The Info List - Tisza

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The Tisza
or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe. Once, it was called "the most Hungarian river" because it flowed entirely within the Kingdom of Hungary. Today, it crosses several national borders. The Tisza
begins near Rakhiv
in Ukraine, at the confluence of the White Tisa and Black Tisa (the former springs in the Chornohora mountains; the latter in the Gorgany
range). From there, the Tisza flows west, roughly following Ukraine's borders with Romania, then Hungary, and finally Serbia. It enters Hungary
at Tiszabecs. It traverses Hungary
from north to south. A few kilometers south of the Hungarian city of Szeged, it enters Serbia. Finally, it joins the Danube
near the village of Stari Slankamen
Stari Slankamen
in Vojvodina, Serbia. The Tisza
drains an area of about 156,087 km2 (60,266 sq mi)[2] and has a length of 1,419 km (882 mi)— seco[2] Its mean annual discharge is 792 m3/s (28,000 cu ft/s). It contributes about 13% of the Danube's total runoff.[2] Attila the Hun
Attila the Hun
is said to have been buried under a diverted section of the river Tisza.


1 Names 2 Regulation 3 Lake Tisza 4 Navigation 5 Wildlife 6 Pollution 7 Geography

7.1 Tributaries 7.2 Cities and towns

8 See also 9 References 10 Other sources 11 External links

Names[edit] The river was known as the Tisia in antiquity; other ancient names for it included Tissus (in Latin) and Pathissus (Πάθισσος in Ancient Greek), (Pliny, Naturalis historia, 4.25). It may be referred to as the Theiss in older English references, after the German name for the river, Theiß. It is known as the Tibisco in Italian, and in older French references (as for instance in relation to the naval battles on the Danube
between the Ottoman Empire and the Austrian Hapsburg Empire in the 17th and 18th centuries) it is often referred to as the Tibisque. Modern names for the Tisza
in the languages of the countries it flows through include:

Romanian: Tisa (pronounced [ˈtisa]); Ukrainian: Тиса (pronounced [ˈtɪsɑ]); Slovak: Tisa (pronounced [ˈcɪsa]); Hungarian: Tisza
(pronounced [ˈtisɒ]); Serbian: Тиса, Tisa (pronounced [tîsa]).

Regulation[edit] The length of the Tisza
in Hungary
used to be 1,419 km (882 mi). It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza
used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area. After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi
István Széchenyi
organised the "regulation of the Tisza" (Hungarian: a Tisza
szabályozása) which started on August 27, 1846, and substantially ended in 1880. The new length of the river in Hungary
was 1,419 km (882 mi), 1,358 km (844 mi) total, with 589 km (366 mi) of dead channels and 136 km (85 mi) of new riverbed. The resultant length of the flood-protected river comprises 2,940 km (1,830 mi) out of 4,220 km (2,620 mi) of all Hungarian protected rivers. Lake Tisza[edit] In the 1970s, the building of the Tisza Dam
Tisza Dam
at Kisköre
started with the purpose of helping to control floods as well as storing water for drought seasons. However, the resulting Lake Tisza
Lake Tisza
became one of the most popular tourist destinations in Hungary
since it had similar features to Lake Balaton
Lake Balaton
at drastically cheaper prices and was not crowded. Navigation[edit] The Tisza
is navigable over much of its course. The river opened up for international navigation only recently; before, Hungary distinguished "national rivers" and "international rivers", indicating whether non-Hungarian vessels were allowed or not. After Hungary joined the European Union, this distinction was lifted and vessels were allowed on the Tisza.[citation needed] Conditions of navigation differ with the circumstances: when the river is in flood, it is often unnavigable, just as it is at times of extreme drought.[3] Wildlife[edit] The Tisza
has a rich and varied wildlife. Over 200 species of birds reside in the bird reserve of Tiszafűred. The flood plains along the river boast large amounts of diverse plant and animal life. In particular, the yearly "flowering" of the Tisza
is considered a local natural wonder. The flowering attracts vast numbers of mayflies which is a well known spectacle.[4] Pollution[edit] Main article: 2000 Baia Mare cyanide spill In early 2000, there was a sequence of serious pollution incidents originating from accidental industrial discharges in Romania. The first, in January 2000, occurred when there was a release of sludge containing cyanide from a Romanian mine and killed 2,000 tonnes (2,000 long tons; 2,200 short tons) of fish. The second, from a mine pond at Baia Borsa, northern Romania, resulted in the release of 20,000 cubic metres (710,000 cu ft) of sludge containing zinc, lead and copper occurred in early March 2000. A week later, the third spill occurred at the same mining site at Baia Borsa, staining the river black, possibly including heavy metals.[5] This series of incidents were described at the time as the most serious environmental disaster to hit central Europe since the Chernobyl disaster. Use of river water for any purpose was temporarily banned and the Hungarian government pressed the Romanians and the European Union
European Union
to close all installations that could lead to further pollution.[5] Examination of river sediments indicates that pollution incidents from mines have occurred for over a century.[6] Geography[edit] Tributaries[edit]

The rivers of Tisza
and Bodrog
at Tokaj, from above

The Tisza
joins the Danube.

The following rivers are tributaries to the river Tisza:

Vișeu (entering at Valea Vișeului) Kosivska (entering at Luh) Shopurka (entering at Velykyi Bychkiv) Iza (entering at Sighetu Marmației) Sarasău Bic Săpânța Șaroș Teresva
(entering near Teresva) Baia Tereblia (entering at Bushtyno) Rika (entering near Khust) Batar Borzhava Tur Someș (entering near Vásárosnamény)

Someșul Mare (in Dej)

Șieu (in Beclean)

(near Bistrița)

Someșul Mic
Someșul Mic
(in Dej)

Someșul Cald (in Gilău) Someșul Rece (in Gilău)

Crasna (entering in Vásárosnamény) Bodrog
(entering in Tokaj)

(near Cejkov) Latorica
(near Cejkov)

(near Oborin)

Uzh (near Pavlovce nad Uhom) Cirocha
(in Humenné)

Stara Vicha Kerepets

(entering near Tiszaújváros)

(near Miskolc)

(entering in Szolnok) Körös (entering near Csongrád)

Sebes-Körös (near Gyoma)

Berettyó (in Szeghalom)

Crișul Alb (near Gyula) Crișul Negru (near Gyula)

Mureș (entering near Szeged)

Arieş (near Gura Arieşului) Târnava (near Teiuş)

Târnava Mare (in Blaj) Târnava Mică (in Blaj)

(entering near Bačko Petrovo Selo) Jegrička
(entering near Žabalj) Bega (entering near Titel)

Cities and towns[edit] The Tisza
(Tisa) flows through the following countries and cities (ordered from the source to mouth):


Rakhiv Tyachiv Khust Vynohradiv


Sighetu Marmației


Vásárosnamény Záhony Tokaj Tiszalök Tiszaújváros Tiszafüred Szolnok Tiszakécske Csongrád Szentes Szeged


Kanjiža Novi Kneževac Senta Ada Mol Bečej Novi Bečej

See also[edit]

Tice (wetlands) Slovakia


^ Tisza
at GEOnet Names Server ^ a b c Tockner, Klement; Uehlinger, Urs; Robinson, Christopher T., eds. (2009). Rivers of Europe (First ed.). London: Academic Press. Sec. 3.9.5. ISBN 978-0-12-369449-2.  ^ NoorderSoft Waterway Database; accessed 13 March 2016. ^ Konyvek, Szalay (2009). Our Beloved Hungaricums. Pannon-Literatura Kft. p. 94. ISBN 978-963-251-145 0.  ^ a b "Third pollution spill hits Hungary". BBC. 15 March 2000. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ H. L. Nguyen, M. Braun, I. Szaloki, W. Baeyens, R. Van Grieken and M. Leermakers (30 October 2008). "Tracing the Metal Pollution History of the Tisza
River". Springer. Retrieved 11 October 2010. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Other sources[edit]

Administrația Națională Apelor Române – Cadastrul Apelor – București Institutul de Meteorologie și Hidrologie – Rîurile României – București 1971

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tisza.

Backabanat.com, About Tisza Historia.hu, the Living Tisza
(in Hungarian) River Basin Report: Tisza
River Ywat.org Awarded "EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2010

v t e

The Danube


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Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea


Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235063686 GND: 4106223-1