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Coordinates: 53°26′N 2°18′W / 53.433°N 2.300°W / 53.433; -2.300

Trafford

Metropolitan borough

Trafford
Trafford
Town Hall

Coat of arms

Motto(s): "Hold Fast That Which Is Good"

Trafford
Trafford
shown within Greater Manchester

Coordinates: 53°26′46″N 2°18′29″W / 53.44611°N 2.30806°W / 53.44611; -2.30806

Sovereign state  United Kingdom

Constituent country  England

Region North West England

Ceremonial county Greater Manchester

Established 1 April 1974

Administrative HQ Stretford
Stretford
( Trafford
Trafford
Town Hall)

Government

 • Type Metropolitan borough

 • Body Trafford
Trafford
Council

 • Leadership Leader and cabinet

 • Executive Conservative

 • Leader Sean Anstee

 • Mayor John Holden

 • MPs Graham Brady
Graham Brady
(C) Kate Green
Kate Green
(L) Mike Kane
Mike Kane
(L)

Area

 • Total 40.9 sq mi (106.0 km2)

Area rank 215th

Elevation 100 ft (30 m)

Population (mid-2016 est.)

 • Total 234,700

 • Rank 70th

 • Density 5,730/sq mi (2,213/km2)

 • Ethnicity (2011 data)[1] 80.41% White British 2.25% White Irish 0.18% Gypsy or Irish Traveller 2.87% Other White 1.17% White and Black Caribbean 0.29% White and Black African 0.68% White and Asian 0.52% Other mixed 2.75% Indian 3.10% Pakistani 0.20% Bangladeshi 0.98% Chinese 0.86% Other Asian 0.79% Black African 1.67% Black Caribbean 0.41% Other Black 0.55% Arab 0.41% Other ethnicity

Time zone Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(UTC+0)

 • Summer (DST) British Summer Time
British Summer Time
(UTC+1)

Postcode areas M WA

Dialling code 0161

ISO 3166 code GB-TRF

GSS code E08000009

NUTS 3 code UKD31

ONS code 00BU

OS grid reference SJ795945

Website www.trafford.gov.uk

Trafford
Trafford
is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England, with an estimated population of 233,300 in 2015.[2] It covers 41 square miles (106 km2)[3] and includes the towns of Altrincham, Partington, Sale, Stretford
Stretford
and Urmston. The borough was formed in 1974 as a merger of the municipal boroughs of Altrincham, Sale, and Stretford, the urban districts of Bowdon, Hale and Urmston
Urmston
and part of Bucklow Rural District. The River Mersey
River Mersey
flows through the borough, separating North Trafford
Trafford
from South Trafford, and the historic counties of Lancashire
Lancashire
and Cheshire. There is evidence of Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Roman activity in the area, two castles – one of them a Scheduled Ancient Monument – and over 200 listed buildings. In the late 19th century, the population rapidly expanded with the arrival of the railway. Trafford
Trafford
is the home of Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
and Lancashire County Cricket Club and since 2002 the Imperial War Museum North. Trafford
Trafford
has a strong economy with low levels of unemployment and contains both Trafford Park
Trafford Park
industrial estate and the Trafford
Trafford
Centre, a large out-of-town shopping centre. Apart from the City of Manchester, Trafford
Trafford
is the only borough in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
to be above the national average for weekly income. Socially, the area includes both working class areas like Old Trafford
Old Trafford
and Stretford
Stretford
and middle class ones such as Bowdon and Hale. In Parliament, Trafford
Trafford
is represented by three constituencies: Stretford
Stretford
and Urmston, Altrincham and Sale West, one of four constituencies in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
to be held by the Conservative Party, and Wythenshawe and Sale East, which mainly covers neighbouring Manchester.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Governance

3.1 Westminster 3.2 European Parliament 3.3 Council

3.3.1 Electoral wards 3.3.2 Coat of arms

4 Demography

4.1 Population change

5 Economy 6 Culture

6.1 Landmarks 6.2 Sport

7 Education 8 Religion 9 Transport 10 References

10.1 Notes 10.2 Bibliography

11 External links

11.1 Video clips

History[edit] The choice of the name Trafford
Trafford
for the borough was a "compromise between Altrincham, Stretford
Stretford
and Sale", and "seemed to have wide support".[4] A Liberal councillor for the Municipal Borough of Sale suggested "Crossford ... whilst "Watlingford" was suggested by councillors in Hale, after the supposed name of an ancient Roman road in the district.[4] Those names were rejected in favour of Trafford, because of the district's "famous sports venue, a major employer as well as historic associations", referring to Old Trafford
Old Trafford
(cricket and football), Trafford Park
Trafford Park
and the de Trafford
Trafford
baronets respectively.[4] As a place name, Trafford
Trafford
is an Anglo-French version of Stratford, deriving from the Old English
Old English
words stræt (a street, more specifically a Roman road) and ford (a river crossing). The Metropolitan Borough of Trafford
Trafford
has existed since 1974, but the area it covers has a long history. Neolithic
Neolithic
arrowheads have been discovered in Altrincham
Altrincham
and Sale,[5] and there is evidence of Bronze Age habitation in Timperley.[6] Fragments of Roman pottery have been found in Urmston, and Roman coins have been found in Sale. The Roman road between the legionary fortresses at Chester
Chester
(Deva Victrix) and York
York
(Eboracum) crosses Trafford, passing through Stretford, Sale, and Altrincham.[7] The settlements in Trafford
Trafford
have been based largely around agriculture, although Altrincham
Altrincham
was founded as a market town in the mid 13th century.[8] Although the Industrial Revolution affected Trafford, the area did not experience the same rate of growth as the rest of Greater Manchester.[9] A 100% increase in population in the Trafford
Trafford
area between 1841 and 1861 was a direct result of an influx due to the construction of the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham
Altrincham
Railway, which allowed residents to commute more easily from Trafford
Trafford
into Manchester.[9] The area developed its own centres of industry in Broadheath (founded in 1885) and Trafford Park
Trafford Park
(founded in 1897).[10] They have since declined, although Trafford Park
Trafford Park
still employs 40–50,000 people.[11][12] Today, Trafford
Trafford
is mostly a commuter area. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
as one of the ten metropolitan districts of Greater Manchester.[13] Geography[edit] The metropolitan boroughs of the City of Salford
City of Salford
and the City of Manchester
Manchester
border Trafford
Trafford
to the north and east respectively; the Cheshire
Cheshire
East area of Cheshire
Cheshire
lies to the south. The geology of South Trafford
Trafford
is Keuper marl with some Keuper waterstone and sandstone, whilst the geology of North Trafford
Trafford
is Bunter sandstone.[14] The River Mersey
River Mersey
runs east to west through the area, separating North Trafford
Trafford
from South Trafford; other rivers in Trafford
Trafford
include the Bollin, the River Irwell, Sinderland Brook, and Crofts Bank Brook. The Bridgewater Canal, opened in 1761 and completed in 1776, follows a course through Trafford
Trafford
roughly north to south and passes through Stretford, Sale, and Altrincham.[14] The Manchester
Manchester
Ship Canal, opened in 1894, forms part of Trafford's northern and western boundaries with Salford.[15] Trafford
Trafford
is generally flat, with most of the land lying between 66 feet (20 m) and 98 feet (30 m) above sea level, apart from Bowdon Hill in South Trafford
Trafford
which rises 200 feet (60 m) above sea level.[14] The lowest point in Trafford, near Warburton, is 36 feet (11 m) above sea level.[16] There are areas of mossland in low-lying areas: Warburton Moss, Dunham Moss, and Hale Moss.[14] Greenspace accounts for 51.8% of Trafford's total area, domestic buildings and gardens comprise 25.6%, the rest is made up of roads and non-domestic buildings.[17] Localities within the boundaries of Trafford
Trafford
include: North Trafford: Cornbrook, Davyhulme, Firswood, Flixton, Gorse Hill, Lostock, Old Trafford, Stretford, Trafford Park
Trafford Park
and Urmston. South Trafford: Altrincham, Ashton-Upon-Mersey, Bowdon, Broadheath, Brooklands, Carrington, Dunham Massey, Hale, Hale Barns, Oldfield Brow, Partington, Sale, Sale Moor, Timperley, Warburton and West Timperley. Governance[edit] Westminster[edit] The residents of Trafford
Trafford
Metropolitan Borough are represented in the British Parliament
British Parliament
by Members of Parliament (MPs) for three separate parliamentary constituencies. Altrincham
Altrincham
and Sale West is represented by Graham Brady
Graham Brady
MP (Conservative).[18] This is of one of only two Conservative held seats in Greater Manchester. Stretford
Stretford
and Urmston is represented by Kate Green
Kate Green
MP (Labour).[19] Wythenshawe and Sale East, which also covers parts of the City of Manchester, is represented by Mike Kane
Mike Kane
MP (Labour).[20] European Parliament[edit] Trafford
Trafford
is part of the North West England
England
constituency in the European Parliament. North West England
England
is represented by eight MEPs; at the 2014 European elections, the region elected two Conservatives, three from the Labour Party, and three members of the United Kingdom Independence Party.[21] Council[edit] Main article: Trafford
Trafford
Metropolitan Borough Council In 1974, Trafford Council
Trafford Council
was created to administer the newly formed Trafford
Trafford
Metropolitan Borough and is headquartered at Trafford
Trafford
Town Hall, which was previously named Stretford
Stretford
Town Hall.[22] On its formation in 1974, the council was controlled by the Conservative Party; the Conservatives have been in control 1973–85, 1988–94, and 2004 to the present. The only time the Labour Party was in control was 1996–2002. The rest of the time were periods of no overall control.[23] The council meets to decide policy and allocate budget. Its duties include setting levels of council tax, monitoring the health service in Trafford, providing social care, and funding schools.[24][25] John Holden is Mayor
Mayor
of Trafford
Trafford
for 2015–16.[26] In 2007 the Audit Commission judged Trafford Council
Trafford Council
to be "improving strongly" in providing services for local people. Overall the council was awarded "three star" status meaning it was "performing well" and "consistently above minimum requirements", similar to 46% of all local authorities.[27] In 2008–09, Trafford
Trafford
council had a budget of £150.5 million. This was collected from council tax (57%) and government grants (43%). The council spent £31.8 million on children and young people's services (21%); £60.1 million on community services and social care (40%); £34.4 million on "prosperity, planning, and development" (23%); and £33.8 million on customer and corporate services (22%).[25] Civil parishes form the bottom tier of local government; the parish councils are involved in planning, management of town and parish centres, and promoting tourism.[28] In 2001, 8,484 people (4.0% of the borough's population) lived in Trafford's four civil parishes:[29] Carrington, Dunham Massey, Partington, and Warburton. They were all previously part of Bucklow Rural District. A rural district was a type of local government district for the administration of predominantly rural areas. The rest of Trafford
Trafford
is unparished. The unparished areas are: Altrincham
Altrincham
(Municipal Borough), Bowdon (Urban District), Hale (Urban District), Sale (Municipal Borough), Stretford
Stretford
(Municipal Borough), and Urmston
Urmston
(Urban District). The status of each area prior to 1974 is shown in brackets. An urban district was a type of local government district which covered an urbanised area.

Party political
Party political
make-up of Trafford
Trafford
Council

   Party Seats Current Council (2016–17)

2015[30] 2016[31] 2017[32][33]

  Conservative 34 35 33                                                                      

  Labour 26 25 26                                                                      

  Lib Dems 3 3 3                                                                      

  Ind 1 1 1                                                                      

Electoral wards[edit] There are 21 electoral wards in Trafford, each with 3 councillors, giving a total of 63 councillors with one-third elected three years out of four.[24] In the following table, the populations for each ward are based on 2013 population estimates from the Office for National Statistics.

Ward name Localities covered (approximate) Population Ref.

Altrincham Altrincham, Broadheath, and Oldfield Brow 11,873 [34]

Ashton upon Mersey Ashton upon Mersey and Sale 9,726 [34]

Bowdon Altrincham, Bowdon, Dunham Massey, and Warburton 9,284 [34]

Broadheath Altrincham, Broadheath, Sale, Timperley, and West Timperley 13,069 [34]

Brooklands Brooklands and Sale 10,572 [34]

Bucklow-St. Martins Ashton upon Mersey, Carrington, and Partington 10,540 [34]

Clifford Old Trafford 12,003 [34]

Davyhulme
Davyhulme
East Davyhulme, The Trafford Centre
Trafford Centre
and Urmston 9,680 [34]

Davyhulme
Davyhulme
West Davyhulme
Davyhulme
and Flixton 10,006 [34]

Flixton Flixton 10,828 [34]

Gorse Hill Gorse Hill, Stretford
Stretford
and Trafford
Trafford
Park 12,171 [34]

Hale Barns Hale, Hale Barns
Hale Barns
and Timperley 9,812 [34]

Hale Central Altrincham
Altrincham
and Hale 10,543 [34]

Longford Firswood, Old Trafford, and Stretford 12,163 [34]

Priory Sale 10,917 [34]

Sale Moor Sale and Sale Moor 10,508 [34]

St. Mary's Ashton upon Mersey and Sale 11,795 [34]

Stretford Stretford 11,318 [34]

Timperley Brooklands and Timperley 11,201 [34]

Urmston Flixton and Urmston 11,271 [34]

Village Brooklands and Timperley 10,899 [34]

Trafford All 230,179 [34]

See also: Healthcare in Greater Manchester Coat of arms[edit]

The coat of arms of Trafford
Trafford
Metropolitan Borough Council

The coat of arms of Trafford Council
Trafford Council
depicts a griffin on a shield flanked by two unicorns. The line bisecting the shield horizontally symbolises the River Mersey
River Mersey
running through Trafford
Trafford
from east to west and the canals in the borough.[35] The white legs of a lion on a red background represent the parts of Trafford
Trafford
previously controlled by the De Massey family, while the red body and head of an eagle on a white background represents the areas of Trafford
Trafford
previously controlled by the De Traffords. Both elements were taken from the coats of arms of the respective families.[35] The fist holding bolts of lightning represents Stretford
Stretford
and the electrical industry; the cog on the arm represents Altrincham's engineering industry.[35] The unicorns stand for Sale and Altrincham.[35] The oak branches represent Urmston
Urmston
and the rural areas of Trafford.[35] Demography[edit] See also: Demography of Greater Manchester

Trafford
Trafford
compared

2011 UK Census[36] Trafford Greater Manchester England

Population 226,578 2,514,757 49,138,831

White 85.55% 91.2% 90.9%

Asian 5.4% 5.6% 4.6%

Black 2.55% 1.2% 2.3%

At the 2001 UK census, the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford
Trafford
had a total population of 210,145.[36] Of the 89,313 households in the borough, 36.5% were married couples living together, 31.6% were one-person households, 7.8% were co-habiting couples and 9.7% were lone parents, following a similar trend to the rest of England.[37] The population density was 1,982/km2 (5,130/sq mi)[3] and for every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Trafford, 24.7% had no academic qualifications, significantly lower than the 28.9% in all of England.[36] 8.2% of Trafford's residents were born outside the United Kingdom, lower than the English average of 9.2%.[38] The largest minority group was Asian, at 4.0% of the population.[39] In 1841, 12% of Trafford's population was middle class compared to 14% in England
England
and Wales; this increased to 21% in 1931 (15% nationally) and 55% in 2001 (48% nationally). From 1841 to 1951, the working class population of Trafford
Trafford
and across the country was in decline, falling steadily from 43% to 18% (36% to 29% nationally). It has since increased slightly, up to 27% (26% nationwide). The rest of the population was made up of clerical workers and skilled manual workers.[40] In the 2008/2009 financial year, the crime rates in Trafford
Trafford
for violence against a person and sexual offences were below the national averages. However, the rate of robberies and burglaries were above the national average.[41] Population change[edit] The table below details the population change since 1801, including the percentage change since the last census 10 years earlier. Although Trafford
Trafford
was formed as a Metropolitan Borough in 1974, figures have been generated by combining data from the towns, villages, and civil parishes that would later be constituent parts of Trafford. The greatest percentage change in the population occurred between 1851 and 1871, and was a result of the construction of the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham
Altrincham
Railway in 1849.[9] The decrease by 7.7% in Trafford's population since the 1971 census mirrors the trend for Greater Manchester, although on a smaller scale; this has been accounted for by the decline of Greater Manchester's industries, particularly those in Manchester
Manchester
and Salford but including those in Trafford, and residents leaving to seek new jobs.[42]

Population growth
Population growth
in Trafford
Trafford
since 1801

Year 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001

Population 9,760 11,197 12,697 13,725 17,474 21,896 35,588 49,280 62,971 76,672 94,830 117,289 135,163 155,760 178,385 204,302 215,714 227,792 221,000 215,785 210,145

% change – +14.7 +13.4 +8.1 +27.3 +25.3 +62.5 +38.5 +27.8 +21.8 +23.7 +23.7 +15.2 +15.2 +14.5 +14.5 +5.6 +5.6 −3.0 −2.4 −2.6

Source: A Vision of Britain through Time

Economy[edit]

Aerial view of the Trafford
Trafford
Centre

Historically, the economy of the Trafford
Trafford
dominated by agriculture. This continued to some extent even during the Industrial Revolution, as the textile industry in Trafford
Trafford
did not develop as quickly or to the same extent as it did in the rest of Greater Manchester.[43] There are only two known 18th-century mill sites in Trafford, compared with 69 known in Tameside
Tameside
and 51 in Manchester.[43] After reaching a high of 43% in 1812, employment in the textile industry in Trafford declined to 12% according to the 1851 census.[43] The textile industry in Trafford
Trafford
could not compete with that in places such as Manchester, Oldham, and Ashton-under-Lyne, partly because of a reluctance to invest in industry on the part of the two main land owners in the area: the Stamfords and the de Traffords.[43] Trafford Park
Trafford Park
was founded in 1897, and at its peak in 1945 employed 75,000 people.[44] As well as being the world's first planned industrial estate,[45] it is Europe's largest business park. More than 1,400 companies are within the park, employing between 40,000 and 50,000 people.[11][12][45] The Trafford
Trafford
Centre, which opened on 10 September 1998,[46] is North West England's largest indoor shopping complex. The centre has over 30 million visitors annually,[47] and contains 235 stores, 55 restaurants, and the largest Odeon cinema in the UK.[48]

Trafford
Trafford
compared

2001 UK Census Trafford[49] Greater Manchester[50] England

Population of working age 151,445 1,805,315 35,532,091

Full-time employment 43.4% 40.3% 40.8%

Part-time employment 11.9% 11.3% 11.8%

Self-employed 8.0% 6.7% 8.3%

Unemployed 2.7% 3.5% 3.3%

Retired 13.9% 13.0% 13.5%

Trafford
Trafford
is a prosperous area, with an average weekly income of £394, and apart from Manchester
Manchester
it is the only borough in Greater Manchester to be above the national average for weekly income and is on average the highest in the county. Media, advertising and public relations have been identified as growth industries in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
and are concentrated in Manchester
Manchester
and Trafford.[51] Average house prices in Trafford
Trafford
are the highest out of all the metropolitan boroughs in Greater Manchester, 45% higher than the average for the county.[52] At the 2001 UK census, Trafford
Trafford
had 151,445 residents aged 16 to 74. 2.5% of these people were students with jobs, 5.7% looking after home or family, 5.4% permanently sick or disabled and 2.8% economically inactive for other reasons. Trafford
Trafford
has a low rate of unemployment (2.7%) compared with Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
(3.6%) and England
England
as a whole (3.3%).[49] Trafford
Trafford
has the lowest number of unemployment benefit claimants compared to all the other boroughs in Greater Manchester (3.7%).[53] In 2001, of 99,146 residents of Trafford
Trafford
in employment, the industry of employment was 17.1% property and business services, 16.5% retail and wholesale, 12.3% manufacturing, 11.9% health and social work, 8.2% education, 8.0% transport and communications, 5.9% construction, 5.5% finance, 4.5% public administration and defence, 4.0% hotels and restaurants, 0.8% energy and water supply, 0.6% agriculture, and 4.6% other. This was roughly in line with national figures, except for the proportion of jobs in agriculture which is less than half the national average, reflecting Trafford's suburban nature and its proximity to the centre of Manchester.[54] A study commissioned by Experian
Experian
rated Trafford
Trafford
as the strongest and most resilient borough in North West England
England
to dealing with sudden changes in the economy. Trafford's low reliance on vulnerable businesses in the current recession and its high proportion of multinational companies were two factors which give the borough its high ranking.[55] Culture[edit] Landmarks[edit] See also: List of Scheduled Monuments in Greater Manchester, Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester, Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, and List of public art in Greater Manchester

The Church of All Saints, Urmston, is a Grade I listed building.

As of March 2007, Trafford
Trafford
has 6 Grade I, 11 Grade II*, and 228 Grade II listed buildings. Trafford
Trafford
has the equal second highest number of Grade I listed buildings out of the districts of Greater Manchester behind Manchester.[56][57] Most of Trafford's Grade I listed buildings are in the south of the borough: the old Church of St. Werburgh in Warburton; Dunham Massey
Dunham Massey
Hall itself, and the stables and carriage house belonging to the hall; Royd House
Royd House
in Hale; and the Church of All Saints in Urmston
Urmston
in the north of the borough.[57] Trafford
Trafford
has three of Greater Manchester's 21 Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest. Brookheys Covert
Brookheys Covert
is a semi-natural wood consisting mainly of ash, birch, and rowan, with a wetland habitat covering 5.8 acres (2.3 ha) in Dunham Massey.[58] Cotteril Clough
Cotteril Clough
is an area of woodland that is among the most diverse in Greater Manchester.[59] Dunham Park
Dunham Park
is an area of "pasture-woodland or park-woodland" and has been since the Middle Ages, including many oak trees that date back to the 17th century, and covers 192.7 acres (78.0 ha).[60] Also in Trafford
Trafford
are many parks and open spaces; there are 21.2 square miles (55 km2) of greenspace, 51.8% of the total area covered by the borough.[17] Tourist attractions in Trafford
Trafford
include Old Trafford football ground and Old Trafford
Old Trafford
Cricket Ground. Chill Factore
Chill Factore
is an indoor ski slope in Trafford
Trafford
Park. It features the UK's longest and widest real snow indoor slope, 100 metres (110 yd) wide and 180 metres (200 yd) long.[61]

The Imperial War Museum North
Imperial War Museum North
in Trafford
Trafford
Park

Dunham Massey
Dunham Massey
Hall and Park is an 18th-century hall[62] with a 250-acre (1.0 km2) deer park, both now owned by the National Trust and previously owned by the Earls of Stamford. The hall is early Georgian in style. The hall and grounds are open to the public and are a popular tourist attraction, with nearly 200,000 visitors in 2010.[63][64] Imperial War Museum North
Imperial War Museum North
is a war museum in Trafford Park
Trafford Park
and was opened in 2002. The museum won the 2003 British Construction Industry Building Award, and the title of Large Visitor Attraction of the Year at the 2006 Manchester
Manchester
Tourism Awards.[65] Sale Water Park
Sale Water Park
is a 152-acre (62 ha) area of countryside and parkland including a 52-acre (21 ha) artificial lake created when the M60 motorway
M60 motorway
was built.[66] The water park is the site of the Broad Ees Dole wildlife refuge, a Local Nature Reserve that provides a home for migratory birds.[67] Timperley
Timperley
Old Hall is a medieval moated site in Timperley
Timperley
near Altrincham
Altrincham
Municipal Golf Course. Excavation on the site over a period of 18 years has shown Timperley
Timperley
to be inhabited since the Bronze Age. A grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund has been made to develop the site into a community project.[6] Trafford
Trafford
has two medieval castles. Dunham Castle
Dunham Castle
is an early medieval castle in Dunham Massey. It belonged to Hamon de Massey, and was probably still standing in the early 14th century. The bailey was landscaped into the grounds of Dunham Massey
Dunham Massey
Hall and its moat turned into an ornamental pond.[68] Watch Hill Castle
Watch Hill Castle
is an early medieval motte-and-bailey castle on the border of Dunham Massey
Dunham Massey
and Bowdon. It is listed as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The motte and surrounding ditch still survives, although it had fallen out of use by the 13th century.[69] Sport[edit]

The East Stand of Old Trafford
Old Trafford
football ground

Trafford
Trafford
is the home of several major sports teams, including Manchester
Manchester
United Football Club and Lancashire
Lancashire
County Cricket Club (LCCC). Manchester
Manchester
United began as Newton Heath L&YR F.C. in 1878.[70] The team plays at Old Trafford
Old Trafford
football ground, which is sometimes used as a stadium for international matches. Manchester United have won the FA Cup
FA Cup
12 times and been the Premier League champions 13 times (since the league was formed 20 seasons ago) and were Football League
Football League
champions seven times in the years prior to that. The club last won the Premier League
Premier League
in 2013.[71] LCCC started as the Manchester
Manchester
Cricket Club,[72] and represents the historic county of Lancashire. The club contested the original 1890 County Championship.[73] Old Trafford
Old Trafford
Cricket Ground – Lancashire's home ground – stages international matches, including Test matches and One Day Internationals.[74] The team has won the county championship eight times outright (with one shared) and were the county champions in 2011 - the county's first outright triumph since 1934, but were then relegated to the second division in 2012. From 2009, Manchester
Manchester
Phoenix, who play home games at the Altrincham Ice Dome, are members of the English Premier Ice Hockey League. The club was formed in 2003 as the successor to Manchester
Manchester
Storm and was one of the founder members of the Elite Ice Hockey League.[75][76] In 2008–09 they finished sixth in the Elite Ice Hockey League. The Trafford Metros
Trafford Metros
are the Phoenix's junior side and are also based at the Altrincham
Altrincham
Ice Dome.[77] Rugby Union
Rugby Union
side Sale Sharks were formerly based in Trafford, and although they now play at the AJ Bell Stadium in Salford their former home ground at Heywood Road in Sale is still used for training.[78] Sale Sharks won the Guinness Premiership in 2006; in 2008–09 they finished fifth. As well as being home to several clubs in the top echelon of their sports, Trafford
Trafford
plays host to smaller clubs, including Altrincham F.C., Flixton F.C., and Trafford
Trafford
F.C.. Both Flixton F.C.
Flixton F.C.
and Trafford F.C. play in the North West Counties Football League
Football League
Division One. Flixton F.C.
Flixton F.C.
was formed in 1960 and earned promotion to NWCFL Division One at the end of the 2006–07 season. Trafford F.C.
Trafford F.C.
was formed in 1990 and finished fifth in the 2006–07 season.[79] Altrincham
Altrincham
F.C. was founded in 1903 and plays in the Football Conference. Within Trafford
Trafford
two clubs play in the National Premier Division of the Adidas England
England
Hockey League. The two clubs are represented in both the Men's Premier Division as well as the Women's Premier Division: Brooklands MU (Men) & Brooklands Poynton (Women) based at Brooklands Sports Club in Sale[80] and Bowdon (Men) & Bowdon Hightown (Women) based at Bowdon Sports Club in Bowdon.[81] In 2017, Trafford Pétanque
Trafford Pétanque
became Trafford's first ever officially registered Pétanque
Pétanque
club. Trafford Pétanque
Trafford Pétanque
currently plays within the Northern Region of the English Pétanque
Pétanque
Association. Education[edit] See also: List of schools in Trafford There are 73 primary schools in Trafford, 17 secondary and grammar schools, and 6 special schools.[82] Trafford
Trafford
maintains a selective education system, with grammar schools, assessed by the 11-plus
11-plus
exam. Trafford
Trafford
College, a £29M "super college" in Stretford, is the only college of further education in Trafford. It was officially opened in 2008, following a merger between South Trafford College
Trafford College
and North Trafford
Trafford
College.[83] Overall, Trafford
Trafford
was ranked 2nd out of all of the local education authorities in National Curriculum assessment performance in 2014. Indeed, in 2014 Trafford
Trafford
was the first in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
for Key Stage 2 results, with 87% of Year 6 pupils achieving the expected standard of Level 4 or above in Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. Also in 2014 2nd for both GCSE and A-Level results, with 72.2% of Year 11 pupils achieving the expected standard or above of 5 GCSE's including English and Maths. For A-Level results 25% of students gained 3 A-Levels at grades A*-A, which is twice the national average, whilst 33% gained 3 A-levels at grades A*-B. Trafford
Trafford
has 7 Grammar schools and all 7 are in the top 10 best performing state schools in Greater Manchester. Religion[edit] See also: List of churches in Greater Manchester

Religion in Trafford

2001 UK Census[36] Trafford North West England England

Population 210,145 6,729,764 49,138,831

Christian 75.8% 78.0% 71.7%

Muslim 3.3% 3.0% 3.1%

Jewish 1.1% 0.4% 0.5%

No religion 12.0% 10.5% 14.6%

At the 2001 UK census, 75.8% of Trafford's residents reported themselves as being Christian, 3.3% Muslim, 1.1% Jewish, 0.6% Hindu, 0.2% Buddhist and 0.5% Sikh. The census recorded 12.0% as having no religion, 0.2% had an alternative religion and 6.4% did not state their religion.[36] Trafford
Trafford
is covered by the Catholic Dioceses of Shrewsbury and Salford,[84][85] and the Church of England
England
Dioceses of Manchester
Manchester
and Chester.[86][87] There are two Grade I listed churches in Trafford: St. Werburgh's Church, in Warburton, is a timber framed church and dates back to at least the 14th century;[88] All Saints' Church, in Urmston, was constructed in 1868 by E. W. Pugin, and is considered to be one of his best works.[89] Of the 11 Grade II* listed buildings in Trafford, seven are churches: Hale Chapel in Hale; the Church of St John the Divine in Sale; Church of St Mary the Virgin in Bowdon; St. Martin's Church in Sale; St. Michael's Church in Flixton; St. Margaret's Church in Altrincham; St. George's Church in Carrington.[57] In 2007, the Church of Scientology
Church of Scientology
bought the Old Trafford
Old Trafford
Essence Distillery on Chester
Chester
Road for a reported £3.6M. The Church stated that it had plans to turn the 51,000-square-foot (4,700 m2) Victorian building into a place of worship and religious instruction. The original plans were rejected by Trafford
Trafford
Council, but the Church stated its intention to revise the proposals and resubmit.[90] Transport[edit]

Sale tram stop

The Manchester
Manchester
Metrolink runs generally north–south through Trafford, with its southern terminus in Altrincham; it serves Cornbrook, Trafford
Trafford
Bar, Old Trafford, Stretford, Dane Road, Sale, Brooklands, Timperley, Navigation Road, and Altrincham. The line opened in 1992 and replaced the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham
Altrincham
Railway.[91] The other railway in Trafford
Trafford
is the Liverpool to Manchester
Manchester
via Warrington
Warrington
Central line, built by the Cheshire
Cheshire
Lines Committee. The 20-acre (8 ha) Trafford Park
Trafford Park
Euroterminal rail freight terminal was opened in 1993. It cost £11 million and has the capacity to deal with 100,000 containers a year.[92] The council is responsible for the maintenance of Trafford's public roads and pavements.[93][94] Part of the M60 orbital motorway passes through Trafford, from junctions 6–10 inclusive. A range of bus services provide connections between various towns in the borough and links to the city centre, and other urban areas of Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
and Cheshire. Operators include Stagecoach Manchester, Arriva North West, First Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
as well as smaller operators, who generally run services under contract to Transport for Greater Manchester. Trafford
Trafford
Cycle Forum was established to promote cycling in Trafford;[95] the group actively campaigns to raise money for cycling in the borough.[96] References[edit] Notes[edit]

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Metropolitan Borough population density". Statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2007-12-26.  Retrieved on 13 December 2007. ^ a b c Clark 1973, p. 101. ^ Nevell (1997), pp. 12–13. ^ a b Faulkner (2004), pp. 1–5. ^ Nevell (1997), pp. 17, 20, 75. ^ Nevell (1997), p. 51. ^ a b c Nevell (1997), pp. 90–91. ^ Nevell (1997), pp. 127, 131. ^ a b "Salford Quays & Trafford
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Park". Manchester
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Investment and Development Agency Service Ltd. Archived from the original on 2008-01-17.  Retrieved on 4 May 2009. ^ a b " Trafford
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at GMeP.org". Greater Manchester
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e-Government Partnership. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007.  Retrieved on 12 December 2007. ^ HMSO. Local Government Act 1972. 1972 c.70 ^ a b c d Nevell (1997), pp. 3, 10, 94. ^ Nevell (1997), p. 125. ^ Bayliss (1996), p. 2. ^ a b " Trafford
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Metropolitan Borough country of birth data". Statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2007-12-26.  Retrieved on 13 December 2007. ^ " Trafford
Trafford
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Trafford
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Trafford
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Trafford
Centre". TraffordCentre.co.uk.  Retrieved on 12 December 2007. ^ "The Trafford
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Centre". Peel Holdings. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) Retrieved on 2 March 2014. ^ "All About us — The Trafford
Trafford
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Trafford
Local Authority economic activity". Statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2007-12-26.  Retrieved on 3 November 2007. ^ " Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
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e-Government Partnership. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008.  Retrieved on 12 December 2007. ^ "House prices for Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
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Trafford
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Trafford
best-placed to resist economic woes". BBC News. Retrieved 13 September 2010.  ^ "Images of England
England
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Bibliography[edit]

Bayliss, Don (1996). Historical Atlas of Trafford. Don Bayliss. ISBN 0-9529300-0-5.  Clark, David M. (1973). " Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Votes: A Guide to the New Metropolitan Authorities". Redrose.  Faulkner, Pat (2004). Tymperleie: The History and Archaeology of Timperley
Timperley
Old Hall. South Trafford
Trafford
Archaeological Group.  Nevell, Mike (1997). The Archaeology of Trafford. Trafford Metropolitan Borough Council with the University of Manchester Archaeological Unit. ISBN 1-870695-25-9.  Nevell, Mike & Hradil, Ivan (2005). St Lawrence's Church and the archaeology of the Medieval Timber-framed Churches of England
England
and Wales. Tameside
Tameside
Metropolitan Borough and University of Manchester Archaeological Unit. ISBN 1-871324-30-0.  Nicholls, Robert (1996). Trafford
Trafford
Park: The First Hundred Years. Phillimore & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-86077-013-4.  Shury, Alan; Landamore, Brian (2005). The Definitive Newton Heath F.C. SoccerData. ISBN 1-899468-16-1. 

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