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In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction. A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system. In a Euclidean space, any translation is an isometry.

As a function

If is a fixed vector, known as the translation vector, and is the initial position of some object, then the translation function will work as .

If is a translation, then the image of a subset

If is a translation, then the image of a subset under the function is the translate of is a translation, then the image of a subset under the function is the translate of by . The translate of by is often written .

In geometry, a vertical translation (also known as vertical shift) is a translation of a geometric object in a direction parallel to the vertical axis of the Cartesian coordinate system.[1][2][3]

graph of a function. If f is any function of x, then the graph of the function f(x) + c (whose values are given by adding a constant c to the values of f) may be obtained by a vertical translation of the graph of f(x) by distance c. For this reason the function f(x) + c is sometimes called a vertical translate of f(x).[4] For instance, the antiderivatives of a function all differ from each other by a constant of integration and are therefore vertical translates of each other.[5]

In function graphing, a horizontal translation is a transformation which results in a graph that is equivalent to shifting the base graph left or right in the direction of the x-axis. A graph is translated k units horizontally by moving each point on the graph k units horizontally.

For the base function f(x) and a constant k, the function given by g(x) = f(x − k), can be sketched f(x) shifted k units horizontally.

If function transformation was talked about in terms of geometric trans

In function graphing, a horizontal translation is a transformation which results in a graph that is equivalent to shifting the base graph left or right in the direction of the x-axis. A graph is translated k units horizontally by moving each point on the graph k units horizontally.

For the base function f(x) and a constant k, the function given by g(x) = f(x − k), can be sketched f(x) shifted k units horizontally.

If function transformation was talked about in terms of geometric transformations it may be clearer why functions translate horizontally the way they do. When addressing translations on the Cartesian plane it is natural to introduce translations in this type of notation:

or

where and are horizontal and vertical changes respectively..

Taking the parabola y = x2 , a horizontal translation 5 units to the right would be represented by T((x,y)) = (x + 5, y). Now we must connect this transformation notation to an algebraic notation. Consider the point (a.b) on the original parabola that moves to point (c,d) on the translated parabola. According to our translation, c = a + 5 and d = b. The point on the original parabola was b = a2. Our new point can be described by relating d and c in the same equation. b = d and a = c  − 5. So d = b = a2 = (c − 5)2 Since this is true for all the points on our new parabola the new equation is y = (x − 5)2.

Application in classical physics x ,   Δ y ,   Δ z ) {\displaystyle (\Delta x,\ \Delta y,\ \Delta z)} is the same vector for each point of the object. The translation vector common to all points of the object describes a particular type of displacement of the object, usually called a linear displacement to distinguish it from displacements involving rotation, called angular displacements.

When considering spacetime, a change of time coordinate is considered to be a translation.

As an operator

The translation operator turns a function of the original position, spacetime, a change of time coordinate is considered to be a translation.

The translation operator turns a function of the original position, , into a function of the final position, . In other words, is defined such that This operator is more abstract than a function, since defines a relationship between two functions, rather than the underlying vectors themselves. The translation operator can act on many kinds of functions, such as when the translation operator acts on a wavefunction, which is studied in the field of quantum mechanics.

As a group