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The TORONTO ARGONAUTS are a professional Canadian football
Canadian football
team competing in the East Division of the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
(CFL). Based in Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
, the team was founded in 1873, and is the oldest existing professional sports team in North America still using its original name. The team's origins date back to a modified version of rugby football that emerged in North America in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The Argonauts
Argonauts
played their home games at Rogers Centre
Rogers Centre
from 1989 until 2016 when the team moved to BMO Field
BMO Field
, the fifth stadium site to host the team.

The Argonauts
Argonauts
have won the Grey Cup
Grey Cup
a record 16 times and have appeared in the final 22 times. Most recently they defeated the Calgary Stampeders
Calgary Stampeders
35–22 at home in the 100th Grey Cup
Grey Cup
in 2012. The Argonauts
Argonauts
hold the best winning percentage in the championship game (72.7%) and have the longest active winning streak in games in which they have appeared, at five. The Argonauts
Argonauts
have faced every current western CFL team at least once in the Grey Cup, while their most celebrated divisional rivalry has been with the Hamilton Tiger-Cats .

The team was owned by the Argonaut Rowing Club for its first 83 years, and has been owned by a series of business interests since 1956. The Argonauts
Argonauts
were a fixture on the Toronto
Toronto
sports scene for decades, with attendance peaking in the 1970s. In May 2015 it was announced that a consortium of Maple Leaf Sports they merged with the Hamilton Wildcats in 1950 to form the Hamilton Tiger-Cats .

The name "Argonauts" is derived from Greek mythology
Greek mythology
: according to legend, Jason and the Argonauts
Argonauts
were a group of heroes who set out to find the Golden Fleece aboard the ship Argo
Argo
sometime before the Trojan War . Given its nautical theme, the name Argonaut was adopted by a group of amateur rowers in Toronto
Toronto
in 1872. The Argonaut Rowing Club , which still exists today, went on to found the football club with the same name a year later. Given their roots in a rowing squad, the team is often referred to as the "boatmen" and less often the "scullers".

In the 19th century, the most renowned rowing teams in the world were from the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
in England. The Toronto
Toronto
rowers, many of whom had associations with the English schools, adopted uniforms incorporating the light blue of Cambridge and the dark blue of Oxford . In turn, the footballers adopted the colours and the phrase "double blue" would become synonymous with the team. Blue has become the traditional colour of top-level teams in Toronto
Toronto
(e.g. the Toronto
Toronto
Maple Leafs and Toronto Blue Jays ).

The team's other official colour is white. Its current helmet design features an Oxford blue background, with an Oxford blue and Cambridge blue round shield inscribed with a white, capital letter A. For most of the team's history, the logo featured some form of a boat, often incorporating a football.

FRANCHISE HISTORY

See also: List of Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
seasons

1873–1906

"On Sunday afternoon a game of foot ball, Rugby rules, was played on the University ground, between the Argonauts, of Toronto, and the Hamilton club. After a most exciting contest, one goal was secured at five o'clock by the Toronto
Toronto
men, the ball being kicked through the Hamilton flags by Buchanan." The Toronto
Toronto
Mail , October 20, 1873

The first recorded game of what would become known as Canadian football was played in Toronto
Toronto
on November 9, 1861, featuring University of Toronto
Toronto
students. The game at the time was a modified version of English rugby and it gained popularity throughout the 1860s. Rugby itself was still an infant game having evolved out of association football (soccer) in the 1830s. Seeking a way to keep fit after summer, the Argonaut Rowing Club (ARC) formed their own rugby-football squad on October 4, 1873. The Argonauts
Argonauts
Football Club would play their first game against Hamilton on October 18 of that year (a victory), beginning a storied rivalry. H.T. Glazebrook served as their first captain and head coach. Establishment of the football team was formalized by the ARC on September 17, 1874, with a subscription fee of one dollar charged per player.

The football team played a handful of challenge matches—one team inviting another to play—as an amateur squad against university and city teams every year throughout the 1870s, with one dormant year in 1879, likely due to injuries. In 1883 the Toronto
Toronto
Football Club, other city teams from Ontario
Ontario
and university squads from Toronto, Queens University and Royal Military College formed the Ontario
Ontario
Rugby Football Union (ORFU); it was the first rugby football organization with a league and playoff structure in North America. The Toronto Football Club were league victors in the first year. Starting in 1884 a "Dominion Championship "—a precursor to the Grey Cup—was held, pitting the victors of the country's two organized leagues, the ORFU and Quebec Rugby Football Union , against each other; it was organized nationally by the Canadian Rugby Union (CRU) from 1892 onwards. In the first true national championship, the Montreal Football Club defeated the Toronto
Toronto
Football Club on November 5, 1884 by a score of 30–0. Argonauts
Argonauts
would lose the Dominion Title in 1901 to Ottawa College
Ottawa College
. The Ottawa
Ottawa
team and the Hamilton Tigers
Hamilton Tigers
were frequent opponents in this era.

Over the thirty years from 1880 onwards, rule changes were incrementally introduced into the game, including the adoption of the line of scrimmage, scoring that began to resemble the modern version, and the down and yardage structure. Popular personalities of the era included player-coach Joe Wright Sr. , one of the best all around Canadian athletes at the turn of the century. One major outstanding issue within the CRU at the time was the role of professional versus amateur players; this dispute caused the Argonauts
Argonauts
to withdraw from the league in 1903 and eventually led to the establishment of a new league, The Big Four or Interprovincial Rugby Football League. Alongside the professionalism dispute, there was serious disagreement over the adoption of the Burnside rules , with Ontario, Quebec, and the intercollegiate league often not in alignment. Amongst other critical innovations, the Burnside rules reduced the number of men per side to 12 and introduced the ten yards in three downs structure that is central to the modern game.

1907–1952

Seeking looser rules regarding the employment of professional players, Toronto
Toronto
and other cities split from the ORFU and formed the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union (IRFU) in 1907. These clubs were the vaunted "Big Four"—Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Montreal—that formed the precursor to Eastern Division of the Canadian Football League.

The IRFU continued under the larger auspices of the Canadian Rugby Union. Beginning in 1909, the CRU champion was awarded the Grey Cup
Grey Cup
, with the Big Four competing against university squads and eventually teams from Western Canada
Western Canada
. The Argonauts
Argonauts
first competed for the Cup in 1911 , losing 14 to 7 to the University of Toronto
Toronto
in front of a then record 13,687 spectators at the newly opened Varsity Stadium . The team would claim their first championship in 1914, exacting revenge on U of T with a 14 to 2 victory. Their star runner and kicker in their first championship year was Jack O'Conner, who scored a league record 44 points. The Argonauts
Argonauts
playing the Ottawa
Ottawa
Rough Riders at Varsity Stadium in 1924

After play was halted during World War I, the Argos again achieved success in the early 1920s on the back of one Canada's greatest ever sportsmen. Lionel Conacher
Lionel Conacher
, the "Big Train," led the team to two perfect 6–0 seasons in 1921 and 1922. In the first season he accounted for 85 of his team's 167 points, and 15 of the points in the Grey Cup
Grey Cup
game , a 23–0 drubbing of the Edmonton Eskimos
Edmonton Eskimos
. It was the first east-west Grey Cup
Grey Cup
championship in Canadian history.

The 1921 Grey Cup
Grey Cup
victory was their last until 1933, at which point the Argonauts
Argonauts
became the dominant team of an increasingly nationwide sport. They put together a number of Grey Cup
Grey Cup
dynasties in the 1930s and 1940s, winning eight of twenty Grey Cups between 1933 and 1952. The Winnipeg Blue Bombers
Winnipeg Blue Bombers
were most often on the receiving end of Argo Grey Cup
Grey Cup
victories in this era. From 1933 to 1941 Lew Hayman coached the team with a still unparalleled winning ratio of 45–15–2. Their first back-to-back Grey Cups came in 1937 and 1938. This was also the era of the famed Stukus brothers—Annis , Bill , and Frank —who proved a potent all-purpose trio in the Argonauts' championship years. A threat at quarterback, running back, defensive back, and kicker, Joe "King" Krol has been called the most versatile Argonaut ever to play the game.

Joe "King" Krol and Royal Copeland , the so-called Gold Dust Twins, were the best-known players of the 1940s. In an era where players still played multiple positions, they were a threat in every capacity: running, passing, catching, kicking, and playing defence. Often connecting with each other for points, they led the Argos to a Grey Cup threepeat between 1945 and 1947. 1949 and 1950 marked a watershed in Argonauts
Argonauts
history as the team began large scale importation of American players for the first time. The team also broke a cultural barrier in 1950 with the signing of their first black player: Ulysses "Crazy Legs" Curtis would play five strong years with the team.

Frank Clair
Frank Clair
was brought in as coach in 1950 and left his mark on the revamped roster; he led the team to Grey Cup
Grey Cup
wins in 1950 and 1952. The first of these was a 13–0 victory over Winnipeg
Winnipeg
in the notorious Mud Bowl . A November snow storm followed by mild conditions turned Varsity Stadium into a bog and the play was a shambles; one Winnipeg player is reported to have almost drowned in the muck.

At some time during this period, the phrase " Argo
Argo
Bounce" came to refer to the Argonauts' propensity to receive a lucky bounce of the football. The phrase may date to the Grey Cups of the 1930s, all of which featured improbable bounces and fumbles favouring the Argos; the phrase was popularized in print by Annis Stukus in the 1940s. It is still in use today, with a number of fortunate on-field happenings attributed to the "bounce".

1953–1988

The Argonauts
Argonauts
have won a record 16 Grey Cups, but suffered through a 31-year championship drought from 1952 to 1983.

The three decades after the 1952 Grey Cup
Grey Cup
victory have been called the Argonauts' Dark Ages. The team went thirty-one years between championship victories and nineteen without even making an appearance in the final. Part of the reason was a salary cap introduced in 1953 that cost them many talented players. For the first time in decades, they began ranking at the bottom of the Eastern Division. The management style under new owner John Bassett has also been blamed: young talent was traded or allowed to leave and the team could not form a nucleus of championship players; coaches came and went rapidly. Two notable events occurred off-field at the end of the 1950s: in 1958 the Argonauts
Argonauts
became a founding member of the Canadian Football League and a year later found a new home at Exhibition Stadium
Exhibition Stadium
.

The Argonauts
Argonauts
did have some standout players in the 1950s and 1960s. The stalwart of the era was Dick Shatto , an Ohioan who played twelve seasons from 1954 to 1965. Listed as a running back, Shatto was a dual threat to run and receive and continues to hold the team regular season records for touchdowns (91) and total yards gained (6,958). Living in Toronto
Toronto
year round, Shatto set down deep roots in the city and would eventually serve as the Argonauts
Argonauts
general manager. Another American, Tobin Rote , set numerous passing marks in three years at quarterback from 1960 to 1962. Known for his good living off the field, Rote still holds the Argos single game passing record with 524 yards against Montreal on August 19, 1960. A pillar on the offensive line was Danny Nykoluk at tackle who appeared in an incredible 17 seasons from 1954 to 1971, including one stretch of 12 years where he didn't miss a single game. Despite these veterans, the era was marked by losing seasons and high attrition on the roster. By the 1960s, the annual (and often desperate) mid-season addition of American imports had become known as the " Argo
Argo
airlift"; American imports often wouldn't last a game before being cut.

Eventually, the team became competitive again under head coach Leo Cahill in the late 1960s. They scored a coup over the National Football League (NFL) with the signing of a young Joe Theismann (and other American stars) in 1971. The team also saw an attendance bounce, consistently selling out Exhibition Stadium. The Boatmen's best chance to end their Grey Cup
Grey Cup
drought came that year , when they faced the Calgary Stampeders
Calgary Stampeders
in the 59th Grey Cup
Grey Cup
, the first to be played on artificial turf. In a defensive struggle at Vancouver's soggy Empire Stadium , a now infamous late fumble by Leon "X-Ray" McQuay and a possession changing kick out of bounds by Harry Abofs sealed a 14–11 Stampeder victory.

The 1970s were tumultuous for the team, with numerous hirings and firings of head coaches and consistent losing records. There were stellar players over this era, including all-stars on defence such as Jim Stillwagon , Jim Corrigall , and Granville "Granny" Liggins , but the team could not return to winning form. High-profile moves such as hiring Canadian football
Canadian football
icon Russ Jackson as head coach in 1975 or signing running back superstar Anthony Davis the next year turned into busts. Ironically, the Argos reached historic attendance highs in this losing decade—regular season average per game attendance reached 47,356 in 1976. The enlargement of Exhibition Stadium
Exhibition Stadium
over 1975 and 1976 in anticipation of the Blue Jays expansion baseball team allowed for these massive crowds.

The Argos reached an all-time low in 1981 when they finished 2–14; this despite having such talented players as quarterback Condredge Holloway , running back Cedric Minter , and receiver Terry Greer . The team began the year 0–10 and there was talk of a "perfect" losing season. The team had been inept so long by this point (29 seasons without a Grey Cup
Grey Cup
win) that the notion of an " Argo
Argo
Bounce" had become inverted; now "it was the unluckiest bounce in the world, the one that usually arose from the Argos' uncanny ability to lose critical games in the dying minutes by committing an improbable blunder."

However, with the 1982 season came the hiring of Bob O\'Billovich as head coach and Mouse Davis as offensive co-ordinator. Davis implemented the run and shoot offense , and the Argos enjoyed a turnaround, going 9–6–1 that year; Condredge Holloway was the CFL\'s most outstanding player . The team ultimately fell short in their quest for a Grey Cup, losing 32–16 to the mighty Edmonton Eskimos in the final in front of a disappointed crowd at Exhibition Stadium. The 1983 season finally brought the championship home. The Argos finished 12–4 and Terry Greer set a CFL record with 2,003 receiving yards. Joe Barnes and Condredge Holloway were a potent duo at quarterback. The Double Blue returned to the Grey Cup
Grey Cup
, this time facing the BC Lions at BC Place
BC Place
Stadium in Vancouver
Vancouver
. Despite the hostile crowd, Toronto
Toronto
defeated BC 18–17 to win their first Grey Cup since 1952. The Argos were generally competitive for the remainder of the 1980s, thanks in large part to talented players such as Gill "The Thrill" Fenerty and Darrell K. Smith , but a return to the glory of 1983 proved elusive.

1989–PRESENT

Michael "Pinball" Clemons twice set a league record for combined yards. He is one of just four players with his number retired by the Argos.

The 1989 season saw the Argonauts
Argonauts
move into the SkyDome
SkyDome
, a multi-purpose downtown stadium with a retractable roof. It marked the beginning of an eventful few years. In 1990, one of the most beloved figures in Toronto
Toronto
sporting history emerged on the team: Michael "Pinball" Clemons set a CFL record for all purpose yards with 3,300 in his first full year, a record he would break in 1997 with 3,840.

In 1991 Hollywood prestige arrived in the form of a new ownership trio. Bruce McNall , owner of the NHL's Los Angeles Kings
Los Angeles Kings
, bought the team. One of his players, hockey great Wayne Gretzky
Wayne Gretzky
, became a minority owner, as did Canadian-born comedian John Candy . The group stunned the league with the signing of Raghib "Rocket" Ismail for an unheard of $18.2 million over four years. Ismail immediately impressed, particularly on kickoff returns, and was named player of the game in the 1991 Grey Cup
Grey Cup
, which the Argos won 36–21 over the Calgary Stampeders. Clemons and quarterback Matt Dunigan (who played the final with a broken collarbone) were the other critical pieces to the championship.

However, the Argos slumped to 6–12 only a year later, beginning a slide that only accelerated when Dunigan and Ismail left after the season. The 1992 season was the first of four consecutive losing seasons; while they made the playoffs in 1994, they were promptly eliminated by the Baltimore Stallions in the division semifinals. Trouble also struck off the field: McNall was convicted of conspiracy and fraud at the end of 1993, while Candy died prematurely the next year. Attendance also began to slide in the mid-1990s, raising questions over the team's viability that persist to this day. The per game average was just above 16,000 in 1994 and 1995, much less than half the team's 1970s peak.

Championship material did eventually reemerge in 1996. Doug Flutie , one of the greatest quarterbacks in CFL history, was signed for the season and surrounded with key personnel. The team included linebacker Mike O\'Shea , veteran wide receiver Paul Masotti , and running back Robert Drummond . Derrell "Mookie" Mitchell was added at receiver in 1997. The Boatmen took the Grey Cup
Grey Cup
in both 1996 and 1997 . Flutie would set team records for single season passing yards with more than 5,500 in each year and for touchdowns thrown with 47 in 1997 (one less than his CFL record of 48) before crossing the border to join the Buffalo Bills
Buffalo Bills
the next year. Masotti retired in 1999 as the team's all time pass reception yardage leader. Clemons ended his own successful career in 2000 before returning to coach until 2007. Veteran Damon Allen set the pro football league record for career passing yards while an Argonaut. He led the team to a Grey Cup
Grey Cup
victory in 2004.

The years after their back-to-back championships saw a return to mediocrity for the Argos. Ticket sales remained flat, and there were changes in ownership. Gimmicks to attract fans were greeted with criticism. The Argos seemingly bottomed out in July 2003 when the CFL stripped control over the team from owner Sherwood Schwarz . The team had amassed debts of over $20 million, including $17.4 owed to Schwarz himself.

New ownership under David Cynamon and Howard Sokolowski brought immediate dividends with another Grey Cup
Grey Cup
win in 2004 . Veteran Damon Allen led the team to a 27–19 victory over the B.C. Lions, with Jon Avery a critical running threat. Allen would continue with the team until 2007, and retired with professional football\'s all-time leading passing yardage (72,381).

The Argonauts
Argonauts
saw winning seasons from 2005 to 2007 before bottoming out the next two years. They finished 2009 with just three wins. Critical players over this half decade included receiver Arland Bruce III , defensive star Byron Parker , and all-star punter Noel Prefontaine . The team generated some controversy in 2006 when they lured running back Ricky Williams from the NFL. Williams had repeatedly violated NFL drug policies and was under suspension for the year; he played just one season with the Argos.

In 2010 the team again saw an ownership change, with construction magnate David Braley , who also owns the Lions, taking control. After breaking even in 2010 and going 6–12 in 2011, the Argonauts
Argonauts
again acquired a championship nucleus in 2012. Ricky Ray was brilliant at quarterback while Chad Owens emerged as arguably the league's best special teams player. Owens broke Michael Clemons CFL record for all purpose yards and won the CFL Most Outstanding Player award that year. The 2012 Grey Cup
Grey Cup
was played in Toronto
Toronto
and the team took their first championship victory in the city since 1952, a 35–22 win over Calgary.

CHAMPIONSHIP SUMMARY

DATE GREY CUP W/L OPPONENT SCORE HOST CITY VICTORY #

Nov 25, 2012 100th W Calgary Stampeders
Calgary Stampeders
35–22 Toronto
Toronto
16

Nov 21, 2004 92nd W BC Lions 27–19 Ottawa
Ottawa
15

Nov 16, 1997 85th W Saskatchewan Roughriders 47–23 Edmonton
Edmonton
14

Nov 24, 1996 84th W Edmonton Eskimos
Edmonton Eskimos
43–37 Hamilton 13

Nov 24, 1991 79th W Calgary Stampeders 36–21 Winnipeg
Winnipeg
12

Nov 29, 1987 75th L Edmonton
Edmonton
Eskimos 38–36 Vancouver
Vancouver

Nov 27, 1983 71st W B.C. Lions 18–17 Vancouver 11

Nov 28, 1982 70th L Edmonton
Edmonton
Eskimos 32–16 Toronto –

Nov 28, 1971 59th L Calgary Stampeders 14–11 Vancouver –

Nov 29, 1952 40th W Edmonton
Edmonton
Eskimos 21–14 Toronto 10

Nov 25, 1950 38th W Winnipeg Blue Bombers
Winnipeg Blue Bombers
13–0 Toronto 9

Nov 29, 1947 35th W Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Blue Bombers 10–9 Toronto 8

Nov 30, 1946 34th W Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Blue Bombers 28–6 Toronto 7

Dec 1, 1945 33rd W Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Blue Bombers 35–0 Toronto 6

Dec 10, 1938 26th W Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Blue Bombers 30–7 Toronto 5

Dec 11, 1937 25th W Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Blue Bombers 4–3 Toronto 4

Dec 9, 1933 21st W Sarnia Imperials 4–3 Sarnia
Sarnia
3

Dec 3, 1921 9th W Edmonton
Edmonton
Eskimos 23–0 Toronto 2

Dec 4, 1920 8th L University of Toronto
Toronto
16–3 Toronto –

Dec 5, 1914 6th W University of Toronto 14–2 Toronto 1

Nov 30, 1912 4th L Hamilton Alerts 11–4 Hamilton –

Nov 25, 1911 3rd L University of Toronto 14–7 Toronto –

The Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
currently lead the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
in total wins and in winning percentage in the Grey Cup. Early success in the final can partly be attributed to the weakness of western teams: between 1921 and 1952 the Argonauts
Argonauts
won in nine straight appearances, including six straight against the Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Blue Bombers. The team's success is not merely an historical aberration, however: they have won six of their nine appearances since the formation of the CFL, including their last five straight.

For the entire Grey Cup
Grey Cup
era there has been some form of playoffs leading up to the Grey Cup
Grey Cup
game; the 22 Argonauts
Argonauts
teams who have won a spot in the final would, in modern terms, be called "Eastern Division Champions". It is important to remember, however, that the route to the Grey Cup, participating teams, and playoff format have changed repeatedly over time.

As for the regular season, the CFL records 14 Argonauts
Argonauts
teams at the top of the eastern divisional table since its formation in 1958. Earlier data for the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union provides another 9 years from 1907 to 1957 in which the Argos were the best of the "Big Four," for a total of 23 divisional wins. The only pre-1958 year in which the Argos won the IRFU but failed to make a Grey Cup appearance was 1922, when they lost in semi-final to Queen's University.

Going back to an even earlier era, the Argonauts
Argonauts
won the Ontario Rugby Football Union championship three times between 1883 and 1906, including the league's first two seasons, 1883 and 1884. Their last victory as ORFU members came in 1901. Given their losses in the Dominion Championship in 1884 and 1901, the Argonauts
Argonauts
would not earn the title "national champion" until their first Grey Cup
Grey Cup
win in 1914.

STADIUMS

TORONTO ARGONAUTS STADIUMS

STADIUM TENURE

Rosedale Field
Rosedale Field
1874–97

Varsity Stadium 1898–1907

Rosedale Field 1908–15

Varsity Stadium 1916–58

Exhibition Stadium
Exhibition Stadium
1959–88

Rogers Centre
Rogers Centre
1989–2015

BMO Field
BMO Field
2016–present

The Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts' first home was Rosedale Field
Rosedale Field
at Mount Pleasant Road and MacLennan Avenue near the city centre. The team suggests its capacity was 10,000 total with 4,000 seated, though O'Leary and Parrish list smaller numbers, noting that a $32,000 renovation in 1883 allowed for a capacity of 2,000. The field has historic significance as the site of the first Grey Cup
Grey Cup
game in 1909; the CFL lists the game's attendance as 3,807. The field still exists as part of Rosedale Park, although there are no grandstands. Exhibition Stadium, home to the Argos from 1959–88

Sources again differ on when the team permanently moved to Varsity Stadium on the grounds of the University of Toronto
Toronto
. The team gives dates of 1874–1897 and 1908–1915 at Rosedale, while other sources suggest the team had moved to Varsity by 1911. Varsity would become indelibly linked with the Argonauts
Argonauts
and the early years of Canadian football; it was the home field of the great Argo
Argo
dynasties of the 1930s and 1940s. For most of the Argos time at the stadium, its capacity was about 16,000, but this jumped above 20,000 with a renovation in 1950. Although it has not hosted a professional game since 1958, it still holds the record for hosting the most Grey Cups with 30.

Another home beckoned in 1959 with the renovation of the new Exhibition Stadium
Exhibition Stadium
to accommodate Canadian football. Often remembered ruefully by Torontonians for its exposure to weather and poor sightlines, the stadium was nevertheless the site of the Argos' greatest attendance in the late 1960s and 1970s. Particularly brutal conditions at the 70th Grey Cup
Grey Cup
in 1982 paved the way for the construction of a domed stadium in Toronto.

SkyDome
SkyDome
( Rogers Centre
Rogers Centre
since 2004) has provided the Argonauts
Argonauts
a marquee venue since 1989, but also been criticized for its football sightlines and atmosphere. Even crowds of about 30,000 can look sparse in a stadium that seats up to 50,000 people. The domed environment does, at least, remove the elements and is an advantage to passers and comfortable for fans. Two critical opportunities to find a new home were missed in 2004 and 2005: plans for a revamped Varsity Stadium to accommodate CFL-sized crowds were thwarted by community opposition in 2004, and the Argonauts
Argonauts
withdrew from an alternate plan at York University the following year. An Argos game in their past home, Rogers Centre
Rogers Centre

It was announced in 2013 that the Rogers Centre's artificial turf would be replaced by natural grass within five years to better facilitate Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays baseball. This will require the stadium's movable stands to be permanently locked into position for baseball, making it impossible to host CFL games. The stadium issue generated significant press and raised concerns over the team's long-term viability given that the Argonauts
Argonauts
losses have been estimated anywhere from $2 to $6 million annually. While various stadium rumours swirled over the course of David Braley's tenure (including building a new facility) it became increasingly clear that a move to a renovated BMO Field
BMO Field
was the only viable option. BMO Field
BMO Field
with additional temporary seats in the south endzone for the 104th Grey Cup
Grey Cup

The BMO Field
BMO Field
move became finalized on May 20, 2015, concurrent with the announcement of the team's sale to a consortium of MLSE shareholders Larry Tanenbaum and Bell Canada
Bell Canada
. The team will move following the completion of stadium renovations for the 2016 season. The $120 million renovation plan had originally been announced in March 2014. The upgrades raise the stadium's seating capacity from 21,566 seats to 30,000 for soccer, with 25,000 seats in CFL configuration, and will be temporarily expandable with additional endzone seating to 40,000 for big events such as a Grey Cup
Grey Cup
. The agreement requires MLSE to reach a "long-term use (i.e. 20 years)" lease with the Argos for usage of the stadium. The inclusion of the CFL configuration had partly been at the insistence of the City of Toronto
Toronto
, which owns BMO Field, and had been planned in the original stadium agreement.

Following the demolition and reconstruction of the 5,000 seat Varsity Stadium at the University of Toronto, the Argos returned to the stadium, hosting preseason games from 2013 to 2015. The team also acquired a much-needed training facility in July 2014 when it was announced that MLSE had partnered with the Argonauts
Argonauts
to expand KIA Training Ground , Toronto
Toronto
FC 's new state-of-the-art academy and training facility.

OWNERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT

OWNERSHIP HISTORY

OWNERSHIP OF THE TORONTO ARGONAUTS

OWNER TENURE

Argonaut Rowing Club October 4, 1873 – October 1, 1956

John Bassett , Charlie Burns , Eric Cradock October 1, 1956 – January 1, 1960

John Bassett, Charlie Burns, Len Lumbers January 1, 1960 – August 31, 1971

Baton Broadcasting (John Bassett) August 31, 1971 – February 27, 1974

William R. Hodgson February 27, 1974 – June 25, 1976

William R. Hodgson, Carling O\'Keefe June 25, 1976 – January 12, 1979

Carling O'Keefe January 12, 1979 – December 12, 1988

Harry Ornest , Carling O'Keefe December 12, 1988 – February 25, 1991

Bruce McNall , John Candy , Wayne Gretzky
Wayne Gretzky
February 25, 1991 – May 5, 1994

TSN Enterprises (Labatt) May 5, 1994 – July 26, 1995

Labatt Brewing Company ( Interbrew ) July 26, 1995 – December 20, 1999

Sherwood Schwarz December 20, 1999 – July 29, 2003

Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
July 29, 2003 – November 5, 2003

Howard Sokolowski and David Cynamon November 5, 2003 – February 9, 2010

David Braley February 9, 2010 – December 31, 2015

Kilmer Sports and Bell Canada
Bell Canada
December 31, 2015 – present

For more than eight decades, the Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
Football Club was the sole property of its namesake rowing club . By the 1950s, the team's complex management structure made the arrangement increasingly awkward. Facing overdraft and with wealthy suitors knocking, the Argonaut rowers finally sold the team to a consortium led by John Bassett , Eric Cradock , and Charlie Burns in 1957. Each held about 20% share in the company, with the balance made up by small investors who had some affinity with the club; the initial agreement called for a long-term debenture of $400,000 to be set up that would sustain the rowing club in the absence of its football income. Bassett was the operating head of the franchise and is often given sole credit for the initial purchase of the Argos, but Cradock was also instrumental in spearheading the drive. He would sell his share to Len Lumbers just two years into his tenure in part because of Bassett's controlling nature. Bassett arranged a complete buyout of the other shareholders for $2.31 million in 1971 through his holdings in Baton Broadcasting .

The Bassett years of the late-50s to early-70s were marked by mediocrity on the field but consistent success at the turnstiles. An issue that has become a perennial concern in the city also emerged at this time: the possibility of a National Football League
National Football League
team in Toronto
Toronto
. Various machinations were entertained by Bassett including moving the Argos to the NFL, bringing an American expansion team to the city (e.g. the Toronto
Toronto
Northmen of the WFL ), or expanding the CFL itself in the opposite direction . Other team owners steadfastly opposed Bassett's moves and almost rescinded his franchise in 1974; angered, he sold the team for $3.3 million to hotel magnate William R. Hodgson in the same year. Former owner of the Argos, David Braley

Hodgsen sold to Carling O\'Keefe in 1979, who had been minority owners since 1976. The brewing company's total investment in the team was $5.8 million. At the time it was rapidly ramping up its sports sponsorship (it also owned the Quebec Nordiques before they moved from the World Hockey Association
World Hockey Association
to the NHL) and would become a huge benefactor to the CFL itself, inking television rights deals that would reach $11 million annually by 1984. Reports at the time suggest the league became spoiled by the partnership and that when the money dried up in 1987, the transition was difficult. For the Argos, the Carling O'Keefe years were marked by their first modern-era Grey Cup in 1983.

The year's following the Carling O'Keefe era were marked by increasingly short ownership stints. Canadian businessman Harry Ornest bought the team off Carling O'Keefe for $5 million at the end of 1988 and then sold to the trio of McNall (60%), Candy (20%), and Gretzky (20%) for the same amount in 1991. Of the three, Candy is best remembered for his emotional investment in the team and a team player award continues in his honour. Given McNall's indictment and Candy's early death, the era was tumultuous and the last in which the club regularly made front page headlines. The now money-losing team was sold to the Labatt Brewing Company through its TSN unit in 1994 for $4.5 million. At the time, Labatt also owned the Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays . In 1995, Labatt was acquired by Interbrew ; The Interbrew years saw two championships but also the worst Argo
Argo
attendance of the modern era. Interbrew soon lost interest in sports ownership and the team was sold again at the end of 1999 to New York businessman Sherwood Schwarz .

After the debacles of the Schwarz era and brief control of the team by the CFL (see above ) the Argos were rescued by David Cynamon and Howard Sokolowski in 2004. There was optimism surrounding the duo's arrival and attendance figures improved in their six years heading the organization. It was also appreciated that the two were Torontonians after a quarter-century of foreign and/or corporate ownership. But by 2010 losses were great enough that the team was again put on the block and eventually sold to David Braley . There was some controversy surrounding Braley's takeover. He is simultaneously owner of the BC Lions, raising questions of competitive integrity. It was also revealed that Braley had bankrolled half of Cynamon and Sokolowski's initial $2 million buy-in of the Argos in 2004, and covered half their subsequent losses, in exchange for half of the 2007 Grey Cup
Grey Cup
profits.

By 2014 Maple Leaf Sports and Entertainment and its chairman and minority owner Larry Tanenbaum had emerged as serious suitors for the team. On May 20, 2015, it was announced that an agreement had been reached for Argonauts
Argonauts
to be sold to Tanenbaum's Kilmer Sports and Bell Canada , who both own a stake in MLSE with Rogers Communications
Rogers Communications
. Financial details were not disclosed. Despite its shared stake in MLSE, Rogers was not interested in having an ownership share in the Argonauts
Argonauts
because it does not have any media relationships with the CFL (unlike Bell, whose TSN division holds the broadcast rights to the league). Argonauts
Argonauts
Holdings Limited Partnership, a holding company which Bell and Kilmer each own 50% of, formally acquired the franchise on December 31, 2015.

SENIOR EXECUTIVES

TORONTO ARGONAUTS SENIOR EXECUTIVES

GENERAL MANAGER TENURE

PRESIDENT TENURE

Lew Hayman 1957–1970

Lew Hayman 1957–1981

John Barrow 1971–1975 Ralph Sazio 1982–1989

Dick Shatto 1976–1978 Mike McCarthy 1990–1993

Tommy Hudspeth 1979–1981 Ron Barbaro 1993

Jim Eddy 1982–1983 Paul Beeston 1994

Ralph Sazio 1984–1985 Bob Nicholson 1995–1999

Leo Cahill 1986–1988 Sherwood Schwarz 2000–2001

Ralph Sazio 1989 Pinball Clemons 2002

Mike McCarthy 1990–1993 Dan Ferrone 2003

Bob O\'Billovich 1994–1995 Keith Pelley 2004–2007

Don Matthews 1996 Pinball Clemons (CEO) Brad Watters (COO) 2008

Eric Tillman 1997 Bob Nicholson 2009–2011

Don Matthews 1998 Chris Rudge 2012–2015

Eric Tillman 1999 Michael Copeland 2016–present

J. I. Albrecht 2000

Paul Masotti 2001

Gary Etcheverry 2002

Pinball Clemons 2003

Adam Rita 2004–2010

Jim Barker 2011–2017

Jim Popp 2017–present

Below the ownership level, the two most senior positions within the Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
organization are its president and general manager. The GM role was titled as "managing director" from 1957 to 1971, while the president role is now included in the title of CEO. Adam Rita won two Grey Cups with the Argos, the 79th as head coach and 92nd as general manager

The longest serving executive in the organization is Lew Hayman , who had a five decade career beginning in the 1930s as coach and administrator. A Jewish-American, Hayman served with both the Argos and Montreal Alouettes and has been called "the architect of Canadian football." He was the team's first president and managing director at the insistence of Eric Cradock in 1957, and would continue in the former role until 1981. Ralph Sazio took over from Hayman and is another hall of fame builder.

After relative stability at the senior executive level for three decades, there has been significant turnover in the positions since the 1990s. The team had eight general managers in eight years, for example, between 1996 and 2003. The current GM is Jim Popp who was appointed at the end of 207 February 2017. Chris Rudge, former head of the Canadian Olympic Committee
Canadian Olympic Committee
, took over as president and CEO from the beginning of 2012 to the end of 2015, when Michael Copeland took over.

HEAD COACHES

Main article: List of Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
head coaches

55 men have served as Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
head coach. The current coach, Scott Milanovich , was appointed in 2011. He has succeeded in reviving a stalled offence and led the team to a Grey Cup
Grey Cup
victory in 2012.

The longest total tenure at head coach belongs to Bob O\'Billovich , who led the team for eleven years over three stints in the 1980s and early 90s. Other notable coaching careers include those of Joe Wright, Sr. at the end of the nineteenth century, Ted Morris and Frank Clair in the post-war years, Leo Cahill in the late 60s and early 70s, and Pinball Clemons after the turn of the millennium.

Since 1961, the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
has awarded the Annis Stukus Trophy annually to the league's outstanding coach. (Alongside his playing career, Stukus achieved fame as a coach, promoter, and newspaper columnist.) Argonauts
Argonauts
coaches have been honoured seven times: Cahill (1971), O'Billovich (1981 ">

CURRENT TEAM

ROSTER

All-Star quarterback for the Argos, Ricky Ray

During the season, active roster sizes in the CFL are 46 and game day rosters number 42, at least 20 of whom must be Canadian in accordance with the league's "national player" rule (formerly called the "non-import" rule prior to 2014). Training camp rosters are allowed to swell to 68.

The current team is led at quarterback by Ricky Ray , who had three statistically brilliant seasons between 2012 and 2014, earning eastern Most Outstanding Player nominations in the latter two years. Ray has battled injuries in each of his 5 seasons as an Argonaut, and has not played an entire 18 game season since his last season in Edmonton. Following the departure of Trevor Harris to the Ottawa
Ottawa
RedBlacks in early 2016 the backup QB situation was a bit of a revolving door; with Logan Kilgore, Dan LeFevour, Cody Fajardo and the recently acquired Drew Willy all taking snaps under center.

The receiving core remained largely unchanged from the previous season with Tori Gurley, Kevin Elliott and Vidal Hazelton (The Big Three) returning after posting productive seasons in 2015, also returning to the receiving core were Dionte Spencer, and Kenny Shaw.

On October 3, 2016 the team announced they had released WR Gurley, Elliott and Hazelton, along with Phil Bates. The move was considered a shock by most, but post-game comments by Coach Milanovic in Montreal on October 2, 2016 following a loss to the Als revealed the move which was about to take place was about more than just on-field issues. "We've got some good football players here that I'm not sure are real committed to what we need to have take place, and it's little things; being late, not showing up prepared, screwing around and that's where we're at right now, it's not going to stay that way."

Running Back Brandon Whitaker was leaned on heavily and was having a productive season. As of week 16 he was second in the league in rushing yards with 833, trailing league leader Jerome Messam by only 36 yards, and adding 434 yards on 61 receptions.

On the defensive side of the ball, following last season's departure of star defensive linemen Cleyon Laing and Tristan Okpalaugo to the NFL's Miami Dolphins and Arizona Cardinals respectively, the Argos were able to secure the services of Justin Hickman and Bryan Hall from the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, as well as trade OL Matt Sewell and QB Mitchell Gale to the Saskatchewan Roughriders for DE Shawn Lemon and a conditional 2018 draft pick.

Lemon seemed to fit into Defensive Coordinator Rich Stubler's system well, and as of week 16 currently leads the league in QB sacks with 12, just one shy of his career best 13 posted with the Stampeders in 2014.

TORONTO ARGONAUTS ROSTER

* view * talk * edit

QUARTERBACKS

* 17 Cody Fajardo QB * 7 Jeff Mathews QB * 2 Dakota Prukop QB * 15 Ricky Ray QB

RUNNING BACK

* 1 Anthony Coombs RB * 38 Declan Cross FB * 27 Cam McDaniel RB

* 3 Brandon Whitaker RB * 32 James Wilder, Jr. RB

RECEIVERS

* 8 Jeff Fuller WR * 19 S. J. Green SB * 16 Brian Jones WR * 84 Llevi Noel WR * 13 Khalil Paden WR * 88 Jimmy Ralph WR * 82 Malcolm Williams WR

OFFENSIVE LINEMEN

* 67 Jamal Campbell OL * 64 J\'Michael Deane OL * 57 Tyler Holmes OL * 61 Sean McEwen OL * 54 Chris Van Zeyl T * 59 Brandon Washington OL * 56 Corey Watman OL

DEFENSIVE LINEMEN

* 92 Troy Davis DL * 49 Jeffrey Finley DL * 40 Shawn Lemon DE * 24 Justin Tuggle DL * 75 Cameron Walker DL * 99 Daryl Waud DL * 98 Dylan Wynn DL

LINEBACKERS

* 6 Marcus Ball LB * 52 Justin Herdman LB * 20 Rico Murray LB * 41 Nakas Onyeka LB * 47 Terrance Plummer LB * 48 Bear Woods LB

DEFENSIVE BACKS

* 5 Jermaine Gabriel S * 4 Brandon Harris DB * 9 Akwasi Owusu-Ansah DB * 26 Cassius Vaughn DB * 25 Matt Webster DB * 23 Robert Woodson DB

SPECIAL TEAMS

* 70 Lirim Hajrullahu K * 58 Jake Reinhart LS

1-GAME INJURED LIST

* 69 William Campbell OL * 91 Alan-Michael Cash DT * 10 Armanti Edwards WR * 0 Johnny Sears, Jr. DB

6-GAME INJURED LIST

* 14 McLeod Bethel-Thompson
McLeod Bethel-Thompson
QB * 97 Ken Bishop DL * 94 Victor Butler DL/LB * 90 Cleyon Laing DL * 29 Joshua Mitchell DB * 00 Ronnie Pfeffer P/K * 85 DeVier Posey WR * 63 Mason Woods OL * 80 Chandler Worthy WR

PRACTICE SQUAD

* 33 Alden Darby DB * 43 Evan Foster DL * 18 Kyle Graves WR * 30 Martese Jackson RB * 81 Kendall Sanders WR * 68 Chris Kolankowski OL * 42 Winston Rose DB * 65 D. J. Sackey OL * 44 James Tuck FB

SUSPENDED

* 96 Matthew Carson DL * 46 Durell Eskridge LB * 93 Eric Martin DE

-------------------------

Italics indicate international player Roster updated 2017-08-03 Depth chart Transactions (argonauts.ca) Transactions (cfl.ca) 59 Active, 8 Injured, 6 six-game 9 Practice Roster, 2 Suspended

→ More rosters

FRONT OFFICE AND COACHING

Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
staff

* v * t * e

FRONT OFFICE AND SUPPORT STAFF

* Owner – Larry Tanenbaum / Bell Media * President and CEO – Michael Copeland * Special
Special
Advisor – Michael Clemons * General Manager – Jim Popp * Director of Football Operations – Ian Sanderson * Director of Player Personnel – Chris Rukavina * US Scouting Coordinator - Spencer Zimmerman * Director Canadian Scouting - Vince Magri * Consultant, Football Operations – Nick Volpe * Equipment Manager - Danny Webb * Assistant Equipment Manager - Tom Bryce * Head Athletic Therapist - Scott Shannon * Assistant Athletic Therapist - Josh Shewell

HEAD COACHES

* Head Coach – Marc Trestman * Assistant Head Coach – Corey Chamblin

OFFENSIVE COACHES

* Offensive Coordinator – Marcus Brady * Running backs – Josh Moore * Receivers – Tommy Condell * Offensive Line – Mitch Browning * Senior Assistant – Steve Walsh

DEFENSIVE COACHES

* Defensive Coordinator/Defensive Backs – Corey Chamblin * Defensive Line - Kerry Locklin * Linebackers – Mike Archer * Assistant Defensive Backs- Tyron Brackenridge * Defensive Quality Control- Gavin Lake

SPECIAL TEAMS COACHES

* Special
Special
Teams Coordinator – Kevin Eiben
Kevin Eiben
* Assistant Special
Special
Teams – Wendell Avery

→ Coaching Staff → More CFL staffs

BROADCASTS

Argonaut games are currently carried on TSN 's national and regional television channel as part of CFL on TSN broadcasts. Radio coverage is carried on TSN Radio 1050 or on CFRB 1010 when there is a scheduling conflict and another sport is being carried on TSN Radio.

RIVALRIES

An Argos game against the Ti-Cats at Ivor Wynne Stadium in 2010

With few teams, but a long history, it is inevitable that intense rivalries have developed in Canadian football. Far and away the greatest Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
rivalry has been with the Hamilton Tiger-Cats and its precursor teams. Fittingly, the Argonauts
Argonauts
first game was against a club from Hamilton, while the raucous Eastern Final of 2013—featuring a Tiger-Cat win over the Argos in front of 35,000 at the Rogers Centre—proved the rivalry is alive and well. The two teams meet in Hamilton every year in the Labour Day Classic , a league wide tradition since the late 1940s in which the game's greatest rivalries are showcased.

To the east, the Argonauts
Argonauts
have also faced off against teams from Montreal and Ottawa
Ottawa
since their earliest days. In recent years, the Montreal Alouettes have consistently fielded strong teams and often run up against the Argos in the playoffs; the teams have faced off eleven times in the Eastern Final, with Montreal taking six.

In 2014, The Argonauts
Argonauts
reignited their historic rivalry with an Ottawa
Ottawa
Football Team as the team came back as the Ottawa
Ottawa
REDBLACKS (Other rivalries with Ottawa
Ottawa
consisted of rivalries with the Ottawa Renegades and the Ottawa
Ottawa
Rough Riders ). In 5 games against the current Ottawa
Ottawa
franchise; the Argos maintain a winning record of 4-1-0. The Argonauts
Argonauts
won their last meeting with the Redblacks by a final score of 38-35 in front of a crowd of 15,001 people at TD Place in Ottawa
Ottawa
on October 6, 2015.

At the Grey Cup
Grey Cup
level, the Argonauts
Argonauts
have faced an assortment of teams in recent decades rather than any one team regularly. The Edmonton
Edmonton
Eskimos, for years a dominant team in the league, became a rival. The two teams' five Grey Cup
Grey Cup
match-ups include an epic 38–36 Toronto
Toronto
loss in 1987 and most recently, the Snow Bowl victory in 1996 led by the arm of Doug Flutie . In the pre-CFL days, the Argos had a Grey Cup
Grey Cup
rivalry with the Winnipeg Blue Bombers
Winnipeg Blue Bombers
and a cross-town rivalry with the University of Toronto
Toronto
in the first years of the Grey Cup championship, including the Argonauts' first win in 1914 .

NOTABLE PERSONNEL

TORONTO ARGONAUTS RETIRED NUMBERS

NO. PLAYER POSITION TENURE CHAMPIONSHIPS

22 Dick Shatto 1 RB 1954–1965 –

31 Michael "Pinball" Clemons 2 RB /SB /KR /PR 1989–2000 1991, 1996, 1997

55 Joe Krol QB /RB /P /K /DB 1945–1952, 1955 1945, 1946, 1947, 1950, 1952

60 Danny Nykoluk OT 1955, 1957–1971 –

1 Served as Argonauts
Argonauts
General Manager from 1976 to 1978. 2 Served as Argonauts
Argonauts
Head Coach from 2000 to 2007, President from 2001 to 2002, and continues to act as Vice-Chairman.

The highest distinction the Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
can accord a player is to retire their number; just four players have received the honour. Starting in 1996, the team began another category of distinction with its list of "All-Time Argos." Twenty-two players have been rewarded so far and a banner in their honour hangs at Rogers Centre.

Players and management personnel may be separately inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame . A total of 56 people who have been part of the team are in the Hall. The All-Time Argos list does not extend back to before the Second War era while the Hall of Fame does. Thus, for instance, Lionel Conacher
Lionel Conacher
is in the Hall but not listed as an All-Time Argo.

Finally, players may be honoured on an annual basis through the CFL awards. The most prestigious of these is the Most Outstanding Player Award , awarded since 1953. Six Argonauts
Argonauts
have been recipients: Chad Owens (2012), Damon Allen (2005), Doug Flutie (1996 ">

ALL-TIME AND HALL OF FAME

TORONTO ARGONAUTS HONOURED PERSONNEL

AFFILIATION IN HALL OF FAME BASED ON TEAM ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ALL TIME ARGOS

Les Ascott Michael "Pinball" Clemons Royal Copeland Jim Corrigall Ulysses "Crazy Legs" Curtis Dan Ferrone Terry Greer Rodney Harding Ed Harrington Condredge Holloway Joe Krol Marv Luster
Marv Luster
Dave Mann Paul Masotti Don Moen Teddy Morris Danny Nykoluk Jim Rountree Dick Shatto Jim Stillwagon Bill Symons William Zock

HALL OF FAME PLAYERS

Damon Allen John Barrow Danny Bass Harry Batstone Paul Bennett Ab Box Joe Breen Michael "Pinball" Clemons Tommy Joe Coffey Lionel Conacher
Lionel Conacher
Royal Copeland Jim Corrigall Wes Cutler Matt Dunigan Terry Evanshen Cap Fear Doug Flutie Bill Frank Condredge Holloway Russ Jackson Bobby Jurasin Ellison Kelly Joe Krol Smirle Lawson Marv Luster
Marv Luster
Joe Montford Frank Morris Teddy Morris Ray Nettles Jackie Parker
Jackie Parker
James Parker Willie Pless Dave Raimey Ted Reeve
Ted Reeve
Rocco Romano Dick Shatto Don Sutherin Bill Symons Dave Thelen Andy Tommy Pierre Vercheval Tom Wilkinson Ben Zambiasi Bill Zock

HALL OF FAME BUILDERS

David Braley Frank Clair
Frank Clair
Bernie Custis William C. Foulds Jake Gaudaur Lew Hayman Don Matthews Jack Newton Mike Rodden Ralph Sazio Annis Stukus Frank Tindall

MASCOT

Jason is the mascot for the Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts. In 2003 Jason replaced Scully as the team's mascot.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to TORONTO ARGONAUTS .

* Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
all-time records and statistics * Argonotes , the Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
Band

NOTES

FOOTNOTES

* ^ The team continues to refer to their colours as Oxford blue and Cambridge blue for historical reasons rather than strict colour accuracy. While they have retained the very dark blue associated with Oxford, the light blue of the modern uniforms is close to azure . Cambridge blue is technically a shade of spring green and appears somewhat grayish. * ^ Confusion remains over the first Argos match. The CFL continues to report that a game took place on October 11 against the University of Toronto. Citing the "definitive" research of Ian Speers, O'Leary and Parrish refute this and point to the 18th as the first date. The fact that the Hamilton game was played on the grounds of U of T may have led to a later journalistic error. * ^ The inaugural game at Exhibition Stadium
Exhibition Stadium
was an inter-league match against the NFL's Chicago Cardinals. The Argos would play two more exhibition games against NFL clubs in the next two years and were losers in all three. The games were part of a wider series of interleague match-ups between CFL and NFL teams held during this era. * ^ Details available from the team are contradictory: they suggest a 1916 move to Varsity in their Stadium History but 1911 in their Year-By-Year History. In his write-up on Varsity Stadium, Speers agrees with the 1911 date. There is no dispute that the stadium was completed in late 1911 and that the Argonauts
Argonauts
participated in the Grey Cup at the venue that year.

CITATIONS

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Argonauts. Retrieved December 31, 2013. * ^ A B C Speers, Ian (2000). "The First Game of the Toronto Argonauts: A Discussion" (PDF). Coffin Corner. Warminster, Pennsylvania: Pro Football Researchers. 22 (4). Retrieved January 15, 2013. * ^ Currie (1968). 100 Years. pp. 15–18. * ^ "History (1873)". Canadian Football League
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Winnipeg
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Argonauts
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Frank Clair
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announce 2014 schedule!". Toronto
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Argonauts. 2014-02-12. Retrieved 2014-05-04. * ^ "TORONTO ARGONAUTS ANNOUNCE 2015 GAME SCHEDULE". Toronto Argonauts. 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2015-02-13. * ^ "Argos partner with MLSE to build new practice facility". Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts. 2014-07-24. Retrieved 2014-07-24. * ^ A B C "All Time Executives List". Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts. Retrieved December 27, 2013. * ^ " Toronto
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Argonauts
Argonauts
Ownership History". Canadian Football Statistics Database. Retrieved January 4, 2014. * ^ "League assumes Argos\' helm". The London Free Press
The London Free Press
. July 30, 2003. Retrieved January 4, 2014. * ^ A B "Leading the way in communications" (PDF). BCE Inc. 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-30. * ^ Siggins (1979). Bassett. pp. 103–107 * ^ Siggins (1979). Bassett. pp. 108 * ^ Siggins (1979). Bassett. pp. 103 * ^ Beddoes, Dick (September 2, 1971). "Bassett sells Gardens stock, buys control of Argos". Globe and Mail
Globe and Mail
. * ^ Sokol, Al (February 28, 1974). " Argo
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franchise sold to hotel chain owner". Toronto
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Star. Torstar. * ^ Siggins (1979). Bassett. pp. 112–113, 231–232. * ^ Cosentino (1995). A Passing Game. pg. 142. * ^ Hickey, Pat (November 11, 1987). "CFL May Be Beyond Rescuing". Montreal Gazette. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 2, 2014. * ^ O'Leary & Parrish (2007). Double Blue. pg 119. * ^ Cosentino (1995). A Passing Game. pg. 269. * ^ Willes (2013). End Zones. pg 72. * ^ " John Candy Memorial Award Winners". Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts. Retrieved January 2, 2014. * ^ Willes (2013). End Zones. pp. 78–79. * ^ Bates, James; Dillman, Lisa (May 5, 1994). "McNall to Sell CFL\'s Argonauts". L.A. Times. Retrieved January 2, 2014. * ^ " Interbrew ponders strategy on remaining Labatt non-brewing assets". Strategy Online. August 7, 1995. Retrieved January 2, 2014. * ^ O'Leary replaces Cynamon and Sokolowski". The Canadian Press. Truro Daily News. February 10, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2014. * ^ Arthur, Bruce (June 16, 2009). "Lions owner helped rescue ailing Argos". National Post. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014. section= ignored (help ) * ^ Zicarelli, Frank (September 3, 2013). "MLSE interested in Argos with eye on NFL in Toronto". Toronto
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Sun. Sun Media. Retrieved January 2, 2014. section= ignored (help ) * ^ " Argonauts
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Sun . Retrieved March 16, 2014. * ^ " Argonauts
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announce sale, move to BMO Field". CBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2015. * ^ "Bell, Larry Tanenbaum to purchase Argonauts". Toronto
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Star. May 19, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2015. * ^ "Lew Hayman". International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved January 4, 2014. * ^ Siggins (1979). Bassett. pg. 106. * ^ "Argos\' Mourn Loss of Ralph Sazio". Toronto
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Star. Torstar. Retrieved January 4, 2014. * ^ Argos new ownershop groups appoints Michael Copeland as president and CEO from Argonauts.ca, 13 July 2015, retrieved 17 March 2016 * ^ "Report: Scott Milanovich to be named Argos\' new head coach Thursday". The Globe and Mail. November 30, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2014. * ^ "Honoured Member: Annis Stukus". Canada's Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved March 28, 2014. * ^ " Canadian Football League
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REFERENCES

IN ARTICLE

* 2009 Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
Facts, Figures & Records. Toronto, Ontario: Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
Properties/Publications. 2009. ISBN 978-0-9739425-4-5 . * Cosentino, Frank (1995). A passing game: A history of the CFL. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Bain & Cox. ISBN 0-921368-54-2 . * Currie, Gordon (1968). 100 Years of Canadian Football. Toronto: Pagurian Press Limited. * O'Leary, Jim; Parrish, Wayne, eds. (2007). Double Blue: An Illustrated History of the Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts. Toronto, Ontario: Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
Football Club and ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-779-3 . * Siggins, Maggie (1979). For love, money, and future considerations. Toronto, Ontario: James Lorimer & Company. ISBN 0-88862-284-8 . * Teitel, Jay (1983). The Argo
Argo
Bounce. Toronto, Ontario: Lester and Orpen Dennys Publishers. ISBN 0-88619-033-9 . * Willes, Ed (2013). End Zones and Border Wars: The Era of American Expansion in the CFL. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing Co. ISBN 1-55017-614-5 .

FURTHER READING

* Cahill, Leo ; Young, Scott (1973). Goodbye Argos. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland and Stewart. ISBN 0771090625 . * Boyd, Denny (1997). Legends of autumn: The glory years of Canadian football. Vancouver, British Columbia: Douglas & McIntyre / Greystone Books. ISBN 1550545817 . * O'Brien, Steve (2011). The Canadian Football League: The Phoenix of Professional Sports Leagues. Raleigh, North Carolina: lulu.com. ISBN 9781411658608 . * Profit, Mel (1972). For Love, Money, and Future Considerations. Toronto, Ontario: D.C. Heath Canada. ISBN 0669805726 . * Wallace, Craig (2005). A Slip in the Rain, the True Story of the 1967–72 Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts
and the Fumble That Killed Canada\'s Team. Raleigh, North Carolina: lulu.com. ISBN 1411613929 . * Woods, Paul (2013). Bouncing Back: From National Joke to Grey Cup Champs. Raleigh, North Carolina: lulu.com. ISBN 1-304-10638-1 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Official website

* v * t * e

Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts
Argonauts

* Founded in 1873 * Based in TORONTO , ONTARIO

FRANCHISE

* Franchise * Records * Players * Seasons * Head coaches * First-round draft picks

STADIUMS

* BMO Field
BMO Field
* Rogers Centre
Rogers Centre
* Exhibition Stadium
Exhibition Stadium
* Varsity

.