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Mudrāya

Province of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire

← 525 BC–404 BC →

Standard of Cyrus the Great

PHARAOH

• 525-522 BC Cambyses II
Cambyses II
(first)

• 423-404 BC Darius II (last)

HISTORICAL ERA Achaemenid era

• Battle of Pelusium 525 BC

• Rebellion of Amyrtaeus 404 BC

The TWENTY-SEVENTH DYNASTY OF EGYPT (notated DYNASTY XXVII, alternatively 27TH DYNASTY or DYNASTY 27), also known as the FIRST EGYPTIAN SATRAPY (Old Persian : Mudrāya ) was effectively a province (satrapy ) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 404 BC. It was founded by Cambyses II
Cambyses II
, the King of Persia , after his conquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt , and was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty * 3 Timeline of the 27th Dynasty (Achaemenid Pharaohs only) * 4 Historical sources * 5 References * 6 External links * 7 See also

HISTORY

The last pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty , Psamtik III , was defeated by Cambyses II
Cambyses II
at the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta
Nile delta
in May of 525 BC. Cambyses was crowned Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt in the summer of that year at the latest, beginning the first period of Persian rule over Egypt (known as the 27th Dynasty). Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia
Phoenicia
to form the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
, with Aryandes as the local satrap (provincial governor).

As Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt, Cambyses' reign saw the fiscal resources of traditional Egyptian temples diminished considerably. One decree, written on papyrus in demotic script ordered a limitation on resources to all Egyptian temples, excluding Memphis , Heliopolis and Wenkhem (near Abusir
Abusir
). Cambyses left Egypt sometime in early 522 BC, dying en route to Persia, and was nominally succeeded briefly by his younger brother Bardiya , although contemporary historians suggest Bardiya was actually Gaumata , an impostor, and that the real Bardiya had been murdered some years before by Cambyses, ostensibly out of jealousy. Darius I , suspecting this impersonation, led a coup against "Bardiya" in September of that year, overthrowing him and being crowned as King and Pharaoh
Pharaoh
the next morning.

As the new Persian King, Darius spent much of his time quelling rebellions throughout his empire. Sometime in late 522 BC or early 521 BC a local Egyptian prince led a rebellion and declared himself Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Petubastis III . The main cause of this rebellion is uncertain, but the Ancient Greek military historian Polyaenus states that it was oppressive taxation imposed by the satrap Aryandes. Polyaenus further writes that Darius himself marched to Egypt, arriving during a period of mourning for the death of the sacred Herald of Ptah bull. Darius made a proclamation that he would award a sum of one hundred talents to the man who could produce the next Herald, impressing the Egyptians with his piety such that they flocked en masse to his side, ending the rebellion.

Darius took a greater interest in Egyptian internal affairs than Cambyses. He reportedly codified the laws of Egypt, and notably completed the excavation of a canal system at Suez
Suez
, allowing passage from the Bitter Lakes to the Red Sea
Red Sea
, much preferable to the arduous desert land route. This feat allowed Darius to import skilled Egyptian laborers and artisans to construct his palaces in Persia. The result of this was a minor brain drain in Egypt, due to the loss of these skilled individuals, creating a demonstrable lowering of quality in Egyptian architecture and art from this period. Nevertheless Darius was more devoted to supporting Egyptian temples than Cambyses, earning himself a reputation for religious tolerance in the region. In 497 BC, during a visit by Darius to Egypt, Aryandes was executed for treason, most likely for attempting to issue his own coinage, a visible attempt to distance Egypt from the rest of the Persian Empire. Darius died in 486 BC, and was succeeded by Xerxes I .

Upon the accession of Xerxes, Egypt again rebelled, this time possibly under Psamtik IV , although different sources dispute that detail. Xerxes quickly quelled the rebellion, installing his brother Achaemenes as satrap. Xerxes ended the privileged status of Egypt held under Darius, and increased supply requirements from the country, probably to fund his invasion of Greece . Furthermore Xerxes promoted the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
god Ahura Mazda at the expense of traditional Egyptian dieties, and permanently stopped the funding of Egyptian monuments. Xerxes was murdered in 465 BC by Artabanus , beginning a dynastic struggle that ended with Artaxerxes I being crowned the next King and Pharaoh.

In 460 BC another major Egyptian rebellion took place, led by a Libyan chief named Inaros II , substantially assisted by the Athenians of Greece. Inaros defeated an army led by Achaemenes, killing the satrap in the process, and took Memphis, eventually exerting control over large parts of Egypt. Inaros and his Athenian allies were finally defeated by a Persian army led by general Megabyzus in 454 BC and consequently sent into retreat. Megabyzus promised Inaros no harm would come of him or his followers if he surrendered and submitted to Persian authority, terms Inaros agreed to. Nevertheless Artaxerxes eventually had Inaros executed, although exactly how and when is a matter of dispute. Artaxerxes died in 424 BC.

Artaxerxes successor, Xerxes II only ruled for forty-five days, being murdered by his brother Sogdianus . Sogdianus was consequently murdered by his brother Ochus, who became Darius II . Darius II ruled from 423 BC to 404 BC, and nearing the end of his reign a rebellion led by Amyrtaeus took place, potentially beginning as early as 411 BC. In 405 BC Amyrtaeus, with the help of Cretan mercenaries expelled the Persians from Memphis, declaring himself Pharaoh
Pharaoh
the next year and ending the 27th Dynasty. Darius II's successor, Artaxerxes II made attempts to begin an expedition to retake Egypt, but due to political difficulty with his brother Cyrus the Younger , abandoned the effort. Artaxerxes II was still recognized as the rightful Pharaoh
Pharaoh
in some parts of Egypt as late as 401 BC, although his sluggish response to the situation allowed Egypt to solidify its independence.

During the period of independent rule three indigenous dynasties reigned: the 28th , 29th , and 30th Dynasty . Artaxerxes III (358 BC) reconquered the Nile valley for a brief second period (343 BC), which is called the 31st Dynasty of Egypt .

PHARAOHS OF THE 27TH DYNASTY

Main article: List of pharaohs

The pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and twenty one years, from 525 BC to 404 BC.

NAME OF PHARAOH IMAGE REIGN THRONE NAME COMMENTS

Cambyses II

525-522 BC Mesutire Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium in 525 BC

Bardiya/Gaumata

522 BC

Possible impostor

Petubastis III

522/521-520 BC Seheruibre Rebelled against the Achaemenid Pharaohs

Darius I the Great

522-486 BC Stutre

Xerxes I the Great

486-465 BC

Psamtik IV

480s BC

Proposed rebel against the Achaemenid Pharaohs

Artabanus

465–464 BC

Assassinated Xerxes I, later killed by Artaxerxes I

Artaxerxes I

465-424 BC

Xerxes II

425-424 BC

Claimant to throne

Sogdianus

424-423 BC

Claimant to throne

Darius II

423-404 BC

Last Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of the 27th Dynasty

TIMELINE OF THE 27TH DYNASTY (ACHAEMENID PHARAOHS ONLY)

HISTORICAL SOURCES

* Herodotus
Herodotus
(Histories ) * Fragments of Ctesias (Persica) * Thucydides
Thucydides
( History of the Peloponnesian War ) * Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
(Bibliotheca historica) * Fragments of Manetho (Aegyptiaca) * Flavius Josephus ( Antiquities of the Jews )

REFERENCES

* ^ electricpulp.com. "ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2017-09-30. * ^ Smit