Mourning of Muharram
Mourning of Muharram
* Arba\'een Pilgrimage
Bektashism and folk religion
* Rifa\'i –Galibi
* Marja\' (list )
Ayatollah (list )
* Peak of Eloquence
* The Psalms of
* Book of Fundamentals
* The Book in Scholar\'s Lieu
* Civilization of Laws
* The Certainty
* Book of Sulaym ibn Qays
* Oceans of Light
* Wasā\'il al-Shīʿa
Reality of Certainty
* Keys of Paradise
* Criticism of
TWELVER (Arabic : اثنا عشرية, ATHNā\'ASHARIYYAH or
ITHNā\'ASHARIYYAH; Persian : شیعه دوازده امامی,
Shia Islam or IMAMIYYAH (Arabic : إمامية) is
the largest branch of
Shia Islam .
Twelver belief is based on the
Quran and the message of the Islamic Prophet
Muhammad attested in
hadith , and on hadith taught by their
Imams . The term
to its adherents' belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as
Imams , and their belief that the last Imam, Muhammad
Mahdi , lives in occultation and will reappear as the promised
Mahdi . According to
Shia tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide
with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa) , who is to assist the
Mahdi against the
Masih ad-Dajjal (literally, the "false Messiah" or
Twelvers believe that the Twelve
Imams are the spiritual and
political successors to the Islamic prophet
Muhammad . According to
the theology of Twelvers , the Twelve
Imams are exemplary human
individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but are
also able to preserve and interpret sharia and the esoteric meaning of
Quran . The words and deeds (
Sunnah ) of
Muhammad and the Imams
are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result,
Muhammad and the
Imams must be free from error and sin, a doctrine
Ismah or infallibility, and must be chosen by divine decree,
or nass , through Muhammad.
The largest branch of
Shia Islam is the
Twelver Shia, with about 85%
of all Shias that can be estimated approximately between 148 and 296
Twelvers make majorities among Muslims in
Lebanon . Also, they make significant minorities in India ,
Saudi Arabia ,
Chad , and
Iran is the only country with state religion as (Twelver)
Twelvers share many tenets of
Shia with related sects, such as the
Imams , but the
Ismaili Shias believe in a different number
of Imāms and, for the most part, a different path of succession
Imamate . They also differ in the role and overall
definition of an Imam. Twelvers are also distinguished from Ismailis
by their belief in Muhammad's status as the "Seal of the Prophets"
Khatam an-Nabiyyin ), in rejecting the possibility of abrogation of
Sharia laws, and in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of
the Quran. Alevis in
belief in the Twelve
Imams with Twelvers, but their theological
doctrines are remarkably different.
* 1 Terminology
* 2 Theological doctrine
* 2.1 Unity of God
Tawhid of the Essence
Tawhid of the attributes
Tawhid of Creatorship
Tawhid of Lordship
* 2.1.5 Shirk
* 2.2 The Justice of God
* 2.2.1 Justice in Creation
* 2.2.2 Justice in Religious Dispensation
* 2.2.3 Justice in Recompense
* 2.2.4 Predestination and Free Will
* 2.3 The Prophethood
* 2.3.2 Revelation
* 2.3.3 Miracle
* 2.4 Imamah and
* 2.4.1 The
Succession to Muhammad
Succession to Muhammad
* 2.5 The Day of Resurrection
* 2.5.1 The Return (Raj\'a)
* 2.5.2 The Day of Judgement
* 2.5.3 Intercession
* 3 Shari\'ah (Furu al-Din)
Shahada (Declaration of faith)
* 3.2 Prayer
Khums and Zakah
Commanding what is just and
Forbidding what is evil
* 4 Differences
* 4.1 Dissimulation (Taqiyya)
* 4.2 Mut\'ah: Temporary marriage
* 5 Jurisprudence (Fiqh)
* 5.2 The sources of Jurisprudence
* 5.3 Guardianship of the jurisprudent
Taqlid (Accepting a scholar\'s verdict)
* 6 History
* 6.1.1 Emergence
* 6.1.2 Formulation
* 6.1.3 Organizing
* 6.2 Crisis and Consolidation
* 6.3 Jurisprudencial and Theological Development
* 6.3.1 School of Hillah
* 6.3.2 School Of Jabal \'Amil
* 6.4 Rising to Power
* 6.4.1 School of
* 6.4.2 Ikhbari-
Qom school, Islamic Revolution and Islamic Republic
* 7 Calendar
* 8 Notable scholars
* 8.1 Historical
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 Footnotes
* 11.1 Further reading
* 12 References
* 13 External links
The term 'Twelver' is based on the belief that twelve male
descendants from the family of Muhammad, starting with
Abi-Talib and ending with
Muhammad al-Mahdi , are
Imams who have
religious and political authority.
The Twelvers are also known by other names:
* The Shi'ah (or Shi'a) is commonly used as a synonym for "Twelvers"
since this branch comprises the majority group in
Shia Islam. Shia
refers to a group of Muslims who believe that the succession to
Muhammad must remain in his family for specific members who are
designated by a divine appointment. Tabataba'ei states that the word
referred to the partisans of
Ali at the time of
* Ja'fari refers exclusively to the
Twelver Juridical school which
is followed by the majority of Shias. It also refers to the minority
Akhbaris who advocate a distinct juridical approach within Jafari
Jurisprudence. The term is derived from the name of Ja\'far al-Sadiq
who is considered by the Twelvers to be their Sixth Imām. Ja'far
al-Sadiq is also respected and referenced by the founders of the Sunni
Maliki schools of jurisprudence.
* Imami or Imamiyyah or Imamite is a reference to the
in the infallibility of the Imāms. Although the Ismā'īlīs also
share the generic concept of Imams, this term is exclusively used for
the Twelvers who believe that the leadership of the community after
Muhammad belongs to
Ali and eleven subsequent successors that together
comprise the Fourteen Infallibles .
Theology of Twelvers
Part of a series on
Five Pillars of
Islam 1 SIX ARTICLES OF BELIEF
* Holy books
* The Last Judgement
SUNNI THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS
* Ilm al-
Shi\'a 2 TWELVER
Commanding what is just
Forbidding what is evil
SEVEN PILLARS OF ISMAILISM
OTHER SHIA CONCEPTS OF AQIDAH
* Sixth Pillar of
Other schools of theology
Qutbism top: 0.2em;">2
Alawites , Assassins
, Druzes top: 0.2em;">3
Azariqa , Ajardi,
Bektashi Order font-size:115%;padding-top:
Twelver theology, which mainly consists of five principles, has
formed over the course of history on the basis of the teachings of
Quran , and hadiths from
Muhammad and the Twelve
Jafar al-Sadiq ), and in response to the intellectual movements in the
Muslim world and major events of the
Twelver history, such as the
Karbala and the occultation of the twelfth Imam , Muhammad
UNITY OF GOD
Hossein Nasr ,
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib , the first
is credited with having established Islamic theology and among Muslims
his sermons contain the first rational proofs of the God's unity
Ali is quoted as arguing that unity of God means that he has no like,
he is not subject to numeration and is not divisible either in reality
or imagination. On another occasion, he is quoted saying:
The first step of religion is to accept, understand and realize him
as the Lord ... The correct form of belief in his unity is to realize
that he is so absolutely pure and above nature that nothing can be
added to or subtracted from his being. That is, one should realize
that there is no difference between his person and his attributes, and
his attributes should not be differentiated or distinguished from his
Sayyid Haydar Amuli a prominent
Shia mystic and philosopher defines
God as alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his
actions, his theophanies. The totality of being therefore is he,
through him, comes from him, and returns to him. God is not a being
next to or above other beings, his creatures; he is being, the
absolute act of being (wujud mutlaq). The divine unitude does not have
the meaning of an arithmetical unity, among, next to, or above other
unities. For, if there were being other than he (i.e., creatural
being), God would no longer be the Unique, i.e., the only one to be.
As this Divine Essence is infinite, his qualities are the same as his
essence, Essentially there is one Reality which is one and
According to Twelver's theology,
Tawhid consists of several aspects
Tawhid of the Essence, the attributes, the creatorship, the
lordship and oneness in worship.
Tawhid Of The Essence
Tawhid of the essence of God means his essence is one and peerless.
Quran 112 states: Say, "He is Allah, One, Allah, the
Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any
Tawhid Of The Attributes
Tawhid of the attributes means God's names and attributes have no
other reality than His essence.
Ali argues that "Every attributes
testifies to its being other than the object to which it is
attributed, and every such object in turn testifies to its being other
than the attribute. "
Tawhid of the attributes means to deny the
existence of any sort of multiplicity and combination in the Essence
itself. A differentiation between the essence and the attributes or
between the attributes implies a limitation in being.
Tawhid Of Creatorship
Tawhid of Creatorship means that there is no creator but God, that
is the causes and effects of the universe are not independent from God
just as the beings which are not independent in essence. There is no
power except God, according to Motahari.
Tawhid Of Lordship
Tawhid of Lordship means the governance of the world and man only
belongs to God. This oneness of lordship has two aspects: creative
governance (tadbir takwini), and religious governance (tadbir
At last oneness in worship, i.e., God alone is deserved to be
worshipped. According to
Morteza Motahhari , oneness in worship means
rejecting all kinds of counterfeit worship (such as worship of carnal
desires, money or prestige), and as
Quran says, every act of obedience
to an order is worship.
Tawhid is Shirk . It is a belief that the world has more
than one principle or pole. According to
Morteza Motahhari , the
distinction of theoretical
Tawhid from Shirk is recognition of the
idea that every reality and being in its essence, attributes and
action are from him (from Him-ness (Arabic : انّالله)).
Every supernatural action of the prophets is by God's permission as
Quran points to it. Shirk in practice is to assume something as an end
in itself, independent from God, but to assume it as a path to God (to
Him-ness (Arabic : انّاالیه )) is Tawhid.
THE JUSTICE OF GOD
Ali insists that God is Just and he is the Justice Itself and the
virtue of Justice flows from him to the souls of men. Since he is
Justice, every thing he does is Just. Shiism considers Justice as
innate to Divine nature, i.e. God can not act unjustly, because it is
his nature to be just.
Justice In Creation
Twelvers believe that God grants every existent what is appropriate
for it as the verse 20: 50 states: Our Lord is He Who gave unto
everything its nature, then guided it aright.
Justice In Religious Dispensation
This belief of Twelvers implies that God guides man through sending
the messengers and He does not impose upon them obligations that are
beyond their capacity.
Justice In Recompense
Tabataba'i states that the Justice of God necessitates that the
virtuous and evil people become separated; the virtuous have a good
life and the evil have a wretched life. He will judge the beliefs and
the deeds of all the people according to the truth and he will give
every one his right due. Then the reality of every thing as it is
will be revealed for the man. Through his faith and good deeds, he can
get to friendship with God. The form of man's deeds are joined to his
soul and accompany him which are the capital of his future life. The
verse 96: 8 refers to getting back to God.
Predestination And Free Will
Twelvers believe in the
Tawhid of Creatorship, i.e. all the existence
is his creation including a human being and his actions. But actions
have two dimensions. The first is committing the action by free will,
the second is the creation of that action by God's will with which he
gave the people the power to commit the action. Sadr al-Din Shirazi
states that "God, may He be exalted, is far removed from doing any
evil deeds and goes about His Kingdom at will. "
Ja\'far al-Sadiq narrates from his fathers that Muhammad, in one of
his sermons expressed that " sent to people messengers so they might
be His conclusive argument against His creatures and so His messengers
to them might be witnesses against them. He sent among them prophets
bearing good tidings and warning. " Tabataba\'i states that God has
perfected the guidance of people through sending the prophets; When
the doctrines and practices of the revealed law gets to its
perfection, the prophecy comes to an end,too. That is why the Quran
points out that
Islam is the last and the most perfect religion and
Muhammad is the "seal of the prophets", he adds.
Al-Hilli states that
"the Prophets are greater in merit than the angels, because the
prophets have conflicts with rational power and they compel it to
submit to reason. "
Belief in the existence of the angels is one of the articles of Iman.
Unseen beings of a luminous and spiritual substance, angels act as
intermediaries between God and the visible world. Also superior in
substance, angels are inferior to mankind, because man can reflect the
image of God. The verse 2:34 implies the superiority of the mankind.
God revealed the
Quran to Muhammd by Gabriel who was also his guide on
Mi\'raj . The angels record the deeds of men. They follow the
commands of God and do not precede him 21:27. Izz al-Din Kashani
discusses that the angels are different in degree and station. Some of
them cling to the Threshold of Perfection, others manage the affairs
of the creation. Al-Qazwini , on the base of
Quran and hadith, names
them as the Bearers of the Throne, the Spirit, he governs all the
affairs of the earth and heaven according to the principle of
Israfil , he places the spirits in the bodies and will blow
the trumpet on the Last Day. Gabriel , who took the revelation to
Muhammad. Michael ,
Azrael , the angel of death. The cherubim
(al-karrūbiyyūn) who just praise God. The angels of seven heavens
and the Guardian angels, two of them are concerned with men. The
Attendant angels, they bring blessings upon human. Munkar and Nakir
who question the dead in the grave. The journeyers, Harut and Marut
are also among them.
Tabataba'i expresses that according to the thesis of general
guidance, as the human reason cannot perceive the perfect law of
happiness (Sa'adah) and he could not get it through the process of
creation, there should be a general awareness of this law and it could
be within the reach of every one. He adds there must be people who
apprehend the real duties of life and bring them within the reach of
human being. Tabataba'i refers to this power of perception, which is
other than the reason and the sense, as the prophetic consciousness or
the consciousness of revelation as the verse 4: 163 points to this
perception namely revelation. Tabataba'i describes that the reception
of revelation, its preservation and its propagation are three
principles of ontological guidance. What the prophets got through the
revelation was religion which consists of doctrine and practice or
method. He further adds that with passing of the time and gradual
development of the society, the gradual development in the revealed
law is apparent. By three ways the speech of God reaches to man, by
revelation or divine inspiration; behind a veil, man can hear God's
speech but can not hear him; or by a messenger, an angel conveys the
inspiration to the man. By the verses 72:26–28 two types of
guardians protect the integrity of the revelation: an angel who
protects the prophet against any kind of error, God who protects the
angels and the prophets.
Tabataba'i defines the miracle as a supernatural event which is shown
by the prophet and the friends of God as a challenge to prove the
claim of the prophethood and it is by God's permission. He states
that the miracle should be according to the demands of the people of
his own time. He adds that miracle has an inseparable connection with
the claim of the prophethood and it is beyond the intellect and
thinking. By miracle, al-Hilli means "the bringing into existence of
something which is abnormal or the removal of something which normally
exists, in a way which breaks through normality and which conforms to
the claim (of prophethood which is made). " Sobhani regards some
differences between miracles and extraordinary acts. He notes that
miracles are not teachable and they are done without any prior
training. As they are derived from the infinite power of God, the
miracles are indisputable. The miracles are of unlimited types. The
miracles are often concerned with spiritual matters rather worldly
IMAMAH AND WALAYAH
Main articles: Imamah (Shi\'a
Twelver doctrine) and
doctrine) 18th century mirror writing in Ottoman calligraphy .
Depicts the phrase '
Ali is the vicegerent of God' in both directions.
Shia believe in the trilateral structure of authority; authority of
God which is absolute and universal as the verse 3: 26 implies,
Muhammad which is legitimized by the grace of God as the
verse 7: 158 points to it and the authority of the
Imams who are
blessed for the leadership of the community through
Muhammad as the
verses 5: 67 and 5: 3 verifies according to
Shia fundamental belief.
According to Shia, Imamah is the continuation of the prophetic
Shia believe in the Twelve
Imams who are divinely inspired
descendants of Muhammad. They must meet these attributes: nass
(designation by the previous Imam),
Ismah (infallibility), ilm (divine
Walayah (spiritual guidance).
The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams are the
spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, based on Twelver's
belief. It is believed in Shi'a
Islam that \
'Aql , a divine wisdom,
was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them
esoteric knowledge, called Hikmah, and that their sufferings were a
means of divine grace to their devotees. Although the Imam was not
the recipient of a divine revelation , but has close relationship with
God, through which God guides him, and the imam in turn guides the
people. The Imamat, or belief in the divine guide is a fundamental
belief in Shi'i
Islam and is based on the concept that God would not
leave humanity without access to divine guidance.
According to Twelvers, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the
divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the
Ali was the first Imam of this line, and in the
Twelvers' view, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male
Muhammad (also known as Hasnain) through his daughter
Fatimah. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the
Husayn Ibn Ali
Husayn Ibn Ali , who was the brother of
Hasan Ibn Ali
Hasan Ibn Ali .
The twelfth and final Imam is
Muhammad al-Mahdi , who is believed by
the Twelvers to be currently alive, and in hiding . Names of The
Fourteen Infallibles (Masūmeen - Descendants Of Muhammad) written in
the form of Arabic name على 'Ali'
Imams are seen as infallible. It is an important aspect of
Shia theology that they are not prophets (nabi) nor messengers (rasul
), but instead carry out Muhammad's message.
The Succession To Muhammad
Main article: The
Succession to Muhammad
Succession to Muhammad
Shia believe that with the death of Muhammad, his religious and
political authority were inherited to the Imams.
Shia considers the
Successor as the esoteric interpreter of the revelation and the Divine
Twelvers believe that the descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
through his daughter
Fatimah and his son-in-law \'Alī are the best
source of knowledge about the Qur\'an and Islam, the most trusted
carriers and protectors of Muhammad's
Sunnah (traditions) and the most
worthy of emulation.
In particular, Twelvers (as the main branch of
Shia Islam, with 85%
of all Shias) recognize the succession of 'Alī, Muḥammad's cousin,
son-in-law, the male head of the
Ahl al-Bayt or "people of the house"
and the father of Muḥammad's only bloodline, as opposed to that of
Caliphate recognized by
Sunni Muslims. Twelvers also believe that
'Alī should have been successor to Muḥammad.
Although 'Alī is widely accepted by Muslims in general to be the
fourth successor to the
Uthman , for the Shī'ah,
however, he is the first divinely sanctioned "Imām", or divinely
appointed spiritual leader after Muhammad. The seminal event in
Shī'ah history is the martyrdom in 680 CE of 'Alī's son Husayn , who
led an uprising against the then, illegitimate to them,
Caliph . For
the Shī'ah, Husayn came to symbolize resistance against tyranny.
Regardless of the dispute about the Caliphate, Twelvers recognize the
religious authority of the Twelve Imams, also called Khalīfah Ilāhi.
Ziyarat And Tawassul
Imam Husayn Shrine in
Iraq , where the Battle of
Karbala took place
ZIYARAH (literally: visit) is a religious practice which means to
attend before religious leaders or their graves in order to express
and indicate reverence/love and acquire spiritual blessings.
TAWASSUL is an Arabic word originated from wa-sa-la- wasilat (Arabic:
وسيلة-وسل). The wasilah is a means by which a person,
goal or objective is approached, attained or achieved.
By Shia, to Take advantage of factors to attain the goals is natural
but these factors should not be taken as independent from God and
should have been established in the
Quran and hadith. This means can
be anything which causes drawing proximity to God such as prayer,
Ismah means "impeccability", "immunity to sin" and
"infallibility . " When
Ismah is attributed to human beings, the
concept means "the ability of avoiding acts of disobedience, in spite
of having the power to commit them, " As in Prophets and Imams, Ismah
is a Divine grace realized by God 's preservation of the infallible,
first by endowing them with pure constitution then, following in
order, by blessing them with great excellences, giving them firm will
against opponents, sending tranquility down upon them (as-Sakinah),
and preserving their hearts and minds from sin.
According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of
an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community
with justice, but also is able to keep and interpret the
its esoteric meaning . The words and deeds of
Muhammad and the imams
are a guide and model for the community to follow; therefore, they
must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree,
or nass , through Muhammad.
Shia the Islamic prophet
Muhammad , his daughter
Fatima Zahra ; and the Twelve
Imams are considered to be infallible
under the theological concept of
Ismah . Accordingly, they have the
power to commit sin but are able to avoid doing so by their nature The
Infallibles are believed to follow only God's desire in their actions,
because of their supreme righteousness, consciousness, and love for
God. They are also regarded as being immune to error: in practical
matters, in calling people to religion, and in the perception of
divine knowledge. Shias believe that the Fourteen Infallibles are
superior to the rest of creation, as well as to the other major
From historical viewpoint,
Wilferd Madelung claims that the
Ahl al-Bayt —the family of
Muhammad —is guaranteed
by the verse of purification in the Qur\'an . Donaldson in his
argument believed that the development of the Shi'ite theology in the
period between the death of
Muhammad and the disappearance of the
Twelfth Imam originates the concept of
Ismah which adds to its
Ann Lambton claims that neither the term nor the concept
Ismah is in the
Qur'an or in canonical
Sunni hadith . It was
apparently first used by the Imamiyyah, perhaps during the beginning
of the second century of the
Islamic calendar in which they maintained
that the Imam must be immune from sin (ma'sum). According to Hamid
Algar , the concept
Ismah is encountered as early as the first half of
the second century of the
Islamic calendar . The
Shia scholars of the
fourth and the fifth centuries of the
Islamic calendar defined the
infallibility of Muḥammad and the Twelve
Imams in an increasingly
stringent form until the doctrine came to exclude their commission of
any sin or inadvertent error, either before or after they assumed
According to Twelvers, the conditions under the
Abbasids caused Hasan
al-Askari to hide the birth of his son, al-Mahdi.
The occultation is a controversial concept,
Shia sects like the Zaidi
Ismaili , do not believe in the idea of the Occultation.
THE DAY OF RESURRECTION
Shia theological doctrine, since the people have come from God,
they will go back to God, and it is related to people's reaction to
the prophecy. They argue that according to the Quran, 23: 115, God,
whose actions are the absolute truth, does not create a man without
any purpose While the quality of this world makes the recompense
impossible, the Justice of God necessitates that every one be
recompensed according to his own actions. Tabataba'i describes the
death as a transfer from one stage of life to another eternal stage.
The verse 21:47 points to the precision of the scales of justice by
which the deeds and intentions of people are weighed.
The Return (Raj\'a)
Twelvers believe in the Return, the term refers to the revival of a
group of Muslims back to this world after the appearance of Mahdi. The
base of this belief derives from the revival of the dead in the past
communities as mentioned in the
Quran and the revival at the Day of
Resurrection. Sobhani describes that Resurrection is both of body and
Quran 17: 51, in response to those that ask "Who will restore
us", answers: "He who brought you forth the first time. " In another
place, verse 22: 5–6, it is like the revival of the earth in the
season of the spring after the winter. He adds the verse 36: 79
implies that the person who is raised up at the Resurrection is the
one who was alive on the earth. The purpose of the Resurrection of the
body and rejoining the soul is that it experience the rewards and
punishments which are sensible and they can not be experienced with
the lack of the body.The purpose of spiritual resurrection is to
observe those rewards and punishments which are especial to the
The Day Of Judgement
God will resurrect all human beings and they will stand before God to
be questioned about their lives on the world. On this day people are
two groups, people who receive their book by their right hand who are
the people of Paradise and their face is bright and the people who
receive their book by their left hand who are the people of Hell and
their face is dark. As the verse 41:21 points out, on the Day of
Judgement, the ears, eyes and skin of disbelievers will testify
against them saying "Allah has caused us to speak – He causes all
things to speak."
Belief to the Intercession derives from the Quran, 21: 28, 10: 3, 53:
26 and Sunna. Muhammad, the angels 53: 26,
Imams and martyrs are among
the intercessors by God's will.
Muhammad has expressed that one of
God's gifts to him is the right of intercession of those who have
committed major sins. As
Quran represents the sons of Jacob asked
their father to intercede for them and their father promised to them
that he will do it at the promised time.
SHARI\'AH (FURU AL-DIN)
Main article: Shari\'ah
According to Nasr, the root of the
Shari'ah is Shr' which means road
that all the men and women should follow. The
Shari'ah or Divine Law
Islam is ritual, legal, ethical, and social aspects of
is the concrete embodiment of the will of God. It governs the life of
a Muslim from the cradle to the grave in order to get happiness in the
Hereafter. He adds to get into Haqiqah, a Muslim should follow the
Shari'ah which resides within the formal law. This interior part of
the Shariah is Tariqah. The
Shari'ah constitutes of Ibadat (worship)
which is all the conjunctions that apply to the Islamic rites and
muamalat which includes every kind of social, political and economic
Shari'ah divides all acts into five categories:
obligatory(wajib), recommended(mandub), reprehensible or
abominable(makruh), forbidden(haram) and acts toward which the Divine
Law is indifferent(mubah). The evaluation of the act is on the base of
the Shari'ah. God is the ultimate legislator (the Shari') and the
roots of the
Shari'ah is in the Quran. The
Sunnah are the
second sources of the
Shari'ah and the complements of the Quran. The
Shari'ah has immutable principles but is applicable to new situations.
Salat (Prayer) – meaning "connection", establish the five daily
prayers, called namāz in Persian and
Sawm (Fasting) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan ,
called rūzeh in Persian.
Zakat (Poor-rate) – charity .
Zakat means "to purify".
Khums ("Fifth" of one's savings) – tax.
Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to
* Jihād (Struggle) – struggling to please God. The greater,
Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in
every aspect of life, called jihād akbār. The lesser, or external,
jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every
aspect of life, called jihād asghār. This is not to be mistaken with
the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War ". Writing
the truth (jihād bil qalam "struggle of the pen") and speaking truth
in front of an oppressor are also forms of jihād.
Commanding what is just .
Forbidding what is evil .
Tawalla – loving the
Ahl al-Bayt and their followers.
Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlu
SHAHADA (DECLARATION OF FAITH)
Declaration of faith
While sharing the Unity of God and the divine guidance through his
Shia maintain that for the spiritual and moral
guidance of the community, God instructed
Muhammad to designate
the leader of the community which was made public at Ghadir Khumm.
Twelvers, along with Sunnis, agree that a single honest recitation of
the shahādah in Arabic is all that is required for a person to become
a Muslim according to most traditional schools.
A vast majority of Twelvers often add ʻAlīyun waliyu l-Lāh (علي
ولي الله "
Ali is the vicegerent of God") at the end of the
Shahādah. This testifies that ʻAlī is also the Leader of the
Believers along with God and Muhammad, proof of which Shi'a
theologians find in the Qur'an.
Though this form of the Shahādah is recited daily by other Shīʻa
sects such as the
Nizari Ismailis , Twelvers view it as Mustahabb
(recommended), but not Wajib (obligatory).
The canonical prayers are the most central rite of
Islam which is
incumbent on all Muslims, both male and female, from the age of
adolescence until death. The prayers must be performed in the
direction of the Ka'bah in
Mecca five times a day: in the early
morning, between dawn and sunrise; at noon; in the afternoon; at
sunset; and at night before midnight. The call to prayer (adhan) and
ritual ablution (wudu) are preceded before the prayer and it can be
performed on any ritually clean ground whether outdoors or indoors as
long as one has the permission of the owner. The units (rak'ah) of
prayer are two in the morning, four at noon, four in the afternoon,
three in the evening, and four at night.
Shia perform prayers on
especial occasions like fear, joy, thanksgiving and at the pilgrimages
and at the end of Ramadan. There are minor differences between
Twelver Shīʻa in how the prayer ritual is performed.
During the purification ritual in preparation for prayer (which
consists of washing the face, arms, feet, etc. and saying of some
prayers), the Shīʻa view wiping the feet with wet hands as
sufficient. Also, Shīʻa do not use their fingers to clean inside the
ears during the ablution ritual. A prerequisite for purification is
that one has to be clean before performing the purification ritual.
During prayer, it is the Jaʻfarī view that it is preferable to
prostrate on earth, leaves that are not edible or wood, as these three
things are considered purest by
Muhammad in hadith specifically
Tayammum . Hence many Shīʻa use a turbah , a small tablet
of soil, often taken from the ground of a holy site, or wood during
their daily prayers upon which they prostrate.
In the Jaʻfarī view, the hands are to be left hanging straight down
the side during the standing position of the prayer. The Jaʻfarī
consider the five daily prayers to be compulsory, though the Jaʻfarī
consider it acceptable to pray the second and third prayer, and the
fourth and fifth prayer, one after the other during the parts of the
day where they believe the timings for these prayers to overlap.
Nasr describes that
Fasting is abstaining oneself from food, drink
and sexual intercourse from the dawn to the sunset during the month of
Ramadan. The Fast also requires the abstaining one's mind and tongue
away from evil thoughts and words. It is obligatory from the age of
adolescence until the time one possesses the physical strength to
undertake it. The fast is not obligatory for the sick,those travelling
and breast-feeding mothers, but they must make up the lost days when
possible. According to Tabataba'ei, Arabic : الصوم
(Fasting) means to abstain oneself from something, which later in the
development of the religion was applied to abstaining from some
particular things, from break of dawn up to sunset, with intention
Fasting results in piety i.e., to abstain
oneself from gratifying worldly matters, results in the perfection of
the spirit. He adds, one should care about matters which take him away
from his Lord: this is called piety. This abstinence from common
lawful things causes him to abstain from unlawful things and to come
nearer to God. The end of
Ramadan comes with the prayer of the Eid
after which a sum of money equal to the cost of all the meals not
eaten by oneself and one's family during this month is usually given
to the poor.
KHUMS AND ZAKAH
The term Zakah is related to the purity in Arabic. It is the annual
taxation of one's excess wealth at certain rates for different
valuables. It is a form of social welfare program, by which wealth is
redistributed and the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a small
elite prevented. It is also seen as a ritual purification of one's
Khums (خمس), meaning one fifth, is an annual tax of
one-fifth which is levied on net income (after paying all expenses).
This tax is to be spent on Muhammad, his family, orphans, the needy
and the travelers. Half of the
Khums is the share of the Imam which is
his inheritance from
Muhammad and at the absence of Imam, it is paid
to Marja\' as the representative of Imam.
The items which are eligible for khums are seven:
* the profit or the surplus of the income.
* the legitimate wealth which is mixed with some illegitimate
* mines and minerals.
* the precious stones obtained from sea by diving.
* the land which a dhimmi kafir buys from a Muslim.
* the spoils of war.
Khums is mandatory on seven assets: earned profits, net income (after
paying all expenses),
Zakat or alms is levied on crops, livestock,
gold, silver and cash
In Islamic legal terminology, it means "one-fifth of certain items
which a person acquires as wealth, and which must be paid as an
Islamic tax". According to Shi'a, the items eligible for khums are
referred to as Ghanima (الْغَنيمَة) in the Quran. The Arabic
word Ghanima has two meanings
* "spoils of war" or "war booty"
* gain or profit
Sunni translate this word exclusively as "war booty" or "spoils
of war". The Twelvers hold the view that the word Ghanima has two
meanings as mentioned above, the second meaning is illustrated by the
common use of the Islamic banking term al-ghunm bil-ghurm meaning
"gains accompany liability for loss or risk".
Also, in a famous supplication, the supplication after the noon
prayer, the person asks God to bestow on him His favors, one of those
favors which the person asks is the benefit or gain from every act of
righteousness, the word used here is al-ghanima
(وَالْغَنيمَةَ مِنْ كُلِّ بِر ) this is in
accordance with the second meaning of the word.
Hajj is the supreme pilgrimage of the Muslim to the Ka'bah in Mecca.
This rite involves circumambulation around the Ka'bah, certain
movements, prayers, and the sacrifice of an animal in
adjoining holy areas according to Sunnah. Muslims believe that if the
Hajj was performed by sincerity, their sins will be forgiven by God.
It is performed in the month of Dhu'l-hijjah and is obligatory for all
the Muslims who possess physical and financial ability.There is also
Hajj or hajj al-'umrah which is performed on the remaining of
According to Nasr,
Jihad literally means effort but in the path of
God in the whole of life.
Shia associates the doctrine of Jihad
directly to the
Walayah or allegiance to the Imamah, i.e., it is Imam
who can distinguish the situation which necessitates the
just this kind of
Jihad may cause the entry to the paradise. Nasr
states that as equilibrium, both outward and inward, is the
prerequisite for the spiritual flight, all Muslims should carry out
Jihad against any outward and inward forces to maintain equilibrium.
Jihad is related to the defense of the Muslim world
against non-Islamic forces. It also includes the defense of one's
honor, family and rights and establishing justice in the whole
environment. But this lesser jihad should be completed by a greater
Jihad which is war against all forces that are against the nobility of
the human. He adds that from the spiritual point of view all the
Islam like Shahadah, prayer ... are the weapons for the
practice of this inner Jihad. So inner
Jihad is the path for the
realization of the One who is the ultimate message of the Islam. This
Jihad continues until every breath of man echoes that reality
who is the origin of every thing and all things return to him. Nasr
adds that every religious deed is
Jihad because it is a striving
between one's passionate soul(nafs) and the demands of the immortal
Jihad as a care against every thing which distracts
one from God.
Shia believe that
Jihad as defense is legitimate not as
Jihad can not be done against the innocent and the
enemy should be treated with Justice and kindness and
Jihad should be
carried out on the basis of truth not on the basis of anger. The
killing of women,children, even animals and the destruction is
forbidden in Jihad.
TAWALLA AND TABARRA
Muhammad is incumbent upon all Muslims and is the key for the
love of God. To love God needs that God love the one and God does not
love the one who does not love his messengers.
COMMANDING WHAT IS JUST AND FORBIDDING WHAT IS EVIL
Commanding what is just and
Forbidding what is evil
In addition to leading a virtuous life, a Muslim should enjoin all
other Muslims to do the same and to avoid all vices prohibited.
By Shia, acting according to religion is incumbent on every one, but
if the expression of a belief endanger one's life, honor and property,
he can conceal his belief as the verse 16: 106 implies. It is as a
weapon for the weak before the tyrants. If Dissimulation cause the
disappearance of the religion or the fundamentals of the religion, it
is forbidden and Muslims are to give up their lives but if there is no
advantage in their being killed, it is to dissimulate. There is no
place for Dissimulation regarding the teaching of the doctrines of the
Shia has been a minority under the rule of regimes who
were in hostility to their beliefs, they choose to be cautious to
prevent their extinction.
Henry Corbin, states that "the practice was instituted by the Imams
themselves, not only for reasons of personal safety, but as an
attitude called for by the absolute respect for high doctrines: nobody
has strictly the right to listen to them except those who are capable
of listening to, and comprehending, the truth. "
MUT\'AH: TEMPORARY MARRIAGE
Nikah el Mut\'a (Arabic : نكاح
Nikah Mut'ah literally, "marriage of
pleasure"), or sighah, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to
Shia schools of Shari'a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a
preset duration, after which the marriage is automatically dissolved.
It has many conditions that can be considered as pre-requisite,
similar to that of permanent marriage. It is the second form of
Islamic marriage (Nikah) . However, it is regarded as haram
(prohibited) by Sunnis. This is a highly controversial fiqh topic;
Sunnis and Shi'a hold diametrically opposed views on its
permissibility. But some of the
Sunni Muslims recognizes
. According to
Sunni sources, Mutah existed during the time of prophet
Muhammad but he prohibited it during his lifetime on the day and also
prohibited the consumption of meat of donkeys as believed by majority
of Muslims. According to
Sunni sources, Mut'ah was practiced from the
time of revelation to
Muhammad until the day of khbyer when he forbade
Main article: Ja\'fari jurisprudence
According to Ja\'fari jurisprudence ,
Sharia is derived from the
Qur\'an and the
Sunnah . The difference between
Sunni and Shīʻa
Sharia results from a Shīʻa belief that
Muhammad assigned ʻAlī to
be the first ruler and the leader after him (the Khalifa or steward).
This difference resulted in the Shīʻa:
* Following hadith from Muħammad and his descendants the 12 Imāms.
* Some of them are not accepting the "examples", verdicts, and
Abu Bakr ,
Uthman ibn Affan (who are considered
by Sunnīs to be the first three Caliphs).
* Attributing the concept of the masūm "infallibility" to the
Twelve Imāms or
The Fourteen Infallibles
The Fourteen Infallibles (including
Muhammad and his
daughter Fatimah) and accepting the examples and verdicts of this
AKHBARI AND USULI SCHOOLS
Rejecting the function of the Mujtahid, comparing to the authority of
Imam, Astarabadi knew the Mujtahid unnecessary as the people
themselves following the instructions of the Imam which is sufficient
for the guidance of the Shia. Akhbaries only rely on the hadith of the
prophet and the Imams. Knowing them as non-systematic and purely
doctrinal without tolerating the rational judgement, Usulies depicted
themselves as "a living continuous leadership of the believers" with
"flexibility regarding legal and especially political questions".
Usuli implies the doctrine of Usul which means the principle of the
Jurisprudence, and Ilm al-Usul concerns with establishing the legal
standards on the basis of Quran, hadith, Ijma' and Aql. Ijma' is the
unanimous consensus. Aql, in
Shia Jurisprudence, is applied to four
practical principles namely bara'at (immunity), ihtiyat (precaution),
takhyir (selection), and istishab (continuity in the previous state)
which are applied when other religious proofs are not applicable.
THE SOURCES OF JURISPRUDENCE
Sources of sharia
According to Shia, the Quran, the Sunna, intellect and consensus are
the bases of the jurisprudence. As
Islam is considered by
Shia to be
the last and the most perfect religion, by ijtihad, it deduces the
responses through Islamic sources. Thus ijtihad brings flexibility to
GUARDIANSHIP OF THE JURISPRUDENT
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Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists
Shia political thought, at the absence of an infallible Imam, a
capable jurist (faqih) takes the responsibility of leadership of the
Shia jurisprudence, the basis of the juristic authority
is derived from the
Imamate as the expansion of the prophecy and
knowledge (ilm) which is also the basis for the religious and
political authority of the Imam. As
Islam is the foundation of
Muslim's culture, it needs government in order to be implemented. and
establishing an Islamic society is the aim of the Islamic government.
The Islamic authority responds to social needs by Islamic norms.
God's absolute authority is the foundation of Twelvers political
thought, though every one who wishes to have authority must be
assigned by Him. In referring to the Hakim (Wali) Ja'far as-Sadiq
states that: "I have appointed him a hakim over you. If such a person
orders (judges) according to our ruling and the person concerned does
not accept it, then he has shown contempt for the ruling of God and
rejects us; and he who rejects us, actually rejects Allah and such a
person is close to association with Allah. " Regarding the priority
of the guardianship over all other religious law, Khomeini states
that: "The government, or the absolute guardianship (alwilayat
al-mutlaqa) that is delegated to the noblest messenger of Allah, is
the most important divine law and has priority over all other
ordinances of the law. If the powers of the government be restricted
to the framework of ordinances of the law then the delegation of the
Muhammad would be a senseless phenomenon. " Shaykh
Shaykh al-Tusi transmit the hadith that Muhammad
al-Mahdi, in response to Ishaq ibn Yaqub, through
Muhammad ibn Uthman
al-Umari exprsses that: "As for the events that may occur (al-hawadith
al-waqi'a) refer to the transmitters (ruwat) of our teachings who are
my hujjah (proof) to you and I am the Proof of God (Hujjatullah) to
you all. " Ja'afar al-Sadiq, pointing to verse 4: 60, forbids
referring to tyrannical government for all the times. " In fact, the
idea of jurist authority is based on the belief that establishing an
ideal society without any aid from God's revelation, is not possible.
According to Twelvers, Juristic authority emphasizes on the role of
Shari'a in society. According to Al-Murtaza, on certain conditions
holding office on behalf of the true Leaders is obligatory: to enable
the office to order what is right and forbid what is wrong, to protect
the Shi'ites, the Shi'ites are threatened to death, otherwise.
Twelver Shi'a Muslims consider '
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib and
the subsequent further eleven
Imams not only religious guides but
political leaders, based on a crucial hadith where
Muhammad passes on
his power to command Muslims to
Ali . Since the last Imam, Muhammad
al-Mahdi, went into "occultation" in 939 and is not expected back
until end times, this left Shi'a without religiously sanctioned
The first Shi'a regime, the
Safavid dynasty in Iran, propagated the
Twelver faith, made Twelver's law the law of the land, and patronized
Twelver scholarship. For this,
Twelver ulema "crafted a new theory of
government" which held that while "not truly legitimate", the Safavid
monarchy would be "blessed as the most desirable form of government
during the period of awaiting" for
Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth
In general, the Shi'a adhere to one of three approaches towards the
state: either full participation in government, i.e., attempting to
influence policies by becoming active in politics, or passive
cooperation with it, i.e. minimal participation, or else most
commonly, mere toleration of it, i.e. remaining aloof from it.
This changed with
Iranian Revolution where the
Khomeini and his supporters established a new theory of governance for
the Islamic Republic of
Iran . It is based on Khomeini's theory of
guardianship of the Islamic jurist as rule of the Islamic jurist, and
jurists as "legatees" of Muhammad.
While not all
Twelver Shi\'a accept this theory, it is uniquely
Twelver and the basis of the constitution of
Iran , the largest Shi'a
Muslim country, where the Supreme Leader must be an Islamic jurist .
IJTIHAD AND TAQLID (ACCEPTING A SCHOLAR\'S VERDICT)
See also: Marja\' (Islamic law) and
How to associate with a religious and judicial problem that its
answer is not in the
Quran and hadith. Regarding Ijtihad, Halm
explains that while the religious material are limited, what procedure
should be taken if a problem arises. Here human reason comes in; God
gave reason to human to discover His Will. If no answer was given by
tradition (naql) the intellect (aql) should come in. This rational
effort to find the solutions for the temporary issues is called
Ijtihad (making of an effort). It is derived form the word jihad which
means the struggle for the attainment of God's Will on earth. The
participle of ijtihad is mujtahid (the person who makes effort). They
should master the
Arabic language and be familiar with the foundations
Quran and hadith. They also should know the principles of
Jurisprudence and logic. The remaining other believers, who are not
expert, exercise taqlid which means authorization; that is common
believers authorize the experts to make decisions for them. If the
mujtahid make a mistake, the believer is not responsible for his
error. Though ijtihad makes the
Shia theology flexible. The traces of
Ijtihad refers back to the time of
Imams when they trained scholars to
answer to the judicial problems of the people. As al-Baqir said to
Aban ibn Taghlib: "Sit down at the door of the mosque and pronounce
fatwa (judgement) to the people ..." According to Nasr, the mujtahids
acted as the guard against tyrannical government and they had
religious and social functions. Al-Karaki narrates a hadith from his
teachers that the scholar is the guardian of the religion, successor
of the Imam and he should draw conclusions from the sources by the
See also: History of
Shia Islam and Origin of
In 610, when
Muhammad received the first revelation,
Ali was 10 years
old. At the time of Muhammad, some of the supporters of Ali,
particularly Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Salman the Persian, Abu Dharr
al-Ghifari, and Ummar ibn Yasir were called the Shiites of Ali. The
Sunni traces back to the crisis of the
succession to Muhammad. The followers of
Ali fight with some of the
Quraysh and some of the companions of
Muhammad like Talhah and Zubayr.
As most of his supporters were in Iraq,
Ali moved the capital of Islam
to Kufa and there began to fight against Mu'awiyah who had rejected to
give allegiance to Ali. The death of Husayn played an important role
in the spread of Shi'ism in the regions of Iraq,
Yemen and Persia. At
the end of the first century, the influential leaders in the
government established the city of
Qom for the settlement of the Shia.
Al-Baqir was teacher of law for 20 years and a reporter of hadith. He
also introduced the principle of Taqiyya. Al-Baqir narrated many
ahadith about Jurisprudence and other religious sciences which based
the foundations for the
Shia instructions. With change in political
situations and a suitable conditions for the development of religious
activities and the time of elaborating the religious sciences, Ja'far
al-Sadiq had an important role in forming the
Ja'far al-Sadiq and al-Baqir are the founders of the Imami Shiite
school of religious law. Al-Sadiq acquired a noteworthy group of
scholars around himself, comprising some of the most eminent jurists,
traditionists, and theologians of the time. During his time, Shia
developed in the theological and legal issues. Both
Ja'far al-Sadiq improved the position of the
Shia and elaborated
the intellectual basis of the interpretation and practice of Shiite
Islam. Their teachings were the basis for the development of Shiite
spirituality and religious rituals.
At the beginning of the third/ninth century once again Shia
flourished and it was due to the translation of scientific and
philosophical books from other languages to Arabic, Al-Ma'mun giving
freedom to the propagation of different religious views and his
interest in intellectual debates. Under the rule of al-Ma'mun, Shia
was free from the political pressures and was somehow at liberty. In
the fourth/tenth century, the weaknesses in the Abbasid government and
coming up the Buyid rulers caused the spread, strength and open
propagation of the Shi'ism. From the fifth/eleventh to the ninth
Shia kings appeared in the Islamic world who propagated
CRISIS AND CONSOLIDATION
During tenth century and Buyid era,
Baghdad was the center of
Mu\'tazila theologians. Their ideas about attribute and justice of God
and human free will affected
Shia theologians. Bani Nawbakht ,
particularly Abu Sahl
Al-Nawbakhti (d. 923–924), fussed Mu'tazili
theology with Imami system of thought. On the other hand, Imami
Qom , particularly
Ibn Babawayh (d. 991), react to
their theological ideas based on Twelve Imams' Hadiths. He tried to
defend Imami ideas against Mu'tazili criticism regarding
The three prominent figures of
Baghdad school were Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid
(d. 1022 CE),
Sharif al-Murtaza (d. 1044) and
Shaykh al-Tusi (d.
Al-Mufid was a
Fiqih who is used
Bani Nawbakht as well as Baghdadi
Mu'tazila ideas to form his theology
while trying to adapt theological ideas with Twelve Imams' Hadith.
Mu'tazila was dominant in Baghdad, he tries to distinguish
Mu'tazila ideas and assert reason needs revelation .
Shaykh Tusi, founder of
Shia Ijtihad, was the first to establish the
bases of reasoning in
Shia Jurisprudence. His book al-Mabsut is the
first book of
Ijtihad which derives the subordinates from the
principles. Tusi bought the
Shia religious law to a new period. The
main point is that he recognized the needs of the community and
preserved the principles.
By his debates and books, Al-Mufid, Sayyid-al Murtada and Shaykh
Iraq were the first to introduce the Usul of the
Jurisprudence under the influence of the Shafe'i and Mu'tazili
doctrines. Al- Kulayni and al-Sadduq, in
Qom and Ray, were concerned
with traditionalist approach.
Imams amongst other
Shia imam with their early
shown in the chart below. This also indicate twelvers amongst various
other sects in the present world.
SHIA ISLAM CHART
Ali al Murtaza
Ali zayn ul Abedin
Isma\'il ibn Jafar
Musa al-Kadhim .
Muhammad ibn Isma\'il
Ahmad al-Wafi (Abadullah)
Ahmad (al-Taqī Muhammad)
Ali al Hadi
Ḥusayn (ar-Raḍī ʿAbdillāh)
hasan al Askari
al-Mustanṣir bi l-Lāh
JURISPRUDENCIAL AND THEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
School Of Hillah
The beginner of this school, Ibn Idris al-Hilli (d. 1202), with his
rationalistic tendency, detailed Shi'ite jurisprudence in his
al-Sara'ir. Ibn Idris, with rejecting the validity of the isolate
hadith, states rational faculty (\
'aql ) as the fourth source of law
in deducing legal norms before
Quran and hadith. But real Usuli
doctrinal movement began by al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli (d. 1277) who brought
up ijtihad and qiyas (analogy) to jurisprudence.
dynamism into Shi'a law. Muhaqqiq Hilli and al-Hilli gave a definite
Shia jurisprudence and they separated the weak hadith from
the sound. According to John Cooper, after al-Hilli, Imami theology
and legal methodology became thoroughly infused with the terminology
and style of philosophy.
In 1256 the
Abbasid dynasty collapsed with the invasion of Mongols to
Baghdad . Under the ruling of Mongols , Shi'its were more free to
develop and al-Hilla became the new learning center for Shia.
Continuing the rationalistic tradition of the
Baghdad School, defining
reason as an important principle of Jurisprudence, al-Hillah school
laid the theoretical foundation upon which the authority of
Jurisprudents is based today.
The second wave of the Usulies was shaped in the Mongol period when
al-Hilli used the term Mujtahid, the one who deduces the ordinance on
the basis of the authentic arguments of the religion. By Ijtihad,
al-Hilli meant the disciplined reasoning on the basis of the shari'ah.
By developing the principles of the Usul, he introduced more legal and
logical norms which extended the meaning of the Usul beyond the four
principle sources of Shari'ah.
School Of Jabal \'Amil
Amili was the first who fully formulated the principles of the
RISING TO POWER
School Of Isfahan
In 1501 Isma\'il I took the power in
Iran and set up the Safavid
dynasty . While most of the larger cities of
Iran were Sunni, he
Twelver Shi'ism as the official religion of his empire. Many
Shia scholars were brought to set up the
Shia seminaries in Iran. One
of those was Karaki who stated that, for the interest of Umma, it is
necessary for a
Shia scholar to be a legitimate leader to carry out
the tasks of the Imam who is hidden. Under Safavids, religious
authorities (Shaykh al-
Islam ) were appointed for all major cities.
Karaki established a great seminary (
Hawza ) in
Iran once again became center of Imami jurisprudence.
Suhrawardi tried to harmonize rational philosophy and intellectual
intuition, but Mir Damad is the founder of it. Mir Damad combined the
teachings of Ibn Arabi, Suhrawardi, Ibn Sina and Nair al-Din and
founded a new intellectual dimension in the texture of Shi'ism. The
scholars of the School of
Isfahan integrated the philosophical,
theological, and mystical traditions of Shi'ism into a metaphysical
synthesis known as Divine Wisdom or theosophy(Persian:hikmat-i ilahi).
The most important representative of the School of
Isfahan was Mulla
Mulla Sadra produced his own synthesis of Muslim thought,
including theology, peripatetic philosophy, philosophical mysticism,
and Sufi studies, particularly the
Sufism of Ibn al-'Arabi. Mulla
Sadra trained eminent students, such as Mulla Muhsin Kashani and 'Abd
al-Razzaq Lahiji who passed down the traditions of the School of
Isfahan in later centuries in both
Iran and India.
By the mid of Safavid era (1736), the
Usuli School suffered by
Akhbari (traditionalist) trend which Mulla
Muhammad Amin Astarabadi
(d. 1626) was its founder. Astarabadi attacked the idea of Ijtihad
and called the Usulies as the enemies of religion. He recognized the
hadith as the only source for the Islamic law and the understanding of
Bihbahani as the founder of a new stage in
Shia Jurisprudence, took a
new practical method. He attacked the Ikhbaries and their method was
abandoned by Shia. The dominance of the
Usuli over the
in last half of the 18th century when
Muhammad Baqir Behbahani led
Usulis to dominance and "completely routed the Akhbaris at
Najaf," so that "only a handful of Shi'i ulama have remained Akhbari
to the present day." The reestablishment of the
Usuli School led to
the enhancement of the authority of the legal scholars in the Qajar
Qom School, Islamic Revolution And Islamic Republic
During the 1960s, Khomeini called for the abolition of the monarchy
in Iran. He was sent into exile in Iraq, where he continued his
opposition to the Iranian regime. He further ordered the opposition to
the Shah/King and led the 1979 revolution of Iran.
Twelver Shi'a, celebrate the following annual holidays:
Eid ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر), which marks the end of fasting
during the month of
Ramadan and falls on the first day of
Eid al-Adha , which marks the end of the
Hajj or pilgrimage to
Mecca, starts on the 10th day of
Dhu al-Hijjah .
The following holidays are observed by Twelvers Shi'as, unless
Mourning of Muharram
Mourning of Muharram or Remembrance of Muharram and Ashurah
Shia commemorates Imam Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom
in the Battle of
Karbala . Imam Husayn was grandson of Muhammad, who
was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah , the second
Caliph of the Umayyad
Caliphate (and the first one by heredity). One group of
have deemed Yazeed to be a kaafir (e.g.
Sunni Scholar Ibn Jauzi in
Wafa al-Wafa). Sunnis also commemorates Imam Husayn ibn Ali's
martyrdom , but do not engage in the spectacle conducted by Shi'as.
* Arba\'een (Arabic word for forty(40)) commemorates on 40th day of
Imam Husain's martydom (40th day is an auspicious day for any deceased
as per Islam) remembering the suffering of Imam Husayn and his
household, the women and children. After Husayn was killed, they were
marched over the desert, from
Karbala (central Iraq) to Shaam
Syria ). Many children (some of whom were direct
descendants of Muhammad) died of thirst and exposure along the route.
Arba'een occurs on the 20th of
Safar , 40 days after Ashurah.
* Milad al-Nabi , Muhammad's birth date, is celebrated by the Shia
on the 17th of Rabi\' al-awwal , which coincides with the birth date
of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.
* Mid-Sha\'aban is the birth date of the 12th and final imam,
Muhammad al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Twelvers on the 15th of
Sha\'aban . Many
Shia fast on this day to show gratitude.
Eid al-Ghadeer celebrates Ghadir Khum , the occasion when Muhammad
announced Ali\'s imamate before a multitude of Muslims. Eid al-Ghadeer
is held on the 18th of
Dhu al-Hijjah .
Al-Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the Ahl al-Bayt
(household of Muhammad) and a Christian deputation from
Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhu al-Hijjah.
List of marjas
See also: List of Shi\'a Muslim scholars of
Muhammad Baqir Majlisi
Muhammad ibn Ya\'qub al-Kulayni
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
* Persecution of
* ^ Usul al-Din (Arabic : اصول الدین)
* ^ Adl (Arabic : عدل)
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* ^ Tabataba\'i 1984 , p. 31
* ^ Tabataba\'i 1986 , p. 22
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* ^ Rizvi 1992
* ^ Surah 8. Spoils Of War, Booty.
* ^ Glossary of Islamic Banking Terms.
* ^ Challenges Facing Islamic Banking.
* ^ The Keys to Paradise, chapter 1, section 2 title "special
prayers" مفاتيح الجنان.
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* The book "Durr-e-Mansoor dar Halaat-e-Ulama-e-Zangipur"
* The book "MATLA-e-ANWAR" (By Maulana Murtaza Husain Sadrul-Afazil)
* The book "KHURSHEED-e-KHAWAR" (By Maulan Saeed Akhtar Gopalpuri)
* The thesis on "Life of Jawad-ul-Ulama" research work of Dr. Inayet
Ali (Aligarh Muslim University)
* The booklet "Haqnuma" published Jamia-Imania, Banaras.
* Black, Antony (2011). The history of Islamic political thought
from the prophet to the present. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-3987-8 .
* Campo, Juan E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. New York: Facts On
File. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1 .
* Chelkowski, Peter (2009). "Ta\'zia". Encyclopædia Iranica.
* Corbin, Henry (1993). History of Islamic Philosophy, Translated by
Philip Sherrard . London; Kegan Paul International
in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili
Studies. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1 .
* Cornell, Vincent J. (2007). Voices of Islam. Westport, Conn.:
Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-98732-9 .
* Dabashi, Hamid (1989). Authority in Islam: from the rise of
Muhammad to the establishment of the Umayyads. New Brunswick, U.S.A.:
Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-88738-288-8 .
* Daftary, Farhad (2013). A history of Shi'i Islam. ISBN
Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
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University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4 .
* Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale
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* Halm, Heinz; translated from the German by Allison (1997). Shi'a
Islam: from religion to revolution (2. printing ed.). Princeton, NJ:
Markus Wiener Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55876-134-6 .
* Kraemer, Joel L. (1992). Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The
Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09736-0 .
* Lakhani, M. Ali; Shah Kazemi, Reza; Lewisohn, Leonard (2006). The
Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam: The Teachings of ʻAlī Ibn
Abī Ṭālib. World Wisdom, Inc. ISBN 978-1-933316-26-0 .
* Leaman, Oliver (2008). The
Qur'an : an encyclopedia. London :
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1 .
* Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of
Islam and the Muslim world;
vol. 1. MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5 .
* Martin, Richard C. (2003). Encyclopedia of
Islam and the Muslim
world (. ed.). New York: Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN
* Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: the History
and Doctrines of
Twelver Shi'ism. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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man, and the universe. Mizan Press.
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* Murata, Sachiko; Chittick, William (1994). Vision of Islam:
reflecting on the
Hadith of Gabriel (1st ed.). New York, NY: Paragon
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* Nasr, Hossein ; Dabashi, Hamid ; Nasr, Vali (1988). Shiʻism
doctrines, thought, and spirituality. Albany: SUNY. ISBN
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Philosophy. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-25934-7 .
* Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2002). The heart of
Islam enduring values
for humanity. Pymble, NSW: PerfectBound. ISBN 0-06-051665-8 .
* Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2006). Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to
the Present. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6799-2 .
* Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2000). Ideals and realities of
rev. ed.). Chicago, IL: ABC International Group. ISBN
* Nasr; Dabashi; Nasr (1989). Expectation of the Millennium Shiʻism
in History. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN
* Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007).
Islam religion, history, and
civilization. Pymble, NSW: HarperCollins e-books. ISBN
* Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2008). Islamic spirituality : foundations.
London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-44262-6 .
* Pakatchi, Ahmad (1988). "Imamiyah". The Great Islamic
Encyclopedia. Center for The Great Islamic Encyclopedia. ISBN
* Rizvi, Sayyid
Muhammad (1992). Khums, An Islamic Tax. Ansaryan.
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Muhammad (2004). Islam: Faith, Practice & History.
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exegesis of the Qurʼān. 3. WOFIS.
* Tabataba'ei, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn (1983). al-Mīzān : an
exegesis of the Qurʼān. 1. WOFIS.
OCLC 311256759 .
* Tabataba'ei, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn (1984). al-Mīzān : an
exegesis of the Qurʼān. 2. WOFIS.
* Tabataba'ei, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn (1986). al-Mīzān : an
exegesis of the Qurʼān. 6. WOFIS.
* Vaezi, Ahmad (2004).
Shia political thought. London: Islamic
Centre of England. ISBN 978-1-904934-01-1 .
* Weiss, Bernard G. (2006). The Spirit of Islamic Law. University of
Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-2827-0 .
* Biggest twelver video library
* A brief introduction of Twelve Imams
* A Brief History Of The Lives Of
The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams a chapter of
Islam (book) by
Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei
* 07: 06
The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams Taken From "A Shi'ite Anthology" by
Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei
* A Short History of the Lives of The Twelve Imams
* Ithna \'Ashariyah An article by
Encyclopædia Britannica online
* al-Islam.org - Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project