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Yūki Hideyasu Toku-hime Tokugawa Hidetada Matsudaira Tadayoshi Takeda Nobuyoshi Matsudaira Tadateru Matsudaira Matsuchiyo Matsudaira Senchiyo Tokugawa Yoshinao Tokugawa Yorinobu Tokugawa Yorifusa Furihime Matsuhime Ichihime

Among others...

Parents

Matsudaira Hirotada Odai-no-kata

The Tokugawa clan
Tokugawa clan
crest

Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(徳川 家康, January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan
Japan
from the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, and abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. His given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu,[1][2] according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū
Nikkō Tōshō-gū
with the name Tōshō Daigongen (東照大権現). He was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga
Nobunaga
and Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Contents

1 Background 2 Early life (1543–1556) 3 Rise to power (1556–1584)

3.1 Alliance with Oda 3.2 Growing Political Influence 3.3 Conflict with Takeda 3.4 Death of Nobunaga

4 Ieyasu and Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
(1584–1598) 5 The Sekigahara Campaign (1598–1603) 6 Shōgun
Shōgun
(1603–1605) 7 Ōgosho (1605–1616)

7.1 Relations with foreign powers 7.2 Siege of Osaka

8 Death 9 Era of Ieyasu's rule 10 Ieyasu's character 11 Honours 12 Family

12.1 Parents 12.2 Siblings

12.2.1 Father Side 12.2.2 Mother Side

12.3 Wives and Concubines 12.4 Children 12.5 Adopted children

13 Ancestry 14 Ieyasu in popular culture

14.1 Honnōji theory 14.2 Impostor theory

15 Notable Descendants 16 See also 17 Notes 18 Bibliography 19 Further reading 20 External links

Background[edit] During the Muromachi period, the Matsudaira clan
Matsudaira clan
controlled a portion of Mikawa Province
Mikawa Province
(the eastern half of modern Aichi Prefecture) Ieyasu's father, Matsudaira Hirotada, was a minor local warlord based at Okazaki Castle
Okazaki Castle
who controlled a portion of the Tōkaidō highway linking Kyoto
Kyoto
with the eastern provinces. His territory was sandwiched between stronger and predatory neighbors, including the Imagawa clan based in Suruga Province
Suruga Province
to the east and the Oda clan
Oda clan
to the west. Hirotada's main enemy was Oda Nobuhide, the father of Oda Nobunaga.[3] Early life (1543–1556)[edit]

Denzu-in (Odai no Kata), Ieyasu's mother

Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
was born in Okazaki Castle
Okazaki Castle
on the 26th day of the twelfth month of the eleventh year of Tenbun, according to the Japanese calendar. Originally named Matsudaira Takechiyo (松平 竹千代), he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada
Matsudaira Hirotada
(松平 広忠), the daimyō of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, and Odai-no-kata (於大の方, Lady Odai), the daughter of a neighbouring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa (水野 忠政). His mother and father were step-siblings. They were just 17 and 15 years old, respectively, when Ieyasu was born. In the year of Ieyasu's birth, the Matsudaira clan
Matsudaira clan
was split. In 1543, Hirotada's uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka defected to the Oda clan. This gave Oda Nobuhide the confidence to attack Okazaki. Soon afterwards, Hirotada's father-in-law died, and his son Mizuno Nobumoto revived the clan's traditional enmity against the Matsudaira and declared for Oda Nobuhide as well. As a result, Hirotada divorced Odai-no-kata and sent her back to her family.[3] As both husband and wife remarried and both went on to have further children, Ieyasu eventually had 11 half-brothers and sisters. As Oda Nobuhide continued to attack Okazaki, in 1548 Hirotada turned to his powerful eastern neighbor, Imagawa Yoshimoto
Imagawa Yoshimoto
for assistance. Yoshimoto agreed to an alliance under the condition that Hirotada send his young heir to Sunpu Domain
Sunpu Domain
as a hostage.[3] Oda Nobuhide, learned of this arrangement and had Ieyasu abducted from his entourage en route to Sunpu.[4] Ieyasu was just five years old at the time.[5] Nobuhide threatened to execute Ieyasu unless his father severed all ties with the Imagawa clan; however, Hirotada refused, stating that sacrificing his own son would show his seriousness in his pact with the Imagawa. Despite this refusal, Nobuhide chose not to kill Ieyasu, but instead held him as a hostage for the next three years at the Mansho-ji Temple in Nagoya. In 1549, when Ieyasu was 6,[5] his father Hirotada was murdered by his own vassals, who had been bribed by the Oda clan. At about the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. Nobuhide's death dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan. An army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's eldest son and the new head of the Oda, was living. With the castle about to fall, Sessai offered a deal to Oda Nobunaga, Nobuhide's second son. Sessai offered to give up the siege if Ieyasu was handed over to the Imagawa. Nobunaga
Nobunaga
agreed, and so Ieyasu (now nine) was taken as a hostage to Sunpu. At Sunpu, he remained a hostage, but was treated fairly well as a potentially useful future ally of the Imagawa clan until 1556 when he was age 13 years old.[5] Rise to power (1556–1584)[edit] In 1556 Ieyasu officially came of age, with Imagawa Yoshimoto presiding over his genpuku ceremony. Following tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu (松平 次郎三郎 元信). He was also briefly allowed to visit Okazaki to pay his respects to the tomb of his father, and receive the homage of his nominal retainers, led by the karō Torii Tadayoshi.[3] One year later, at the age of 13 (according to East Asian age reckoning), he married his first wife, Lady Tsukiyama, a relative of Imagawa Yoshitmoto, and changed his name again to Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu (松平 蔵人佐 元康). Allowed to return to his native Mikawa, the Imagawa then ordered him to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles. Motoyasu fought his first battle in 1558 at the Siege of Terabe. The castellan of Terabe in western Mikawa, Suzuki Shigeteru, betrayed the Imagawa by defecting to Oda Nobunaga. This was nominally within Matsudaira territory, so Imagawa Yoshimoto
Imagawa Yoshimoto
entrusted the campaign to Ieyasu and his retainers from Okazaki. Ieyasu led the attack in person, but after taking the outer defences, grew fearful of a counterattack to the rear, so he burned the main castle and withdrew. As anticipated, the Oda forces attacked his rear lines, but Motoyasu was prepared and drove off the Oda army.[6] He then succeeded in delivering supplies in the 1559 Siege of Odaka. Odaka was the only one of five disputed frontier forts under attack by the Oda which remained in Imagawa hands. Motoyasu launched diversionary attacks against the two neighboring forts, and when the garrisons of the other forts went to their assistance, Ieyasu’s supply column was able to reach Odaka.[7] By 1560 the leadership of the Oda clan
Oda clan
had passed to the brilliant leader Oda Nobunaga. Imagawa Yoshimoto, leading a large army (perhaps 25,000 strong) invaded Oda clan
Oda clan
territory. Motoyasu was assigned a separate mission to capture the stronghold of Marune. As a result, he and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama
Battle of Okehazama
where Yoshimoto was killed in Nobunaga's surprise assault.[4]:37 Alliance with Oda[edit] With Yoshimoto dead, and the Imagawa clan
Imagawa clan
in a state of confusion, Motoyasu used the opportunity to assert his independence and marched his men back into the abandoned Okazaki Castle
Okazaki Castle
and reclaimed his ancestral seat.[6] Motoyasu then decided to ally with the Oda clan.[8] A secret deal was needed because Motoyasu's wife, Lady Tsukiyama, and infant son, Nobuyasu, were held hostage in Sunpu by Imagawa Ujizane, Yoshimoto’s heir. In 1561, Motoyasu openly broke with the Imagawa and captured the fortress of Kaminogō. Kaminogō was held by Udono Nagamochi. Resorting to stealth, Motoyasu attacked under cover of darkness, setting fire to the castle, and capturing two of Udono’s sons, whom he used as hostages to exchange for his wife and son.[7]:216 In 1563 Nobuyasu was married to Nobunaga's daughter Tokuhime. For the next few years Motoyasu was occupied with reforming the Matsudaira clan
Matsudaira clan
and pacifying Mikawa. He also strengthened his key vassals by awarding them land and castles. These vassals included: Honda Tadakatsu, Ishikawa Kazumasa, Kōriki Kiyonaga, Hattori Hanzō, Sakai Tadatsugu, and Sakakibara Yasumasa.

An ukiyo-e print depicting the Battle of Azukizaka. In his early days as daimyō of Mikawa Ieyasu had difficult relations with the Jōdō temples which escalated in 1563–64.

During this period, the Matsudaira clan
Matsudaira clan
also faced a threat from a different source. Mikawa was a major center for the Ikkō-ikki movement, where peasants banded together with militant monks under the Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
sect, and rejected the traditional feudal social order. Motoyasu undertook several battles to suppress this movement in his territories, including the Battle of Azukizaka.[7]:216 Ts. In one engagement, he was nearly killed when struck by two bullets which did not penetrate his armour. Both sides were using the new gunpowder weapons which the Portuguese had introduced to Japan
Japan
just 20 years earlier. Growing Political Influence[edit] In 1567, he changed his name yet again, this time to Tokugawa Ieyasu. By so doing, he claimed descent from the Minamoto clan. No proof has actually been found for this alleged descent from Emperor Seiwa.[9] Yet, his family name was changed with the permission of the Imperial Court, after writing a petition, and he was bestowed the courtesy title Mikawa-no-kami and the court rank of Junior 5th Rank, Lower Grade (従五位下). Ieyasu remained an ally of Nobunaga
Nobunaga
and his Mikawa soldiers were part of Nobunaga's army which captured Kyoto
Kyoto
in 1568. At the same time Ieyasu was expanding his own territory. Ieyasu and Takeda Shingen, the head of the Takeda clan
Takeda clan
in Kai Province
Kai Province
made an alliance for the purpose of conquering all the Imagawa territory.[10]:279 In 1570, Ieyasu's troops captured Yoshida Castle (modern Toyohashi), which made him master of all of Mikawa Province, and he penetrated into Tōtōmi Province. Meanwhile, Shingen's troops captured Suruga Province
Suruga Province
(including the Imagawa capital of Sunpu). Imagawa Ujizane
Imagawa Ujizane
fled to Kakegawa Castle, which Ieyasu placed under siege. Ieyasu then negotiated with Ujizane, promising that if he should surrender himself and the remainder of Tōtōmi, he would assist Ujizane in regaining Suruga. Ujizane had nothing left to lose, and Ieyasu immediately ended his alliance with Takeda, instead making a new alliance with Takeda’s enemy to the north, Uesugi Kenshin
Uesugi Kenshin
of the Uesugi clan. Through these political manipulations, Ieyasu gained the support of the samurai of Tōtōmi Province.[6] In 1570, Ieyasu established Hamamatsu
Hamamatsu
as the capital of his territory, placing his son Nobuyasu in charge of Okazaki.[11] The same year, he led 5,000 of his men to support Nobunaga
Nobunaga
at the Battle of Anegawa
Battle of Anegawa
against the Azai and Asakura clans.[4]:62 Conflict with Takeda[edit] In October 1571, Takeda Shingen, now allied with the Odawara Hōjō clan, attacked the Tokugawa lands in Tōtōmi. Ieyasu asked for help from Nobunaga, who sent him some 3,000 troops. Early in 1572 the two armies met at the Battle of Mikatagahara. The considerably larger Takeda army, under the expert direction of Shingen, overwhelmed Ieyasu's troops and caused heavy casualties. Despite his initial reticence, Ieyasu was convinced by one of his generals to retreat.[12][11] The battle was a major defeat, but in the interests of maintaining the appearance of dignified withdrawal, Ieyasu brazenly ordered the men at his castle to light torches, sound drums, and leave the gates open, to properly receive the returning warriors. To the surprise and relief of the Tokugawa army, this spectacle made the Takeda generals suspicious of being led into a trap, so they did not besiege the castle and instead made camp for the night.[12] This error would allow a band of Tokugawa ninja to raid the camp in the ensuing hours, further upsetting the already disoriented Takeda army, and ultimately resulting in Shingen's decision to call off the offensive altogether. Incidentally, Takeda Shingen
Takeda Shingen
would not get another chance to advance on Hamamatsu, much less Kyoto, since he would perish shortly after the Siege of Noda Castle a year later in 1573.[8]:153–156 Shingen was succeeded by his less capable son Takeda Katsuyori. In 1575, the Takeda attacked Nagashino Castle in Mikawa Province. Ieyasu appealed to Nobunaga
Nobunaga
for help and the result was that Nobunaga personally came at the head of a very large army (about 30,000 strong). The Oda-Tokugawa force of 38,000 won a great victory on June 28, 1575, at the Battle of Nagashino, though Takeda Katsuyori
Takeda Katsuyori
survived the battle and retreated back to Kai Province. For the next seven years, Ieyasu and Katsuyori fought a series of small battles, as the result of which Ieyasu's troops managed to wrest control of Suruga Province
Suruga Province
away from the Takeda clan. In 1579, Ieyasu's wife, and his heir Nobuyasu, were accused by Nobunaga
Nobunaga
of conspiring with Takeda Katsuyori
Takeda Katsuyori
to assassinate Nobunaga, whose daughter Tokuhime (1559–1636) was married to Nobuyasu. For this Ieyasu ordered his wife to be executed and forced his oldest son by her, Nobuyasu, to commit seppuku. Ieyasu then named his third son, Tokugawa Hidetada, as heir, since his second son was adopted by another rising power: the trusted Oda clan
Oda clan
general Toyotomi Hideyoshi, soon to be the most powerful daimyō in Japan. The end of the war with Takeda came in 1582 when a combined Oda-Tokugawa force attacked and conquered Kai Province. Takeda Katsuyori was defeated at the Battle of Tenmokuzan
Battle of Tenmokuzan
and then committed seppuku.[7]:231 Death of Nobunaga[edit] In late June 1582, Ieyasu was near Osaka
Osaka
and far from his own territory when he learned that Nobunaga
Nobunaga
had been assassinated by Akechi Mitsuhide. Ieyasu managed the dangerous journey back to Mikawa, avoiding Mitsuhide's troops along the way, as they were trying to find and kill him. One week after he arrived in Mikawa, Ieyasu's army marched out to take revenge on Mitsuhide. But they were too late, as Hideyoshi—on his own—defeated Akechi Mitsuhide
Akechi Mitsuhide
at the Battle of Yamazaki; the latter died few days afterwards. The death of Nobunaga
Nobunaga
meant that some provinces, ruled by Nobunaga's vassals, were ripe for conquest. The leader of Kai province made the mistake of killing one of Ieyasu's aides. Ieyasu promptly invaded Kai and took control. Hōjō Ujimasa, leader of the Hōjō clan responded by sending his much larger army into Shinano and then into Kai Province. No battles were fought between Ieyasu's forces and the large Hōjō army and, after some negotiation, Ieyasu and the Hōjō agreed to a settlement which left Ieyasu in control of both Kai and Shinano Provinces, while the Hōjō took control of Kazusa Province (as well as bits of both Kai and Shinano Provinces). At the same time (1583) a war for rule over Japan
Japan
was fought between Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
and Shibata Katsuie. Ieyasu did not take a side in this conflict, building on his reputation for both caution and wisdom. Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
defeated Katsuie at Battle of Shizugatake. With this victory, Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
became the single most powerful daimyō in Japan. Ieyasu and Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
(1584–1598)[edit] Main article: Battle of Komaki and Nagakute

Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
and Ieyasu played Go on this board.

In 1584, Ieyasu decided to support Oda Nobukatsu, the eldest surviving son and heir of Oda Nobunaga, against Hideyoshi. This was a dangerous act and could have resulted in the annihilation of the Tokugawa. Tokugawa troops took the traditional Oda stronghold of Owari; Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
responded by sending an army into Owari. The Komaki Campaign was the only time any of the great unifiers of Japan
Japan
fought each other. The campaign proved indecisive and after months of fruitless marches and feints, Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
settled the war through negotiation. First he made peace with Oda Nobukatsu, and then he offered a truce to Ieyasu. The deal was made at the end of the year; as part of the terms Ieyasu's second son, Ogimaru (also known as Yuki Hideyasu) became an adopted son of Hideyoshi. Ieyasu's aide, Ishikawa Kazumasa, chose to join the pre-eminent daimyō and so he moved to Osaka
Osaka
to be with Hideyoshi. However, few other Tokugawa retainers followed this example. Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
was understandably distrustful of Ieyasu, and five years passed before they fought as allies. The Tokugawa did not participate in Hideyoshi's successful invasions of Shikoku
Shikoku
and Kyūshū. In 1590, Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
attacked the last independent daimyō in Japan, Hōjō Ujimasa. The Hōjō clan ruled the eight provinces of the Kantō region
Kantō region
in eastern Japan. Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
ordered them to submit to his authority and they refused. Ieyasu, though a friend and occasional ally of Ujimasa, joined his large force of 30,000 samurai with Hideyoshi's enormous army of some 160,000. Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
attacked several castles on the borders of the Hōjō clan with most of his army laying siege to the castle at Odawara. Hideyoshi's army captured Odawara after six months (oddly for the time period, deaths on both sides were few). During this siege, Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
offered Ieyasu a radical deal. He offered Ieyasu the eight Kantō provinces which they were about to take from the Hōjō in return for the five provinces that Ieyasu currently controlled (including Ieyasu's home province of Mikawa). Ieyasu accepted this proposal. Bowing to the overwhelming power of the Toyotomi army, the Hōjō accepted defeat, the top Hōjō leaders killed themselves and Ieyasu marched in and took control of their provinces, so ending the clan's reign of over 100 years. Ieyasu now gave up control of his five provinces (Mikawa, Tōtōmi, Suruga, Shinano, and Kai) and moved all his soldiers and vassals to the Kantō region. He himself occupied the castle town of Edo
Edo
in Kantō. This was possibly the riskiest move Ieyasu ever made—to leave his home province and rely on the uncertain loyalty of the formerly Hōjō samurai in Kantō. In the end, it worked out brilliantly for Ieyasu. He reformed the Kantō provinces, controlled and pacified the Hōjō samurai and improved the underlying economic infrastructure of the lands. Also, because Kantō was somewhat isolated from the rest of Japan, Ieyasu was able to maintain a unique level of autonomy from Hideyoshi's rule. Within a few years, Ieyasu had become the second most powerful daimyō in Japan. There is a Japanese proverb which likely refers to this event: "Ieyasu won the Empire by retreating."[13] In 1592, Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
invaded Korea
Korea
as a prelude to his plan to attack China
China
(see Japanese invasions of Korea
Korea
(1592–98) for more information about this campaign). The Tokugawa samurai never actually took part in this campaign, though in early 1593, Ieyasu himself was summoned to Hideyoshi's court in Nagoya
Nagoya
(in Kyūshū, different from the similarly spelled city in Owari Province) as a military advisor and given command of a body of troops meant as reserves for the Korean campaign. He stayed in Nagoya
Nagoya
off and on for the next five years.[10] Despite his frequent absences, Ieyasu's sons, loyal retainers and vassals were able to control and improve Edo
Edo
and the other new Tokugawa lands. In 1593, Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
fathered a son and heir, Toyotomi Hideyori. In 1598, with his health clearly failing, Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi
called a meeting that would determine the Council of Five Elders, who would be responsible for ruling on behalf of his son after his death. The five that were chosen as regents (tairō) for Hideyori were Maeda Toshiie, Mōri Terumoto, Ukita Hideie, Uesugi Kagekatsu, and Ieyasu himself, who was the most powerful of the five. This change in the pre-Sekigahara power structure became pivotal as Ieyasu turned his attention towards Kansai; and at the same time, other ambitious (albeit ultimately unrealized) plans, such as the Tokugawa initiative establishing official relations with Mexico (New Spain
Spain
at the time), continued to unfold and advance.[14][15] The Sekigahara Campaign (1598–1603)[edit] Main article: Battle of Sekigahara

The kabuto (helmet) of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Hideyoshi, after three more months of increasing sickness, died on September 18, 1598. He was nominally succeeded by his young son Hideyori but as he was just five years old, real power was in the hands of the regents. Over the next two years Ieyasu made alliances with various daimyōs, especially those who had no love for Hideyoshi. Happily for Ieyasu, the oldest and most respected of the regents, Toshiie Maeda, died after just one year. With the death of Toshiie in 1599, Ieyasu led an army to Fushimi and took over Osaka
Osaka
Castle, the residence of Hideyori. This angered the three remaining regents and plans were made on all sides for war. It was also the last battle of one of the most loyal and powerful retainers of Ieyasu, Honda Tadakatsu. Opposition to Ieyasu centered around Ishida Mitsunari, a powerful daimyō who was not one of the regents. Mitsunari plotted Ieyasu's death and news of this plot reached some of Ieyasu's generals. They attempted to kill Mitsunari but he fled and gained protection from none other than Ieyasu himself. It is not clear why Ieyasu protected a powerful enemy from his own men but Ieyasu was a master strategist and he may have concluded that he would be better off with Mitsunari leading the enemy army rather than one of the regents, who would have more legitimacy.[16] Nearly all of Japan's daimyōs and samurai now split into two factions—The Western Army (Mitsunari's group) and The Eastern Army (anti-Mitsunari Group). Ieyasu supported the anti-Mitsunari Group, and formed them as his potential allies. Ieyasu's allies were the Date clan, the Mogami clan, the Satake clan
Satake clan
and the Maeda clan. Mitsunari allied himself with the three other regents: Ukita Hideie, Mōri Terumoto, and Uesugi Kagekatsu
Uesugi Kagekatsu
as well as many daimyō from the eastern end of Honshū. In June 1600, Ieyasu and his allies moved their armies to defeat the Uesugi clan, which was accused of planning to revolt against Toyotomi administration. Before arriving at Uesugi's territory, Ieyasu received information that Mitsunari and his allies had moved their army against Ieyasu. Ieyasu held a meeting with the daimyōs, and they agreed to follow Ieyasu. He then led the majority of his army west towards Kyoto. In late summer, Ishida's forces captured Fushimi. Ieyasu and his allies marched along the Tōkaidō, while his son Hidetada went along the Nakasendō
Nakasendō
with 38,000 soldiers. A battle against Sanada Masayuki in Shinano Province
Shinano Province
delayed Hidetada's forces, and they did not arrive in time for the main battle. This battle, fought near Sekigahara, was the biggest and one of the most important battles in Japanese feudal history. It began on October 21, 1600, with a total of 160,000 men facing each other. The Battle of Sekigahara ended with a complete Tokugawa victory.[17] The Western bloc was crushed and over the next few days Ishida Mitsunari
Ishida Mitsunari
and many other western nobles were captured and killed. Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
was now the de facto ruler of Japan. Immediately after the victory at Sekigahara, Ieyasu redistributed land to the vassals who had served him. Ieyasu left some western daimyōs unharmed, such as the Shimazu clan, but others were completely destroyed. Toyotomi Hideyori
Toyotomi Hideyori
(the son of Hideyoshi) lost most of his territory which were under management of western daimyōs, and he was degraded to an ordinary daimyō, not a ruler of Japan. In later years the vassals who had pledged allegiance to Ieyasu before Sekigahara became known as the fudai daimyō, while those who pledged allegiance to him after the battle (in other words, after his power was unquestioned) were known as tozama daimyō. Tozama daimyō were considered inferior to fudai daimyōs. Shōgun
Shōgun
(1603–1605)[edit] Main article: Tokugawa shogunate

Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
as shōgun

Edo
Edo
Castle from a 17th-century painting

On March 24, 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
received the title of shōgun from Emperor Go-Yōzei.[18] Ieyasu was 60 years old. He had outlasted all the other great men of his times: Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, Shingen, Kenshin. As shōgun, he used his remaining years to create and solidify the Tokugawa shogunate, which ushered in the Edo
Edo
period, and was the third shogunal government (after the Kamakura
Kamakura
(Minamoto) and the Ashikaga). To consolidate his rule, Ieyasu gathered his men for one last battle to eliminate the remnants of the Toyotomi clan in Osaka
Osaka
Castle. He succeeded at the Siege of Osaka
Osaka
and removed all of the possible threats to his power. He claimed descent from the Minamoto clan, by way of the Nitta clan. His descendants would marry into the Taira clan
Taira clan
and the Fujiwara clan. The Tokugawa shogunate would rule Japan
Japan
for the next 250 years. Following a well established Japanese pattern, Ieyasu abdicated his official position as shōgun in 1605. His successor was his son and heir, Tokugawa Hidetada. There may have been several factors that contributed to his decision, including his desire to avoid being tied up in ceremonial duties, to make it harder for his enemies to attack the real power center, and to secure a smoother succession of his son.[19] The abdication of Ieyasu had no effect on the practical extent of his powers or his rule; but Hidetada nevertheless assumed a role as formal head of the shogunal bureaucracy. Ōgosho (1605–1616)[edit] Ieyasu, acting as the retired shōgun (大御所, ōgosho), remained the effective ruler of Japan
Japan
until his death. Ieyasu retired to Sunpu Castle in Sunpu, but he also supervised the building of Edo
Edo
Castle, a massive construction project which lasted for the rest of Ieyasu's life. The result was the largest castle in all of Japan, the costs for building the castle being borne by all the other daimyōs, while Ieyasu reaped all the benefits. The central donjon, or tenshu, burned in the 1657 Meireki
Meireki
fire. Today, the Imperial Palace stands on the site of the castle. In 1611, Ieyasu, at the head of 50,000 men, visited Kyoto
Kyoto
to witness the enthronement of Emperor Go-Mizunoo. In Kyoto, Ieyasu ordered the remodeling of the imperial court and buildings, and forced the remaining western daimyōs to sign an oath of fealty to him.

Letter from King James VI and I
James VI and I
of England
England
to Ogosho Ieyasu in 1613

In 1613, he composed the Kuge Shohatto (ja:公家諸法度), a document which put the court daimyōs under strict supervision, leaving them as mere ceremonial figureheads. In 1615, Ieyasu prepared the Buke shohatto (武家諸法度), a document setting out the future of the Tokugawa regime. Relations with foreign powers[edit] As Ōgosho, Ieyasu also supervised diplomatic affairs with the Netherlands, Spain
Spain
and England. Ieyasu chose to distance Japan
Japan
from European influence starting in 1609, although the shogunate did still grant preferential trading rights to the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
and permitted them to maintain a "factory" for trading purposes. From 1605 until his death, Ieyasu consulted frequently with English shipwright and pilot, William Adams,[20] Adams, fluent in Japanese, assisted the shogunate in negotiating trading relations, but was cited by members of the competing Jesuit
Jesuit
and Spanish-sponsored mendicant orders as an obstacle to improved relations between Ieyasu and the Roman Catholic Church.[21][22][23] Main article: History of Roman Catholicism in Japan Significant attempts to curtail the influence of Christian missionaries in Japan
Japan
date to 1587 during the shogunate of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. However, in 1614, Ieyasu was sufficiently concerned about Spanish territorial ambitions that he signed a Christian Expulsion Edict. The edict banned the practice of Christianity and led to the expulsion of all foreign missionaries. Although some smaller Dutch trading operations remained in Nagasaki, this edict dramatically curtailed foreign trade and marked the end of open Christian witness in Japan
Japan
until the 1870s.[24] The immediate cause of the prohibition was the Okamoto Daihachi incident, a case of fraud involving Ieyasu's Catholic vavasor, but the shogunate was also concerned about a possible invasion by the Iberian colonial powers, which had previously occurred in the New World and the Philippines. Siege of Osaka[edit] Main article: Siege of Osaka

Grave of Ieyasu in Nikkō Tōshō-gū

The last remaining threat to Ieyasu's rule was Toyotomi Hideyori, the son and rightful heir to Hideyoshi. He was now a young daimyō living in Osaka
Osaka
Castle. Many samurais who opposed Ieyasu rallied around Hideyori, claiming that he was the rightful ruler of Japan. Ieyasu found fault with the opening ceremony of a temple built by Hideyori; it was as if he prayed for Ieyasu's death and the ruin of the Tokugawa clan.[citation needed] Ieyasu ordered Toyotomi to leave Osaka
Osaka
Castle, but those in the castle refused and summoned samurai to gather within the castle. Then the Tokugawa, with a huge army led by Ieyasu and shōgun Hidetada, laid siege to Osaka
Osaka
castle in what is now known as "the Winter Siege of Osaka". Eventually, Tokugawa was able to precipitate negotiations and an armistice after directed cannon fire threatened Hideyori's mother, Yodo-dono. However, once the treaty was agreed, Tokugawa filled the castle's outer moats with sand so his troops could walk across. Through this ploy, Tokugawa gained a huge tract of land through negotiation and deception that he could not through siege and combat. Ieyasu returned to Sunpu Castle
Sunpu Castle
once, but after Toyotomi refused another order to leave Osaka, he and his allied army of 155,000 soldiers attacked Osaka
Osaka
Castle again in "the Summer Siege of Osaka". Finally, in late 1615, Osaka
Osaka
Castle fell and nearly all the defenders were killed including Hideyori, his mother (Hideyoshi's widow, Yodo-dono), and his infant son. His wife, Senhime
Senhime
(a granddaughter of Ieyasu), pleaded to save Hideyori and Yodo-dono's lives. Ieyasu refused and either required them to commit ritual suicide, or killed both of them. Eventually, Senhime
Senhime
was sent back to Tokugawa alive. After killing two people at Kamakura, who have escaped from Osaka Castle. With the Toyotomi line finally extinguished, no threats remained to the Tokugawa clan's domination of Japan. Death[edit]

The tomb of Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
in Nikkō Tōshō-gū

In 1616, Ieyasu died at age 73.[5] The cause of death is thought to have been cancer or syphilis. The first Tokugawa shōgun was posthumously deified with the name Tōshō Daigongen (東照大権現), the "Great Gongen, Light of the East". (A Gongen
Gongen
is believed to be a buddha who has appeared on Earth in the shape of a kami to save sentient beings). In life, Ieyasu had expressed the wish to be deified after his death to protect his descendants from evil. His remains were buried at the Gongens' mausoleum at Kunōzan, Kunōzan Tōshō-gū
Kunōzan Tōshō-gū
(久能山東照宮). As a common view, many people believe that "after the first anniversary of his death, his remains were reburied at Nikkō Shrine, Nikkō Tōshō-gū (日光東照宮). His remains are still there." Neither shrine has offered to open the graves, so the location of Ieyasu's physical remains are still a mystery. The mausoleum's architectural style became known as gongen-zukuri, that is gongen-style.[25] He was first given the Buddhist name Tosho Dai- Gongen
Gongen
(東照大権現), then after his death it was changed to Hogo Onkokuin (法号安国院). Era of Ieyasu's rule[edit] Ieyasu ruled directly as shōgun or indirectly as Ōgosho (大御所) during the Keichō
Keichō
era (1596–1615). Ieyasu's character[edit]

Handprint of Ieyasu at Kunozan Toshogu

Precepts on the secret of success in life drafted by Tokugawa Ieyasu from the collection of Nikkō Tōshō-gū.

Ieyasu had a number of qualities that enabled him to rise to power. He was both careful and bold—at the right times, and in the right places. Calculating and subtle, Ieyasu switched alliances when he thought he would benefit from the change. He allied with the Late Hōjō clan; then he joined Hideyoshi's army of conquest, which destroyed the Hōjō; and he himself took over their lands. In this he was like other daimyōs of his time. This was an era of violence, sudden death, and betrayal. He was not very well liked nor personally popular, but he was feared and he was respected for his leadership and his cunning. For example, he wisely kept his soldiers out of Hideyoshi's campaign in Korea.[citation needed] He was capable of great loyalty: once he allied with Oda Nobunaga, he never went against him, and both leaders profited from their long alliance. He was known for being loyal towards his personal friends and vassals, whom he rewarded, He was said to have a close friendship with his vassal Hattori Hanzō. However, he also remembered those who had wronged him in the past. It is said that Ieyasu executed a man who came into his power because he had insulted him when Ieyasu was young.[citation needed] Ieyasu protected many former Takeda retainers from the wrath of Oda Nobunaga, who was known to harbor a bitter grudge towards the Takeda. He managed successfully to transform many of the retainers of the Takeda, Hōjō, and Imagawa clans—all whom he had defeated himself or helped to defeat—into loyal followers. At the same time, he could be ruthless when crossed. For example, he ordered the executions of his first wife and his eldest son—a son-in-law of Oda Nobunaga; Oda was also an uncle of Hidetada's wife Oeyo.[26] He was cruel, relentless and merciless in the elimination of Toyotomi survivors after Osaka. For days, dozens and dozens of men and women were hunted down and executed, including an eight-year-old son of Hideyori by a concubine, who was beheaded.[27] Unlike Hideyoshi, he did not harbor any desires to conquer outside Japan—he only wanted to bring order and an end to open warfare, and to rule Japan.[28] While at first tolerant of Christianity,[29] his attitude changed after 1613 and the executions of Christians sharply increased.[30] Ieyasu's favorite pastime was falconry. He regarded it as excellent training for a warrior. "When you go into the country hawking, you learn to understand the military spirit and also the hard life of the lower classes. You exercise your muscles and train your limbs. You have any amount of walking and running and become quite indifferent to heat and cold, and so you are little likely to suffer from any illness.".[31] Ieyasu swam often; even late in his life he is reported to have swum in the moat of Edo
Edo
Castle. Later in life he took to scholarship and religion, patronizing scholars like Hayashi Razan.[32] Two of his famous quotes:

Life is like unto a long journey with a heavy burden. Let thy step be slow and steady, that thou stumble not. Persuade thyself that imperfection and inconvenience are the lot of natural mortals, and there will be no room for discontent, neither for despair. When ambitious desires arise in thy heart, recall the days of extremity thou hast passed through. Forbearance is the root of all quietness and assurance forever. Look upon the wrath of thy enemy. If thou only knowest what it is to conquer, and knowest not what it is to be defeated; woe unto thee, it will fare ill with thee. Find fault with thyself rather than with others.[33]

The strong manly ones in life are those who understand the meaning of the word patience. Patience means restraining one's inclinations. There are seven emotions: joy, anger, anxiety, adoration, grief, fear, and hate, and if a man does not give way to these he can be called patient. I am not as strong as I might be, but I have long known and practiced patience. And if my descendants wish to be as I am, they must study patience.[34][35]

He said that he fought, as a warrior or a general, in 90 battles. He was interested in various kenjutsu skills, was a patron of the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū
Yagyū Shinkage-ryū
school, and also had them as his personal sword instructors. Honours[edit]

Senior First Rank (April 14, 1617; posthumous)

Family[edit] Parents[edit]

Father: Matsudaira Hirotada Mother: Odai no Kata (1528–1602)

Siblings[edit] Father Side[edit]

Matsudaira Iemoto Naito Nobunari Ichibahime (d.1593) married Arakawa Yoshihiro Matsudaira Chikayoshi Yadahime married Matsudaira Yasutada Matsudaira Tadamasa
Matsudaira Tadamasa
(1544-1591) Shooko Eike

Mother Side[edit]

Hisamatsu Sadakatsu Matsudaira Yasumoto (1552-1603) Matsudaira Yasutoshi (1552-1586) Take-hime (1553–1618) married Matsudaira Tadamasa
Matsudaira Tadamasa
later married Matsudaira Tadayoshi
Matsudaira Tadayoshi
later married Hoshina Masanao

Wives and Concubines[edit] He had 2 wives and 19 Concubines

Wives:

Lady Tsukiyama Asahi no kata

Concubines:

Acha no Tsubone Saigo-no-Tsubone Kageyama-dono (1580–1653) also known as Oman no Kata later Yoju-in Lady Oman (1548–1620) later Chosho-in Okame no Kata (1573–1642) later Sooin Lady Chaa Okaji no Kata Tomiko (d. 1628) later Shinshuin Nishigori no Tsubone (d. 1606) later Hasuin Otake no Kata (1555–1637) later Ryoun-in Omatsu no Kata later Hokoin Otoma no Kata (1564–1591) later Myoshin-in Oume no Kata (1586-1647) later Renge’in Ohisa no Kata (d. 1617) later Fushoin Onatsu no Kata (1581–1660) later Seishunin Oroku no Kata (1597–1625) later Yogen'in Shimoyama-dono (1567–1591) later Myosin-in Osen no Kata (d. 1619) later Taiei-in Omusu no Kata (d.1692) later Seiei-in

Children[edit] He had eleven sons and five daughters :

Matsudaira Nobuyasu
Matsudaira Nobuyasu
(by his official wife, Lady Tsukiyama) Kamehime (by his official wife, Lady Tsukiyama) Toku-hime by Nishigori no Tsubone Yūki Hideyasu
Yūki Hideyasu
by Lady Oman Tokugawa Hidetada
Tokugawa Hidetada
by Saigō-no-Tsubone Matsudaira Tadayoshi
Matsudaira Tadayoshi
by Saigō-no-Tsubone Furi-hime (1580–1617) by Otake, married Gamō Hideyuki later married Asano Nagaakira
Asano Nagaakira
later known as Shosei-in Takeda Nobuyoshi by Otoma Matsudaira Tadateru
Matsudaira Tadateru
by Lady Chaa Matsudaira Matsuchiyo by Lady Chaa Matsudaira Senchiyo (1595–1600) by Okame no Kata

Matsudaira Senchiyo’s grave

Tokugawa Yoshinao by Okame no Kata Tokugawa Yorinobu by Kageyama-dono Tokugawa Yorifusa
Tokugawa Yorifusa
by Kageyama-dono Matsuhime (b.1605) by Ohisa Ichi-hime (1607–1610) by Okaji

His daughters were Kame hime (亀姫), Toku hime (督姫), Furi hime (振姫), Matsu hime (松姫) and Ichi hime (市姫). He is said to have cared for his children and grandchildren, establishing three of them, Yorinobu, Yoshinao, and Yorifusa as the daimyōs of Kii, Owari, and Mito Provinces, respectively.[36] Adopted children[edit]

Matsudaira Ieharu (1579–1592) son of Okudaira Nobumasa Matsudaira Tadaaki Matsudaira Tadamasa
Matsudaira Tadamasa
(1580–1614) Komatsuhime, daughter of Honda Tadakatsu, married to Sanada Nobuyuki had 2 sons and 1 daughter: Sanada Nobuyoshi of Numata Domain, Sanada Nobumasa of Ueda Domain, Manhime Matehime (d. 1638), daughter of Matsudaira Yasumoto, married Tsugaru Nobuhira had 1 son: Tsugaru Nobufusa (1620–1662) of Kuroishi Domain Kamehime (1597–1643), daughter of Honda Tadamasa
Honda Tadamasa
married Ogasawara Tadazane had 2 sons and 1 daughter: Ogasawara Nagayasu, Ogasawara Naganobu, Ichimatsuhime married Kuroda Mitsuyuki Ei-hime (1585–1635), daughter of Hoshina Masanao married Kuroda Nagamasa had 3 sons: Kuroda Tadayuki of Fukuoka Domain, Kuroda Nagaoki, Kuroda Takamasa Kumahime (1595–1632) daughter of Hisamatsu Sadakatsu married Yamauchi Tadayoshi of Tosa Domain
Tosa Domain
had son: Yamauchi Tadatoyo of Tosa Domain, Yamauchi Tadanao Renhime (1582–1652) daughter of Matsudaira Yasunao married Arima Toyouji of Kurume Domain
Kurume Domain
had 2 sons: Arima Yoritsugu and Arima Tadayori of Kurume Domain Kunihime (1595–1649) daughter of Honda Tadamasa
Honda Tadamasa
married Hori Tadatoshi later married Arima Naozumi had a son: Arima Yasuzumi Hisatsu-in daughter of Matsudaira Yasumoto married Tanaka Tadamasa later married Matsudaira Narishige Jomyo-in daughter of Matsudaira Yasumoto married Nakamura Kazutada later married Mōri Hidemoto Toumei-in
Toumei-in
(d. 1639) daughter of Matsudaira Yasuchika married Ii Naomasa had 1 son: Ii Naokatsu Kikuhime (1588–1661) daughter of Okabe Nagamori married Nabeshima Katsushige had 3 sons: Nabeshima Tadanao, Nabeshima Naozumi, Nabeshima Naotomo Shojo-in (1582–1656) daughter of Mizuno Tadashige married Katō Kiyomasa Teishoin (1591–1664) daughter of Hoshina Masanao married Koide Yoshihide had 2 sons: Koide Yoshishige, Hoshina Masahide Shosen'in daughter of Makino Yasunari married Fukushima Masanori daughter of Hoshina Masanao married Anbe Nobumori had 1 son: Anbe Nobuyuki

Ancestry[edit] [37]

Ancestors of Tokugawa Ieyasu

16. Matsudaira Nagachika (1473-1544)

8. Matsudaira Nobutada (1490-1531)

17. Gekkū Jōun

4. Matsudaira Kiyoyasu
Matsudaira Kiyoyasu
(1511-1535)

9. Mizuno

2. Matsudaira Hirotada
Matsudaira Hirotada
(1526-1549)

5. Aoki

1. Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1st Tokugawa Shōgun

24. Mizuno Kenshō

12. Mizuno Kiyotada (d. 1509)

6. Mizuno Tadamasa (1493-1543)

3. O-dainokata (1528-1602)

7. Keyōin (1492-1560)

Ieyasu in popular culture[edit] See also: People of the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
in popular culture In James Clavell's historical-novel Shōgun, Tokugawa served as basis for the character of "Toranaga". Toranaga was portrayed by Toshiro Mifune in the 1980 TV mini-series adaptation. Hyouge Mono (へうげもの Hepburn: Hyōge Mono, lit. "Jocular Fellow") is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Yoshihiro Yamada. It was adapted into an anime series in 2011, and includes a fictional depiction of Tokugawa's life. Honnōji theory[edit] Among the many conspiracies surrounding the Honnō-ji Incident
Honnō-ji Incident
is Ieyasu's role in the event. Historically, Ieyasu was away from his lord at the time and, when he heard that Nobunaga
Nobunaga
was in danger, he wanted to rush to his lord's rescue in spite of the small number of attendants with him. However, Tadakatsu advised for his lord to avoid the risk and urged for a quick retreat to Mikawa. Masanari led the way through Iga and they returned home by boat. However, skeptics think otherwise. While they usually accept the historically known facts about Ieyasu's actions during Mitsuhide's betrayal, theorists tend to pay more attention to the events before. Ever since Ieyasu lost his wife and son due to Nobunaga's orders, they reason, he held a secret resentment against his lord. Generally, there is some belief that he privately goaded Mitsuhide to take action when the two warlords were together in Azuchi Castle. Together, they planned when to attack and went their separate ways. When the deed was done, Ieyasu turned a blind eye to Mitsuhide's schemes and fled the scene to feign innocence. A variation of the concept states that Ieyasu was well aware of Mitsuhide's feelings regarding Nobunaga
Nobunaga
and simply chose to do nothing for his own benefit. Impostor theory[edit] Tokugawa Ieyasu's Kagemusha Legend (徳川家康の影武者説) is a myth that has been circulating since the Edo
Edo
period. It is believed to have arisen due to historical records of Ieyasu's "sudden change of behavior" with some of his closest colleagues. The idea was made more popular in modern times by the historians, Tokutomi Sohō and Yasutsugu Shigeno. The general outline of the legend is that after the Battle of Okehazama, Motoyasu (Ieyasu) was ready to face the world as a changed man. According to Hayashi Razan, the last line was meant quite literally. Before Motoyasu could make his new face known to the world, he was replaced by a completely different man named Sarata Jiro Saburo Motonobu (Sakai Jōkei). Variations include that the switch actually occurred much earlier in Motoyasu's life when he was being a hostage. Motonobu went in Motoyasu's stead and was considered a more suitable "heir". After Motonobu replaced him, Motoyasu fled and lived a hermit's life. Another version states that Ieyasu was actually killed during the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
or the Osaka
Osaka
Campaign. When he was killed by Sanada Nobushige during the latter conflict, it is said that he was replaced by Ogasawara Hidemasa who became the "Ieyasu" from then on. While prevalent in fiction, historians are unsure whether or not the myth holds any merit. His dubious personality traits during these specific time frames have been mostly blamed on stress and personal strain. Notable Descendants[edit]

Extended content

Matsudaira Nobuyasu

Banchiyo Kumahime, married Honda Tadamasa

Honda Tadatoki

Kochiyo (1619–1621) Katsuhime (b. 1618), married Ikeda Mitsumasa

Torihime (1636–1717) married Ichijo Norisuke

Ichijo Kaneteru

Ikeda Tsunamasa

Ikeda Tsugumasa

Ikeda Munemasa

Ikeda Harumasa (1750–1819)

Ikeda Narimasa (1773–1833)

Sagara Nagahiro (1752–1813)

Sagara Yorinori (1774–1856)

Sagara Yoriyuki (1798–1850)

Ikeda Akimasa (1836–1903)

Ikeda Narimasa (1865–1909)

Ikeda Tadamasa (1895–1920) Ikeda Nobumasa (1904–1988)

Ikeda Takamasa (1926–2012)

Toku- Hime
Hime
(1576–1607) married Ogawara hidemasa (1569–1615)

Chiyohime (1597–1649) married Hososkawa Tadatoshi

Hosokawa Mitsunao

Hosokawa Tsunatoshi (1641–1721)

Hosokawa Yoshitoshi (1689–1706)

Hosokawa Toshishige (1646–1676)

Hosokawa Nobunori (1676–1732)

Hosokawa Munetaka (1716–1747) Hosokawa Shigekata

Hososkawa Harutoshi (1758–1787)

Manhime later Kyodaiin (1592–1666) married Hachisuka Yorishige

Hachisuka Tadateru (1611-1652)

Mitsutaka, 3rd Lord of Tokushima (1630-1666; r. 1652-1666

Hachisuka Tsunamichi (1656-1678)

Hachisuka Takamori (1642-1695)

Hachisuka Tsunanori (1661-1730; r. 1678-1728)

Hachisuka Munekazu (1709-1735) Hachisuka Yoshitake (1692-1725)

A daughter (d. 1742), married Hachisuka Muneshige

Hachisuka Takayoshi (1643-1698)

Hachisuka Muneteru (1684-1743)

Ogasawara Tadanaga (1595–1615) Ogasawara Tadazane

Ogasawara Sanekata Ogasawara Nagayasu (1618–1667) Ogasawara Naganobu (1631–1663) Ogasawa Tadataka of Kokura Domain

Ogasawara Tadatomo of Kokura Domain

Ogasawara Tadafusa

Ichimatsuhime (b. 1627) married Kuroda Mitsuyuki of Fukuoka Domain

Kuroda Nagakiyo

Korihime Kuroda Tsugutaka (1703–1775)

Kuroda Tsunayuki (1655–1708) Kuroda Tsunamasa (1659–1711)

Kuroda Nobumasa (1685–1774)

Kamehime

Matsudaira Tadaaki (1583–1644)

Matsudaira Tadahiro (1631–1700)

Matsudaira Tadamasa
Matsudaira Tadamasa
(1683–1746)

Matsudaira Tadatoki (1718–1783)

Matsudaira Tadahira (1747–1787)

Ii Naoari (1719–1760)

Ii Naoakira (1750–1820)

Matsudaira Tadasuke (1780–1821)

Matsudaira Tadataka (1801–1864)

Toku Hime

Hoshuin married Ikeda Toshitaka Manjuin Furuhime married Date Tadamune

Torachiyo (1624–1630) Nabehime (1623–1680) married Tachibana Tadashige Date Mitsumune (1627–1645)

Ikeda Tadatsugu (1599–1615) Ikeda Teruzumi (1604–1622)

Ikeda Masatake (1649–1687)

Ikeda Masachika (1684–1751)

Ikeda Masakatsu (1709–1782)

Ikeda Sadatsune (1767–1833)

Ikeda Sadayasu (1805–1847)

Ikeda Hiroko (1842–1872) married Tokugawa Yoshikatsu later Ikeda Yoshikatsu (1837–1877)

Ikeda Terutomo (1852–1890)

Ikeda Kyoko (1884–1923) married Tokugawa Nakahiro later Ikeda Nakahiro (1877–1948)

Ikeda Narizane (1904–1993)

Ikeda Tadakatsu (1602–1632)

Ikeda Mitsunaka (1630–1693)

Ikeda Nakazumi (1650–1722)

Ikeda Yoshiyasu (1687–1739)

Ikeda Muneyasu (1717–1747)

Ikeda Shigenobu (1746–1783)

Ikeda Harumichi (1768–1798)

Ikeda Iyohime (1792–1824) married Shimazu Narioki

Ikeda Naritoshi (1811–1842) Shimazu Nariakira

Ikeda Toshitaka (1584–1616)

Ikeda Mitsumasa

Ikeda Tsunamasa

Ikeda Tsugumasa

Ikeda Munemasa

Ikeda Harumasa

Ikeda Narimasa

Sagara Nagahiro (1752–1813)

Sagara Yorinori (1774–1856)

Sagara Yoriyuki (1798–1850)

Ikeda Akimasa (1836–1903)

Ikeda Narimasa (1865–1909)

Ikeda Tadamasa (1895–1920) Ikeda Nobumasa (1904–1988)

Ikeda Takamasa (1926–2012) married Atsuko Ikeda

Ikeda Tadakatsu (1602–1632)

Ikeda Tsunakiyo (1648–1711) Ikeda Nakasumi (1650–1722)

Ikeda Yoshiyasu (1687–1739)

Ikeda Muneyasu (1717–1747)

Ikeda shigenobu (1746–1783)

Ikeda Harumichi (1768–1798) Ikeda Nakamasa (1780–1841)

Ikeda Nakanori (1805–1850)

Ikeda Yoshiyuki (1832–1848) Ikeda Seiko (1834–1879) married Maeda Toshitaka later Ikeda Toshitaka (1834–1850)

Yuki Hideyasu

Hisahime (1598–1655) married Mori Hidenari

Mori Tsunahiro (1639–1689)

Mori Yoshinari (1668–1694) Mori Yoshihiro (1673–1707)

Matsudaira Tadanao

Nagami Nagahara (1632–1701) Nagami Nagayori (1639–1663)

Matsudaira Tsunakuni (1662–1735)

Ando Kunichika (d. 1724)

Ando Chikatomo (b. 1712)

Matsudaira Mitsunaga (1616–1707)

Matsudaira Tsunakata (1633–1674) Kunihime (1636–1671) married Matsudaira Mitsumichi Inahime married Date Munetoshi

Kamehime (1617–1681) married Takamatsu no Miya Yoshihito-Shinno, son of Emperor Go-Yōzei Tsuruhime (1618–1671) married Kujo Michifusa

Third daughter married Asano Tsunaakira Fifth daughter married Asano Tsunaakira First daughter married Kujo Kaneharu

Kujō Sukezane

Zuisho-in married Tokugawa Yoshimichi

Tokugawa Gorota

Kujō Morotaka Kujō Yukinori

Kujō Tanemoto Nijō Munemoto

Nijō Shigeyori (1751–1768) Nijō Harutaka

Kujō Hisatada

Matsuzono Hisayoshi Tsurudono Tadayoshi Takatsukasa Hiromichi

Takatsukasa Nobuhiro Nobusuke Takatsukasa

Toshimichi Takatsukasa

Nijō Motohiro

Nijō Atsumoto

Empress Eishō

Imperial Princess Junko Nai-shinno Imperial Princess Fuko

Kujo Michitaka

Empress Teimei

Nobuhito, Prince Takamatsu Yasuhito, Prince Chichibu Takahito, Prince Mikasa

Prince Tomohito of Mikasa

Princess Yoko of Mikasa Princess Akiko of Mikasa

Princess Yasuko of Mikasa

Tadahiro Konoe (b. 1970)

Yoshihito, Prince Katsura Norihito, Prince Takamado

Princess Tsuguko of Takamado Princess Noriko of Takamado Princess Ayako of Takamado

Princess Masako of Mikasa

Akifumi Sen Makiko Sen Takafumi Sen

Hirohito, Emperor Showa

Akihito, Emperor of Japan

Sayako, Princess Nori Fumihito, Prince Akishino

Princess Mako of Akishino Princess Kako of Akishino Prince Hisahito of Akishino

Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan

Aiko, Princess Toshi

Takako, Princess Suga

Yoshihisa Shimazu (b. 1962)

Masahito, Prince Hitachi Atsuko, Princess Yori Kazuko, Princess Taka Sachiko, Princess Hisa Shigeko, Princess Teru

Mibu Motohiro (b. 1949) Princess Fumiko of Higashikuni (b. 1946) Princess Yuko of Higashikuni (b. 1954) Prince Naohiko Higashikuni

Prince Teruhiko Higashikuni Prince Mutsuhiko Higashikuni

Prince Nobuhiko Higashikuni (b. 1945)

Prince Yukihiko Higashikuni (b. 1974)

Nijō Narimichi (1781–1798) Sainjo Kujō Suketsugu Nijō Suiko married Nabeshima Naotomo

Nabeshima Naotada

Nijō Narinobu

Nijō Nariyuki

Nijō Masamaro

Nijo Toyomoto (1909–1944) Nijo Tamemoto (1911–1985)

Kujō Naozane

Kujō Michisaki

Kujō Sukeie

Matsudaira Naomasa (1601–1666)

Matsudaira Chikayoshi (1632–1717)

Matsudaira Chikatoki (1659–1702)

Matsudaira Naoyuki (1682–1718)

Matsudaira Naomoto (1604–1648)

Matsudaira Naonari (1642–1695)

Matsudaira Motochika (1682–1721)

Matsudaira Munenori

Matsudaira Naoyoshi (1605–1678)

Sunohime, married Matsudaira Chikasukae Ichihime, married Arima Yutakayu Matsudaira Kenmatsu Matsudaira Mansuke Matsudaira Naoaki (1656–1721)

Matsudaira Naotsune (1679–1744)

Matsudaira Naozumi (1727–1764)

Matsudaira Naotaka Matsudaira Naogen Mitsuruhime married Ikeda Mitsuhisa Matsudaira Naoyasu (1749–1804)

Honda Tadaakira Ando Sadanori Matsudaira Naoaki Matsudaira Naoho Matsudaira Naotaka Sakahime married Makino Yasushi later married Mizuno Sadatoshi Teruhime married Honda Tadashiakira later married Naito Masahiro Kanhime married Matsudaira Naomasu Takahime married Hachisuka Yoshiaki Shinhime married Hatekayama Mototoshi Kotohime married to Kageyukouji family Matsudaira Naotada Matsudaira Naokata Nakajo Nobutoku (1779–1830)

Nakajo Nobuuya (1812–?)

Matsudaira Naokiyo (1777–1796) Matsudaira Naoyuki (1768–1786) Matsudaira Naochika (1773–1828)

Kunihime married Honda Tadaoki Samuhime married Arima Hironori Makotohime married Ikeda Masanori Matsudaira Naono Matsudaira Naokata Matsudaira Naritsugu (1803–1868)

Satoko married Hosokawa Ikuma Matsudaira Naomasa Matsudaira Yoshinori (1826–1897)

Matsudaira Naotoku Matsudaira Naono (1849–1884)

Matsudaira Naose (1848–1913)

Matsudaira Seitoku Matsudaira Naokani

Matsudaira Tadamasa

Matsudaira Masakatsu (1636–1693)

Matsudaira Tsunamasa Matsudaira Munemasa Matsudaira Yoshikuni

Matsudaira Masachika Matsudaira Mitsumichi

Matsudaira Masakatsu

Matsudaira Tadateru

Tokumatsu Gotakehime

Tokugawa Yoshinao

Kyohime (1626–1674) and married Hirohata Tadayuki

Shinhime married Tokugawa Tsunanari Sadahime married Arima Yorimoto Enhime married Asano Nagateru Kiyohime married Oda Nobutake Tomohime married Oda Nobutake

Oda Nobuyasu (1678–1723)

Oda Nobushige (1710–1783) Oda Nagakyo Oda Nobumoto (1709–1737)

Tokugawa Mitsutomo

Matsudaira Yoshiyuki (1656–1715) Matsudaira Tomoaki (1678–1782)

Tokugawa Munekatsu

Matsudaira Katsumasa (1738–1801) Matsudaira Yoshitoshi (1734–1771)

Matsudaira Yoshitomo (1760–1793) Matsudaira Yoshihiro (1762–1795)

Tokugawa Tsunanari

Matsudaira Yoshitaka Tokugawa Tsugutomo Matsuhime, married Maeda Yoshinori Tokugawa Muneharu Tokugawa Yoshimichi

Tokugawa Gorota Shinjuin (1706–1757), married Kujo Yukinori

Kujo Tanemoto Nijo Munemoto

Nijo Shigeyoshi (1751–1768) Nijo Harutaka

Nijo Narimichi Saionji Kujo Suketsugu Nijo Suiko married Nabeshima Naotomo

Nabeshima Naotada

Nijo Narinobu

Nijo Nariyuki Nijo Masamaro

Nijo Tamemoto (1911–1985) Nijo Toyomoto (1909–1944)

Kujo Hisatada

Empress Eisho

Junko-no-Miya

Kujo Michitaka Tsurudono Tadayoshi Matsuzono Hisayoshi Nijo Motohiro

Nijo Atsumoto

Takatsukasa Hiromichi

Takatsukasa Nobuhiro (1892–1981) Nobusuke Takatsukasa

Toshimichi Takatsukasa

Furihime

Gamo Tadasato (1602–1627) of Aizu Domain Gamo Tadatomo (1604–1634) of Kaminoyama Domain Suhoin (1602–1656) married Kato Tadahiro of Kumamoto Domain

Kato Mitsuhiro (1614–1633)

Asano Mitsuakira

Asano Nagashira (1652–1704) Asano Nagataka (1644–1666) Ichihime married Tozawa Hidenari of Shinjo Domain Hisahime married Ogasawara Tadataka of Kokura Domain

Ogasawara Tadatomo (1682-1752) of Kokura Domain Ogasawara Sadamichi (1686-1747) of Kokura-Shinden Domain

Ogasawara Sadamasa (1719-1739) Nuihime married Uramatsu Sukemitsu daughter married Goro Morihiro later married Ogasawara Nagayuki Ogasawara Sadaaki (1734-1804) of Kokura-Shinden Domain

Kamehime married Sengoku Tadatoshi

Sengoku Masaakira (1659-1717) of Ueda Domain

Katsuhime married Oda Nobufusa, heir of Oda Nobunari of Obata Domain

Asano Tsunaakira

Asano Nagasumi (1671–1718) Asano Tsunanaga

Asano Nagakata (1693–1744) Nakagawa Hisayoshi (1708–1743) Asano Yoshinaga

Chohime married Sakai Tadayori

Sakai Tadaharu (1732–1767)

Sakai Tadamasa (1752–1824)

Sakai Tadashi Sakai Tadayoshi
Sakai Tadayoshi
(1779–1821)

Kai Shosoi Sakai Tadakata (1808–1887)

Sakai Tadayoshi
Sakai Tadayoshi
(1831–1884)

Sakai Tadashi (1857–1911)

Takako married Kimura Jinkichi Katsuko married Kashima Masaki (1875–1942) Sakai Tadayoshi
Sakai Tadayoshi
(1887–1932)

Morikawa Toshikata (1850–1887)

Chomaru

Sakai Tadanori (1755–1812)

Ogawara Nagayasu (1806–1862) Naito Masashi (1806–1855) Ichihasi Nagatomi (1805–1859) Mizuno Tadazane (1792–1842) Kuroda Naoko (1793–1850)

Tokunaga Naoki Kuroda Naokazu (1819–1876)

Sakai Tadashi (1790–1854)

Sakai Tadahiro (1839–1862) Yonetsu Masaaki (1830–1899) Yonetsu Masaeki (1829–1873) Ichihashi Hisakazu (1821–1882) Masuyama Masunobu (1820–1869)

Kamagoro Tetsujiro Mitsunosuke Matsuyama Matsuyuki

Sakai Tadanaka (1821–1845) Sakai Tadayuki
Sakai Tadayuki
(1812–1876)

Sakai Tadatoshi
Sakai Tadatoshi
(1857–1943) Sakai Tadatsune Sakai Tadachujo Sakai Tadaatsu (1853–1915)

Yonako Takako married Sakai Tadayoshi
Sakai Tadayoshi
(1886–1964) Utako married Odachi Shigeo (1892–1955) Sakai Tadayoshi
Sakai Tadayoshi
(1893–1962) Sakai Tadataka (1890–1956) Sakai Tadayoshi
Sakai Tadayoshi
(1888–1962)

Sakai Tadayuki
Sakai Tadayuki
(1856–1921)

Sakai Tadachuwa Akiko married Inaba Tomotsune Yoshiko married Nishikawa Kenji Yuuko married Kusumi Hinakaba Sakai Tadayoshi
Sakai Tadayoshi
(1888–1962) Sakai Tadayoshi
Sakai Tadayoshi
(1886–1964)

Asano Munetsune

Asano Nagatsumi Asano Nagami (1745–1808) Mizuno Tadayori (1744–1818)

Naito Masashi (1785–1836) Mizuno Tadakata Mizuno Tadamitsu

Asano Shigeakira

Asano Narikata

Asano Naritaka

Asano Yoshiteru

Asano Nagatoshi

Asano Nagamichi Asano Toshiteru

Asano Nagakoto

Asano Toshitsugu

Asano Nagayuki

Asano Nagatake

Asano Nagayoshi

Asano Nagataka (b. 1956)

Tokugawa Yorifusa

Michiko (1624–1664) married Matsudono Michiaki Kamemaru (1625–1628) Man (1627–1689) married Ota Sukemasa Kiku (1628–1706) married Matsudaira Yasuhiro Matsudaira Yoritomo (1629–1693)

Matsudaira Yorisada Matsudaira Yoriai Tanehime married Soma Masatane Chohime married Honda Shigemasu Kumehime married Matsudaira Munemasa Honda Tadakuni (1666–1704)

Honda Tadataka (1698–1709)

Sen (1635–1681) married Maki Kagenobu Matsu Matsudaira Yorikatsu (1630–1697) Kiihime (1627–1631) Kohime (1628–1717) Matsudaira Yoritaka (1629–1707) Ritsu (1632–1711) married Yamanobe Yoshikata Suzuki Shigeyoshi (1634–1668) Oohime (1627–1656) married Maeda Mitsutaka

Maeda Tsunanori Toyohime Naohime Keihime Setsuhime

Maeda Toshiaki(1691–1737)

Tenhime married Sanada Nobuyasu Yumihime married Nanbu Toshikatsu

Nanbu Toshikatsu
Nanbu Toshikatsu
(1746–1814)

Tomihime Maeda Nobunari Atsuhime married Maeda Nagaatsu Maeda Toshimichi (1733–1781)

Maeda Toshisada Maeda Toshiaki (1758–1791)

Hide Maeda Toshinobu Maeda Toshitsuna Maeda Toshiyasu (1779–1806) Maeda Toshiriyu Sen married Matsudaira Naohiro of Hirose Domain

Motosaburo Maeda Toshitane (1760–1788)

Maeda Toshiriyu Maeda Toshitsune Maeda Toshiyuki Yu Seiko-in

Maeda Toshimochi (1768–1828) Maeda Toshiyuki (1835–1855) Sakihime married Kitsuregawa Yasuuji Masahime married Maeda Harunaga Maeda Toshitoyo (1771–1836)

Matsudaira Chikanobu (1804–1841) Maeda Toshimoto (1806–1871)

Maeda Norikuni (1847–1915)

Maeda Toshichika Maeda Toshimori Maeda Toshinuki Maeda Toshikira (1823–1877)

Kuni

Maeda Nobu Maeda Toshi

Keiko Senko Eiko married Satake Yoshihiro Ikuko married Kato Yasumoto Yoshiko married wakisaka Yasuhira Hanabusa Toshitane Maeda Toshihiro (1823–1877)

Maeda Toshiaki (1850–1896)

Maeda Toshinari (1885–1942)

Maeda Toshitatsu(1908–1989)

Maeda Toshihiro (1935–)

Maeda Toshitaka (1963–)

Maeda Toshikyo (1993–)

Maeda Yoshinori

Matsudaia Yoriyuki (1631–1717) Tokugawa Mitsukuni

Matsudaira Yoritsune (1652–1704) of Takamatsu Domain

Hisamatsu Matsudaira Yoriyasu

Matsudaira Yorishige

Tokugawa Tsunakata (1648–1670) Tokugawa Tsunaeda (1656–1718) Matsudaira Yoriyoshi (1667–1706)

Hachisuka Muneshige Hachisuka Yoshihisa (1737–1754) Matsudaira Yorihiro

Matsudaira Yoritake

Matsudaira Yoritoshi

Matsudaira Yoritoyo (1680–1735)

Tokugawa Munetaka

Tokugawa Munemoto

Tokugawa Harumori

Matsudaira Yoshinari

Matsudaira Yoshitatsu

Matsudaira Katamori

Tsuneo Matsudaira

Matsudaira Ichiro (1907–1992)

Tokugawa Tsunenari

Tokugawa Iehiro

Tokugawa Harutoshi

Matsudaira Yorihiro

Matsudaira Yoritoshi

Matsudaira Yorinaga

Matsudaira Yoriaki

Matsudaira Yoritaka

Matsudaira Yoriosa (b. 1963)

Matsudaira Yoriharu (1711–1730) Tokugawa Munetaka

Matsudaira Yoriyuki (1727–1774) Tokugawa Munemoto

Matsudaira Yorisuke (1756–1830) Nakayama Nobutaka (1765–1820) Tokugawa Harumori (1751–1805)

Matsudaira Yoshikazu (1776–1832) Tsuchiya Yoshinao (1798–1847) Tokugawa Harutoshi

Tokugawa Narinobu (17971–1829)[clarification needed] Matsudaira Yorihiro Matsudaira Yorikata (1801–1839) Tokugawa Juko married Nijo Narinobu

Nijo Hiroko Nijo Nariyuki

Nijo Masamaro

Nijo Toyomoto (1909–1944) Nijo Tamemoto (1911–1985)

Tokugawa Nariaki

Matsudaira Nobunori Tokugawa Yoshiatsu (1832–1869) married Itohime, Adopted daughter of Tokugawa Ieyoshi

Mamahime

Matsudaira Naoyoshi (1839–1862) Tsuchiya Shigenao (1852–1892) Matsudaira Takakira (1842–1882) Tokugawa Sadako (1850–1872) Kitsuregawa Tsunauji (1844–1874) Ikeda Yoshinori (1837–1877) Ikeda Mochimasa (1839–1899) Matsudaira Tadakazu Matsudaira Yoriyuki (1858–1873) Matsudaira Akikuni (1849–1864) Tokugawa Akitake

Tokugawa Takesada (b. 1888)

Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Ikeda Nakahiro (1877–1948) Tokugawa Atsushi (1874–1930) Tokugawa Makoto (1887–1968) Katsu Kuwashi (1888–1932) Tokugawa Yoshihisa (1884–1992)

Kikuko, Princess Takamatsu Yoshimitsu Tokugawa (1913–1993)

Yoshitomo Tokugawa

Tokugawa Yoshitaka (b. 1981)

Tokugawa Tsuneko (1882–1939) married Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu

Princess Fushimi Tomoko (1907–1947) married Prince Kuni Asaakira Princess Fushimi Atsuko (1907–1936) married Count Kiyosu Yukiyasu Princess Fushimi Yasuko (1898–1919) married Asano Nagatake Prince Kacho Hirotada Prince Kacho Hironobu

Kacho Hiromichi Kacho Hirotaka

Prince Fushimi Hiroyoshi

Prince Fushimi Hiroaki

Princess Fushimi Masako Princess Fushimi Nobuko Princess Fushimi Akiko

Count Fushimi Hirohide

Fushimi Motoko (b. 1937) married Domoto Taizo Fushimi Kazuko (b. 1938) Fushimi Junko Fushimi Yoshiko (b. 1943) married Ino Kazuo (b. 1941)

Tokugawa Yorinobu

Inabahime married Ikeda Mitsunaka of Tottori Domain Matsuhime married Matsudaira Nobuhira Yoshiie Domain Matsudaira Yorizumi (1641–1711)

Matsudaira Yorirai Matsudaira Yorinobi (1661–1698) Matsudaira Yorikatsu (1668–1718) Tokugawa Munenao

Tokugawa Harusada Tokugawa Munemasa

Tokugawa Shigenori Matsudaira Yorikata

Tokugawa Harutomi Matsudaira Yoriyuki

Matsudaira Yorisato

Tokugawa Mochitsugu

Watanabe Kyotsuna (1658–1738)

Watanabe Noritsuna (1697–1724) Watanabe Toyotsuna (1693–1730)

Watanabe Yatsuna (1727–1789)

Date Masahiro Watanabe Notsuna (1756–1816)

Watanabe Nobutsuna

Arima Ujihisa (1699–1771)

Arima Ujitsune (1739–1760) Arima Ujibo (1757–1773)

Tokugawa Mitsusada

Tokugawa Tsunanori (1665–1705) Tokugawa Yoritomo (1680–1705) Tokugawa Yoshimune

See also[edit]

Japan
Japan
portal History portal Biography portal

East Asian age reckoning List of Tōshō-gū Testament of Ieyasu

Notes[edit]

^ "Iyeyasu". Encyclopedia.com.  ^ "Iyeyasu". Merriam-Webster.  ^ a b c d Turnbull, Stephen (2012). Tokugawa Ieyasu. Osprey Publishing. pp. 5–9. ISBN 9781849085748.  ^ a b c Turnbull, Stephen (1987). Battles of the Samurai. Arms and Armour Press. p. 35. ISBN 0853688265.  ^ a b c d Screech, Timon (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1720-X, pp. 85, 234; n.b., Screech explains

Minamoto-no-Ieyasu was born in Tenbun
Tenbun
11, on the 26th day of the 12th month (1542) and he died in Genna 2, on the 17th day of the 4th month (1616); and thus, his contemporaries would have said that he lived 75 years. In this period, children were considered one year old at birth and became two the following New Year's Day; and all people advanced a year that day, not on their actual birthday.

^ a b c Turnbull, Stephen (2012). Tokugawa Ieyasu. Osprey Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 9781849085748.  ^ a b c d Turnbull, Stephen (1998). The Samurai Sourcebook. Cassell & Co. p. 215. ISBN 1854095234.  ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen R. (1977). The Samurai: A Military History. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. p. 144.  ^ Screech, Timon (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1720-X, p. 82. ^ a b Sansom, Sir George Bailey (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. p. 353. ISBN 0-8047-0525-9.  ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen (1987). Battle of the Samurai. London: Arms and Armour Press. pp. 67–78. ISBN 0853688265.  ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen (2000). The Samurai Sourcebook. London: Cassell & C0. pp. 222–223. ISBN 1854095234.  ^ Sadler, p. 164. ^ Nutall, Zelia. (1906). The Earliest Historical Relations Between Mexico and Japan, p. 2 ^ " Japan
Japan
to Decorate King Alfonso Today; Emperor's Brother Nears Madrid With Collar of the Chrysanthemum for Spanish King". The New York Times, November 3, 1930, p. 6. ^ Sadler, p. 187 ^ Titsingh, Isaac (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652], Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 405. ^ Titsingh, Isaac (1822). Illustrations of Japan. London: Ackerman, p. 409. ^ Van Wolferen, Karel (1990). The Enigma of Japanese Power: People and Politics in a Stateless Nation. New York: Vintage Books. p. 28. ISBN 0-679-72802-3.  ^ Milton, Giles. Samurai William: The Englishman Who Opened Japan. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2003. ^ Nutail, Zelia (1906). The Earliest Historical Relations Between Mexico and Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 6–45. ^ Milton, Giles. Samurai William : the Englishman Who Opened Japan. p. 265.  Quoting Le P. Valentin Carvalho, S.J. ^ Murdoch, James; Yamagata, Isoh (1903). A History of Japan. Kelly & Walsh. p. 500.  ^ Mullins, Mark R. (1990). "Japanese Pentecostalism and the World of the Dead: a Study of Cultural Adaptation in Iesu no Mitama Kyokai". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 17 (4): 353–374.  ^ JAANUS / Gongen-zukuri 権現造 ^ "Jyoukouji:The silk coloured portrait of wife of Takatsugu Kyogoku". 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2018-02-15.  ^ Sansom, George, A History of Japan, 1615–1867, Stanford University Press. 1960, p. 9 ^ Frederic, Louis, Daily Live in Japan
Japan
at the Time of the Samurai, 1185–1603, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc., Rutland, Vermont, 1973, p. 180 ^ Leonard, Jonathan, Early Japan, Time-Life Books, New York, ç1968, p.162 ^ Sansom, G. B., The Western World and Japan, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland and Tokyo, 1950, p. 132 ^ Sadler, p. 344. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794–1969, p. 418. ^ OldTokyo.com: Tōshō-gū Shrine; American Forum for Global Education, JapanProject; retrieved 2012-11-1. ^ Storry, Richard. (1982). A History of Modern Japan, p. 60 ^ Thomas, J. E. (1996). Modern Japan: a social history since 1868, ISBN 0582259614, p. 4. ^ On the subject, see the article Gosanke. ^ "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  (in Japanese)

Bibliography[edit]

Sadler, A. L. (1937). The Maker of Modern Japan. 

Further reading[edit]

Bolitho, Harold (1974). Treasures Among Men: The Fudai
Fudai
Daimyo in Tokugawa Japan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01655-0. OCLC 185685588. McClain, James (1991). The Cambridge History of Japan
Japan
Volume 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McLynn, Frank (2008). The Greatest Shogun, BBC History Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp 52–53. あおもりの文化財 徳川家康自筆日課念仏 – 青森県庁ホームページ Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0525-9. Totman, Conrad D. (1967). Politics in the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1600–1843. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. OCLC 279623.

External links[edit]

The Christian Century in Japan, by Charles Boxer Media related to Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
at Wikimedia Commons

Military offices

Preceded by Sengoku period Shōgun: Tokugawa Ieyasu 1603–1605 Succeeded by Tokugawa Hidetada

v t e

Prominent people of the Sengoku period

Three major daimyōs

Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu

Shōgun

Ashikaga Yoshiharu Ashikaga Yoshiteru Ashikaga Yoshihide Ashikaga Yoshiaki Tokugawa Hidetada

Emperors

Go-Kashiwabara Go-Nara Ōgimachi Go-Yōzei

Other daimyōs

List of daimyōs from the Sengoku period

Swordsmen

Hikita Bungorō Kamiizumi Nobutsuna Miyamoto Musashi Sasaki Kojirō Tadashima Akiyama Tsukahara Bokuden Tsutsumi Hōzan Yagyū Munenori Yagyū Munetoshi

Ninja, rogues and mercenaries

Fūma Kotarō Hattori Hanzō Ishikawa Goemon Katō Danzō Kirigakure Shikaemon Kōzuki Sasuke Nakamura Chōbei Ohama Kagetaka Saika Magoichi

Suzuki Sadayu Suzuki Shigehide Suzuki Shigetomo

Suzuki Magoroku Igasaki Dōshun

Monks and other religious figures

Ankokuji Ekei Hongan-ji Kennyo Hon'inbō Sansa Ishin Sūden Jion Nankōbō Tenkai Rennyo Sessai Chōrō Shimozuma Chūkō Shimozuma Rairen Shimozuma Rairyū Takuan Sōhō

Onna-bugeisha

Ii Naotora Ikeda Sen Kaihime Komatsuhime Maeda Matsu Ōhōri Tsuruhime Tachibana Ginchiyo Otatsu No Kata Myorin Otsune

Other women

Asahihime Chacha Chikurin-in Dota Gozen Gotokuhime Hosokawa Gracia Izumo no Okuni Kitsuno Kyōgoku Maria Kyōgoku Tatsuko Nene Nōhime Oeyo Oichi Ohatsu Okaji no Kata Lady Kasuga Lady Saigō Lady Tsukiyama Senhime Sentōin Tobai-in Tokuhime

See also

List of samurai from the Sengoku period

v t e

Officials of the Tokugawa shogunate

Shōgun

Ieyasu (1603–1605) Hidetada (1605–1623) Iemitsu (1623–1651) Ietsuna (1651–1680) Tsunayoshi (1680–1709) Ienobu (1709–1712) Ietsugu (1713–1716) Yoshimune (1716–1745) Ieshige (1745–1760) Ieharu (1760–1786) Ienari (1787–1837) Ieyoshi (1837–1853) Iesada (1853–1858) Iemochi (1858–1866) Yoshinobu (1867–1868)

Tairō

Sakai Tadayo
Sakai Tadayo
(1636) Doi Toshikatsu
Doi Toshikatsu
(1638–1644) Sakai Tadakatsu
Sakai Tadakatsu
(1638–1656) Sakai Tadakiyo
Sakai Tadakiyo
(1666–1680) Ii Naozumi (1668–1676) Hotta Masatoshi (1681–1684) Ii Naooki (1696–1700, 1711–1714) Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu
Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu
(1706–1709) Ii Naoyuki (1784–1787) Ii Naoaki (1835–1841) Ii Naosuke
Ii Naosuke
(1858–1860) Sakai Tadashige (1865)

Rōjū

Ōkubo Tadachika (1593–1614) Ōkubo Nagayasu (1600–1613) Honda Masanobu
Honda Masanobu
(1600–1615) Naruse Masanari (1600–1616) Andō Naotsugu (1600–1616) Honda Masazumi (1600–1622) Naitō Kiyonari (1601–1606) Aoyama Tadanari (1601–1606) Aoyama Narishige (1608–1613) Sakai Tadatoshi
Sakai Tadatoshi
(1609–1627) Sakai Tadayo
Sakai Tadayo
(1610–1634) Doi Toshikatsu
Doi Toshikatsu
(1610–1638) Andō Shigenobu (1611–1621) Naitō Kiyotsugu (1616–1617) Aoyama Tadatoshi (1616–1623) Inoue Masanari (1617–1628) Nagai Naomasa (1622–1633) Abe Masatsugu (1623–1626) Inaba Masakatsu (1623–1634) Naitō Tadashige (1623–1633) Sakai Tadakatsu
Sakai Tadakatsu
(1624–1638) Morikawa Shigetoshi (1628–1632) Aoyama Yukinari (1628–1633) Matsudaira Nobutsuna (1632–1662) Abe Tadaaki (1633–1666) Hotta Masamori (1635–1651) Abe Shigetsugu (1638–1651) Matsudaira Norinaga (1642–1654) Sakai Tadakiyo
Sakai Tadakiyo
(1653–1666) Inaba Masanori
Inaba Masanori
(1657–1681) Kuze Hiroyuki (1663–1679) Itakura Shigenori
Itakura Shigenori
(1665–1668, 1670–1673) Tsuchiya Kazunao (1665–1679) Abe Masayoshi (1673–1676) Ōkubo Tadatomo (1677–1698) Hotta Masatoshi (1679–1681) Doi Toshifusa (1679–1681) Itakura Shigetane (1680–1681) Toda Tadamasa (1681–1699) Abe Masatake (1681–1704) Matsudaira Nobuyuki (1685–1686) Tsuchiya Masanao (1687–1718) Ogasawara Nagashige
Ogasawara Nagashige
(1697–1705, 1709–1710) Akimoto Takatomo (1699–1707) Inaba Masamichi (1701–1707) Honda Masanaga (1704–1711) Ōkubo Tadamasu (1705–1713) Inoue Masamine (1705–1722) Abe Masataka (1711–1717) Kuze Shigeyuki (1713–1720) Matsudaira Nobutsune (1714–1716) Toda Tadazane (1714–1729) Mizuno Tadayuki (1717–1730) Andō Nobutomo (1722–1732) Matsudaira Norisato (1723–1745) Matsudaira Tadachika (1724–1728) Ōkubo Tsuneharu (1728) Sakai Tadaoto (1728–1735) Matsudaira Nobutoki (1730–1744) Matsudaira Terusada (1730–1745) Kuroda Naokuni (1732–1735) Honda Tadanaga (1734–1746) Toki Yoritoshi
Toki Yoritoshi
(1742–1744) Sakai Tadazumi (1744–1749) Matsudaira Norikata
Matsudaira Norikata
(1745–1746) Hotta Masasuke (1745–1761) Nishio Tadanao (1746–1760) Honda Masayoshi (1746–1758) Matsudaira Takechika (1746–1779) Sakai Tadayori (1749–1764) Matsudaira Terutaka (1758–1781) Inoue Masatsune (1760–1763) Akimoto Sumitomo (1747–1764, 1765–1767) Abe Masahiro
Abe Masahiro
(1837-1857) Doi Toshitsura
Doi Toshitsura
(1838–1844) Inoue Masaharu (1840–1843) Andō Nobumasa
Andō Nobumasa
(1860–1862) Itakura Katsukiyo
Itakura Katsukiyo
(1862–1864, 1865–1868) Inoue Masanao
Inoue Masanao
(1862–1864) Mizuno Tadakiyo
Mizuno Tadakiyo
(1862–1866) Sakai Tadashige (1863–1864) Arima Michizumi (1863–1864) Makino Tadayuki
Makino Tadayuki
(1863–1865) Matsumae Takahiro
Matsumae Takahiro
(1864–1865) Abe Masato (1864–1865) Suwa Tadamasa (1864–1865) Inaba Masakuni
Inaba Masakuni
(1864–1865, 1866–1868) Matsudaira Munehide
Matsudaira Munehide
(1864–1866) Inoue Masanao
Inoue Masanao
(1865–1867) Matsudaira Yasuhide (1865–1868) Mizuno Tadanobu (1866) Matsudaira Norikata
Matsudaira Norikata
(1866–1868) Inaba Masami (1866–1868) Matsudaira Sadaaki
Matsudaira Sadaaki
(1867) Ōkōchi Masatada (1867–1868) Sakai Tadatō (1867–1868) Tachibana Taneyuki (1868)

Wakadoshiyori

Nagai Naoyuki
Nagai Naoyuki
(1867–1868)

Kyoto
Kyoto
shoshidai

Okudaira Nobumasa
Okudaira Nobumasa
(1600–1601) Itakura Katsushige
Itakura Katsushige
(1601–1619) Makino Chikashige (1654–1668) Itakura Shigenori
Itakura Shigenori
(1668–1670) Nagai Naotsune (1670–1678) Toda Tadamasa (1678–1681) Inaba Masamichi (1681–1685) Tsuchiya Masanao (1685–1687) Naitō Shigeyori (1687–1690) Matsudaira Nobuoki (1690–1691) Ogasawara Nagashige
Ogasawara Nagashige
(1691–1697) Matsudaira Nobutsune (1697–1714) Mizuno Tadayuki (1714–1717) Matsudaira Tadachika(1717–1724) Makino Hideshige (1724–1734) Toki Yoritoshi
Toki Yoritoshi
1734–1742) Makino Sadamichi
Makino Sadamichi
(1742–1749) Matsudaira Sukekuni (1749–1752) Sakai Tadamochi
Sakai Tadamochi
(1752–1756) Matsudaira Terutaka(1756–1758) Inoue Masatsune (1758–1760) Abe Masasuke (1760–1764) Abe Masachika (1764–1768) Doi Toshisato (1769–1777) Kuze Hiroakira (1777–1781) Makino Sadanaga
Makino Sadanaga
(1781–1784) Toda Tadatō (1784–1789) Ōta Sukeyoshi (1789–1782) Hotta Masanari (1792–1798) Makino Tadakiyo (1798–1801) Doi Toshiatsu (1801–1802) Aoyama Tadayasu (1802–1804) Inaba Masanobu (1804–1806) Abe Masayoshi (1806–1808) Sakai Tadayuki
Sakai Tadayuki
(1808–1815) Ōkubo Tadazane
Ōkubo Tadazane
(1815–1818) Matsudaira Norihiro (1818–1823) Naitō Nobuatsu
Naitō Nobuatsu
(1823–1825) Matsudaira Yasutō (1825–1826) Mizuno Tadakuni
Mizuno Tadakuni
(1826–1828) Matsudaira Muneakira (1828–1832) Ōta Sukemoto (1832–1834) Matsudaira Nobuyori (1834–1837) Doi Toshitsura
Doi Toshitsura
(1837–1838) Manabe Akikatsu
Manabe Akikatsu
(1838–1840) Makino Tadamasa (1840–1843) Sakai Tadaaki
Sakai Tadaaki
(1843–1850) Naitō Nobuchika (1850–1851) Wakisaka Yasuori (1851–1857) Honda Tadamoto
Honda Tadamoto
(1857–1858) Sakai Tadaaki
Sakai Tadaaki
(1858–1862) Matsudaira Munehide
Matsudaira Munehide
(1862) Makino Tadayuki
Makino Tadayuki
(1862–1863) Inaba Masakuni
Inaba Masakuni
(1863–1864) Matsudaira Sadaaki
Matsudaira Sadaaki
(1864–1867)

Bugyō

Bugu-bugyō (post-1863) Edo
Edo
machi-bugyō Fushimi bugyō Gaikoku-bugyō (post-1858) Gunkan-bugyō (post-1859) Gusoku-bugyō Hakodate bugyō Haneda bugyō (post-1853) Hyōgo bugyō (post-1864) Jisha-bugyō Kanagawa bugyō (post-1859) Kanjō-bugyō (post-1787) Kinzan-bugyō Kyoto
Kyoto
machi-bugyō Nara bugyō Machi-bugyō Nagasaki bugyō Niigata bugyō Nikkō bugyō Osaka
Osaka
jōdai Osaka
Osaka
machi-bugyō Rōya-bugyō Sado bugyō Sakai bugyō Sakuji-bugyō (post-1632) Shimoda bugyō Sunpu jōdai Uraga bugyō Yamada bugyō

Ōmetsuke

Yagyū Munenori
Yagyū Munenori
(1632–1636) Mizuno Morinobu (1632–1636) Akiyama Masashige 1632–1640) Inoue Masashige (1632–1658) Kagazume Tadazumi (1640–1650) Nakane Masamori (1650) Hōjō Ujinaga (1655–1670) Ōoka Tadatane (1670) Nakayama Naomori (1684) Sengoku Hisanao (1695–1719) Shōda Yasutoshi (1699–1701) Sakakibara Tadayuki (1836–1837) Atobe Yoshisuke (1839–1841, 1855–1856) Tōyama Kagemoto
Tōyama Kagemoto
(1844) Ido Hiromichi 1853–1855) Tsutsui Masanori (1854–1857) Ōkubo Tadahiro (1862) Matsudaira Yasuhide (1864) Nagai Naoyuki
Nagai Naoyuki
(1864–1865, 1865–1867) Yamaoka Takayuki (1868) Oda Nobushige (1868)

Kyoto
Kyoto
Shugoshoku

Matsudaira Katamori
Matsudaira Katamori
(1862–1864) Matsudaira Yoshinaga
Matsudaira Yoshinaga
(1864) Matsudaira Katamori
Matsudaira Katamori
(1864–1867)

v t e

Tokugawa Shogunate family tree

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Ieyasu(1)

Hidetada(2)

Yorinobu

Iemitsu(3)

Mitsusada

Ietsuna(4)

Tsunayoshi(5)

Tsunashige

Yoshimune(8)

Ienobu(6)

Ieshige(9)

Ietsugu(7)

Ieharu(10)

Ienari(11)

Ieyoshi(12)

Iesada(13)

Iemochi(14)

Yoshinobu(15)

Notes

All Tokugawa shōguns claim descent from Ieyasu, who is recognized as the dynasty's founder. The broken lines indicate adoptions within the shogunal clan.

v t e

Timeline and paternities of the Tokugawa Shogunate

  Lifespan   Reign

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45630467 LCCN: n81118846 ISNI: 0000 0001 1761 1906 GND: 11897453X SUDOC: 082954968 BNF: cb16127194q (data) BIBSYS: 14061628 NDL: 00272267 NKC: pna2009505176 BNE: XX5472489 CiNii: DA04888

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