Coast Guard (Commandant)

Reserve components

Reserves:

A MC N AF CG

National Guard:

A AF

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Special
Operations Strategic Transportation

Structure

United States
United States
Code

Title 10 Title 14 Title 32 Title 50

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Logistics Media Unit mottoes

Operations and history

Current deployments Conflicts Wars Timeline History:

A MC N AF CG

Colonial World War
War
II Civil affairs Officers' clubs African Americans Asian Americans Buddhist Americans Jewish Americans Muslim Americans Pakistani Americans Sikh Americans Historiography:

Army
Army
Center of Military History MC History Division Naval History and Heritage Command Air Force Historical Research Agency

American official war artists:

Army
Army
Art Program AF Art Program

Personnel

Training

MEPS ASVAB Recruit training:

A MC N AF CG

Officer candidate school:

A MC N AF

Warrant:

A MC

Service academies:

A (prep) N (prep) AF (prep) CG Merchant Marine

ROTC

A:ECP MC/N AF

Medical Other education

Uniforms

Uniforms:

A MC N AF CG

Awards & decorations:

Inter-service A MC/N AF CG Foreign International Devices

Badges:

Identification A MC N AF CG

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A MC N AF CG

Warrant officers Officer:

A MC N AF CG

Other

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Service numbers:

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A MC:

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Individual weapons Crew-served weapons Vehicles (active)

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N CG

Reactors

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Aircraft

World War
War
I active

Aircraft designation Missiles Helicopter
Helicopter
arms

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Nuclear football Electronics (designations) Flags:

A MC N AF CG Ensign Jack Guidons

Food WMDs:

Nuclear Biological Chemical

Legend A = Army MC = Marine Corps N = Navy AF = Air Force CG = Coast Guard

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James Mattis, Secretary of Defense Patrick M. Shanahan, Deputy Secretary of Defense

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Special
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The Pentagon
Channel)

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Department of the Army

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for Installations, Energy and Environment Assistant Secretary of the Army
Army
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Army
Staff: Chief of Staff of the Army Vice Chief of Staff of the Army Sergeant Major of the Army Deputy Chief of Staff G-8 Chief of Chaplains Judge Advocate General Provost Marshal General Surgeon General U.S. Army
U.S. Army
field organizations: see Structure of the United States
United States
Army

Department of the Navy

Secretary of the Navy The Secretariat: Under Secretary of the Navy Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Financial Management and Comptroller) Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment) Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisitions) General Counsel of the Navy Judge Advocate General Naval Criminal Investigative Service Naval Inspector General Headquarters Marine Corps: Commandant of the Marine Corps Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps Chaplain U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
field organizations: see Organization of the United States Marine Corps Office of the Chief of Naval Operations: Chief of Naval Operations Vice Chief of Naval Operations Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Director of Naval Reactors Chief of Chaplains Chief of Naval Personnel Surgeon General United States Navy
United States Navy
field organizations: see Structure of the United States Navy

Department of the Air Force

Secretary of the Air Force The Secretariat: Under Secretary of the Air Force Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Acquisition) Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Financial Management & Comptroller) Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Installations, Environment & Logistics) Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Manpower & Reserve Affairs) General Counsel of the Air Force Air Force Office of Special
Special
Investigations The Air Staff: Chief of Staff of the Air Force Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Chief of Chaplains Chief of Safety Chief Scientist Judge Advocate General Surgeon General U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
field organizations: Major Commands Direct Reporting Units Field Operating Agencies

Joint Chiefs of Staff

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman Joint Requirements Oversight Council Director of the Joint Staff Joint Staff National Military Command Center Alternate National Military Command Center National Defense University

Combatant Commands

Africa Command Central Command European Command Northern Command Pacific Command Southern Command Special
Special
Operations Command Strategic Command (Cyber Command) Transportation Command

National Guard Bureau

Chief of the National Guard Bureau Air National Guard Army
Army
National Guard

Office of the Inspector General

Defense Criminal Investigative Service

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NATO Land Forces

Land forces

Albanian Land Force Albanian Military Police

Belgian Land Component Belgian Medical Component

Bulgarian Land Forces Canadian Army Croatian Army

Czech Land Forces Czech Castle Guard

Royal Danish Army Danish Army
Army
Home Guard

Estonian Land Forces Estonian Defence League

French Army French National Gendarmerie French National Guard

German Army German Joint Support Service German Joint Medical Service

Hellenic Army Hungarian Ground Forces Iceland
Iceland
Crisis Response Unit

Italian Army Italian Carabinieri

Latvian Land Forces Latvian National Guard

Lithuanian Land Force Lithuanian Special
Special
Operations Force

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Army Montenegrin Ground Army

Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Army Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Marechaussee

Norwegian Army Norwegian Home Guard

Polish Land Forces Polish Special
Special
Forces Polish Territorial Defence Force

Portuguese Army Romanian Land Forces Ground Forces of the Slovak Republic Slovenian Ground Force

Spanish Army Spanish Royal Guard Common Corps of the Spanish Armed Forces Military Emergencies Unit

Turkish Land Forces Turkish Gendarmerie General Command

British Army United States
United States
Army

Maritime land forces

Military Police Company of the Bulgarian Naval Forces Command Croatian Naval Security Company Estonian Naval Base Defense Company French Fusiliers Marins German Naval Force Protection Battalion Italian Navy San Marco Marine Brigade Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps Portuguese Marine Corps Romanian Naval Forces 307th Marine Battalion Spanish Navy Marines Turkish Naval Amphibious Marine Brigade British Royal Marines United States
United States
Marine Corps

Air force land forces

Belgian Air Component Force Protection Squadron Military Police Company of the Bulgarian Air Forces Command Czech Air Force
Czech Air Force
Security Squadrons Estonian Air Force
Estonian Air Force
Base Defense Operations Center French Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air German Air Force Regiment Latvian Air Force Security Platoon Lituanian Air Force Air Defence Battalion Montenegrin Air Force
Montenegrin Air Force
Air Base Security Platoon Royal Norwegian Air Force Base Defense Squadron Portuguese Polícia Aérea British Royal Air Force Regiment United States Air Force
United States Air Force
Security Forces

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153063409 LCCN: n78095328 ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 1577 GND: 1029267-6 SUDOC: 08019544X BNF: cb119366070 (data) MusicBrainz: dee4544e-7a09-417b-81d6-86df42c3e29a NLA: 35568887 NKC: k

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