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Užice
Užice
(Serbian Cyrillic: Ужице, pronounced [ûʒit͡se] ( listen)) is a city and the administrative center of the Zlatibor District
Zlatibor District
in western Serbia. It is located on the banks of the river Đetinja. The administrative area has a total population of 82,060, while the urban area has a population of 59,747 (2011 census).[2]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate

2 History

2.1 Ancient era 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Ottoman period 2.4 Modern Serbia 2.5 World War II 2.6 Yugoslav era 2.7 1990s

3 Demographics

3.1 Ethnic groups

4 Settlements 5 Economy 6 Society and culture

6.1 Architecture 6.2 Media

7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns / sister cities

8 Notable people 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit]

Mountain Zlatibor

Užice
Užice
lies at 411 metres (1,348 feet) above sea level, on both sides of the river Đetinja. The city is completely surrounded by the Dinaric Alps, which are interconnected. 25 kilometres (16 miles) south of the city is Zlatibor
Zlatibor
mountain, which has a 120-year tradition of tourism. West of the city are Tara mountains and Zvijezda, which include The National Park with an area of 220 square kilometres (85 square miles) of unspoiled nature. The Belgrade-Bar railway
Belgrade-Bar railway
passes through Užice
Užice
and connects it with both the northern parts of the country and the Montenegrin coast. Užice
Užice
has a fairly developed transportation infrastructure, connected with the surrounding areas by state roads of the first order. Climate[edit] Užice
Užice
has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), that's very close to an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) .

Climate data for Užice

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 3.4 (38.1) 6.3 (43.3) 11.6 (52.9) 15.3 (59.5) 20.1 (68.2) 23.6 (74.5) 25.8 (78.4) 26.1 (79) 22.6 (72.7) 17.2 (63) 9.6 (49.3) 5.0 (41) 15.55 (59.99)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.3 (31.5) 2.2 (36) 6.5 (43.7) 10.0 (50) 14.6 (58.3) 18.1 (64.6) 19.9 (67.8) 19.9 (67.8) 16.6 (61.9) 11.8 (53.2) 5.7 (42.3) 1.7 (35.1) 10.56 (51.02)

Average low °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −1.8 (28.8) 1.4 (34.5) 4.7 (40.5) 9.2 (48.6) 12.6 (54.7) 14.1 (57.4) 13.8 (56.8) 10.6 (51.1) 6.5 (43.7) 1.8 (35.2) −1.6 (29.1) 5.62 (42.12)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 66 (2.6) 61 (2.4) 60 (2.36) 72 (2.83) 92 (3.62) 91 (3.58) 80 (3.15) 66 (2.6) 71 (2.8) 72 (2.83) 85 (3.35) 80 (3.15) 896 (35.27)

Source: Climate-Data.org [3]

History[edit] Ancient era[edit] The region surrounding Užice
Užice
was settled by Illyrians, specifically the Parthini and Autariatae tribes. Their tombs are found throughout the region. In the 3rd century BC, Scordisci
Scordisci
were formed here after the Gallic invasion of the Balkans. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 168 BC, being organized into the Illyricum province in 32–27 BC, and after 10 AD, the province of Dalmatia. The town municipium Capedunum existed here during Roman times; its name indicates a Celtic origin (dun, fortress),[4] similar to Singidunum, the founding of Belgrade. Middle Ages[edit] See also: History of Medieval Serbia Slavs
Slavs
have been recorded in the region since the 520s, when tribes pillaged the Eastern Roman Empire; during Justinian I's rule (527–565), up to 100,000 Slavs
Slavs
raided Thessalonica. The region ( Drina
Drina
župania) was part of the Vlastimirović dynasty
Vlastimirović dynasty
when they established the Serbian Principality, the first Serb state. Across the Drina, the army of Časlav fought the invading Magyars in ca 950–960. The region was annexed by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
after 969, becoming part of the katepanate of Ras, then the Theme of Sirmium.

Stari Grad (Old town), Castle fort built in the 1300s by Serbian nobleman Nikola Altomanović

The region may have been returned to Serbian hands in the 1040s, during the revolt against the Byzantines led by Stefan Vojislav, progenitor of the Vojislavljević
Vojislavljević
dynasty. In 1083, Vukan and Marko were appointed vassal princes in Rascia. In 1091, Vukan became independent, while Duklja
Duklja
(up until this, the most powerful Serbian principality) slowly crumbled, eventually coming under the rule of Rascia. The Serbian Grand Principality
Serbian Grand Principality
stayed in the hands of the Vukanović dynasty until another line of the same dynasty was set to rule by Manuel I Komnenos
Manuel I Komnenos
(r. 1143–1180). Zavida, thought to be a brother of Uroš II and Desa, fled after trying to acquire an appanage or the throne itself. Zavida's four sons divided the rule, each holding česti (parts): Stracimir ruled West Morava
West Morava
(including Užice), Miroslav ruled Zahumlje
Zahumlje
and Travunia, and Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
was given Toplica, Ibar, Rasina and Reke.[5] Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
eventually wrestled the rule[clarification needed] when defeating Tihomir in 1171, Stracimir continued ruling in Nemanja's name. The Nemanjić dynasty
Nemanjić dynasty
is named after Nemanja, who began the prospering of Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages. When King Dragutin abdicated in favor of his brother Milutin, he retained control of Užice
Užice
region and was given the Mačva
Mačva
region by the Hungarian king, of which he formed the Kingdom of Srem. After King Dragutin died, his lands were annexed to Serbia. The old Fortress on the hill was founded in the mid 14th century. After the death of Emperor Dušan the Mighty, in the period known as the "fall of the Serbian Empire", Užice
Užice
came under the control of Vojislav Vojinović, a nobleman in the service of Emperor Uroš the Weak. When Vojislav died, his nephew Nikola Altomanović
Nikola Altomanović
controlled the region. When Uroš died childless, the former Imperial provincial lords begin fighting each other. Serbian Autokrator Lazar Hrebeljanović and Tvrtko I
Tvrtko I
of Bosnia defeated Nikola Altomanović, and divided his lands between themselves. Nikola was blinded in the fortress on the orders of Stefan Musić. Užice
Užice
came under the control of Lazar, then the Serbian Despotate under his son Stefan Lazarević. Ottoman period[edit] Main articles: History of Ottoman Serbia
Serbia
and Sanjak of Smederevo Užice
Užice
fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1463, and was part of the Sanjak of Smederevo
Smederevo
until 1807, when it was liberated by the Serbian revolutionaries, during the First Serbian Uprising. Modern Serbia[edit] Main article: History of modern Serbia

Užice
Užice
in the 1890s.

Užice
Užice
was the first town in Serbia
Serbia
with a hydroelectric power plant producing alternating current. It was built on the Đetinja
Đetinja
river in 1900. World War II[edit] Main article: Republic of Užice

Monument to fallen Partisans, Kadinjača.

In 1941, Užice
Užice
was liberated by the Partizans, who chose it as the capital of the Republic of Užice. This republic was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in the autumn of 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. The Republic of Užice
Republic of Užice
comprised almost the whole of western Serbia, with a population of more than 300,000 people. It was located between the Skrapež
Skrapež
river in the north, the river Drina
Drina
in the west, the river Zapadna Morava in the east, and the Uvac
Uvac
river in the south. In November 1941, the German army re-occupied this territory, while the majority of Partisan forces escaped to Bosnia, Sandžak
Sandžak
and Montenegro. Yugoslav era[edit]

The train station in the 1970s

Within the former Yugoslavia (established after the Second World War), Užice
Užice
was renamed "Titovo Užice" (Титово Ужице). From 1992, following the collapse of the pro-communist administration, "Titovo" (meaning Tito's) was removed, leaving the original city name Užice. It was one of eight towns renamed Tito's town in Yugoslavia. Due to being "Titove" and central-planning communist system, Užice received significant amounts of investment in infrastructure and local factories, which made the city one of the most highly developed for its size in former Yugoslavia. Following the break-up of the region, all the towns dropped the "Titove" title. 1990s[edit] During the 1990s Užice's economy shrank rapidly due to war and instability in the region. In 1999 the city was bombed multiple times during the Operation Allied Force. The largest scale bombing occurred on May 6, 1999 when NATO forces bombed many roads and highways, the airport, civilian buildings and government buildings.[6] After this, thousands of people turned out at the city's main square to protest the bombings and destruction of the city and killings of civilians. Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1948 45,667 —    

1953 50,775 +2.14%

1961 57,062 +1.47%

1971 67,555 +1.70%

1981 77,049 +1.32%

1991 82,723 +0.71%

2002 83,022 +0.03%

2011 78,040 −0.69%

Source: [7]

According to the 2011 census results, Užice
Užice
has a total population of 78,040 inhabitants. Ethnic groups[edit] Ethnic composition of the city:[8]

Ethnic group Population

Serbs 76,089

Montenegrins 144

Yugoslavs 80

Romani 70

Croats 69

Others 1,588

Total 78,040

Settlements[edit]

City municipalities

The City of Užice
Užice
consists of two city municipalities: Užice
Užice
and Sevojno. In 2013, the city municipality of Sevojno, located 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) east of Užice, was established.[9] As of 2011[update], it has 7,101 inhabitants of 78,040 which live in the City of Užice.

Settlements

List of the settlements in the City of Užice
Užice
(population per 2011 census given in brackets):[2]

Bioska (422) Bjelotići
Bjelotići
(185) Buar (1082) Vitasi
Vitasi
(179) Volujac (922) Vrutci (138) Gorjani (653) Gostinica (557) Gubin Do (377) Dobrodo
Dobrodo
(232) Drežnik (639) Drijetanj (1316) Duboko (848)

Zbojštica
Zbojštica
(167) Zlakusa
Zlakusa
(671) Kamenica (220) Karan (516) Kačer
Kačer
(531) Keserovina
Keserovina
(452) Kotroman (123) Krvavci
Krvavci
(245) Kremna
Kremna
(665) Kršanje (108) Lelići (328) Ljubanje
Ljubanje
(787) Mokra Gora
Mokra Gora
(549)

Nikojevići (366) Panjak
Panjak
(84) Pear (370) Ponikovica
Ponikovica
(320) Potočanje
Potočanje
(509) Potpeće
Potpeće
(483) Ravni (465) Raduša (375) Ribaševina (378) Skržuti
Skržuti
(551) Stapari (877) Strmac (225) Trnava (378)

Economy[edit] Užice
Užice
has historically been a relatively well developed city. In 1981 Užice's GDP per capita was 157% of the SFR Yugoslavia average.[10] The city has a developed textile, leather, machine and metal industry. Most companies have factories on the outskirts of the city due to good communication connections, notably the close proximity of the main highway, railroad and airport. Ponikve Airport
Ponikve Airport
is currently under reconstruction, and as a result cargo airlines will mostly use it for transporting goods. The airport management confirmed interest in low cost, scheduled and chartered airlines. Today, the largest companies operating in the city of Užice
Užice
are Prvi Partizan (ammunition), Impol Seval
Impol Seval
Sevojno
Sevojno
(aluminum mill), Valjaonica bakra Sevojno
Sevojno
(copper mill), MPP Jedinstvo
MPP Jedinstvo
Sevojno
Sevojno
(construction) and Putevi Užice (construction). The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[11]

Activity Total

Agriculture, forestry and fishing 121

Mining 24

Processing industry 6,671

Distribution of power, gas and water 396

Distribution of water and water waste management 550

Construction 2,007

Wholesale and retail, repair 2,987

Traffic, storage and communication 1,326

Hotels and restaurants 688

Media and telecommunications 318

Finance and insurance 487

Property stock and charter 19

Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 602

Administrative and other services 404

Administration and social assurance 1,580

Education 1,358

Healthcare and social work 2,347

Art, leisure and recreation 431

Other services 418

Total 22,736

Society and culture[edit] The library and theater are in the main square in the city center. Also located in the area are newspaper agencies, radio and television stations and publishing companies. The city gallery is in the lowlands of Pašinovac, the oldest area of the city. The national museum displays cultural and historical treasures of the city, and with its exhibitions, shows the centuries of rich Užice
Užice
history. It is located on the Eastern side of the main city street. The Gymnasium of Užice
Gymnasium of Užice
is one of the oldest high school institutions in Serbia. Beside the gymnasium, there are also several other primary and secondary schools and faculties located in Užice. Milutin Uskoković, writer from Užice, was described as the author of the first modern novel in Serbia. The locals, Užičans (Serbian: Ужичани, Užičani), have their own traditional costume, and folk music; the sound of which is transitional between the music of Šumadija
Šumadija
(central Serbia) and Bosnia and Herzegovina. They speak a Neo- Štokavian
Štokavian
Užican dialect, originally with Ijekavian
Ijekavian
pronunciation.

Uvac
Uvac
Monastery

Architecture[edit] Some distinctive buildings in Užice
Užice
are:

Old Town-fortress, 14th-century fortress St. George's Cathedral Building of the City of Užice Užička gimnazija
Užička gimnazija
(The Užican Gymnasium) Jokanovića kuća (The House of Jokanovićs, one of the oldest buildings in Užice)

Media[edit] Užice
Užice
is turning into the regional media center of western Serbia.

TV stations: TV5 Užice, TV Alfa, TV Lav, TV SOS Radio stations: Radio Užice, Radio 31, Radio Luna, Radio Delfin, Radio Lav, Radio SOS Newspapers: Vesti, Užička nedelja

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Serbia Twin towns / sister cities[edit] Užice
Užice
is twinned with:

Cassino, Italy Kursk, Russia Veria, Greece Ljutomer, Slovenia

Notable people[edit]

Politicians

Ljubomir Kaljević (1841–1907), former Prime Minister of Serbia Nikola Ljubičić
Nikola Ljubičić
(1916–2005), national hero, General of the Army, Defence minister, President of the Presidency of Serbia, born in Karan ( Užice
Užice
municipality) Slobodan Penezić Krcun
Slobodan Penezić Krcun
(1918–1964), national hero, Interior minister Dragoljub Ojdanić (b. 1941), former Chief of the General Staff and Defence minister, convicted of deportation and forcible transfers by the ICTY, born in Ravni ( Užice
Užice
municipality) Nataša Mićić
Nataša Mićić
(b. 1965), MP, former President of the National Assembly of Serbia
Serbia
and acting President of Serbia Nikola Selaković
Nikola Selaković
(b. 1983), Minister of Justice and Public Administration

Sportspeople

Milovan Đorić (b. 1945), football coach and former footballer, born in Bioska ( Užice
Užice
municipality) Milan Radović (b. 1952), former footballer, Yugoslav First League
Yugoslav First League
top goalscorer (1980–81) Srboljub Stamenković (b. 1956), former footballer Vladan Vićević
Vladan Vićević
(b. 1967), football coach and former Salvadoran international footballer Zoran Njeguš (b. 1973), football coach and former footballer Radiša Ilić (b. 1977), former footballer Nemanja Vidić
Nemanja Vidić
(b. 1981), Serbia
Serbia
international footballer, winner of 5 Premier League
Premier League
titles and the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
(2008) with Manchester United Miloš Marić (b. 1982), Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
international footballer Nenad Novaković (b. 1982), footballer Branimir Petrović (b. 1982), footballer Filip Arsenijević (b. 1983), footballer Filip Kasalica (b. 1988), Montenegro
Montenegro
international footballer Miroslav Radošević (b. 1973), former basketball player Nikola Otašević
Nikola Otašević
(b. 1982), basketball player Milovan Raković (b. 1985), basketball player Dušan Katnić (b. 1989), basketball player, U19 world champion (2007) Vesna Čitaković
Vesna Čitaković
(b. 1979), volleyball player Nataša Krsmanović
Nataša Krsmanović
(b. 1985), volleyball player, European champion (2011) Ana Antonijević
Ana Antonijević
(b. 1987), volleyball player Tijana Malešević
Tijana Malešević
(b. 1991), volleyball player, European champion (2011) Olivera Jevtić
Olivera Jevtić
(b. 1977), long-distance runner Mirko Petrović (b. 1981), middle and long-distance track athlete Andrija Zlatić
Andrija Zlatić
(b. 1978), sports shooter, two-time European champion, two-time World vice-champion and Olympic medalist (2012)

Others

Rudolph Reti (1885–1957), musical analyst, composer and pianist Vladimir Anić
Vladimir Anić
(1930–2000), Croatian linguist Ljubomir Simović (b. 1935), poet and writer Slavko Vukosavljević (1927-2004), philologist and journalist, author of the famous poem "Kadinjača" (1950) Đorđe Prudnikov (b. 1939), Russo-Serbian painter, graphic artist and designer Steve Tesich
Steve Tesich
(1942–1996), born Stojan Tešić, Serbian-American screenwriter, playwright and novelist, Academy Award winner for Best Original Screenplay (1979) Ljubomir Ljubojević
Ljubomir Ljubojević
(b. 1950), chess Grandmaster Milivoje Kostic
Milivoje Kostic
(b. 1952), Serbian-American thermodynamicists and professor emeritus of mechanical engineering at Northern Illinois University Oliver Mandić (b. 1953), rock musician, composer and producer Ivan Bosiljčić
Ivan Bosiljčić
(b. 1979), actor Oliver Jezdić, former member of Serbian popular rock band Galija

References[edit]

^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.  ^ a b c "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. p. 178. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.  ^ "Climate: Užice, Serbia". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved December 22, 2017.  ^ p. 340 ^ p. 31 ^ Warfacts.org.yu (1999). "( NATO
NATO
Aggression) Civilian Infrastructure: Uzice". Archived from the original on 2007-12-04. Retrieved 2007-05-14.  ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 11 January 2017.  ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 15 December 2016.  ^ "ОДЛУКА О ИЗМЕНАМА И ДОПУНАМА СТАТУТА ГРАДА УЖИЦА" (PDF). graduzice.org (in Serbian). Службени лист града Ужица. Retrieved 22 March 2017.  ^ Radovinović, Radovan; Bertić, Ivan, eds. (1984). Atlas svijeta: Novi pogled na Zemlju (in Croatian) (3rd ed.). Zagreb: Sveučilišna naklada Liber.  ^ "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2017" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Užice.

(in Serbian) City of Užice

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i Metohija1

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1  Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

Authority control

GND: 1231879-6 BNF:

.