This is a TIMELINE of the history and development of SERER RELIGION and the SERER PEOPLE of Senegal , The Gambia and Mauritania . This timeline merely gives an overview of their history, consisting of calibrated archaeological discoveries in Serer countries , Serer religion, politics , royalty , etc. Dates are given according to the Common Era . For a background to these events, see Roog , Serer religion , Serer creation myth , Serer prehistory , Lamane , States headed by Serer Lamanes , Serer history and Serer people . This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.
* 1 Prehistory
* 2 Medieval era (The Golden Age of West Africa)
* 2.1 9th century * 2.2 11th century * 2.3 13th century * 2.4 14th century * 2.5 15th century * 2.6 16th century
* 3 Early modern period
* 3.1 17th century * 3.2 18th century
* 4 Modern history
* 4.1 19th century * 4.2 20th century * 4.3 21st century
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 6.1 Bibliography * 6.2 Further reading
MEDIEVAL ERA (THE GOLDEN AGE OF WEST AFRICA)
* 800 AD : John Trimingham lists states on the Senegal:"800 States on the Senegal: Sanghana (Serer), Takrur, Silla, and Galam (Soninke)."
Many of the Serer village and town names they have founded still survives today.
* 850 AD : A state centered around Tekrur may have developed at this time, either as an influx of Fulani from the east settled in the Senegal valley. or according to John Donnelly Fage formed through the interaction of Berbers from the Sahara and "Negro agricultural peoples" who were "essentially Serer".
Main articles: Lamane Jegan Joof , Serer history (medieval era to present) , and Religious persecution § Persecution of the Serers "Today, the Serer retain much of their old culture, customs and traditions. In fact, it's not uncommon to hear how Serer culture has survived through the centuries in spite of all the forces which tried to destroy it." Godfrey Mwakikagile ,
* Early 11th century: According to Serer tradition
Lamane Jegan Joof
Tukar (part of present-day
* 1030 :
War Jabi usurped the throne of
Tekrur following a
revolution and made himself King of Tekrur.
* 1035 : Around this time,
War Jabi the revolutionist converted to
This era marks the exodus of the Serers of Tekrur. Those who survived
the wars and refused to convert migrated southwards to what later
became known as the Serer Kingdoms of Sine ,
Saloum and previously
Baol , rather than convert to Islam. In the south, they were granted
asylum by their distant Serer relatives, endorsed by the Great Council
of Lamanes , the highest court in Serer country. Trimingham notes
Tekrur was the first in the region to adopt
* c. 1235 : Mansa Jolofing (the Serer king of Jolof ) ransacked the caravan of gold sent by Sundiata Keita for the purchase of horses in Jolof. After this, Mansa Sundiata sent his general and cousin Tiramakhan Traore to Jolof to assassinate the Mansa Jolofing. * c. 1285/7 : Lamane Jaw on the throne of Jolof . During his reign, Mansa Sakoura (the Mansa of Imperial Mali ) launched an expedition in Senegal (c. 1285), conquered Jolof and reduced Lamane Jaw to a mere provincial chief. * c. 1290 : Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof , ancestor of the Joof dynasty of Sine and Saloum succeeded to the throne of Laah in Baol .
* 1350–1400 : The Kingdom of Sine renamed. The Guelowar period starts from 1350. Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh elected first Guelowar king to ever rule in one of the Serer countries (Kingdom of Sine). Nominated and elected by the Serers of Sine and the Great Council of Lamanes whose Council he served as legal adviser for 15 years and gave his sisters and nieces to in marriage. Maysa Wali ruled in 1350–1370. The marriages between the descendants of the ancient Serer Lamanic class and the Guelowar women created the Serer paternal dynasties and the Guelowar maternal dynasty which lasted for over 600 years. Some members of the Serer nobility were opposed to the nomination and election of Maysa Wali, in particular Lamane Pangha Yaya Sarr (many variations: Penga Yaye Sarr, etc.), because Maysa Wali did not have a Serer father nor a Serer mother in spite of his assimilation into Serer culture, long service to the Great Council and coming from royalty himself. None of Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali's descendants ruled in any of the Serer kingdoms after him. The children and descendants of the Serer men and Guelowar women became Serers with loyalty to Serer religion , the Serer people , the Serer countries, culture and language, and all ties with Kaabu were severed. In this period, the old Serer paternal dynasties survived but the old Wagadou maternal dynasty collapsed in Sine and later Saloum, except in Baol and other places. The Guelowar period is the last of Serer dynastic periodization * 1360 : Oral tradition reports that Ndiadiane Ndiaye (also called Bourba Jolof Njajaan Njie) founded the Jolof Empire , an empire founded by a voluntary confederation of states. John Donnelly Fage suggests although dates in the early 13th century (and others say 12th century) are usually ascribed to this king and the founding of the empire, a more likely scenario is "that the rise of the empire was associated with the growth of Wolof power at the expense of the ancient Sudanese state of Takrur, and that this was essentially a fourteenth-century development." Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali was said to be instrumental in the founding of this empire, nominating Njajaan Njie to lead the Jolof Empire and called for the other states join this condederacy under Njajaan which they did according to the epics of Njajaan and Maysa Wali. The Maad a Sinig thus took the Kingdom of Sine to this confederacy. Though the establishment of this empire was voluntary, its disestablishment was not. This era marks the deterioration of the Mali Empire as it began to loose some of its former vassal states. Although it did not collapse completely, Imperial Mali was not as powerful as it once was.
Main article: Kingdom of Saloum
* 1446 : The Portuguese slave trader Nuno Tristão and his party attempted a slave raiding expedition in Serer territory. They all succumbed to Serer poisoned arrows except five young Portuguese (or less). One of them was left to charter their caravel back to Portugal . Nuno was amongst those killed. * 1455 : the Venetian slave trader and chronicler Alvise Cadamosto having bought Wolof slaves in Cayor , decided to stop his ship at the Serer community living on the border of Wolof Cayor. Alvise wrote how these Serer community looked menacing and unwelcoming. He then went on to say that, after seeing their ship approaching, this Serer community stood guard at the beach. The captain of the ship gave the order for no one to come off the ship and the ship was parked further away from the beach. Alvise Cadamosto sent his Wolof interpreter to go and negotiate slave terms with this Serer community whilst he (Alvise) and his Portuguese party remained in the ship. The Wolof interpreter was killed on the spot by these Serers for bringing slave traders into their territory. None of Alvise's party came off, instead, the ship departed and headed towards the Gambia . Alvise also corrupted the Kingdom of Sine by calling it the Kingdom of _Barbaçim_ and the Serer people of Sine as _Barbacins_ among other names which many Europeans of this era referred to the Serer people as in their old maps (See : Kingdom of Sine ). * 1493 : Maad Saloum Mbegan Ndour , King of Saloum succeeded to the throne.
* 1549 : The Battle of Danki , Amary Ngoneh Sobel Faal assisted by
his first cousin Prince Manguinak Joof (var : Manguinak Diouf, a
member of the old Joof dynasty of Baol), both nephews of Teigne Njuko
Njie (the last member of the Serer paternal dynasty to rule
defeated the King of Jolof Lele Fuuli Faak
Njie and disestablished the
Jolof Empire. Lele Fuuli was killed at Danki. Amari Ngoneh united the
Cayor temporarily, Manguinak Joof was honoured with the
title _Ber Jak_ of
Cayor (equivalent of
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
* 1678 : The Serers of Sine and Baol refused to welcome the French merchants who have settled on the Petite Côte and thus lodge a complaint to their respective kings (the Maad a Sinig (king of Sine) and the Teigne (king of Baol). That year, the king of Sine and Baol with their armies sacked the French post. The following year, Admiral du Casse launched a revenge attack and defeated them.
Main articles: Maad Semou Njekeh Joof and The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof
* c. 1717 : Founding of The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof by Maad Semou Njekeh Joof . The third and last royal house founded by the Joof family . * c. 1724 – 1735 : Maad a Sinig Boukar Tjilas Sanghaie Joof son of Maad Semou Njekeh Joof, ruled the Kingdom of Sine .
_ 19th century war drum called junjung _ in Serer language . Played when Serer kings and warriors went to war. From the Kingdom of Sine.
"The noble qualities are found in Serer countries, though they only lack Islam..."
* 1851 : Death of the Serer warlord Sandigue Ndiob Niokhobai Joof (father of King Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof , of Sine )
* 1853 : Maad a Sinig Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof , the most controversial king of Sine died.
* Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof succeeded Maad Ama Joof as King of Sine.
* 1853–1871 : The national anthem, moto and flag of Sine officiated during the reign of Maad Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof.
* 1857 : Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof (the King of Sine ) granted Teigne Chai Yassin Faal (var : Thiés Yacine Fall, King of Baol ) asylum after he was defeated and exiled by the French at the Battle of Pouri. * 18 May 1859 : The Battle of Logandème , Louis Faidherbe, the French governor of Senegal defeated the Serer people of Sine and Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof at Logandème.
* The Battle of Nandjigui (1859) : The King of
Saloum – Maad
Saloum Kumba Ndama Mbodj (var : Coumba Ndama) killed by the Muslim
* 1861 : The great Jogomay Tine of Gorom was displeased when Damel Majojo Faal (the French-backed puppet king of Cayor ) conceded his province to the French governor – Louis Faidherbe . Damel -Teigne Lat Jorr Ngoneh Latir Jobe who had now form good relations with the French was invited by the French to occupy the region including Jogomay Tine's province. Majojo was declared too incompetent by the French. Jogomay Tine refused to submit to neither Lat Jorr nor the French, and refused to authorise the Serer population of his province to part take in the 1863 census . In April 1863, governor Émile Pinet-Laprade of France authorized the French forces to enter his province. He was killed by the gun shot.
* Disgruntled members of the
* 1862 : The Battle of Tchicat, Maba Diakhou Bâ launched jihad in the Serer Kingdom of Saloum at Tchicat against Maad Saloum Samba Laobe Latsouka Sira Jogop Faal. That same year, he launched jihad against the Kingdom of Baol .
* 6 October 1862 : At the Battle of Gouye Ndiouli, the King of Saloum – Samba Laobe Latsouka Sira Jogop Faal (son of Princess Latsouka Sira Jogop Mbodj of Saloum) – had to battle his own father Ma Kodu Joof Faal the King of Cayor, who previously rejected the throne of Saloum in favour of Cayor until he was defeated and driven out of Cayor by the French. When he tried to reclaim the throne of Saloum after his defeat, the Great Jaraff and his Noble Council refused to crown him king of Saloum. The young king of Saloum (Samba Laobe) defeated his father, paternal uncle and their armies, and drove them out of Saloum.
* July 1863 : The Serers massacred the French soldiers at the
garrison of Pout . The French sergeant barely escaped with his life.
Pinet Laprade (the French governor in
Senegal ) within few days
exercised reprisals for the massacres and built the first fort in
* c. 12 January 1864 :
Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof (King
of Sine) granted asylum to Lat Jorr Ngoneh Latir Jobe (King of Cayor)
after he was defeated and exiled by the French governor in Senegal
Émile Pinet-Laprade ). According to Serer oral tradition, Lat Jorr
was well received in Sine just as
El Hadj Umar Tall was well received
when he visited Sine. However, Lat Jorr they say betrayed the Kingdom
of Sine when he sided with
Maba Diakhou Ba at "The Surprise of Mbin o
Ngor" and at
The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune .
* 1867 : The surprise of Mbin o Ngor – the Muslims surprised the
Serer people of Mbin o Ngor, a small village in the
Kingdom of Sine .
* 18 July 1867 :
The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune (also known as
the Battle of Somb),
Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof (King of
Sine) defeated the
* c. 1905 / 1906 : The French assisted the Wolofs against the Serers at the Battle of Diobas. The Wolofs were victorious. * 1909 : At Rufisque , Galandou Diouf became the first African to be elected official during the colonial period. * 28 January 1924 : The last king of Sine Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof succeeded to the throne. * 1929 : Emergence of négritude . In Senegal, led by Léopold Sédar Senghor. * c. 1930 : Alioune Sarr , the historian and author developed his famous work "Histoire du Sine-Saloum ". A work that has become one of the benchmarks of Serer medieval history .
* 1938 : First strikes of railway workers in Thies .
* Creation of the Institut Fondamental d\'Afrique Noire (IFAN) at Dakar . Although founded under the premise of civilising , it did provide the Serer intelligentsia like Léopold Sédar Senghor, etc., as well as other Senegalese groups with the platform to showcase their work.
* 1939–1945 :
World War II
* October 1947 – March 1948 : Strike of railway workers in Thies
* Extension of the Afrique occidentale française
* 1948 : Political split of
Léopold Sédar Senghor and Lamine
Guèye and the foundation of Bloc démocratique sénégalais (BDS)
* 1958 : Dissolution of the Afrique occidentale française (AOF)
* 1959 :
Alhaji Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof the Gambian historian,
author, nationalist and politician organized and led the Bread and
Butter Demonstration in the
British colonialism .
* 4 April 1960 : Independence of
Senegal from colonial France.
* 6 September 1960 :
Léopold Sédar Senghor became the first
* 1 May 1963 :
Alhaji Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof , the
Gambia 's leading
nationalist and Pan-Africanist in the colonial-era delivered a speech
in the first ever conference of the
Organization of African Unity held
* 1 April 2000 :
Wikimedia Commons has media related to SERER HISTORY _.
* ^ Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer, _Cosaan_", p 62
* ^ Trimingham, John Spencer, "A history of
* Gravrand, Henry , "La Civilisation Sereer – Pangool", vol.2, Les
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* Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer, VOL.1, Cosaan : les
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* Gravrand, Henry : "L’HERITAGE SPIRITUEL SEREER : VALEUR
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* Becker, Charles: "Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du
passé clans les pays sereer". Dakar. 1993. CNRS – ORS TO M
* Foltz, William J., "From French West
* Sonko-Godwin, Patience , "Ethnic groups of the Senegambia Region ", Sunrise Publishers Ltd (2003), ASIN B007HFNIHS * Sonko-Godwin, Patience, "Leaders of the Senegambia Region", Reaction to European infiltration 19th-20th Century, Sunrise Publishers Ltd (1995), ISBN 9983-8600-2-3 * Faye, Louis Diène , "Mort et Naissance le monde sereer", Les Nouvelles Edition Africaines (1983), ISBN 2-7236-0868-9 * Crousse, Bernard, Le Bris, Émile & Le Roy, Étienne, "Espaces disputés en Afrique noire : pratiques foncières locales", Karthala, ISBN 2-86537-146-8 * Gastellu, Jean-Marc, "L'égalitarisme économique des Serer du Sénégal", ORSTOM, Paris, 1981, ISBN 2-7099-0591-4 (Thèse de Sciences économiques soutenue à l'Université Paris 10 en 1978) * Cyr Descamps, Guy Thilmans et Y. ThommeretLes tumulus coquilliers des îles du Saloum (Sénégal), Bulletin ASEQUA, Dakar, Université Cheikh Anta Diop , Dakar, 1979, n° 54 * Kalis, Simone, "Médecine traditionnelle, religion et divination chez les Seereer Siin du Sénégal", (_La connaissance de la nuit_), L'Harmattan (1997), ISBN 2-7384-5196-9 * Ngom, Pierre, Gaye, Aliou, ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
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