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Shi\'ism

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* Shia Islam
Shia Islam
* Ashura

* v * t * e

TWELVER (Arabic : اثنا عشرية‎‎, ATHNā\'ASHARIYYAH or ITHNā\'ASHARIYYAH; Persian : شیعه دوازده امامی‎‎, pronounced ) Shia Islam
Shia Islam
or IMAMIYYAH (Arabic : إمامية‎‎) is the largest branch of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
. Twelver
Twelver
belief is based on the Quran
Quran
and the message of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
attested in hadith , and on hadith taught by their Imams
Imams
. The term Twelver
Twelver
refers to its adherents' belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams
Imams
, and their belief that the last Imam, Muhammad al- Mahdi
Mahdi
, lives in occultation and will reappear as the promised Mahdi
Mahdi
. According to Shia
Shia
tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa) , who is to assist the Mahdi
Mahdi
against the Masih ad-Dajjal
Masih ad-Dajjal
(literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist).

Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams
Imams
are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. According to the theology of Twelvers , the Twelve Imams
Imams
are exemplary human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but are also able to preserve and interpret sharia and the esoteric meaning of the Quran
Quran
. The words and deeds ( Sunnah
Sunnah
) of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Imams
Imams
must be free from error and sin, a doctrine known as Ismah
Ismah
or infallibility, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass , through Muhammad.

The largest branch of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
is the Twelver
Twelver
Shia, with about 85% of all Shias that can be estimated approximately between 148 and 296 million Twelver
Twelver
Shias.

Twelvers make majorities among Muslims in Iran
Iran
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Iraq
Iraq
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Lebanon
Lebanon
. Also, they make significant minorities in India , Pakistan
Pakistan
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Yemen
Yemen
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Oman
Oman
, UAE
UAE
, Qatar
Qatar
, Nigeria
Nigeria
, Egypt
Egypt
, Chad
Chad
, and Tanzania
Tanzania
.

Iran
Iran
is the only country with state religion as (Twelver) Shia
Shia
Islam .

Twelvers share many tenets of Shia
Shia
with related sects, such as the belief in Imams
Imams
, but the Ismaili
Ismaili
Shias believe in a different number of Imāms and, for the most part, a different path of succession regarding the Imamate . They also differ in the role and overall definition of an Imam. Twelvers are also distinguished from Ismailis by their belief in Muhammad's status as the "Seal of the Prophets" ( Khatam an-Nabiyyin
Khatam an-Nabiyyin
), in rejecting the possibility of abrogation of Sharia
Sharia
laws, and in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of the Quran. Alevis in Turkey
Turkey
and Albania
Albania
and Alawis in Syria
Syria
share belief in the Twelve Imams
Imams
with Twelvers, but their theological doctrines are remarkably different.

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology

* 2 Theological doctrine

* 2.1 Unity of God

* 2.1.1 Tawhid
Tawhid
of the Essence * 2.1.2 Tawhid
Tawhid
of the attributes * 2.1.3 Tawhid
Tawhid
of Creatorship * 2.1.4 Tawhid
Tawhid
of Lordship * 2.1.5 Shirk

* 2.2 The Justice of God

* 2.2.1 Justice in Creation * 2.2.2 Justice in Religious Dispensation * 2.2.3 Justice in Recompense * 2.2.4 Predestination and Free Will

* 2.3 The Prophethood

* 2.3.1 Angel
Angel
* 2.3.2 Revelation * 2.3.3 Miracle

* 2.4 Imamah and Walayah

* 2.4.1 The Succession to Muhammad
Succession to Muhammad
* 2.4.2 Ziyarat
Ziyarat
and Tawassul
Tawassul
* 2.4.3 Ismah
Ismah
* 2.4.4 The Occultation

* 2.5 The Day of Resurrection

* 2.5.1 The Return (Raj\'a) * 2.5.2 The Day of Judgement * 2.5.3 Intercession

* 3 Shari\'ah (Furu al-Din)

* 3.1 Shahada
Shahada
(Declaration of faith) * 3.2 Prayer * 3.3 Fasting
Fasting
* 3.4 Khums and Zakah * 3.5 Hajj
Hajj
* 3.6 Jihad
Jihad
* 3.7 Tawalla and Tabarra
Tabarra
* 3.8 Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil

* 4 Differences

* 4.1 Dissimulation (Taqiyya) * 4.2 Mut\'ah: Temporary marriage

* 5 Jurisprudence (Fiqh)

* 5.1 Akhbari and Usuli schools * 5.2 The sources of Jurisprudence * 5.3 Guardianship of the jurisprudent * 5.4 Ijtihad and Taqlid (Accepting a scholar\'s verdict)

* 6 History

* 6.1 Imamate Era

* 6.1.1 Emergence * 6.1.2 Formulation * 6.1.3 Organizing

* 6.2 Crisis and Consolidation

* 6.2.1 Baghdad
Baghdad
school

* 6.3 Jurisprudencial and Theological Development

* 6.3.1 School of Hillah * 6.3.2 School Of Jabal \'Amil

* 6.4 Rising to Power

* 6.4.1 School of Isfahan
Isfahan
* 6.4.2 Ikhbari- Usuli Controversies * 6.4.3 Qom
Qom
school, Islamic Revolution and Islamic Republic

* 7 Calendar

* 8 Notable scholars

* 8.1 Historical

* 9 See also * 10 Notes

* 11 Footnotes

* 11.1 Further reading

* 12 References * 13 External links

TERMINOLOGY

The term 'Twelver' is based on the belief that twelve male descendants from the family of Muhammad, starting with Ali
Ali
ibn Abi-Talib and ending with Muhammad al-Mahdi , are Imams
Imams
who have religious and political authority.

The Twelvers are also known by other names:

* The Shi'ah (or Shi'a) is commonly used as a synonym for "Twelvers" since this branch comprises the majority group in Shia
Shia
Islam. Shia refers to a group of Muslims who believe that the succession to Muhammad
Muhammad
must remain in his family for specific members who are designated by a divine appointment. Tabataba'ei states that the word referred to the partisans of Ali
Ali
at the time of Muhammad
Muhammad
himself. * Ja'fari refers exclusively to the Twelver
Twelver
Juridical school which is followed by the majority of Shias. It also refers to the minority Akhbaris who advocate a distinct juridical approach within Jafari Jurisprudence. The term is derived from the name of Ja\'far al-Sadiq who is considered by the Twelvers to be their Sixth Imām. Ja'far al-Sadiq is also respected and referenced by the founders of the Sunni Hanafi
Hanafi
and Maliki
Maliki
schools of jurisprudence. * Imami or Imamiyyah or Imamite is a reference to the Twelver
Twelver
belief in the infallibility of the Imāms. Although the Ismā'īlīs also share the generic concept of Imams, this term is exclusively used for the Twelvers who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad
Muhammad
belongs to Ali
Ali
and eleven subsequent successors that together comprise the Fourteen Infallibles .

THEOLOGICAL DOCTRINE

Main article: Theology of Twelvers

Part of a series on Islam
Islam
Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam
Islam

* Shahada
Shahada
* Salah
Salah
* Sawm
Sawm
* Zakat
Zakat
* Hajj
Hajj

Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
1 SIX ARTICLES OF BELIEF

* God * Prophets * Holy books * Angels * The Last Judgement * Predestination

SUNNI THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS

* Ilm al- Kalam
Kalam

* Ash\'ari * Maturidi

* Traditionalist

Shi\'a 2 TWELVER

* PRINCIPLES

* Tawhid
Tawhid
* Adalah * Prophecy * Imamah * Qiyamah

* PRACTICES

* Salah
Salah
* Sawm
Sawm
* Zakat
Zakat
* Hajj
Hajj
* Khums * Jihad
Jihad
* Commanding what is just * Forbidding what is evil * Tawalla * Tabarra
Tabarra

SEVEN PILLARS OF ISMAILISM

* Walayah * Tawhid
Tawhid
* Salah
Salah
* Zakat
Zakat
* Sawm
Sawm
* Hajj
Hajj
* Jihad
Jihad

OTHER SHIA CONCEPTS OF AQIDAH

* Imamate * Batin * Sixth Pillar of Islam
Islam

Other schools of theology

* Ibadi
Ibadi
* Jahmi * Khawarij
Khawarij
3 * Murji\'ah * Muʿtazila * Qadariyah
Qadariyah
* Sufism
Sufism
4

Including: 1 Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
, Qutbism top: 0.2em;">2 Alawites
Alawites
, Assassins , Druzes top: 0.2em;">3 Azariqa , Ajardi, Haruriyyah
Haruriyyah
, Najdat top: 0.2em;">4 Alevism
Alevism
, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;">

* v * t * e

The Twelver
Twelver
theology, which mainly consists of five principles, has formed over the course of history on the basis of the teachings of Quran
Quran
, and hadiths from Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Twelve Imams
Imams
(especially Jafar al-Sadiq ), and in response to the intellectual movements in the Muslim world and major events of the Twelver
Twelver
history, such as the Battle of Karbala and the occultation of the twelfth Imam , Muhammad al- Mahdi
Mahdi
.

UNITY OF GOD

Main article: Tawhid
Tawhid

According to Hossein Nasr
Hossein Nasr
, Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
, the first Shia
Shia
Imam is credited with having established Islamic theology and among Muslims his sermons contain the first rational proofs of the God's unity ( Tawhid
Tawhid
).

Ali
Ali
is quoted as arguing that unity of God means that he has no like, he is not subject to numeration and is not divisible either in reality or imagination. On another occasion, he is quoted saying:

The first step of religion is to accept, understand and realize him as the Lord ... The correct form of belief in his unity is to realize that he is so absolutely pure and above nature that nothing can be added to or subtracted from his being. That is, one should realize that there is no difference between his person and his attributes, and his attributes should not be differentiated or distinguished from his person.

Sayyid Haydar Amuli a prominent Shia
Shia
mystic and philosopher defines God as alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his actions, his theophanies. The totality of being therefore is he, through him, comes from him, and returns to him. God is not a being next to or above other beings, his creatures; he is being, the absolute act of being (wujud mutlaq). The divine unitude does not have the meaning of an arithmetical unity, among, next to, or above other unities. For, if there were being other than he (i.e., creatural being), God would no longer be the Unique, i.e., the only one to be. As this Divine Essence is infinite, his qualities are the same as his essence, Essentially there is one Reality which is one and indivisible.

According to Twelver's theology, Tawhid
Tawhid
consists of several aspects including Tawhid
Tawhid
of the Essence, the attributes, the creatorship, the lordship and oneness in worship.

Tawhid
Tawhid
Of The Essence

Tawhid
Tawhid
of the essence of God means his essence is one and peerless. Regarding this, Quran
Quran
112 states: Say, "He is Allah, One, Allah, the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent. "

Tawhid
Tawhid
Of The Attributes

Tawhid
Tawhid
of the attributes means God's names and attributes have no other reality than His essence. Ali
Ali
argues that "Every attributes testifies to its being other than the object to which it is attributed, and every such object in turn testifies to its being other than the attribute. " Tawhid
Tawhid
of the attributes means to deny the existence of any sort of multiplicity and combination in the Essence itself. A differentiation between the essence and the attributes or between the attributes implies a limitation in being.

Tawhid
Tawhid
Of Creatorship

Tawhid
Tawhid
of Creatorship means that there is no creator but God, that is the causes and effects of the universe are not independent from God just as the beings which are not independent in essence. There is no power except God, according to Motahari.

Tawhid
Tawhid
Of Lordship

Tawhid
Tawhid
of Lordship means the governance of the world and man only belongs to God. This oneness of lordship has two aspects: creative governance (tadbir takwini), and religious governance (tadbir tashrii).

At last oneness in worship, i.e., God alone is deserved to be worshipped. According to Morteza Motahhari , oneness in worship means rejecting all kinds of counterfeit worship (such as worship of carnal desires, money or prestige), and as Quran
Quran
says, every act of obedience to an order is worship.

Shirk

Contrary to Tawhid
Tawhid
is Shirk . It is a belief that the world has more than one principle or pole. According to Morteza Motahhari , the distinction of theoretical Tawhid
Tawhid
from Shirk is recognition of the idea that every reality and being in its essence, attributes and action are from him (from Him-ness (Arabic : انّالله‎‎)). Every supernatural action of the prophets is by God's permission as Quran
Quran
points to it. Shirk in practice is to assume something as an end in itself, independent from God, but to assume it as a path to God (to Him-ness (Arabic : انّاالیه ‎‎)) is Tawhid.

THE JUSTICE OF GOD

Ali
Ali
insists that God is Just and he is the Justice Itself and the virtue of Justice flows from him to the souls of men. Since he is Justice, every thing he does is Just. Shiism considers Justice as innate to Divine nature, i.e. God can not act unjustly, because it is his nature to be just.

Justice In Creation

Twelvers believe that God grants every existent what is appropriate for it as the verse 20: 50 states: Our Lord is He Who gave unto everything its nature, then guided it aright.

Justice In Religious Dispensation

This belief of Twelvers implies that God guides man through sending the messengers and He does not impose upon them obligations that are beyond their capacity.

Justice In Recompense

Tabataba'i states that the Justice of God necessitates that the virtuous and evil people become separated; the virtuous have a good life and the evil have a wretched life. He will judge the beliefs and the deeds of all the people according to the truth and he will give every one his right due. Then the reality of every thing as it is will be revealed for the man. Through his faith and good deeds, he can get to friendship with God. The form of man's deeds are joined to his soul and accompany him which are the capital of his future life. The verse 96: 8 refers to getting back to God.

Predestination And Free Will

Twelvers believe in the Tawhid
Tawhid
of Creatorship, i.e. all the existence is his creation including a human being and his actions. But actions have two dimensions. The first is committing the action by free will, the second is the creation of that action by God's will with which he gave the people the power to commit the action. Sadr al-Din Shirazi states that "God, may He be exalted, is far removed from doing any evil deeds and goes about His Kingdom at will. "

THE PROPHETHOOD

Ja\'far al-Sadiq narrates from his fathers that Muhammad, in one of his sermons expressed that " sent to people messengers so they might be His conclusive argument against His creatures and so His messengers to them might be witnesses against them. He sent among them prophets bearing good tidings and warning. " Tabataba\'i states that God has perfected the guidance of people through sending the prophets; When the doctrines and practices of the revealed law gets to its perfection, the prophecy comes to an end,too. That is why the Quran points out that Islam
Islam
is the last and the most perfect religion and Muhammad
Muhammad
is the "seal of the prophets", he adds. Al-Hilli states that "the Prophets are greater in merit than the angels, because the prophets have conflicts with rational power and they compel it to submit to reason. "

Angel

Belief in the existence of the angels is one of the articles of Iman. Unseen beings of a luminous and spiritual substance, angels act as intermediaries between God and the visible world. Also superior in substance, angels are inferior to mankind, because man can reflect the image of God. The verse 2:34 implies the superiority of the mankind. God revealed the Quran
Quran
to Muhammd by Gabriel who was also his guide on Mi\'raj . The angels record the deeds of men. They follow the commands of God and do not precede him 21:27. Izz al-Din Kashani discusses that the angels are different in degree and station. Some of them cling to the Threshold of Perfection, others manage the affairs of the creation. Al-Qazwini , on the base of Quran
Quran
and hadith, names them as the Bearers of the Throne, the Spirit, he governs all the affairs of the earth and heaven according to the principle of creation; Israfil , he places the spirits in the bodies and will blow the trumpet on the Last Day. Gabriel , who took the revelation to Muhammad. Michael , Azrael , the angel of death. The cherubim (al-karrūbiyyūn) who just praise God. The angels of seven heavens and the Guardian angels, two of them are concerned with men. The Attendant angels, they bring blessings upon human. Munkar and Nakir who question the dead in the grave. The journeyers, Harut and Marut are also among them.

Revelation

Tabataba'i expresses that according to the thesis of general guidance, as the human reason cannot perceive the perfect law of happiness (Sa'adah) and he could not get it through the process of creation, there should be a general awareness of this law and it could be within the reach of every one. He adds there must be people who apprehend the real duties of life and bring them within the reach of human being. Tabataba'i refers to this power of perception, which is other than the reason and the sense, as the prophetic consciousness or the consciousness of revelation as the verse 4: 163 points to this perception namely revelation. Tabataba'i describes that the reception of revelation, its preservation and its propagation are three principles of ontological guidance. What the prophets got through the revelation was religion which consists of doctrine and practice or method. He further adds that with passing of the time and gradual development of the society, the gradual development in the revealed law is apparent. By three ways the speech of God reaches to man, by revelation or divine inspiration; behind a veil, man can hear God's speech but can not hear him; or by a messenger, an angel conveys the inspiration to the man. By the verses 72:26–28 two types of guardians protect the integrity of the revelation: an angel who protects the prophet against any kind of error, God who protects the angels and the prophets.

Miracle

Tabataba'i defines the miracle as a supernatural event which is shown by the prophet and the friends of God as a challenge to prove the claim of the prophethood and it is by God's permission. He states that the miracle should be according to the demands of the people of his own time. He adds that miracle has an inseparable connection with the claim of the prophethood and it is beyond the intellect and thinking. By miracle, al-Hilli means "the bringing into existence of something which is abnormal or the removal of something which normally exists, in a way which breaks through normality and which conforms to the claim (of prophethood which is made). " Sobhani regards some differences between miracles and extraordinary acts. He notes that miracles are not teachable and they are done without any prior training. As they are derived from the infinite power of God, the miracles are indisputable. The miracles are of unlimited types. The miracles are often concerned with spiritual matters rather worldly matters.

IMAMAH AND WALAYAH

Main articles: Imamah (Shi\'a Twelver
Twelver
doctrine) and Walayah (Twelver doctrine) 18th century mirror writing in Ottoman calligraphy . Depicts the phrase ' Ali
Ali
is the vicegerent of God' in both directions.

Shia
Shia
believe in the trilateral structure of authority; authority of God which is absolute and universal as the verse 3: 26 implies, authority of Muhammad
Muhammad
which is legitimized by the grace of God as the verse 7: 158 points to it and the authority of the Imams
Imams
who are blessed for the leadership of the community through Muhammad
Muhammad
as the verses 5: 67 and 5: 3 verifies according to Shia
Shia
fundamental belief. According to Shia, Imamah is the continuation of the prophetic mission. Shia
Shia
believe in the Twelve Imams
Imams
who are divinely inspired descendants of Muhammad. They must meet these attributes: nass (designation by the previous Imam), Ismah
Ismah
(infallibility), ilm (divine knowledge), Walayah (spiritual guidance). The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, based on Twelver's belief. It is believed in Shi'a Islam
Islam
that \ 'Aql , a divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge, called Hikmah, and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees. Although the Imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation , but has close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the imam in turn guides the people. The Imamat, or belief in the divine guide is a fundamental belief in Shi'i Islam
Islam
and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.

According to Twelvers, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Ali
Ali
was the first Imam of this line, and in the Twelvers' view, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
(also known as Hasnain) through his daughter Fatimah. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn Ibn Ali
Husayn Ibn Ali
, who was the brother of Hasan Ibn Ali
Hasan Ibn Ali
. The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi , who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive, and in hiding . Names of The Fourteen Infallibles (Masūmeen - Descendants Of Muhammad) written in the form of Arabic name على 'Ali'

The Shi'a Imams
Imams
are seen as infallible. It is an important aspect of Shia
Shia
theology that they are not prophets (nabi) nor messengers (rasul ), but instead carry out Muhammad's message.

The Succession To Muhammad

Main article: The Succession to Muhammad
Succession to Muhammad

Shia
Shia
believe that with the death of Muhammad, his religious and political authority were inherited to the Imams. Shia
Shia
considers the Successor as the esoteric interpreter of the revelation and the Divine Law.

Twelvers believe that the descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
and his son-in-law \'Alī are the best source of knowledge about the Qur\'an and Islam, the most trusted carriers and protectors of Muhammad's Sunnah
Sunnah
(traditions) and the most worthy of emulation.

In particular, Twelvers (as the main branch of Shia
Shia
Islam, with 85% of all Shias) recognize the succession of 'Alī, Muḥammad's cousin, son-in-law, the male head of the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
or "people of the house" and the father of Muḥammad's only bloodline, as opposed to that of the Caliphate
Caliphate
recognized by Sunni
Sunni
Muslims. Twelvers also believe that 'Alī should have been successor to Muḥammad.

Although 'Alī is widely accepted by Muslims in general to be the fourth successor to the Caliphate
Caliphate
after Uthman
Uthman
, for the Shī'ah, however, he is the first divinely sanctioned "Imām", or divinely appointed spiritual leader after Muhammad. The seminal event in Shī'ah history is the martyrdom in 680 CE of 'Alī's son Husayn , who led an uprising against the then, illegitimate to them, Caliph
Caliph
. For the Shī'ah, Husayn came to symbolize resistance against tyranny.

Regardless of the dispute about the Caliphate, Twelvers recognize the religious authority of the Twelve Imams, also called Khalīfah Ilāhi.

Ziyarat
Ziyarat
And Tawassul

Main articles: Ziyarat
Ziyarat
and Tawassul
Tawassul
Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala , Iraq
Iraq
, where the Battle of Karbala took place

ZIYARAH (literally: visit) is a religious practice which means to attend before religious leaders or their graves in order to express and indicate reverence/love and acquire spiritual blessings.

TAWASSUL is an Arabic word originated from wa-sa-la- wasilat (Arabic: وسيلة-وسل‎‎). The wasilah is a means by which a person, goal or objective is approached, attained or achieved.

By Shia, to Take advantage of factors to attain the goals is natural but these factors should not be taken as independent from God and should have been established in the Quran
Quran
and hadith. This means can be anything which causes drawing proximity to God such as prayer, almsgiving.

Ismah

Main article: Ismah
Ismah

In Shia
Shia
theology Ismah
Ismah
means "impeccability", "immunity to sin" and "infallibility . " When Ismah
Ismah
is attributed to human beings, the concept means "the ability of avoiding acts of disobedience, in spite of having the power to commit them, " As in Prophets and Imams, Ismah is a Divine grace realized by God 's preservation of the infallible, first by endowing them with pure constitution then, following in order, by blessing them with great excellences, giving them firm will against opponents, sending tranquility down upon them (as-Sakinah), and preserving their hearts and minds from sin.

According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice, but also is able to keep and interpret the Sharia
Sharia
and its esoteric meaning . The words and deeds of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; therefore, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass , through Muhammad.

According to Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
, his daughter Fatima Zahra ; and the Twelve Imams
Imams
are considered to be infallible under the theological concept of Ismah
Ismah
. Accordingly, they have the power to commit sin but are able to avoid doing so by their nature The Infallibles are believed to follow only God's desire in their actions, because of their supreme righteousness, consciousness, and love for God. They are also regarded as being immune to error: in practical matters, in calling people to religion, and in the perception of divine knowledge. Shias believe that the Fourteen Infallibles are superior to the rest of creation, as well as to the other major prophets .

From historical viewpoint, Wilferd Madelung claims that the purification of Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
—the family of Muhammad
Muhammad
—is guaranteed by the verse of purification in the Qur\'an . Donaldson in his argument believed that the development of the Shi'ite theology in the period between the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the disappearance of the Twelfth Imam originates the concept of Ismah
Ismah
which adds to its importance. Ann Lambton claims that neither the term nor the concept of Ismah
Ismah
is in the Qur'an
Qur'an
or in canonical Sunni
Sunni
hadith . It was apparently first used by the Imamiyyah, perhaps during the beginning of the second century of the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
in which they maintained that the Imam must be immune from sin (ma'sum). According to Hamid Algar , the concept Ismah
Ismah
is encountered as early as the first half of the second century of the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
. The Shia
Shia
scholars of the fourth and the fifth centuries of the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
defined the infallibility of Muḥammad and the Twelve Imams
Imams
in an increasingly stringent form until the doctrine came to exclude their commission of any sin or inadvertent error, either before or after they assumed office.

The Occultation

Main article: The Occultation

According to Twelvers, the conditions under the Abbasids caused Hasan al-Askari to hide the birth of his son, al-Mahdi.

The occultation is a controversial concept, Shia
Shia
sects like the Zaidi and Nizari Ismaili
Ismaili
, do not believe in the idea of the Occultation.

THE DAY OF RESURRECTION

By Shia
Shia
theological doctrine, since the people have come from God, they will go back to God, and it is related to people's reaction to the prophecy. They argue that according to the Quran, 23: 115, God, whose actions are the absolute truth, does not create a man without any purpose While the quality of this world makes the recompense impossible, the Justice of God necessitates that every one be recompensed according to his own actions. Tabataba'i describes the death as a transfer from one stage of life to another eternal stage. The verse 21:47 points to the precision of the scales of justice by which the deeds and intentions of people are weighed.

The Return (Raj\'a)

Twelvers believe in the Return, the term refers to the revival of a group of Muslims back to this world after the appearance of Mahdi. The base of this belief derives from the revival of the dead in the past communities as mentioned in the Quran
Quran
and the revival at the Day of Resurrection. Sobhani describes that Resurrection is both of body and spirit. Quran
Quran
17: 51, in response to those that ask "Who will restore us", answers: "He who brought you forth the first time. " In another place, verse 22: 5–6, it is like the revival of the earth in the season of the spring after the winter. He adds the verse 36: 79 implies that the person who is raised up at the Resurrection is the one who was alive on the earth. The purpose of the Resurrection of the body and rejoining the soul is that it experience the rewards and punishments which are sensible and they can not be experienced with the lack of the body.The purpose of spiritual resurrection is to observe those rewards and punishments which are especial to the spirit.

The Day Of Judgement

God will resurrect all human beings and they will stand before God to be questioned about their lives on the world. On this day people are two groups, people who receive their book by their right hand who are the people of Paradise and their face is bright and the people who receive their book by their left hand who are the people of Hell and their face is dark. As the verse 41:21 points out, on the Day of Judgement, the ears, eyes and skin of disbelievers will testify against them saying "Allah has caused us to speak – He causes all things to speak."

Intercession

Belief to the Intercession derives from the Quran, 21: 28, 10: 3, 53: 26 and Sunna. Muhammad, the angels 53: 26, Imams
Imams
and martyrs are among the intercessors by God's will. Muhammad
Muhammad
has expressed that one of God's gifts to him is the right of intercession of those who have committed major sins. As Quran
Quran
represents the sons of Jacob asked their father to intercede for them and their father promised to them that he will do it at the promised time.

SHARI\'AH (FURU AL-DIN)

Main article: Shari\'ah

According to Nasr, the root of the Shari'ah is Shr' which means road that all the men and women should follow. The Shari'ah or Divine Law of Islam
Islam
is ritual, legal, ethical, and social aspects of Islam
Islam
which is the concrete embodiment of the will of God. It governs the life of a Muslim from the cradle to the grave in order to get happiness in the Hereafter. He adds to get into Haqiqah, a Muslim should follow the Shari'ah which resides within the formal law. This interior part of the Shariah is Tariqah. The Shari'ah constitutes of Ibadat (worship) which is all the conjunctions that apply to the Islamic rites and muamalat which includes every kind of social, political and economic transactions. The Shari'ah divides all acts into five categories: obligatory(wajib), recommended(mandub), reprehensible or abominable(makruh), forbidden(haram) and acts toward which the Divine Law is indifferent(mubah). The evaluation of the act is on the base of the Shari'ah. God is the ultimate legislator (the Shari') and the roots of the Shari'ah is in the Quran. The Hadith
Hadith
and Sunnah
Sunnah
are the second sources of the Shari'ah and the complements of the Quran. The Shari'ah has immutable principles but is applicable to new situations.

* Salat
Salat
(Prayer) – meaning "connection", establish the five daily prayers, called namāz in Persian and Urdu
Urdu
. * Sawm
Sawm
(Fasting) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan , called rūzeh in Persian. * Zakat
Zakat
(Poor-rate) – charity . Zakat
Zakat
means "to purify". * Khums ("Fifth" of one's savings) – tax. * Hajj
Hajj
(Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
. * Jihād (Struggle) – struggling to please God. The greater, internal Jihad
Jihad
is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life, called jihād akbār. The lesser, or external, jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life, called jihād asghār. This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War ". Writing the truth (jihād bil qalam "struggle of the pen") and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are also forms of jihād. * Commanding what is just . * Forbidding what is evil . * Tawalla – loving the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
and their followers. * Tabarra
Tabarra
– dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlu l-Bayt.

SHAHADA (DECLARATION OF FAITH)

Main articles: Shahada
Shahada
and Declaration of faith

While sharing the Unity of God and the divine guidance through his messenger Muhammad, Shia
Shia
maintain that for the spiritual and moral guidance of the community, God instructed Muhammad
Muhammad
to designate Ali
Ali
as the leader of the community which was made public at Ghadir Khumm.

Twelvers, along with Sunnis, agree that a single honest recitation of the shahādah in Arabic is all that is required for a person to become a Muslim according to most traditional schools.

A vast majority of Twelvers often add ʻAlīyun waliyu l-Lāh (علي ولي الله " Ali
Ali
is the vicegerent of God") at the end of the Shahādah. This testifies that ʻAlī is also the Leader of the Believers along with God and Muhammad, proof of which Shi'a theologians find in the Qur'an.

Though this form of the Shahādah is recited daily by other Shīʻa sects such as the Nizari Ismailis , Twelvers view it as Mustahabb (recommended), but not Wajib (obligatory).

PRAYER

Main articles: Ghusl and Wudu

The canonical prayers are the most central rite of Islam
Islam
which is incumbent on all Muslims, both male and female, from the age of adolescence until death. The prayers must be performed in the direction of the Ka'bah in Mecca
Mecca
five times a day: in the early morning, between dawn and sunrise; at noon; in the afternoon; at sunset; and at night before midnight. The call to prayer (adhan) and ritual ablution (wudu) are preceded before the prayer and it can be performed on any ritually clean ground whether outdoors or indoors as long as one has the permission of the owner. The units (rak'ah) of prayer are two in the morning, four at noon, four in the afternoon, three in the evening, and four at night. Shia
Shia
perform prayers on especial occasions like fear, joy, thanksgiving and at the pilgrimages and at the end of Ramadan. There are minor differences between Sunnis and Twelver
Twelver
Shīʻa in how the prayer ritual is performed. During the purification ritual in preparation for prayer (which consists of washing the face, arms, feet, etc. and saying of some prayers), the Shīʻa view wiping the feet with wet hands as sufficient. Also, Shīʻa do not use their fingers to clean inside the ears during the ablution ritual. A prerequisite for purification is that one has to be clean before performing the purification ritual.

During prayer, it is the Jaʻfarī view that it is preferable to prostrate on earth, leaves that are not edible or wood, as these three things are considered purest by Muhammad
Muhammad
in hadith specifically mentioning Tayammum . Hence many Shīʻa use a turbah , a small tablet of soil, often taken from the ground of a holy site, or wood during their daily prayers upon which they prostrate.

In the Jaʻfarī view, the hands are to be left hanging straight down the side during the standing position of the prayer. The Jaʻfarī consider the five daily prayers to be compulsory, though the Jaʻfarī consider it acceptable to pray the second and third prayer, and the fourth and fifth prayer, one after the other during the parts of the day where they believe the timings for these prayers to overlap.

FASTING

Main article: Sawm
Sawm

Nasr describes that Fasting
Fasting
is abstaining oneself from food, drink and sexual intercourse from the dawn to the sunset during the month of Ramadan. The Fast also requires the abstaining one's mind and tongue away from evil thoughts and words. It is obligatory from the age of adolescence until the time one possesses the physical strength to undertake it. The fast is not obligatory for the sick,those travelling and breast-feeding mothers, but they must make up the lost days when possible. According to Tabataba'ei, Arabic : الصوم‎‎ (Fasting) means to abstain oneself from something, which later in the development of the religion was applied to abstaining from some particular things, from break of dawn up to sunset, with intention (niyyah,النّيّة). Fasting
Fasting
results in piety i.e., to abstain oneself from gratifying worldly matters, results in the perfection of the spirit. He adds, one should care about matters which take him away from his Lord: this is called piety. This abstinence from common lawful things causes him to abstain from unlawful things and to come nearer to God. The end of Ramadan
Ramadan
comes with the prayer of the Eid after which a sum of money equal to the cost of all the meals not eaten by oneself and one's family during this month is usually given to the poor.

KHUMS AND ZAKAH

Main articles: Khums and Zakat
Zakat

The term Zakah is related to the purity in Arabic. It is the annual taxation of one's excess wealth at certain rates for different valuables. It is a form of social welfare program, by which wealth is redistributed and the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a small elite prevented. It is also seen as a ritual purification of one's wealth. Khums (خمس), meaning one fifth, is an annual tax of one-fifth which is levied on net income (after paying all expenses). This tax is to be spent on Muhammad, his family, orphans, the needy and the travelers. Half of the Khums is the share of the Imam which is his inheritance from Muhammad
Muhammad
and at the absence of Imam, it is paid to Marja\' as the representative of Imam.

The items which are eligible for khums are seven:

* the profit or the surplus of the income. * the legitimate wealth which is mixed with some illegitimate wealth. * mines and minerals. * the precious stones obtained from sea by diving. * treasures. * the land which a dhimmi kafir buys from a Muslim. * the spoils of war.

Khums is mandatory on seven assets: earned profits, net income (after paying all expenses), Zakat
Zakat
or alms is levied on crops, livestock, gold, silver and cash

In Islamic legal terminology, it means "one-fifth of certain items which a person acquires as wealth, and which must be paid as an Islamic tax". According to Shi'a, the items eligible for khums are referred to as Ghanima (الْغَنيمَة) in the Quran. The Arabic word Ghanima has two meanings

* "spoils of war" or "war booty" * gain or profit

The Sunni
Sunni
translate this word exclusively as "war booty" or "spoils of war". The Twelvers hold the view that the word Ghanima has two meanings as mentioned above, the second meaning is illustrated by the common use of the Islamic banking term al-ghunm bil-ghurm meaning "gains accompany liability for loss or risk".

Also, in a famous supplication, the supplication after the noon prayer, the person asks God to bestow on him His favors, one of those favors which the person asks is the benefit or gain from every act of righteousness, the word used here is al-ghanima (وَالْغَنيمَةَ مِنْ كُلِّ بِر ) this is in accordance with the second meaning of the word.

HAJJ

Main article: Hajj
Hajj

Hajj
Hajj
is the supreme pilgrimage of the Muslim to the Ka'bah in Mecca. This rite involves circumambulation around the Ka'bah, certain movements, prayers, and the sacrifice of an animal in Mecca
Mecca
and adjoining holy areas according to Sunnah. Muslims believe that if the Hajj
Hajj
was performed by sincerity, their sins will be forgiven by God. It is performed in the month of Dhu'l-hijjah and is obligatory for all the Muslims who possess physical and financial ability.There is also lesser Hajj
Hajj
or hajj al-'umrah which is performed on the remaining of the year.

JIHAD

Main article: Jihad
Jihad

According to Nasr, Jihad
Jihad
literally means effort but in the path of God in the whole of life. Shia
Shia
associates the doctrine of Jihad directly to the Walayah or allegiance to the Imamah, i.e., it is Imam who can distinguish the situation which necessitates the Jihad
Jihad
and just this kind of Jihad
Jihad
may cause the entry to the paradise. Nasr states that as equilibrium, both outward and inward, is the prerequisite for the spiritual flight, all Muslims should carry out Jihad
Jihad
against any outward and inward forces to maintain equilibrium. The outward Jihad
Jihad
is related to the defense of the Muslim world against non-Islamic forces. It also includes the defense of one's honor, family and rights and establishing justice in the whole environment. But this lesser jihad should be completed by a greater Jihad
Jihad
which is war against all forces that are against the nobility of the human. He adds that from the spiritual point of view all the pillars of Islam
Islam
like Shahadah, prayer ... are the weapons for the practice of this inner Jihad. So inner Jihad
Jihad
is the path for the realization of the One who is the ultimate message of the Islam. This inner Jihad
Jihad
continues until every breath of man echoes that reality who is the origin of every thing and all things return to him. Nasr adds that every religious deed is Jihad
Jihad
because it is a striving between one's passionate soul(nafs) and the demands of the immortal spirit. Islam
Islam
sees Jihad
Jihad
as a care against every thing which distracts one from God. Shia
Shia
believe that Jihad
Jihad
as defense is legitimate not as aggression. The Jihad
Jihad
can not be done against the innocent and the enemy should be treated with Justice and kindness and Jihad
Jihad
should be carried out on the basis of truth not on the basis of anger. The killing of women,children, even animals and the destruction is forbidden in Jihad.

TAWALLA AND TABARRA

Main articles: Tawalla and Tabarra
Tabarra

Love of Muhammad
Muhammad
is incumbent upon all Muslims and is the key for the love of God. To love God needs that God love the one and God does not love the one who does not love his messengers.

COMMANDING WHAT IS JUST AND FORBIDDING WHAT IS EVIL

Main articles: Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil

In addition to leading a virtuous life, a Muslim should enjoin all other Muslims to do the same and to avoid all vices prohibited.

DIFFERENCES

DISSIMULATION (TAQIYYA)

Main article: Taqiya
Taqiya

By Shia, acting according to religion is incumbent on every one, but if the expression of a belief endanger one's life, honor and property, he can conceal his belief as the verse 16: 106 implies. It is as a weapon for the weak before the tyrants. If Dissimulation cause the disappearance of the religion or the fundamentals of the religion, it is forbidden and Muslims are to give up their lives but if there is no advantage in their being killed, it is to dissimulate. There is no place for Dissimulation regarding the teaching of the doctrines of the religion. As Shia
Shia
has been a minority under the rule of regimes who were in hostility to their beliefs, they choose to be cautious to prevent their extinction.

Henry Corbin, states that "the practice was instituted by the Imams themselves, not only for reasons of personal safety, but as an attitude called for by the absolute respect for high doctrines: nobody has strictly the right to listen to them except those who are capable of listening to, and comprehending, the truth. "

MUT\'AH: TEMPORARY MARRIAGE

Main article: Nikah mut\'ah

NIKāḥ AL-MUT\'AH, Nikah el Mut\'a (Arabic : نكاح المتعة‎‎, also Nikah Mut'ah literally, "marriage of pleasure"), or sighah, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia
Shia
schools of Shari'a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the marriage is automatically dissolved. It has many conditions that can be considered as pre-requisite, similar to that of permanent marriage. It is the second form of Islamic marriage (Nikah) . However, it is regarded as haram (prohibited) by Sunnis. This is a highly controversial fiqh topic; Sunnis and Shi'a hold diametrically opposed views on its permissibility. But some of the Sunni Muslims
Sunni Muslims
recognizes Nikah Misyar . According to Sunni
Sunni
sources, Mutah existed during the time of prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
but he prohibited it during his lifetime on the day and also prohibited the consumption of meat of donkeys as believed by majority of Muslims. According to Sunni
Sunni
sources, Mut'ah was practiced from the time of revelation to Muhammad
Muhammad
until the day of khbyer when he forbade it

JURISPRUDENCE (FIQH)

Main article: Ja\'fari jurisprudence

According to Ja\'fari jurisprudence , Sharia
Sharia
is derived from the Qur\'an and the Sunnah
Sunnah
. The difference between Sunni
Sunni
and Shīʻa Sharia
Sharia
results from a Shīʻa belief that Muhammad
Muhammad
assigned ʻAlī to be the first ruler and the leader after him (the Khalifa or steward). This difference resulted in the Shīʻa:

* Following hadith from Muħammad and his descendants the 12 Imāms.

* Some of them are not accepting the "examples", verdicts, and ahādīth of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
, Umar
Umar
and Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan (who are considered by Sunnīs to be the first three Caliphs). * Attributing the concept of the masūm "infallibility" to the Twelve Imāms or The Fourteen Infallibles
The Fourteen Infallibles
(including Muhammad
Muhammad
and his daughter Fatimah) and accepting the examples and verdicts of this special group.

AKHBARI AND USULI SCHOOLS

Rejecting the function of the Mujtahid, comparing to the authority of Imam, Astarabadi knew the Mujtahid unnecessary as the people themselves following the instructions of the Imam which is sufficient for the guidance of the Shia. Akhbaries only rely on the hadith of the prophet and the Imams. Knowing them as non-systematic and purely doctrinal without tolerating the rational judgement, Usulies depicted themselves as "a living continuous leadership of the believers" with "flexibility regarding legal and especially political questions". Usuli implies the doctrine of Usul which means the principle of the Jurisprudence, and Ilm al-Usul concerns with establishing the legal standards on the basis of Quran, hadith, Ijma' and Aql. Ijma' is the unanimous consensus. Aql, in Shia
Shia
Jurisprudence, is applied to four practical principles namely bara'at (immunity), ihtiyat (precaution), takhyir (selection), and istishab (continuity in the previous state) which are applied when other religious proofs are not applicable.

THE SOURCES OF JURISPRUDENCE

Main article: Sources of sharia

According to Shia, the Quran, the Sunna, intellect and consensus are the bases of the jurisprudence. As Islam
Islam
is considered by Shia
Shia
to be the last and the most perfect religion, by ijtihad, it deduces the responses through Islamic sources. Thus ijtihad brings flexibility to Islamic system

GUARDIANSHIP OF THE JURISPRUDENT

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Main article: Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists

By Shia
Shia
political thought, at the absence of an infallible Imam, a capable jurist (faqih) takes the responsibility of leadership of the community. By Shia
Shia
jurisprudence, the basis of the juristic authority is derived from the Imamate as the expansion of the prophecy and knowledge (ilm) which is also the basis for the religious and political authority of the Imam. As Islam
Islam
is the foundation of Muslim's culture, it needs government in order to be implemented. and establishing an Islamic society is the aim of the Islamic government. The Islamic authority responds to social needs by Islamic norms. God's absolute authority is the foundation of Twelvers political thought, though every one who wishes to have authority must be assigned by Him. In referring to the Hakim (Wali) Ja'far as-Sadiq states that: "I have appointed him a hakim over you. If such a person orders (judges) according to our ruling and the person concerned does not accept it, then he has shown contempt for the ruling of God and rejects us; and he who rejects us, actually rejects Allah and such a person is close to association with Allah. " Regarding the priority of the guardianship over all other religious law, Khomeini states that: "The government, or the absolute guardianship (alwilayat al-mutlaqa) that is delegated to the noblest messenger of Allah, is the most important divine law and has priority over all other ordinances of the law. If the powers of the government be restricted to the framework of ordinances of the law then the delegation of the authority to Muhammad
Muhammad
would be a senseless phenomenon. " Shaykh al-Saduq and Shaykh al-Tusi transmit the hadith that Muhammad al-Mahdi, in response to Ishaq ibn Yaqub, through Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Uthman al-Umari exprsses that: "As for the events that may occur (al-hawadith al-waqi'a) refer to the transmitters (ruwat) of our teachings who are my hujjah (proof) to you and I am the Proof of God (Hujjatullah) to you all. " Ja'afar al-Sadiq, pointing to verse 4: 60, forbids referring to tyrannical government for all the times. " In fact, the idea of jurist authority is based on the belief that establishing an ideal society without any aid from God's revelation, is not possible. According to Twelvers, Juristic authority emphasizes on the role of Shari'a in society. According to Al-Murtaza, on certain conditions holding office on behalf of the true Leaders is obligatory: to enable the office to order what is right and forbid what is wrong, to protect the Shi'ites, the Shi'ites are threatened to death, otherwise. Traditionally Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a Muslims consider ' Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
and the subsequent further eleven Imams
Imams
not only religious guides but political leaders, based on a crucial hadith where Muhammad
Muhammad
passes on his power to command Muslims to Ali
Ali
. Since the last Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, went into "occultation" in 939 and is not expected back until end times, this left Shi'a without religiously sanctioned governance.

The first Shi'a regime, the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
in Iran, propagated the Twelver
Twelver
faith, made Twelver's law the law of the land, and patronized Twelver
Twelver
scholarship. For this, Twelver
Twelver
ulema "crafted a new theory of government" which held that while "not truly legitimate", the Safavid monarchy would be "blessed as the most desirable form of government during the period of awaiting" for Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam.

In general, the Shi'a adhere to one of three approaches towards the state: either full participation in government, i.e., attempting to influence policies by becoming active in politics, or passive cooperation with it, i.e. minimal participation, or else most commonly, mere toleration of it, i.e. remaining aloof from it.

This changed with Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
where the Twelver
Twelver
Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters established a new theory of governance for the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
. It is based on Khomeini's theory of guardianship of the Islamic jurist as rule of the Islamic jurist, and jurists as "legatees" of Muhammad.

While not all Twelver
Twelver
Shi\'a accept this theory, it is uniquely Twelver
Twelver
and the basis of the constitution of Iran
Iran
, the largest Shi'a Muslim country, where the Supreme Leader must be an Islamic jurist .

IJTIHAD AND TAQLID (ACCEPTING A SCHOLAR\'S VERDICT)

See also: Marja\' (Islamic law) and Usuli

How to associate with a religious and judicial problem that its answer is not in the Quran
Quran
and hadith. Regarding Ijtihad, Halm explains that while the religious material are limited, what procedure should be taken if a problem arises. Here human reason comes in; God gave reason to human to discover His Will. If no answer was given by tradition (naql) the intellect (aql) should come in. This rational effort to find the solutions for the temporary issues is called Ijtihad (making of an effort). It is derived form the word jihad which means the struggle for the attainment of God's Will on earth. The participle of ijtihad is mujtahid (the person who makes effort). They should master the Arabic language
Arabic language
and be familiar with the foundations of Quran
Quran
and hadith. They also should know the principles of Jurisprudence and logic. The remaining other believers, who are not expert, exercise taqlid which means authorization; that is common believers authorize the experts to make decisions for them. If the mujtahid make a mistake, the believer is not responsible for his error. Though ijtihad makes the Shia
Shia
theology flexible. The traces of Ijtihad refers back to the time of Imams
Imams
when they trained scholars to answer to the judicial problems of the people. As al-Baqir said to Aban ibn Taghlib: "Sit down at the door of the mosque and pronounce fatwa (judgement) to the people ..." According to Nasr, the mujtahids acted as the guard against tyrannical government and they had religious and social functions. Al-Karaki narrates a hadith from his teachers that the scholar is the guardian of the religion, successor of the Imam and he should draw conclusions from the sources by the reasoning.

HISTORY

See also: History of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and Origin of Shia Islam
Shia Islam

IMAMATE ERA

Emergence

In 610, when Muhammad
Muhammad
received the first revelation, Ali
Ali
was 10 years old. At the time of Muhammad, some of the supporters of Ali, particularly Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Salman the Persian, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, and Ummar ibn Yasir were called the Shiites of Ali. The division of Islam
Islam
into Shia
Shia
and Sunni
Sunni
traces back to the crisis of the succession to Muhammad. The followers of Ali
Ali
fight with some of the Quraysh and some of the companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
like Talhah and Zubayr. As most of his supporters were in Iraq, Ali
Ali
moved the capital of Islam to Kufa and there began to fight against Mu'awiyah who had rejected to give allegiance to Ali. The death of Husayn played an important role in the spread of Shi'ism in the regions of Iraq, Yemen
Yemen
and Persia. At the end of the first century, the influential leaders in the government established the city of Qom
Qom
for the settlement of the Shia.

Formulation

Al-Baqir was teacher of law for 20 years and a reporter of hadith. He also introduced the principle of Taqiyya. Al-Baqir narrated many ahadith about Jurisprudence and other religious sciences which based the foundations for the Shia
Shia
instructions. With change in political situations and a suitable conditions for the development of religious activities and the time of elaborating the religious sciences, Ja'far al-Sadiq had an important role in forming the Shia
Shia
Jurisprudence. Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
and al-Baqir are the founders of the Imami Shiite school of religious law. Al-Sadiq acquired a noteworthy group of scholars around himself, comprising some of the most eminent jurists, traditionists, and theologians of the time. During his time, Shia developed in the theological and legal issues. Both Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir and Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
improved the position of the Shia
Shia
and elaborated the intellectual basis of the interpretation and practice of Shiite Islam. Their teachings were the basis for the development of Shiite spirituality and religious rituals.

Organizing

At the beginning of the third/ninth century once again Shia flourished and it was due to the translation of scientific and philosophical books from other languages to Arabic, Al-Ma'mun giving freedom to the propagation of different religious views and his interest in intellectual debates. Under the rule of al-Ma'mun, Shia was free from the political pressures and was somehow at liberty. In the fourth/tenth century, the weaknesses in the Abbasid government and coming up the Buyid rulers caused the spread, strength and open propagation of the Shi'ism. From the fifth/eleventh to the ninth century many Shia
Shia
kings appeared in the Islamic world who propagated the Shi'ism.

CRISIS AND CONSOLIDATION

Baghdad
Baghdad
School

During tenth century and Buyid era, Baghdad
Baghdad
was the center of Mu\'tazila theologians. Their ideas about attribute and justice of God and human free will affected Shia
Shia
theologians. Bani Nawbakht , particularly Abu Sahl Al-Nawbakhti (d. 923–924), fussed Mu'tazili theology with Imami system of thought. On the other hand, Imami traditionists of Qom
Qom
, particularly Ibn Babawayh (d. 991), react to their theological ideas based on Twelve Imams' Hadiths. He tried to defend Imami ideas against Mu'tazili criticism regarding Anthropomorphism
Anthropomorphism
( Tashbih ).

The three prominent figures of Baghdad
Baghdad
school were Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid (d. 1022 CE), Sharif al-Murtaza (d. 1044) and Shaykh al-Tusi (d. 1067).

Al-Mufid was a Twelver
Twelver
theologian, Muhaddith and Fiqih who is used Bani Nawbakht as well as Baghdadi Mu'tazila
Mu'tazila
ideas to form his theology while trying to adapt theological ideas with Twelve Imams' Hadith. While the Mu'tazila
Mu'tazila
was dominant in Baghdad, he tries to distinguish Shia
Shia
and Mu'tazila
Mu'tazila
ideas and assert reason needs revelation .

Shaykh Tusi, founder of Shia
Shia
Ijtihad, was the first to establish the bases of reasoning in Shia
Shia
Jurisprudence. His book al-Mabsut is the first book of Ijtihad which derives the subordinates from the principles. Tusi bought the Shia
Shia
religious law to a new period. The main point is that he recognized the needs of the community and preserved the principles.

By his debates and books, Al-Mufid, Sayyid-al Murtada and Shaykh al-Tusi in Iraq
Iraq
were the first to introduce the Usul of the Jurisprudence under the influence of the Shafe'i and Mu'tazili doctrines. Al- Kulayni and al-Sadduq, in Qom
Qom
and Ray, were concerned with traditionalist approach.

Twelver
Twelver
Imams
Imams
amongst other Shia
Shia
imam with their early Imams
Imams
are shown in the chart below. This also indicate twelvers amongst various other sects in the present world.

SHIA ISLAM CHART

Abdul-Muttalib
Abdul-Muttalib

Abi Talib
Abi Talib

Abdullah

Muhammad
Muhammad

Ali
Ali
al Murtaza

Fatimah
Fatimah

Hasan

Husayn

Ali
Ali
zayn ul Abedin

Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir

Zaydi
Zaydi

Ja\'far al-Sadiq

Ismaili
Ismaili

Twelver

Isma\'il ibn Jafar

Musa al-Kadhim .

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma\'il

Sevener

Ali
Ali
al-Rida

Ahmad al-Wafi (Abadullah)

Muhammad
Muhammad

Ahmad (al-Taqī Muhammad)

Ali
Ali
al Hadi

Ḥusayn (ar-Raḍī ʿAbdillāh)

hasan al Askari

Abdullah ( Fatimid
Fatimid
)

Muhammad al-Mahdi

al-Qāʾim

al-Manṣūr

al-Muʿizz

al-ʿAzīz

al-Ḥākim

al-Ẓāhir

Druze
Druze

al-Mustanṣir bi l-Lāh

Al-Musta\'li

Nizari

ai-Amir

Hafizi

al-Tayyib

Dawoodi Bohra other Bohra

Agha khani Druze
Druze
Sevener Twelver Zaydi
Zaydi

JURISPRUDENCIAL AND THEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

School Of Hillah

The beginner of this school, Ibn Idris al-Hilli (d. 1202), with his rationalistic tendency, detailed Shi'ite jurisprudence in his al-Sara'ir. Ibn Idris, with rejecting the validity of the isolate hadith, states rational faculty (\ 'aql ) as the fourth source of law in deducing legal norms before Quran
Quran
and hadith. But real Usuli doctrinal movement began by al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli (d. 1277) who brought up ijtihad and qiyas (analogy) to jurisprudence. Ijtihad brought dynamism into Shi'a law. Muhaqqiq Hilli and al-Hilli gave a definite shape to Shia
Shia
jurisprudence and they separated the weak hadith from the sound. According to John Cooper, after al-Hilli, Imami theology and legal methodology became thoroughly infused with the terminology and style of philosophy.

In 1256 the Abbasid dynasty collapsed with the invasion of Mongols to Baghdad
Baghdad
. Under the ruling of Mongols , Shi'its were more free to develop and al-Hilla became the new learning center for Shia. Continuing the rationalistic tradition of the Baghdad
Baghdad
School, defining reason as an important principle of Jurisprudence, al-Hillah school laid the theoretical foundation upon which the authority of Jurisprudents is based today.

The second wave of the Usulies was shaped in the Mongol period when al-Hilli used the term Mujtahid, the one who deduces the ordinance on the basis of the authentic arguments of the religion. By Ijtihad, al-Hilli meant the disciplined reasoning on the basis of the shari'ah. By developing the principles of the Usul, he introduced more legal and logical norms which extended the meaning of the Usul beyond the four principle sources of Shari'ah.

School Of Jabal \'Amil

Amili was the first who fully formulated the principles of the Ijtihad.

RISING TO POWER

School Of Isfahan

In 1501 Isma\'il I took the power in Iran
Iran
and set up the Safavid dynasty . While most of the larger cities of Iran
Iran
were Sunni, he declared Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism as the official religion of his empire. Many Shia
Shia
scholars were brought to set up the Shia
Shia
seminaries in Iran. One of those was Karaki who stated that, for the interest of Umma, it is necessary for a Shia
Shia
scholar to be a legitimate leader to carry out the tasks of the Imam who is hidden. Under Safavids, religious authorities (Shaykh al- Islam
Islam
) were appointed for all major cities. Karaki established a great seminary ( Hawza ) in Qazvin
Qazvin
and Isfahan
Isfahan
, consequently, Iran
Iran
once again became center of Imami jurisprudence. Suhrawardi tried to harmonize rational philosophy and intellectual intuition, but Mir Damad is the founder of it. Mir Damad combined the teachings of Ibn Arabi, Suhrawardi, Ibn Sina and Nair al-Din and founded a new intellectual dimension in the texture of Shi'ism. The scholars of the School of Isfahan
Isfahan
integrated the philosophical, theological, and mystical traditions of Shi'ism into a metaphysical synthesis known as Divine Wisdom or theosophy(Persian:hikmat-i ilahi). The most important representative of the School of Isfahan
Isfahan
was Mulla Sadra. Mulla Sadra produced his own synthesis of Muslim thought, including theology, peripatetic philosophy, philosophical mysticism, and Sufi studies, particularly the Sufism
Sufism
of Ibn al-'Arabi. Mulla Sadra trained eminent students, such as Mulla Muhsin Kashani and 'Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji who passed down the traditions of the School of Isfahan
Isfahan
in later centuries in both Iran
Iran
and India.

Ikhbari- Usuli Controversies

By the mid of Safavid era (1736), the Usuli School suffered by Akhbari (traditionalist) trend which Mulla Muhammad
Muhammad
Amin Astarabadi (d. 1626) was its founder. Astarabadi attacked the idea of Ijtihad and called the Usulies as the enemies of religion. He recognized the hadith as the only source for the Islamic law and the understanding of the Quran.

Bihbahani as the founder of a new stage in Shia
Shia
Jurisprudence, took a new practical method. He attacked the Ikhbaries and their method was abandoned by Shia. The dominance of the Usuli over the Akhbari came in last half of the 18th century when Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir Behbahani led Usulis to dominance and "completely routed the Akhbaris at Karbala and Najaf," so that "only a handful of Shi'i ulama have remained Akhbari to the present day." The reestablishment of the Usuli School led to the enhancement of the authority of the legal scholars in the Qajar dynasty.

Qom
Qom
School, Islamic Revolution And Islamic Republic

During the 1960s, Khomeini called for the abolition of the monarchy in Iran. He was sent into exile in Iraq, where he continued his opposition to the Iranian regime. He further ordered the opposition to the Shah/King and led the 1979 revolution of Iran.

CALENDAR

Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a, celebrate the following annual holidays:

* Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
(عيد الفطر), which marks the end of fasting during the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
and falls on the first day of Shawwal . * Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
, which marks the end of the Hajj
Hajj
or pilgrimage to Mecca, starts on the 10th day of Dhu al-Hijjah .

The following holidays are observed by Twelvers Shi'as, unless otherwise noted:

* The Mourning of Muharram
Mourning of Muharram
or Remembrance of Muharram and Ashurah (عاشوراء) for Shia
Shia
commemorates Imam Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom in the Battle of Karbala . Imam Husayn was grandson of Muhammad, who was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah , the second Caliph
Caliph
of the Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(and the first one by heredity). One group of Sunni
Sunni
Scholars have deemed Yazeed to be a kaafir (e.g. Sunni
Sunni
Scholar Ibn Jauzi in Wafa al-Wafa). Sunnis also commemorates Imam Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom , but do not engage in the spectacle conducted by Shi'as. * Arba\'een (Arabic word for forty(40)) commemorates on 40th day of Imam Husain's martydom (40th day is an auspicious day for any deceased as per Islam) remembering the suffering of Imam Husayn and his household, the women and children. After Husayn was killed, they were marched over the desert, from Karbala (central Iraq) to Shaam ( Damascus
Damascus
, Syria
Syria
). Many children (some of whom were direct descendants of Muhammad) died of thirst and exposure along the route. Arba'een
Arba'een
occurs on the 20th of Safar , 40 days after Ashurah. * Milad al-Nabi , Muhammad's birth date, is celebrated by the Shia on the 17th of Rabi\' al-awwal , which coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq. * Mid-Sha\'aban is the birth date of the 12th and final imam, Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Twelvers on the 15th of Sha\'aban . Many Shia
Shia
fast on this day to show gratitude. * Eid al-Ghadeer celebrates Ghadir Khum , the occasion when Muhammad announced Ali\'s imamate before a multitude of Muslims. Eid al-Ghadeer is held on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah . * Al-Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the Ahl al-Bayt (household of Muhammad) and a Christian deputation from Najran . Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhu al-Hijjah.

NOTABLE SCHOLARS

See also: List of marjas

HISTORICAL

See also: List of Shi\'a Muslim scholars of Islam
Islam

* Mulla Sadra * Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir Majlisi * Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ya\'qub al-Kulayni * Al-Shaykh al-Saduq
Al-Shaykh al-Saduq

* Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid * Shaykh Tusi
Shaykh Tusi
* Nasir al-Din al-Tusi * Al-Hilli

SEE ALSO

* Bada\' * Shia Islam
Shia Islam
* Ismaili
Ismaili
* Persecution of Shia
Shia
Muslims

NOTES

* ^ Usul al-Din (Arabic : اصول الدین‎‎) * ^ Adl (Arabic : عدل‎‎)

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Tabataba\'i 1977 , p. 10 * ^ Momen 1985 , p. 174 * ^ Weiss 2006 , p. 14 * ^ worldatlas.com * ^ worldometers.info * ^ Atlas of the Middle East (Second ed.). Washington D.C: National Geographic 2008 * ^ The World Factbook 2010 & Retrieved 2010-08-25. * ^ " Shia
Shia
women too can initiate divorce". The Times of India
The Times of India
. November 6, 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-21. * ^ "Talaq rights proposed for Shia
Shia
women". Daily News and Analysis, www. dnaindia.com. 5 November 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-21. * ^ "Obama\'s Overtures". The Tribune . Retrieved 2010-07-21. * ^ "Imperialism and Divide & Rule Policy". Boloji . Retrieved 2010-07-21. * ^ "Ahmadinejad on way, NSA says India to be impacted if Iran \'wronged by others\'". Indian Express
Indian Express
. Retrieved 2010-07-21. * ^ http://merln.ndu.edu/archive/icg/shiitequestion.pdf International Crisis Group. The Shiite Question in Saudi Arabia, Middle East Report No. 45, 19 Sep * ^ Tabatabae\'i 1975 , pp. 74–75 * ^ Campo 2009 , p. 676 * ^ Nasr , pp. 143–144 * ^ Tabataba\'ei 1975 , p. 34 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 287 * ^ Nasr 2006 , p. 120 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 114 * ^ Lakhani, Shah Kazemi & Lewisohn 2006 , p. 15 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 197 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 115 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , pp. 20–30 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , p. 20 * ^ Faruki 1965 , p. 32 * ^ Campo 2009 , p. 678 * ^ Sobhani & Shah Kazemi 2001 , pp. 21 and 22 * ^ A B C D Motahari 1985 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , p. 22 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , p. 24 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , p. 30 * ^ Nasr 2002 , p. 249 * ^ Tabataba\'ei 1979 , p. 13 * ^ A B Sobhani 2001 , p. 52 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 223 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 224 * ^ Nasr & Leaman 1996 , pp. 253–258 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 119 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 131 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 153 * ^ Nasr 2008 , p. 601 * ^ Nasr 2008 , pp. 579–581 * ^ Nasr 2008 , p. 582 * ^ Nasr 2008 , pp. 583–5 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , pp. 128–129 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , pp. 130–131 * ^ Sobhani & Shah-Kazemi 2001 , p. 39 * ^ Sobhani & Shah-Kazemi 2001 , p. 71 * ^ Tabataba\'i 1984 , p. 31 * ^ Tabataba\'i 1986 , p. 22 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 132 * ^ Tabataba\'i 1983 , p. 151 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 142 * ^ Sobhani & Shah-Kazemi 2001 , pp. 67–68 * ^ Dabashi 1989 , pp. 110–112 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 155 * ^ Campo 2009 , pp. 678–679 * ^ A B C "Shi\'ite". Encyclopædia Britannica
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Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-06. * ^ Nasr (1979), p. 15. * ^ Corbin (1993), pp. 45 – 51. * ^ A B Gleave, Robert. "Imamate". Encyclopaedia of Islam
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and the Muslim world; vol. 1. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0 . * ^ Shirazi, Sultanu\'l-Wa\'izin . Peshawar Nights. THE Sunni Ulema\'s Condemnation of Abu Hanifa. * ^ Rizvi, Muhammad. Shi\'ism: Imamate and Wilayat. * ^ S. V. Mir Ali/ Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Mahdi
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Puya Commentary of Quran
Quran
Verse 2: 124. * ^ Martin 2003 , p. 651 * ^ Nasr 2000 , pp. 144–145 * ^ www.worldatlas.com/articles/shia-islam * ^ Julian, Millie (2008). "Supplicating,Naming,offering:Tawassul in West Java". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 39 (1): 107–122. doi :10.1017/S0022463408000052 . * ^ Sobhani, 2001 & 155–156 * ^ A B al-Shaykh al-Saduq 1982 , pp. 151–152 * ^ A B Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989 , p. 99 * ^ al-Shaykh al-Saduq 1982 , p. 151 * ^ Nasr (1979), p. 10. * ^ Momen (1985), p. 174. * ^ Dabashi 2006 , p. 463 * ^ Corbin 1993 , p. 48 * ^ Donaldson 1933 , p. 326 * ^ Ansariyan 2007 , p. 89 * ^ Algar 1990 * ^ Madelung 1998 , p. 15 and 51 * ^ Donaldson 1933 , pp. 334, 335 * ^ Algar 1990 * ^ Jasim 1982 * ^ Murata & Chittick 1994 , p. 43 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , p. 121 * ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988 , p. 220 * ^ Leaman 2006 , p. 228 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , pp. 159–164 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , pp. 122–124 * ^ Leaman 2006 , p. 705 * ^ Leaman 2006 , pp. 198–705 * ^ Leaman 2006 , p. 451 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , pp. 133–134 * ^ Sobhani 2001 , p. 136 * ^ Nasr 2007 , pp. 75–80 * ^ Momen, Moojan. An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver
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FURTHER READING

* The book "Durr-e-Mansoor dar Halaat-e-Ulama-e-Zangipur" * The book "MATLA-e-ANWAR" (By Maulana Murtaza Husain Sadrul-Afazil) * The book "KHURSHEED-e-KHAWAR" (By Maulan Saeed Akhtar Gopalpuri) * The thesis on "Life of Jawad-ul-Ulama" research work of Dr. Inayet Ali
Ali
(Aligarh Muslim University) * The booklet "Haqnuma" published Jamia-Imania, Banaras.

REFERENCES

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EXTERNAL LINKS

* Biggest twelver video library * A brief introduction of Twelve Imams * A Brief History Of The Lives Of The Twelve Imams
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(book) by Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabatabaei * 07: 06 The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
Taken From "A Shi'ite Anthology" by Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabatabaei * A Short History of the Lives of The Twelve Imams * Ithna \'Ashariyah An article by Encyclopædia Britannica
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