The TORONTO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (TSO) is a Canadian orchestra based in
* 1 History * 2 Music directors * 3 References * 4 External links
The TSO was founded in 1922 as the New Symphony Orchestra, and gave its first concert at Massey Hall in April 1923 with 58 musicians. The first conductor was Luigi von Kunits, and that season there were twenty concerts, as well as a performance at a spring festival.
In the summer of 1924, the symphony performed at the Canadian National Exhibition. Shortly thereafter, the TSO began holding children's concerts. The orchestra changed its name to the Toronto Symphony Orchestra in 1927. In 1929, the TSO made its radio debut with a one-hour broadcast on CBC Radio from the Arcadian Court of Simpson's department store.
After von Kunits' death in 1931, conductor and composer Ernest
MacMillan served as music director for 25 years. Peter Oundjian
The orchestra had made headlines for its hiring practices in 1951,
when it declined to renew the contracts of musicians, thereafter known
Andrew Davis was the TSO's music director from 1975 to 1988, and then was given the title of conductor laureate with the TSO.
The orchestra had financial and audience size problems in the 1990s, and in 1992 TSO musicians had accepted a 16% pay cut because of a threat of bankruptcy to the orchestra, with a promise from management to make up the loss in subsequent contract negotiations. By 1999, this pay restoration had not happened, which led to an 11-week musicians' strike that autumn. Relations between the musicians and management deteriorated, and the music director at the time, Jukka-Pekka Saraste , offered to serve as mediator in the situation. In addition, there was a lack of public sympathy to the orchestra musicians' situation.
By 2001, the orchestra had debt of $7 million (Canadian), and both executive director Ed Smith and music director Saraste had left the ensemble.
By the 2006–2007 season, the subscriber base had increased to about 25,000, and the audience average capacity also increased to 84%. In November 2008, the orchestra reported its third consecutive year of budget surpluses, with average audience attendance of 88% (excluding concerts for schoolchildren), although the orchestra still retains overall debt of $8.9 million (Canadian).
In April 2015, controversy ensued after the TSO cancelled the
Valentina Lisitsa , citing Twitter postings by her in
relation to the conflict in Ukraine which were seen as conducive to
'public incitement of hatred' under the Criminal Code of Canada. In
January 2017, the TSO announced its participation in the celebrations
of the 150th anniversary of
* ^ A B C D Vyhnak, Carola. "Birth of the