HOME
The Info List - Timeline Of London



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

The following is a timeline of the history of London
London
, the capital of England
England
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The area covered is that of modern Greater London
London
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Prehistory * 2 Early history to 11th century * 3 11th–15th centuries * 4 1500s * 5 1600s * 6 1700s

* 7 19th century

* 7.1 1800s–1840s * 7.2 1850s–1870s * 7.3 1880s–1890s

* 8 20th century

* 8.1 1900s–1930s * 8.2 1940s–1990s

* 9 21st century * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

PREHISTORY

* 120000 BCE – Elephant and hippopotamus roam the site of Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
. * 6000 BCE – Hunter-gatherers on the site of Heathrow Terminal 5
Heathrow Terminal 5
.

* 4000 BCE – Mesolithic timber structure on the River Thames foreshore, south of the site of Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Bridge. * 3800 BCE – Stanwell Cursus
Cursus
constructed. * 2300–1500 BCE – Possible community on Chiswick Eyot in the Thames. * 1500 BCE – Bronze Age bridge from the foreshore north of Vauxhall
Vauxhall
Bridge. This bridge either crossed the Thames, or went to a now lost island in the river. * 300–1 BCE – Iron Age oppidum in Woolwich
Woolwich
, possibly London's first port, in the late-Roman period reused as a fort.

EARLY HISTORY TO 11TH CENTURY

Main articles: Londinium and Anglo-Saxon London
London

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF LONDON

* Roman London
London
* Anglo-Saxon London
London
* Norman and Medieval London
London
* Tudor London
London
* Stuart London
London
* 18th-century London
London
* 19th-century London
London
* London
London
1900–39 * London
London
in World War II
World War II
* Modern London
London
(from 1945) * London
London
in the 1960s

SEE ALSO

* Timeline

London
London
portal

* v * t * e

* 43 CE – Settlement named Londinium . * 50 – London
London
bridge is constructed out of wood. * 60 or 61 – Londinium sacked by forces of Boudica . * 122 – Construction of forum in Londinium is completed; Emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
visits. There is a major fire in the city at about this time. * c. 190–225: London
London
Wall constructed. * c. 214 – London
London
becomes capital of the province of Britannia Inferior . * c. 240 – London
London
Mithraeum built. * c. 250 – Coasting barge "Blackfriars I " sinks in the Thames at Blackfriars . * 255 – Work begins on a riverside wall in London. * 296 – Constantius Chlorus occupies Londinium, saving it from attack by mercenary Franks
Franks
. * 368 – City known as Augusta by this date, indicating it is a Roman provincial capital. * 490 – Saxons in power; city largely abandoned. * By early 7th century: Settlement at Lundenwic (modern-day Aldwych ). * c. 604 – First Bishop of London
London
in the modern succession consecrated, Mellitus . * 650 – Market active.

* 675

* An early fire of London
London
destroys the wooden Anglo-Saxon cathedral which is rebuilt in stone over the following decade. * Church of All Hallows-by-the-Tower founded in the City by Barking Abbey .

* 798 – An early fire of London
London
. * 838 – First mention of Kingston upon Thames . * 842 – Raided by Vikings
Vikings
with "great slaughter". * 851 – Besieged by Vikings. * 871 – Autumn: Danes take up winter quarters in Mercian London.

* 886

* Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
restores London
London
to Mercia
Mercia
. * London
London
Mint established.

* 911 – Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
, King of Wessex , transfers London
London
from Mercia
Mercia
to Wessex
Wessex
. * 918 – Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders and daughter of King Alfred, donates Kentish lands, including Lewisham , Greenwich
Greenwich
and Woolwich
Woolwich
, to St. Peter\'s Abbey in Ghent
Ghent
. * 925 – 4 September: Coronation of Æthelstan as King of Wessex at Kingston upon Thames . * 978 – Coronation of Æthelred as King of the English at Kingston upon Thames. * 982 – An early fire of London
London
. * 989 – An early fire of London
London
burns from Aldgate
Aldgate
to Ludgate
Ludgate
.

11TH–15TH CENTURIES

Main article: Norman and Medieval London
London

* 1009 – August: Vikings
Vikings
attack London. * 1014? – Olaf II Haraldsson of Norway perhaps attacks London
London
and burns the wooden London
London
Bridge in support of Æthelred. * 1016 – May: Battle of Brentford : King Edmund Ironside
Edmund Ironside
defeats Cnut the Great , who then besieges London.

* 1066

* 25 December: William the Conqueror crowned King of England
England
in Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
. * Tower of London
London
established.

* 1067 – City of London
London
chartered . * c. 1078 – Construction of the White Tower (Tower of London) begins; it is probably largely completed by 1088. * 1087 – An early fire of London
London
destroys much of the city including St Paul\'s Cathedral . * 1091 – 23 October: London
London
tornado of 1091 destroys the wooden London
London
Bridge and severely damages the church of St Mary-le-Bow and other buildings. * 1099 – Westminster Hall
Westminster Hall
built.

* 1100

* 5 August: Coronation of Henry I at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
by Maurice (bishop of London) . * 15 August: Ranulf Flambard
Ranulf Flambard
, Bishop of Durham, becomes the first person imprisoned in the Tower of London
London
, by the new king for supposed embezzlement; on 3 February 1101 he becomes the first person to escape from the Tower.

* 1106 – Southwark Priory refounded by Augustinians . * 1109 – First charter to Kingston upon Thames . * 1114 – Merton Priory established. * 1123 – St Bartholomew\'s Hospital , St Bartholomew-the-Great priory and Smithfield meat market established. * 1133 – A royal charter establishes the first annual Bartholomew Fair at Smithfield ; later to become England's largest cloth fair. * 1135 – 26 May: The Great Fire of 1135 destroys the wooden London Bridge . * c. 1140s – Winchester Palace built in Southwark
Southwark
. * 1141 – July: The Anarchy : Matilda I of Boulogne , wife of the imprisoned King Stephen , recaptures London. * 1147 – St Katharine\'s by the Tower church and hospital founded. * 1155 – Worshipful Company of Weavers chartered. * 1163 – New wooden London
London
Bridge built. * 1176 – Construction of the first stone-built London
London
Bridge begins. * 1180 – Guild of Pepperers, predecessor of the Worshipful Company of Grocers and the Apothecaries, is founded. * 1185 – 10 February: Temple Church
Temple Church
consecrated.

* 1189

* 3 September: Coronation of Richard I in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. Rising against Jews
Jews
in London. * Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone becomes first mayor of London
London
. * Fair active.

* 1196 – Spring: A popular uprising of the poor against the rich is led by William Fitz Osbert (who is hanged). * c. 1200 – The royal treasury is transferred to Westminster
Westminster
from Winchester
Winchester
. * 1205 – January: Exceptionally cold. * 1209 – Rebuilding of London
London
Bridge in stone completed. * 1210 – c. November: Three "leopards" (probably lions) given to Henry III of England
England
by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor , become the first creatures in the menagerie at the Tower of London
London
. * 1212 – 10 July: The Great Fire of 1212 in Southwark
Southwark
. Thatched roofs are prohibited in the City as a consequence. * 1215 – 17 May: Rebellious barons occupy London. * 1216 – 21 May: First Barons\' War : Louis, Count of Artois invades England
England
in support of the barons, landing in Thanet . Entering London
London
without opposition, he is proclaimed, but not crowned, King of England
England
at St Paul\'s Cathedral . * c. 1219 – First, timber, Kingston Bridge completed. * 1222 – 15 July: Rioting after London
London
defeats Westminster
Westminster
in an annual wrestling contest; ring-leaders hanged or mutilated in punishment. * 1234 – 2 December: A royal decree prohibits institutes of legal education within the City. * 1236 – Many killed in floods in Woolwich
Woolwich
. * 1240 – Old St Paul\'s Cathedral is consecrated . * 1241 – White Friars' monastery founded. * 1245 – Savoy Palace
Savoy Palace
built. * 1247 – Bethlem Royal Hospital founded as the Priory of the New Order of St Mary of Bethlem. * 1253 – Austin Friars monastery founded. * 1262 – First church of St Mary Abbots
St Mary Abbots
in Kensington
Kensington
founded. * 1263 – 16 July: Rebels occupy London. * 1265 – Covent Garden
Covent Garden
market established. * 1267 – 9 April: Second Barons\' War : Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford occupies London. * 1272 – Worshipful Company of Cordwainers and Worshipful Company of Curriers granted rights to regulate the leather trade in the City; Fishmongers Company chartered. * By 1290 – St Etheldreda\'s Church built; after 1878 it will be the oldest Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church building in London. * 1291–4 – Eleanor crosses erected across England
England
marking the route of the funeral procession at the end of 1290 of Edward I's Queen, Eleanor of Castile , to Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. In London
London
they are erected at Westcheap and Charing Cross
Charing Cross
. * 1295 – Southwark
Southwark
(UK Parliament constituency) established. * 1296 – Edward I brings the Stone of Scone from Scotland to Westminster
Westminster
Abbey; it will be returned in 1996. * 1298 – City of London
London
(UK Parliament constituency) established. * 1299 – A fire damages the Palace of Westminster
Westminster
. * 1304 – Recorder of London
London
appointed. * 1305 – 23 August: Scottish patriot William Wallace
William Wallace
is hanged, drawn and quartered at Smithfield following a trial for treason in Westminster Hall
Westminster Hall
. * 1307 – The Tabard inn established in Southwark. * 1308 – Woolwich
Woolwich
Ferry first mentioned. * 1309 – Thames freezes.

* 1314

* Completion of Old St Paul\'s Cathedral . * Mayor prohibits playing of football in environs of London.

* 1320 – Hanseatic League merchants establish the Steelyard , a Kontor , in Dowgate . * 1322 – Armourers\' Guild instituted. * 1326 – 15 October: Walter de Stapledon , Bishop of Exeter and Lord High Treasurer, is murdered by the London
London
mob. * 1327 – Goldsmiths\' Company , Merchant Taylors\' Company and Skinners\' Company incorporated. * c. 1329 – Marshalsea prison in operation in Southwark. * 1331 – Butchers\' Guild granted the right to regulate the meat trade in the City. * 1344 – Clifford\'s Inn founded. * c. 1345 – Durham House built in Westminster. * 1348 – September–May 1349: Outbreak of Black Death
Black Death
at its peak. * 1354 – Title of Lord Mayor of London
London
first granted. * 1361 – Company of Drapers founded (chartered 1364). * 1363 – 15 July: Company of Vintners chartered. * 1366 – Jewel Tower of Palace of Westminster
Westminster
completed. * 1371 – London
London
Charterhouse established.

* 1377

* 20 February: Riots in London
London
after John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
attacks the privileges of the City. * Royal Mews
Royal Mews
at Charing Cross
Charing Cross
.

* 1378 – Staple Inn becomes one of the Inns of Chancery .

* 1381 – Peasants\' Revolt :

* 12 June: Rebels from Kent
Kent
and Essex
Essex
, led by Wat Tyler
Wat Tyler
and Jack Straw , meet at Blackheath , where they are encouraged by a sermon from renegade Lollard priest John Ball . * 14 June: Rebels destroy John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
's Savoy Palace
Savoy Palace
and storm the Tower of London
London
, finding and beheading Simon Sudbury, and also Robert Hales , Lord High Treasurer . King Richard II (age 14) meets the leaders of the revolt and agrees to reforms such as fair rents and the abolition of serfdom . * 15 June: Peasants' Revolt: During further negotiations, Wat Tyler is murdered by the King's entourage. Noble forces subsequently overpower the rebel army, the rebel leaders are captured and executed and Richard revokes his concessions.

* 1382 – 21 May: Shocks from an earthquake in Canterbury are felt as an ' Earthquake
Earthquake
Synod ' is held in London. * 1388 – Inner and Middle Temples recorded as corporate bodies. * 1392 – King Richard II retakes control of London. * 1394 – Mercers Company incorporated. * 1397 – 6 June: Richard Whittington nominated mayor for the first of four terms, arranging for the City to buy back its liberties from the Crown. * 1403 – Stationers\' Company formed.

* 1407

* Company of Merchant Adventurers of London
London
chartered. * Plague.

* 1414 – 9 January: A Lollard rebellion in London
London
is suppressed.

* 1415

* Syon Monastery founded * Approximate date: Moorgate rebuilt.

* 1416

* Guildhall rebuilt. * Worshipful Company of Ironmongers chartered.

* 1422 – Lincoln\'s Inn recorded as a corporate body. * 1425 – 30 October: Henry Beaufort , Lord Chancellor, tries to occupy London. * 1427 – Harmondsworth Great Barn is completed. * 1428 – Company of Grocers is granted a royal charter and completes its hall. * 1430 – Tavern established in High Holborn which in modern times becomes Henneky's Long Bar and the Cittie of Yorke .

* 1434

* "Hopping Hall" tavern recorded in Whitehall
Whitehall
which in modern times becomes the Red Lion . * 23 November: The Thames freezes downstream of London
London
Bridge .

* 1437 – Worshipful Company of Vintners incorporated. * 1442 – City of London
London
School established. * 1444 – 24 April: Serious fire at Old St Paul\'s Cathedral . * 1448 – Haberdashers Company chartered.

* 1450

* July: War tax rebellion . * September: Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York marches an army to London
London
and attacks alleged traitors in the royal government.

* 1452 – First record of a Lord Mayor's barge. * 1455 – 22 May: Battle of St Albans occurs near London.

* 1460

* 26 June: Wars of the Roses : Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Edward, Earl of March (eldest son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York ) land at Sandwich with an army and march on London
London
. Here the Earl of Salisbury
Salisbury
remains and, with the support of the citizens, besieges the Tower of London
London
whose Lancastrian commander, Lord Scales , on 4 July turns its weapons against the city. * 19 July: Lord Scales surrenders the Tower of London
London
to the Yorkists; he is subsequently murdered by a mob. * 29 July: Hansa merchants expelled from London
London
as Anglo-Hanseatic War breaks out with the Hanseatic League .

* 1461 – Barbers Company incorporated. * 1466 – Crosby Hall built in Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
by wool merchant John Crosby (died 1476) .

* 1471 – Wars of the Roses

* 14 April: At the Battle of Barnet
Battle of Barnet
, Edward IV defeats the Lancastrian army under Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
, who is killed. * May: Lancastrian commander Thomas Neville is prevented from entering the City but burns Southwark
Southwark
.

* 1474 – Pewterers Company incorporated. * 1475 – Construction begins on the new hall of Eltham Palace . * 1476 – September/December: William Caxton
William Caxton
sets up the first printing press in England, at Westminster
Westminster
, producing his first full-length book on 18 November 1477. * 1477 – Carpenters Company chartered. * 1478 – Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales published by Caxton at Westminster. * 1480 – Fullers' Company chartered, a predecessor of the Worshipful Company of Clothworkers . * 1481 – Royal charter
Royal charter
to Kingston upon Thames granting borough status.

* 1484

* 2 March: A royal charter is granted to the College of Arms , the official English heraldic authority . * 10 April: An award by Sir Robert Billesdon, Lord Mayor of London
London
, decides the order of precedence of the City livery companies , resolving a dispute between the Merchant Taylors and Skinners by a compromise.

* 1485 – Yeoman Warders of His Majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress the Tower of London
London
formed by the new king Henry VII .

* 1486

* Bakers\' Company chartered. * Rebuilding of church of St Margaret\'s, Westminster
Westminster
begins.

* 1497 – 17 June: Cornish rebels under Michael An Gof are soundly defeated by Henry VII at the Battle of Deptford
Deptford
Bridge .

1500S

Main article: Tudor London
London

* 1500 – Wynkyn de Worde
Wynkyn de Worde
moves his print shop from Westminster
Westminster
to join others in Fleet Street
Fleet Street
. * 1501 – March: First royal court held at the new Richmond Palace . * 1503 – 24 January: Construction of Henry VII\'s Chapel at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
begins. * 1504 – St. John's Gate built. * 1508 – Shearmens' Company chartered, a predecessor of the Worshipful Company of Clothworkers . * 1509 – St Paul\'s School, London
London
, is founded by John Colet
John Colet
, Dean of St. Paul's.

* 1512

* Savoy Hospital opens. * Woolwich
Woolwich
Dockyard established for the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
.

* 1513 – Deptford Dockyard
Deptford Dockyard
established for the Royal Navy.

* 1514

* 20 May: Trinity House is established as a guild of mariners at Deptford
Deptford
to regulate pilotage . * 13 June: Henry Grace à Dieu , at over 1,000 tons the largest warship in the world at this time, built at the new Woolwich
Woolwich
Dockyard , is dedicated at Erith
Erith
. * 15 September: Thomas Wolsey is appointed Archbishop of York and begins to build York House . * Thomas Wolsey leases Hampton Court Palace ; in 1515 he becomes a Cardinal and begins to rebuild it lavishly.

* 1517 – 1 May: Evil May Day unrest occurs at St Paul\'s Cross . * 1523 – Rebuilding of church of St Margaret\'s, Westminster completed. * 1527 – Sir George Monoux College , Walthamstow
Walthamstow
, is founded as a grammar school by Sir George Monoux , draper and Lord Mayor of London.

* 1528

* 18 January: Worshipful Company of Clothworkers incorporated by royal charter, merging the Fullers' and Shearmens' Companies and taking over the latter's hall. * June?: Thomas Wolsey gives Hampton Court Palace to King Henry VIII . * July: Major outbreak of sweating sickness in London.

* 1532

* St Andrew Undershaft church built. * Erection of " Holbein Gate
Holbein Gate
" across Whitehall
Whitehall
is completed. * Henry VIII purchases the area surrounding the Tyburn
Tyburn
(stream) which will become St. James\'s Park .

* 1535

* 4 May: First Carthusian Martyrs of London
London
. From now until 1681, 105 Catholic martyrs will be executed at Tyburn
Tyburn
. * Sutton House built as Bryck Place in Hackney by Ralph Sadler .

* 1536

* 19 May: Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
executed at the Tower of London. * 22 December: Thames freezes. * St James\'s Palace built in Westminster. * Hyde Park acquired by the king from the canons of Westminster Abbey and enclosed as a deer park.

* 1537

* 25 August: Honourable Artillery Company
Honourable Artillery Company
chartered. * 18 May: Dissolution of the Monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries
: London
London
Charterhouse dissolved.

* 1538 – Dissolution of the Monasteries: Merton Priory dissolved. * 1539 – Dissolution of the Monasteries: Syon Monastery dissolved and community exiled; St Thomas\' Hospital closed; and Convent
Convent
of Holy Trinity, Minories surrendered.

* 1540

* 28 July: Thomas Cromwell is executed on order from the king on charges of treason in public on Tower Hill
Tower Hill
. * Dissolution of the Monasteries: Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
granted the status of cathedral (which it retains until 1550) and Southwark
Southwark
Priory surrendered to the Crown.

* 1543

* Queen Elizabeth\'s Hunting Lodge in Epping Forest
Epping Forest
completed for Henry VIII. * Approximate date: Wyngaerde 's panorama of London
London
engraved.

* 1545

* Westminster
Westminster
(UK Parliament constituency) established. * St Giles-without-Cripplegate
St Giles-without-Cripplegate
church rebuilt.

* 1547

* 20 February: Coronation of Edward VI of England
England
in Westminster Abbey. * Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector of England, begins the construction of Somerset House
Somerset House
.

* 1550 – 24 July: French Protestant Church of London
London
established by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
. * 1551 – St Thomas\' Hospital re-established on its former site in Southwark
Southwark
by the Corporation of London
London
, taken as the founding date for St Thomas\'s Hospital Medical School . * 1552 – First pupils enter Christ\'s Hospital school for orphans at Newgate
Newgate
; it receives its royal charter on 16 June 1553. * 1553 – 19 July: Thomas White , Lord Mayor of London
London
, proclaims Mary as the rightful heir to Edward VI. On 9 August she arrives in London. * 1554 – 25 January: Wyatt\'s rebellion begins. Kingston Bridge is broken as a precautionary measure. On 9 February Thomas Wyatt surrenders. * 1555 – 4 February: John Rogers , burned at the stake at Smithfield, London
London
, is the first Marian Protestant martyr.

* 1556

* 27 June: Thirteen Protestant Stratford Martyrs are burned at the stake. * The City takes over Bridewell Palace
Bridewell Palace
as a prison and a hospital for homeless children.

* 1557

* May: Benedictine
Benedictine
monks allowed to return to Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
; they will again be expelled in 1559. * 4 May: Stationers\' Company chartered. * Hampton School founded by Robert Hammond.

* 1558 – 25 May: Enfield Grammar School founded (incorporating an earlier endowment).

* 1559

* 15 January: Elizabeth I of England
England
is crowned in Westminster Abbey. * New Custom House built. * The predecessor of the private banking house of Child 17,000 deaths over the next twelve months.

* 1593

* 5 May: "Dutch church libel": Bills posted in London
London
threatening Protestant refugees from France
France
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
allude to Christopher Marlowe
Christopher Marlowe
's plays. * 30 May: Marlowe is stabbed to death in a dispute over the bill at a lodging house in Deptford
Deptford
.

* 1594 – Bevis Bulmer sets up a system at Blackfriars to pump water to London. * 1595 – The Swan (theatre) built in Southwark.

* 1596

* February: James Burbage buys the disused Blackfriars Theatre from Sir William More for £600 but is prevented from reusing it as a public theatre by a November petition by wealthy influential neighbors. * 14 February: Archbishop John Whitgift
John Whitgift
begins building his hospital at Croydon
Croydon
.

* 1597 – Gresham College
Gresham College
founded in the City.

* 1598

* c. May?: Première of William Haughton 's Englishmen for My Money, or, A Woman Will Have Her Will , considered the first city comedy , probably by the Admiral's Men at The Rose theatre . * 22 September: Playwright Ben Jonson kills actor Gabriel Spenser in a duel at Hoxton and is briefly held in Newgate
Newgate
Prison but escapes capital punishment by pleading benefit of clergy . * 28 December: The Theatre is dismantled. * Stow's Survey of London
London
published.

* 1598–1600 – Damned Crew at large. * 1599 – Spring/Summer: Globe Theatre opens in Southwark, using building material from The Theatre.

1600S

Main article: Stuart London
London

* 1600

* January: Carpenter Peter Street is contracted to build the Fortune Playhouse just north of the City by theatrical manager Philip Henslowe and his stepson-in-law, the leading actor Edward Alleyn , for the Admiral\'s Men , who move there from The Rose by the end of the year. * 31 December: East India Company
East India Company
granted a Royal Charter.

* 1601 – 25 February: Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Essex
, is executed for treason (for his part in a short-lived rebellion in the previous month against the Queen), becoming the last person beheaded on Tower Green in the Tower of London
London
, the sword being wielded by Thomas Derrick .

* 1603

* 24 March: Elizabeth I dies at Richmond Palace and is succeeded on the throne of England
England
by her cousin James VI of Scotland . * c. April: Outbreak of plague in which 29,000 die. * 28 April: Funeral of Elizabeth I in Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
. * 7 May: Crowds welcome James's arrival in London. * 25 July: Coronation of James I in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. * The new king orders the creation of St. James\'s Park .

* 1604 – 15 March: Royal Entry of King James to London.

* 1605

* 5 November: Gunpowder Plot
Gunpowder Plot
: A plot to blow up the Houses of Parliament and the King is foiled when, following an anonymous tip-off, Catholic plotter Guy Fawkes is found in a cellar below the Parliament with 36 barrels of gunpowder . * Worshipful Company of Gardeners and Worshipful Company of Butchers chartered. * Approximate date: Construction of Northumberland House at Charing Cross for Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton , begins.

* 1608

* July–December: Plague (which recurs in the two following years). * Foundation of Royal Blackheath Golf Club claimed.

* 1609 – Lord Mayor\'s Show revived.

* 1611

* Thomas Sutton founds Charterhouse School
Charterhouse School
on the site of the old Carthusian monastery in Charterhouse Square , Smithfield . * Hicks Hall built.

* 1613

* 29 September: New River opens to supply London
London
with fresh water. * The Honourable The Irish Society incorporated as a consortium of City livery companies to colonise County Londonderry
County Londonderry
during the Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
.

* 1614 – October: Hope Theatre opens in Southwark. On 31 October Ben Jonson 's Bartholomew Fayre: A Comedy debuts here. * c. 1615 – Clerkenwell Bridewell (prison) in operation.

* 1616

* The Anchor Brewery is established by James Monger next to the Globe Theatre in Southwark
Southwark
; it will be the world's largest by the early nineteenth century and brew until the 1970s. * Engraved Visscher panorama of London
London
published.

* 1616–35 – Queen\'s House built at Greenwich
Greenwich
to a design by Inigo Jones .

* 1617

* 23 August: The first one-way streets are created in alleys near the Thames. * December: Worshipful Society of Apothecaries incorporated. * Aldersgate
Aldersgate
rebuilt. * Goldsmiths\' Company barge built. * Approximate date: New Prison in operation.

* 1618 – The Company of Adventurers of London
London
Trading to the Ports of Africa granted a monopoly on trade from Guinea.

* 1619

* January: The royal Banqueting House, Whitehall
Whitehall
is destroyed by fire. Inigo Jones is commissioned to design a replacement. * 21 June: Alleyn\'s College of God's Gift established by actor-manager Edward Alleyn at Dulwich
Dulwich
, incorporating the school, Dulwich
Dulwich
College .

* 1620 – July: The Mayflower
Mayflower
embarks about 65 Pilgrims at its home port of Rotherhithe
Rotherhithe
bound for Cape Cod
Cape Cod
in North America
North America
.

* 1621

* Spring–October (approx.): Corante: or, Newes from Italy, Germany, Hungarie, Spaine and France
France
, one of the first English language newspapers (translated from the Dutch), circulates in London.

* Hackney coach first recorded.

* 1622

* 6 January (probable date): New Banqueting House, Whitehall
Whitehall
, opens with a performance of Ben Jonson 's The Masque of Augurs designed by the building's architect, Inigo Jones . * 23 May: Nathaniel Butter begins publication of Newes from Most Parts of Christendom or Weekley Newes from Italy, Germany, Hungaria, Bohemia, the Palatinate, France
France
and the Low Countries.

* 1623 – November/December: Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, court and Parliament temporarily move to Oxford
Oxford
. * Queen\'s Chapel completed in Westminster.

* 1626 – 2 February: Coronation of Charles I of England
England
in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey.

* 1629

* May: Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers founded. * Approximate date: Development of Lincoln\'s Inn Fields for housing begins.

* 1630 – The central square of Covent Garden
Covent Garden
is laid out and a market begins to develop there.

* 1631

* 31 January: Rebuilt St Katharine Cree church consecrated by William Laud
William Laud
, Bishop of London. * December: The Holland\'s Leguer is ordered closed and besieged for a month before the closure can be carried out. * Population: 130,163 residents.

* 1632 – Forty Hall , Enfield , completed. * 1633 – St Paul\'s, Covent Garden
Covent Garden
, designed by Inigo Jones in 1631 overlooking his piazza , opens to worship, the first wholly new church built in London
London
since the English Reformation . * 1635 – First General Post Office
General Post Office
opens to the public, at Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
. * 1636 – Goldsmith\'s Hall rebuilt. * 1636–37 – Plague. * 1637 – Hyde Park opens to the public in Westminster. * 1640 – 11 December: Root and Branch petition presented to Parliament .

* 1642

* 4 January: Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament , but they escape. This is the last time any monarch will enter the House of Commons . * 2 September: London
London
theatre closure 1642 : Parliament orders closure of London's playhouses, effectively ending the era of English Renaissance theatre . * 12 November: Battle of Brentford ( First English Civil War ): Royalist victory. * 13 November: Battle of Turnham Green
Battle of Turnham Green
(First English Civil War): Royalist forces withdraw in face of the Parliamentarian army and fail to take London.

* 1647

* 7 August: Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
takes control of the Parliament of England
England
with the New Model Army , an attempt by Presbyterian
Presbyterian
MPs to raise the City of London
London
having been unsuccessful. * Original Eleanor Cross
Eleanor Cross
at Charing Cross
Charing Cross
demolished. * Wenceslaus Hollar
Wenceslaus Hollar
's Long View of London
London
from Bankside
Bankside
etched in Antwerp.

* 1648

* 11 September: The Levellers ' largest petition , "To The Right Honourable The Commons Of England" (The humble Petition
Petition
of Thousands well-affected persons inhabiting the City of London, Westminster, the Borough of Sonthwark Hamblets, and places adjacent), is presented to the Long Parliament after amassing signatories including about a third of all Londoners (including women). * 6 December: Pride\'s Purge : Troops of the New Model Army under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride (and under the orders of General Ireton ) arrest or exclude Presbyterian
Presbyterian
members of the Long Parliament who are not supporters of the Army's Grandees or Independents, creating the Rump Parliament .

* 1649

* 3 January: An explosion of several barrels of gunpowder in Tower Street, London
London
kills 67 people and destroys 60 houses. * 30 January: Charles I of England
England
executed outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall
Whitehall
.

* 1652 – Coffee house in business near Cornhill , opened by Pasqua Rosée .

* 1656

* May: First performance of The Siege of Rhodes , Part I, by Sir William Davenant
William Davenant
, the first English opera (under the guise of a recitative ), in a private theatre at his home, Rutland House , in the City. This also includes the innovative use of painted backdrops and the appearance of England's first professional actress , Mrs. Coleman. * Winter?: Lisle\'s Tennis Court built in Lincoln\'s Inn Fields for real tennis .

* 1657

* 8 January: Miles Sindercombe and his group of disaffected Levellers are betrayed in their attempt to assassinate Oliver Cromwell by blowing up the Palace of Whitehall
Whitehall
and arrested. * 4 February: Resettlement of the Jews
Jews
in England
England
: Oliver Cromwell gives Antonio Fernandez Carvajal the assurance of the right of Jews
Jews
to remain in England. This year the country's first synagogue (in Creechurch Lane) and Jewish cemetery in modern times open in London. * England's first chocolate house opens in London, together with the Rainbow Coffee House , the city's second such establishment.

* 1658

* 10 March: New London, Connecticut named. * Earliest surviving terrace houses in London
London
built on Newington Green .

* 1660

* 1 January: Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
begins writing his diary . * 3 February: Colonel George Monck and his regiment arrive in London. * February: John Rhodes reopens the old Cockpit Theatre , forms a company of young actors and begins to stage plays. His production of Pericles will be the first Shakespearean performance of the Restoration era. * 29 May: Charles II arrives in London
London
and assumes the throne, marking the beginning of the English Restoration . * 13–17 October: 8 regicides of Charles I are hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross
Charing Cross
. * 28 November: Royal Society founded at Gresham College
Gresham College
. * 8 December: First actress to appear on the professional stage in a non-singing rôle, as Desdemona in Othello
Othello
; variously considered to be Margaret Hughes , Anne Marshall or Katherine Corey . * The new king orders the remodelling of St. James\'s Park in the French style. * Approximate date: Vauxhall Gardens open as the New Spring Gardens.

* 1661

* 6 January: The Fifth Monarchists unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. George Monck 's regiment defeats them. * 30 January: 4 deceased regicides of Charles I suffer posthumous execution at Tyburn
Tyburn
; Oliver Cromwell\'s head , with the others', is raised above the Palace of Westminster Hall
Westminster Hall
where it remains until the 1680s, later becoming a tourist attraction in private hands. * 23 April: Coronation of Charles II of England
England
in Westminster Abbey. * 28 June: Lisle\'s Tennis Court in Lincoln\'s Inn Fields opens as a playhouse. * September: Pall Mall laid out as a thoroughfare in Westminster.

* 1662

* 9 May: Pepys witnesses a Punch and Judy show in Covent Garden
Covent Garden
, the first on record. * 23 August: An extravagant pageant on the Thames greets the arrival of Charles II and his new queen Catherine of Braganza at the Palace of Whitehall
Whitehall
from Hampton Court . * Streets, London
London
and Westminster
Westminster
Act 1662 passed and first hackney carriage licences issued. * John Graunt
John Graunt
, in one of the earliest uses of statistics , publishes information about births and deaths in London.

* 1663

* 7 May: Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
opens. * The Olde Wine Shades
The Olde Wine Shades
built as a merchant's house in Martin Lane.

* 1664

* Francis Child enters the London
London
goldsmith 's business which, as the private banking house of Child & Co. , will still exist the 21st century. * The Russian ambassador donates the first pelicans to live in St. James\'s Park .

* 1665

* 6 March: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication. * March: 15-year-old Nell Gwyn makes her first definitely recorded appearance as an actress on the London
London
stage, having previously been a theatre orange-seller. * 12 April: The first recorded victim of the Great Plague of London dies. On 7 July the King and court leave London
London
to avoid the plague, moving first to Salisbury
Salisbury
, then (from 25 September to 1 February 1666) Oxford
Oxford
(where in October Parliament convenes). The City begins use of Bunhill Fields
Bunhill Fields
as a burial ground for the victims. * Approximate date: Grecian Coffee House established at Wapping
Wapping
.

* 1666 – 2–5 September: Great Fire of London
London
: A large fire which breaks out in the City in the house of a baker on Pudding Lane destroys more than 13,000 buildings including Old St Paul\'s Cathedral but only 6 people are known to have died.

* 1667

* First London
London
Building Act passed to enforce fireproof construction in the rebuilding of the City. * Hedges he is thought subsequently to have been buried in St Paul\'s, Covent Garden
Covent Garden
. * Second rebuilding act passed, raising the tax on coal to provide funds for rebuilding of St Paul's Cathedral and other City churches destroyed in the Great Fire. * Leicester Square
Leicester Square
laid out. * Apothecaries ' Hall and Brewers Hall built.

* 1671

* 9 May: Thomas Blood , disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London
London
. * 6 June: Rebuilt Vintners\' Company Hall in use in the City. * Dorset Garden Theatre opens. * Merchant Taylors\' Hall rebuilt. * Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
established as a military storage facility at Woolwich
Woolwich
, previously known as "The Warren".

* 1672

* Ludgate
Ludgate
, Moorgate , and Newgate
Newgate
rebuilt. Rebuilding begins to the designs of Christopher Wren of Temple Bar and the church of St Stephen\'s, Walbrook in the City. * First public concerts in England; organised by John Banister at Whitefriars, near Fleet Street
Fleet Street
. * Richard Hoare becomes a partner in the London
London
goldsmith 's business which, as private banking house C. Hoare they are subsequently buried in Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
.

* 1675

* c. 21 June: Reconstruction of St Paul\'s Cathedral under Sir Christopher Wren begins. * 10 August: Charles II places the foundation stone of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Greenwich
, designed by Wren. * c. October: Equestrian statue of Charles I, Charing Cross
Charing Cross
(cast c. 1633 to a design by Hubert Le Sueur ) erected. * 19 December: St Bride\'s Church , rebuilt to a design by Wren, reopens. * The Green Ribbon Club founded; the earliest political club, based in Fleet Street
Fleet Street
. * Charles II issues a "Proclamation for the suppression of Coffee Houses " due to the political activity which is occurring in the newly popular establishments. * York Buildings Company ("The Governor and Company for raising the Thames Water at York Buildings") established. * Bethlem Hospital for the insane moves to new buildings in Moorfields
Moorfields
designed by Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
.

* 1676

* 26 May: Fire in Southwark
Southwark
destroys 625 houses. * Summer: The Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory , designed by Sir Christopher Wren , is completed. * Exeter Exchange built, Wren's rebuilt St Magnus-the-Martyr
St Magnus-the-Martyr
church completed, and first Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
church in England, at Hog Lane, consecrated. * The hatters that become James Lock "> * The John Roan School is established in Greenwich
Greenwich
. * The Grosvenor Estate in Mayfair
Mayfair
comes into the hands of the Grosvenor family when Sir Thomas Grosvenor, 3rd Baronet marries the heiress Mary Davies.

* 1678 – 17 October: Magistrate Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey is found murdered in Primrose Hill
Primrose Hill
; Titus Oates claims it as a proof of the (fabricated) " Popish Plot
Popish Plot
".

* 1679

* 17 November: After a large procession through the streets of London, an effigy of the Pope is burned. * 27 November: The Duke of Monmouth enters London
London
amid scenes of widespread celebration. * New churches of St Edmund, King and Martyr and St Stephen\'s, Walbrook , completed to designs by Wren. * Joseph Truman acquires the Black Eagle Brewery
Black Eagle Brewery
in Brick Lane , forming Truman\'s Brewery . * Approximate date: First bagnio opens in London.

* 1680

* 27 March: William Dockwra 's London
London
Penny Post mail service begins. * York Buildings built. * Approximate date: Jonathan\'s Coffee-House in business.

* 1681

* June–July: The City's Court of Common Council orders inscriptions for the Monument to the Great Fire of London
London
and the house in Pudding Lane where the fire started blaming it on Papists. * 1 July: Oliver Plunkett , Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland , falsely convicted of treason, is hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn
Tyburn
, the last Catholic martyr to die in England. Catholic intriguer Edward Fitzharris is executed on the same day. * 22 December: Charles II issues a warrant for the building of the Royal Hospital Chelsea for wounded and retired soldiers.

* 1682

* 11 March: Work begins on construction of the Royal Hospital Chelsea to a design by Wren; it will open to Chelsea pensioners in 1692. * 19 November: Fire at Wapping
Wapping
makes 1,500 homeless. * Hungerford Market built in Westminster.

* 1683

* 12 December: River Thames
River Thames
frost fair begins, lasting several months. The Chipperfield\'s Circus dynasty begins when James Chipperfield introduces performing animals to England
England
at the fair in 1684. * Churches of St Benet\'s, Paul\'s Wharf and St James Garlickhythe , rebuilt to designs by Wren, completed. * Richard Sadler opens the first Sadler\'s Wells Theatre as a "Musick House". * Friendly Society of London, an early fire insurance company, in business.

* 1684

* 10 Downing Street
10 Downing Street
built in Westminster. * Clarendon House demolished for the construction of Albemarle Street .

* 1685

* 23 April: Coronation of the Catholic James II in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey . * September: Edward Hemming establishes the first organised street lighting , using oil lamps , in London. * 18–19 October: Louis XIV of France
France
issues the Edict of Fontainebleau , which revokes the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
and deprives Huguenots of civil rights. Many flee to London
London
where they establish a domestic silk weaving industry in Spitalfields
Spitalfields
and "French ordinaries" (restaurants) in Soho
Soho
. * 23 October: Elizabeth Gaunt , burned at the stake at Tyburn
Tyburn
for alleged complicity in the Rye House Plot , becomes the last woman executed for political treason in England. * Kensington
Kensington
Square laid out.

* 1686 – St Andrew Holborn
Holborn
church , rebuilt to a design by Wren, completed. * 1687 – Christ Church Greyfriars ( Newgate
Newgate
Street) and churches of St Lawrence Jewry and St Clement\'s, Eastcheap , all rebuilt to designs by Wren, completed.

* 1688

* By July: First definitely known performance of the Henry Purcell opera Dido and Aeneas , at Josias Priest 's girls' school in Chelsea .

* 18 December: Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
: William of Orange enters London. * Old Palace Terrace built in Richmond . * Over the next five years Lloyd\'s of London
London
marine insurance market begins to form on the premises of Edward Lloyd (coffeehouse owner) .

* 1689

* 13 February: William III and Mary II are proclaimed co-rulers of England
England
in a ceremony at Guildhall . * 11 April: Coronation of William and Mary in Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
by the Bishop of London
London
, Henry Compton . In May work begins on remodelling Hampton Court Palace to the design of Sir Christopher Wren for them together with the Hampton Court Maze ; this summer the royal couple purchase Nottingham House and commission Wren to expand it to form Kensington
Kensington
Palace ; and William commissions a new royal barge (shallop ) for Mary.

* 1690

* 7 January: The first recorded full peal is rung, at St Sepulchre-without- Newgate
Newgate
in the City, marking a new era in change ringing . * March: London, Quo Warranto Judgment Reversed Act 1689 ("An Act for Reversing the Judgment in a Quo Warranto against the City of London
London
and for Restoreing the City of London
London
to its antient Rights and Privileges") passed by Parliament. * Approximate date: Great Synagogue of London
London
built for Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
.

* 1691 – 9 April: A fire at the Palace of Whitehall
Whitehall
destroys its Stone Gallery.

* 1693

* 27 February: The Ladies\' Mercury , the first periodical specifically for women, begins publication but lasts only for four weeks. * Financier Richard Hoare relocates Hoare\'s Bank (founded 1672) from Cheapside to Fleet Street
Fleet Street
. * White\'s established as "Mrs. White's Chocolate House" in Mayfair by Francesco Bianco.

* 1694

* February: Première of Thomas Southerne 's play The Fatal Marriage at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
. * 27 July: Bank of England
England
established by royal charter. * 25 October: Queen Mary II founds the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich
Greenwich
; first section completed 1705. * New All Hallows Lombard Street church completed to a design by Wren. * Approximate date: Development of Seven Dials begins.

* 1695

* Flying-Post newspaper begins publication. * Trinity Hospital in the Mile End Road established as almshouses for "28 decay’d Masters & Commanders of Ships or the Widows of such" by Trinity House . * Première of Purcell's opera The Indian Queen . * "Don Saltero's Coffee Shop" opens in Chelsea.

* 1696

* Queenhithe windmill built. * Dawk's News-Letter (evening newspaper) begins publication.

* 1697 – 2 December: St Paul\'s Cathedral holds its first service after rebuilding (to celebrate the Treaty of Ryswick ).

* 1698

* 4 January: The Palace of Whitehall
Whitehall
is destroyed by fire. * 11 January–21 April: Czar Peter I of Russia visits England
England
as part of his Grand Embassy , making a particular study of shipbuilding.

* December: Chalybeate
Chalybeate
well given to the poor of Hampstead
Hampstead
. * The widow Bourne sets up the business which becomes Berry Bros. it covers only foreign news. * 23 April: Coronation of Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Great Britain
in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey.

* 1703 – Buckingham House built in Westminster. * 1704 – Aaron Hart becomes rabbi of the Great Synagogue of London and de facto the country's first chief rabbi . * 1705 – 9 April: The Queen\'s Theatre in Haymarket is opened by John Vanbrugh and William Congreve .

* 1706 – October

* Thomas Twining opens Twinings in the Strand as Britain's first known tea house ; it will still be in business into the 21st century. * The predecessors of food manufacturers Crosse & Blackwell set up business in London.

* 1707

* 17 December: Major breach of Thames embankment at Dagenham . * London
London
Building Act passed to prevent use of combustible façade materials in the City, extended to Westminster. * Fortnum on 8 July The Female Tatler follows. * 19 April: Worshipful Company of Fan Makers chartered.

* 1710

* 1 March: Sacheverell riots . * Commission for Building Fifty New Churches set up by the New Churches in London
London
and Westminster
Westminster
Act 1710 . * Sun Fire Office (insurance firm) set up.

* 1710–12: Roehampton House built. * 1710–28: Church Road, Hampstead
Hampstead
, built up.

* 1711

* 24 February: Première of Handel 's Rinaldo , the first Italian opera written for the London
London
stage, at the Queen\'s Theatre , Haymarket . * 1 March: The Spectator begins publication. * Crown Court Church established in Westminster. * Marlborough House
Marlborough House
(begun 1709) completed.

* 1711–14 – Hawkubites gang at large. * 1712 – Spring: Mohocks gang supposedly at large. * 1713 – Hanover Square development begins.

* 1714

* March: The Scriblerus Club , an informal group of literary friends, is formed by Jonathan Swift , Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
, John Gay
John Gay
, John Arbuthnot (at whose London
London
house they meet), Thomas Parnell , Henry St. John and Robert Harley . * Geffrye Almshouses established by the Worshipful Company of Ironmongers in Kingsland Road .

* 1715

* January: Custom House severely damaged in a fire, requiring complete rebuilding. * 3 May: A total solar eclipse is the last total eclipse visible in London
London
for almost 900 years. * 1 August: Watermen first compete in a rowing race on the Thames for the Doggett\'s Coat and Badge sponsored by actor-manager Thomas Doggett . * Allen & Hanburys are established as pharmacists by Silvanus Bevan at Old Plough Court.

* 1716

* An accidental explosion at The Foundery
The Foundery
in Moorfields
Moorfields
kills the owner and 16 workers. * John Gay
John Gay
publishes the poem Trivia, or the Art of Walking the Streets of London.

* 1717

* 1 January: Count Carl Gyllenborg , the Swedish ambassador, is arrested in London
London
over a plot to assist the Pretender James Francis Edward Stuart . * 2 March: Dancer John Weaver performs in the first ballet in Britain, shown at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
, The Loves of Mars and Venus . * 24 June: Grand Lodge of London
London
and Westminster
Westminster
, the first Freemasonic Grand Lodge (modern-day United Grand Lodge of England
England
), is founded. * 17 July: George Frideric Handel 's Water Music performed on a barge on the Thames for King George I . * August: Handel becomes house composer at Cannons . * September ( Autumnal Equinox ): The first known Druid revival ceremony is held by John Toland at Primrose Hill
Primrose Hill
to found the Mother Grove, which is later to become the Ancient Order of Druids . * Thomas Fairchild , a nurseryman at Hoxton in the East End, becomes the first person to produce a successful scientific plant hybrid , Dianthus Caryophyllus barbatus, known as "Fairchild's Mule". * The Royal Brass Foundry is established at Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal in a building designed by Sir John Vanbrugh .

* 1719 – Hellfire Club and Hand in Hand Fire it is later recognized to be that of the husband of Catherine Hayes. She and an accomplice are later executed. * 24 May: Jonathan Wild
Jonathan Wild
, fraudulent "Thief Taker General", is hanged at Tyburn, for actually aiding criminals. * Church of St George\'s, Hanover Square completed. * A fire in Wapping
Wapping
destroys 70 houses. * Approximate date: Queen Square completed in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
.

* 1726

* 20 October: New church of St Martin-in-the-Fields
St Martin-in-the-Fields
in Westminster dedicated. * Fournier Street built in Spitalfields
Spitalfields
, mainly occupied by Huguenot
Huguenot
silk weavers. * Original Academy of Vocal Music founded.

* 1727 – 11 October: Coronation of George II of Great Britain
Great Britain
in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey.

* 1728

* 29 January: Première of Gay's Beggar\'s Opera
Opera
at the theatre in Lincoln\'s Inn Fields . * Queen Caroline divides Kensington
Kensington
Gardens from Hyde Park .

* 1729

* November: Completion of the first (wooden) Putney Bridge
Putney Bridge
as the only fixed crossing of the Thames between London
London
Bridge and Kingston . * Completion of East India House ; Christ Church, Spitalfields
Spitalfields
and St Botolph-without- Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
church (both designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor ); and Marble Hill House
Marble Hill House
, Twickenham
Twickenham
. Chiswick House is designed by the owner, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington , and William Kent
Kent
. * Opening of Dr Williams\'s Library as a research centre for nonconformist theology.

* 1730

* 3 February: The Daily Advertiser is founded as the first newspaper funded by advertising. * River Westbourne dammed to form The Serpentine (lake) in Hyde Park . * Perfumer Floris of London
London
is established as a barber's.

* 1731

* 1 January: Gentleman\'s Magazine begins publication. * May: Round Pond completed in Kensington
Kensington
Gardens . * 23 October: Fire at Ashburnham House damages the nationally owned Cotton library
Cotton library
, housed here at this time.

* 1732

* Prince Frederick\'s Barge built. * 7 December: The original Theatre Royal, Covent Garden
Covent Garden
(the modern-day Royal Opera
Opera
House ) is opened by John Rich .

* 1733

* 16 October: Devonshire House , the former Berkeley House in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
, is destroyed by fire. * St Giles in the Fields church rebuilt. * St George\'s Hospital opens at Hyde Park Corner , taken as the founding date of St George\'s Hospital Medical School .

* 1734 – The Bank of England
England
moves to its modern-day location in Threadneedle Street .

* 1735

* 22 September: Sir Robert Walpole becomes the first Prime Minister to occupy 10 Downing Street
10 Downing Street
as his official residence in his capacity as First Lord of the Treasury . * Sublime Society of Beef Steaks founded. * William Hogarth
William Hogarth
produces his A Rake\'s Progress series of paintings.

* 1736

* 19 February: Première of Handel's Alexander\'s Feast at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden
Covent Garden
. * 27 July: Riots in east London
London
protesting at Irish immigrants providing cheap labour. * Parliament passes the Gin Act 1736 in an attempt to curb the Gin Craze .

* 1737

* 2 March: Samuel Johnson and his former pupil David Garrick
David Garrick
leave Lichfield
Lichfield
to seek their fortunes in London. * 21 June: The Theatrical Licensing Act is passed, introducing censorship to the London
London
stage. Plays now require approval before production. The "legitimate drama" is limited to the theatres at Drury Lane , Covent Garden
Covent Garden
and the Haymarket . Edward Capell is appointed deputy-inspector of plays.

* 1738

* 24 May: Aldersgate
Aldersgate
Day : John Wesley
John Wesley
experiences a spiritual rebirth at a Moravian Church
Moravian Church
meeting in Aldersgate
Aldersgate
, essentially launching the Methodist movement . * Marylebone Gardens open.

* 1739

* 16 January: First performance of George Frideric Handel 's oratorio Saul at The King\'s Theatre , Haymarket . * 29 January: Building of Westminster
Westminster
Bridge begins. * 4 April: First performance of Handel's oratorio Israel in Egypt
Egypt
at The King's Theatre. * 17 October: Foundling Hospital
Foundling Hospital
incorporated by Thomas Coram . * 25 December: Thames freezes. * Building on Oxford
Oxford
Street begins.

* 1740

* 23 September: London
London
Infirmary established; it opens on 3 November in Moorfields. * The first Bow Street Magistrates\' Court is presided over by Thomas de Veil . * Thomas Witherby establishes his stationery business in London, specializing in printing and publishing for the marine insurance industry. By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, as Witherby Seamanship , it will claim to be the oldest independent publisher in the English speaking world.

* Approximate date:

* Devonshire House completed in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
. * Booth\'s London
London
dry gin first produced.

* 1741

* 19 October: London
London
stage debut of actor David Garrick
David Garrick
in Richard III . * Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
Woolwich
, established to train officers of the Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
and Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
. * St Katherine Coleman church rebuilt.

* 1742

* 28 May: Opening in London
London
of first known British bagnio to offer a swimming pool. * September: Construction starts on the Foundling Hospital
Foundling Hospital
. * Chelsea Water Works Company introduces a Newcomen atmospheric engine at Pimlico
Pimlico
, the first economically successful steam pumping engine in London. * Samuel Whitbread
Whitbread
forms a partnership to acquire breweries, foundation of the Whitbread
Whitbread
hospitality business. * Wilton's restaurant begins life as an oyster stall in Haymarket .

* 1743

* 21 February: Première of Handel's oratorio Samson at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden
Covent Garden
. * Gin
Gin
Act 1743 attempts to increase taxation on gin provoking riots in London. * Ranelagh Gardens opens as pleasure grounds in Chelsea .

* c. 1743–45 – Chelsea porcelain factory established.

* 1744

* Auctioneer Baker (later Sotheby\'s ) in business. * Baltic Exchange formed in the City. * Rebuilding of St Botolph\'s Aldgate
Aldgate
church by George Dance completed.

* 1745

* 28 September: The song later to become the British national anthem God Save the King is first performed at the Drury Lane
Drury Lane
Theatre in a setting by Thomas Arne . * 4 December: Jacobite rising : Jacobite forces from Scotland reach as far south as Derby
Derby
causing panic in London. * West towers of Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
(begun 1722) completed to a design by Nicholas Hawksmoor .

* 1746

* Carmen become a livery company . * Rocque\'s Map of London
London
published.

* 1747

* 31 January: The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Lock Hospital . * Piers of Westminster
Westminster
Bridge , under construction, are found to be sinking.

* 1748

* 28 March: A fire in the City causes over a million pounds worth of damage. * Henry Fielding
Henry Fielding
organises the forerunner of the Bow Street Runners , with eight men at first. * George and Vulture pub built in the City.

* 1749 – 27 April: A firework display in Green Park
Green Park
to celebrate the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) finishes early due to the outbreak of fire and rain but sees the first official performance of Handel 's wind band suite Music for the Royal Fireworks .

* 1750

* 8 February: An earthquake is felt in London. * 8 March: A second more powerful earthquake is felt in London. * 18 November: First Westminster
Westminster
Bridge opens, the only fixed crossing of the Thames between London
London
Bridge and Putney
Putney
. * Berners Street laid out in Westminster. * Whitbread
Whitbread
acquire a porter brewery in Chiswell Street
Chiswell Street
.

* 1751

* Society of Antiquaries of London
London
incorporated. * St Luke\'s Hospital for Lunatics founded.

* 1752

* Mansion House completed. * Liberty Bell
Liberty Bell
originally cast at Whitechapel Bell Foundry for Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
.

* 1753

* 29 January: After a month's absence, Elizabeth Canning returns to her mother's home in London
London
and claims that she was abducted. The following criminal trial causes uproar. * 7 June: British Museum
British Museum
established by Act of Parliament. * 13 December: First Hampton Court Bridge opens, built of wood in Chinoiserie style. * First stage of Horace Walpole
Horace Walpole
's Gothic Revival 'Castle' at Strawberry Hill completed.

* 1755 – 15 April: Samuel Johnson 's A Dictionary of the English Language is published by the group of London
London
booksellers who commissioned it in June 1746. Johnson has been working on the project at his home, 17, Gough Square .

* 1756

* 25 June: The Marine Society founded. * First section of New Road opens.

* 1757

* 4 April: Lord Mayor of London\'s State Coach commissioned. * Harris\'s List of Covent Garden
Covent Garden
Ladies , the annual directory of prostitutes , is first published. * Simpson's Tavern, Cornhill , established.

* 1758 – 11 April: A temporary wooden bridge erected while the centre stone span of London
London
Bridge is under repair, burns down.

* 1759

* 15 January: The British Museum
British Museum
opens at Montagu House, Bloomsbury . * 4 June: First Kew Bridge
Kew Bridge
, a wooden toll bridge over the Thames, opens to the public, replacing a ferry. * August: Holbein Gate
Holbein Gate
demolished.

* 1760

* Hamleys toy shop in business in High Holborn . * Berkeley Square laid out. * Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
, Cripplegate
Cripplegate
and Ludgate
Ludgate
of the London
London
Wall demolished.

* 1761

* 8 February: An earthquake breaks chimneys in Limehouse and Poplar . * 8 March: A second earthquake occurs in north London, Hampstead
Hampstead
and Highgate
Highgate
. * 22 September: Coronation of George III of Great Britain
Great Britain
in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. * Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
is sold to George III; remodelling as a house for his new wife Queen Charlotte begins the following year. * Orangery and pagoda in Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , designed by William Chambers .

* 1762

* January: The " Cock Lane ghost " appears. * 22 May: Royal family first takes up residence at Buckingham House . * The last remaining buildings are cleared from London
London
Bridge . * Composer Johann Christian Bach arrives in London
London
where he will spend the remaining 20 years of his life.

* 1763 – 16 May: James Boswell is introduced to Samuel Johnson at Thomas Davies 's bookshop in Covent Garden
Covent Garden
.

* 1764

* February: Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
co-founds The Club (dining club) with Samuel Johnson. * 23 April: Mozart family grand tour : 8-year-old W. A. Mozart settles in London
London
for a year. * December: Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
arrives in London
London
to represent the American colonies (following a previous visit in 1757). * Horse Shoe Brewery established at St Giles Circus for the production of porter . * Lloyd's Register of Ships begins publication.

* 1765 – February: Almack\'s Assembly Rooms open in St James\'s .

* 1766

* May: London
London
Paving and Lighting Act. * 5 December: James Christie holds the first sale at Christie\'s auction house. * Tattersalls founded by Richard Tattersall at Hyde Park Corner .

* 1768

* 9 January: Philip Astley stages the first modern circus , with acrobats on galloping horses. * 10 May: John Wilkes is imprisoned for writing an article for The North Briton severely criticising King George III . This action provokes protesters to riot; in Southwark
Southwark
, troops fire on the mob, killing seven, the Massacre of St George\'s Fields . * 10 December: Royal Academy of Arts established. * John Murray (publisher) established. * Rebuilding of Pitzhanger Manor in Ealing
Ealing
by George Dance for his own use.

* 1769

* 25 April–27 May: First Royal Academy summer exhibition held. * 28 June: The Morning Chronicle newspaper begins publication. * 7 August: Hackney Cut opens. * September: Spitalfield Riots by silk weavers attempting to maintain their pay rates culminate in arrests by soldiers and the killing of two weavers. * 19 November: First Blackfriars Bridge opens. * Work on Syon House , to the design of Robert Adam , ceases. * Gordon\'s London
London
dry gin first produced.

* 1770

* August: Lady\'s Magazine begins publication. * 17 September: Limehouse Cut opens. * Original Coal Exchange opens.

* 1771

* November: The first Battersea Bridge
Battersea Bridge
, a wooden toll bridge over the Thames at Chelsea , opens to pedestrians (to vehicles, 1772). * St George\'s Circus intersection built.

* 1772

* 2 November: The Morning Post newspaper begins publication. * Adelphi Buildings constructed in Westminster
Westminster
by Robert Adam and his brothers.

* 1773

* An informal Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange
opens at Threadneedle Street . * Astley\'s Amphitheatre founded in Westminster
Westminster
Bridge Road. * The original sundial column is removed from Seven Dials and acquired by James Paine .

* 1774

* 17 April: The first avowedly Unitarian congregation, Essex
Essex
Street Chapel , is founded by Theophilus Lindsey . * 2 May: The Society of Antiquaries of London
London
open the coffin of King Edward I in Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
and discover that his body has been perfectly preserved for 467 years. * London
London
Building Act ("Black Act") aims to standardise the quality and construction of buildings. * Residential development of Highbury Fields begins.

* 1776

* 23 May: First purpose-built Freemasons\' Hall in England
England
opened in Great Queen Street
Great Queen Street
to a design by Thomas Sandby
Thomas Sandby
. * Somerset House
Somerset House
construction begins in Westminster.

* 1777

* 12 January: Richmond Bridge over the Thames opens to traffic, replacing a ferry. * 8 May: First performance of Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Richard Brinsley Sheridan
's comedy of manners The School for Scandal
The School for Scandal
at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
. * 24 July: Rebuilt church of St Alphege London
London
Wall opens. * Hans Place is laid out in Knightsbridge .

* 1778

* 1 November: Wesley\'s Chapel in the City Road
City Road
opens for worship. * Second wooden Hampton Court Bridge built. * Joseph Bramah patents an improved form of flush toilet which he begins to manufacture. * Flint & Clark, the predecessors of Debenhams , begin trading as drapers .

* 1779 – Robert Adam completes his remodelling of Kenwood House on Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath for William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield begun in 1764.

* 1780

* 2 June: An Anti-Catholic mob led by Lord George Gordon
Lord George Gordon
marches on Parliament leading to the outbreak of the Gordon Riots
Gordon Riots
, in which the City banks are attacked. * 7 June: The Gordon Riots
Gordon Riots
are ended by the intervention of troops. About 285 people are shot dead, with another 200 wounded and around 450 arrested. * Finsbury Dispensary founded. * Middlesex Sessions House opens on Clerkenwell
Clerkenwell
Green. * The original Craven Cottage is built by William Craven, 6th Baron Craven .

* 1781 – July: Barclay Perkins Marylebone Cricket
Cricket
Club founded.

* John Courage acquires the Anchor Brewhouse in Shad Thames .

* 1788

* 1 January: First edition of The Times
The Times
newspaper published under this title (launched 1785 as The Daily Universal Register). * Admiralty House built on Whitehall
Whitehall
. * Revolution Society formed. * The group that later becomes the Royal Philanthropic Society is formed to assist homeless children.

* 1789

* 4 May: Boydell Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Gallery opens. * 22 September: First stone Kew Bridge
Kew Bridge
opens. * London
London
plane trees ( Platanus × acerifolia ) planted in Berkeley Square . * Rowney , established in 1783 as perfumers, enter the artists' supplies business.

* 1790 – 23 June: Alleged London
London
Monster arrested; he later receives two years' imprisonment for three assaults.

* 1791

* 1 January: Austrian composer Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
arrives in England
England
at the invitation of London
London
resident impresario Johann Peter Salomon ; here his concerts are huge successes. On 11 March the first of his London
London
symphonies , Symphony No. 96 , is premièred at the Hanover Square Rooms . He visits again in 1794. * First St James\'s, Spanish Place ( Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
) built as a chapel, primarily to serve the Spanish Embassy. * Camden Town development begins. * Giltspur Street Compter (prison) built. * Architect John Soane begins reconstruction of the Bank of England .

* 1792

* 25 January: Radical London
London
Corresponding Society formed. * 21 June: Iolo Morganwg holds the first Gorsedd
Gorsedd
ceremony, on Primrose Hill
Primrose Hill
. * 29 September: First St Patrick\'s Church, Soho
Soho
Square (Roman Catholic ) consecrated as a chapel, primarily to serve the Irish. * Henry Walton Smith and his wife Anna establish the newsagent 's business in Little Grosvenor Street which will become W H Smith .

* 1793

* Painter Robert Barker opens his panorama in a purpose-built rotunda off Leicester Square
Leicester Square
. * Permanent Cavalry Barracks, Hounslow , established.

* 1794

* 12 March: Rebuilt Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
opens. * 23 July: Ratcliffe Fire destroys over 400 homes. * Construction of houses on the edge of Blackheath , designed by Michael Searles , begins: The Paragon (a crescent ), South Row and Montpelier Row; they will be completed in 1805. * Coldbath Fields Prison rebuilt. * William Blake
William Blake
publishes Songs of Experience including the poem " London
London
". * Sarson\'s vinegar first brewed in Shoreditch
Shoreditch
.

* 1795

* 22 September: London
London
Missionary Society established. * 29 October: George III pelted with stones by an angry mob as bread riots continue. * Pantheon rebuilt. * Ackermann print-shop in business.

* 1796

* 1 February: Protests over the price of bread culminate in Queen Charlotte being hit by a stone as she and George III return from a trip to the theatre. * December: Coldest day recorded in London, –6 °F (–21.1 °C) in Greenwich
Greenwich
.

* 1797

* 15 January: London
London
haberdasher John Hetherington wears the first top hat in public and attracts a large crowd of onlookers. He is later fined £50 for causing public nuisance . * Hatchards bookshop established in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
by John Hatchard.

* 1798

* 2 July: The Marine Police Force is formed on the Thames by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun
Patrick Colquhoun
to prevent pilfering in the Port of London
London
and West India Docks ; it is the first organised police force in Britain. * Henry Maudslay
Henry Maudslay
sets up the mechanical engineering business that becomes Maudslay, Sons and Field . * Rules (restaurant) is opened by Thomas Rule in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden as an oyster bar, making it London's oldest restaurant on its original site.

* 1799 – Gunter\'s Tea Shop in business.

19TH CENTURY

Main article: 19th-century London
London

1800S–1840S

* 1800

* 8 January: First soup kitchens open in London. * 13 January: Royal Institution
Royal Institution
granted a royal charter . From 25 April 1801 Humphry Davy begins his popular series of scientific lectures at its Albemarle Street headquarters. * 22 March: Company of Surgeons granted a royal charter to become the Royal College of Surgeons in London
London
. * 15 May: George III survives two assassination attempts in London: In Hyde Park , a bullet intended for him hits a man standing alongside; and later at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
, two bullets fired by an insane man hit the wooden panel behind him. * Henry Maudslay
Henry Maudslay
, in London, develops the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe , allowing standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time, and at about this date develops a bench micrometer .

* 1801

* 1 March: London
London
Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange
founded as a regulated institution; its new building is completed on 30 December. * 10 March: The first British census is carried out. Population: 128,129; county 831,181; Greater London
London
1,114,644.

* 1802

* 19 April: Joseph Grimaldi first presents his white-faced clown character "Joey", at Sadler\'s Wells Theatre . * 28 June: Balloonist André-Jacques Garnerin ascends from Chelsea. * 5 July: Garnerin and Edward Hawke Locker make a 17-mile (27.4-km) balloon flight from Lord\'s Cricket
Cricket
Ground in St John\'s Wood to Chingford
Chingford
in just over 15 minutes. * 10 July: Grand Junction Canal opens its arm to Paddington Basin ; passenger boat service to Uxbridge
Uxbridge
starts. * 27 August: West India Docks , first commercial docks in London, open. * 3 September: William Wordsworth's sonnet "Composed upon Westminster
Westminster
Bridge, September 3, 1802 " written. * 16 November: Arrest of ringleaders of the Despard Plot . On 21 February 1803 seven are hanged and decapitated publicly at Horsemonger Lane Gaol before a crowd of at least 20,000, one of the largest public gatherings ever up to this date. * Marie Tussaud first exhibits her wax sculptures in London. * London
London
Fever Hospital founded.

* 1803

* After April: Richard Trevithick 's London
London
Steam Carriage is demonstrated on the roads. * 26 July: The Surrey Iron Railway , a horse-worked wagonway between Wandsworth
Wandsworth
and Croydon
Croydon
, opens, being the first public railway line in England. * Frederick Albert Winsor gives a demonstration of gas lighting at the old Lyceum Theatre . * Trinity Buoy Wharf established. * The Globe newspaper begins publication.

* 1804

* Horticultural Society of London
London
founded. * Rebuilding of Pitzhanger Manor in Ealing
Ealing
by John Soane for his own use completed.

* 1805

* 20 January: London
London
Docks open. * 25 March: Moorfields
Moorfields
Eye Hospital is opened as the London Dispensary for Curing Diseases of the Eye and Ear by John Cunningham Saunders . * June: British Institution (for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom) founded as a group of connoisseurs. On 18 January 1806 it opens the former Boydell Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Gallery in Pall Mall as the "British Gallery", alternating the world's first regular temporary exhibitions of Old Master paintings with sale exhibitions of the work of living artists. * 4 June: First Trooping the Colour ceremony on Horse Guards Parade . * September: Merchantman Boddington (1781 ship) stranded and wrecked in the Thames off Blackwall . * 6 November: News of the victory at Trafalgar and Nelson's death reaches London
London
in the early hours of this morning, the bearer, Lieut. Lapenotière , having made his last change of horses on his post from Falmouth the previous evening at Hounslow . * 9 December: City Canal opens across the Isle of Dogs (later incorporated into West India Docks ). * Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
, Woolwich
Woolwich
, given its Royal prefix.

* 1806

* 9 January: Funeral procession of Lord Nelson from The Admiralty to St Paul\'s Cathedral . * 18 January: London
London
Institution founded to promote higher education. * East India Docks completed. * Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
Woolwich
, opens its new building designed by James Wyatt . * Royal Philanthropic Society incorporated.

* 1807

* 28 January: First demonstration of street gas lighting , in Pall Mall . * 23 February: Around forty people are killed in a crush attending a public hanging. * 13 March: Dock at Rotherhithe
Rotherhithe
built by Grand Surrey Canal company opens; the first section of canal follows. * Addington Palace
Addington Palace
becomes a summer residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury, Croydon
Croydon
Palace being sold.

* 1808

* 8 July-18 September: Richard Trevithick 's steam locomotive Catch Me Who Can is demonstrated in London. * 20 September: The original Theatre Royal, Covent Garden
Covent Garden
is destroyed by fire along with most of the scenery, costumes and scripts. Rebuilding begins in December.

* 1809

* 24 February: The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Drury Lane
is destroyed by fire. On being encountered drinking in the street while watching the conflagration, Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Richard Brinsley Sheridan
, the proprietor, is reported as saying: "A man may surely be allowed to take a glass of wine by his own fireside." * 18 September: A new Theatre Royal, Covent Garden
Covent Garden
opens to replace the first burnt down in 1808, with a performance of Macbeth
Macbeth
. An increase in ticket prices causes the Old Price Riots which last for 64 days until the manager, John Philip Kemble , reverses the price rise. * 22 October: Croydon
Croydon
Canal opens. * 10 November: The Berners Street Hoax : Theodore Hook manages to attract dozens of people to 54 Berners Street. * William Bullock moves his museum of curiosities from Liverpool
Liverpool
to become the London
London
Museum in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
.

* 1810

* April: Rioting after the imprisonment of Sir Francis Burdett , MP , charged with libel against Parliament after calling for reform of the House of Commons . * 8 July: Vere Street Coterie : Police
Police
raid a "molly house " and arrest 27 men for sodomy or attempted sodomy; a man and a boy are eventually hanged on conviction. * Stepney
Stepney
Academy established as a Baptist ministry training college. * Rev. Dr. William Pearson establishes Temple Grove School at East Sheen , perhaps the earliest preparatory school in the country. * Sake Dean Mahomet opens the Hindoostanee Coffee House
Coffee House
, the first Indian restaurant in London. * Thomas Cubitt
Thomas Cubitt
sets up his building firm in Gray\'s Inn Road .

* 1811

* 7–19 December: Ratcliff Highway murders . * Building of Regent Street
Regent Street
begins John Nash 's development of the West End. * Building of Tobacco Dock begins. * Novello "> The frozen Thames illustrated in Old and New London (1873)

*

* 14 January: Last River Thames
River Thames
frost fair . * 12 February: A fire destroys the Custom House . * 21 February: Great Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange
Fraud . * 1 April: The Gas Light and Coke Company begins the world's first permanent public gas lighting of streets in the parish of St Margaret's, Westminster, extending to other parts of London
London
by 25 December. * April: Louis XVIII of France
France
visits the city. * 1 August: Grand Jubilee in the Royal Parks: re-enactment of a naval battle and pyrotechnics, killing two. * 28 August: Most remains of Winchester Palace in Southwark
Southwark
are destroyed in a fire. * 17 October: London
London
Beer Flood
Flood
: A large vat of porter in Meux\'s Brewery bursts, demolishing buildings and killing nine.

* 1815

* 23 January: First Thames steamer known to enter regular service, Margery on the "Long Ferry" to Gravesend . * 7 April: Lord Byron and Walter Scott
Walter Scott
meet for the first time, in the offices of publisher John Murray , 50 Albemarle Street . * 21 June: News of the Battle of Waterloo reaches London. * London
London
Victory Parade of 1815 . * London
London
Docks completed at Wapping
Wapping
. * Jones, Watts and Doulton begin life as a stoneware pottery in Lambeth
Lambeth
. * New building for London
London
Institution opens in Finsbury Circus
Finsbury Circus
, the first major building contract for Thomas Cubitt
Thomas Cubitt
.

* 1816

* 4 June: First Vauxhall Bridge
Vauxhall Bridge
opens, the first iron bridge over the Thames. * 14 June: Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace founded. * 26 June: Millbank Prison admits its first prisoners, all women. * 12 August: Regent\'s Canal opens from Paddington to Camden . * 15 November in the summer he writes Lamia ; and on 19 October proposes marriage to Fanny. * Travellers Club founded. * Bookseller William Pickering in business as a publisher.

* 1820

* 23 February: A plot to murder the Cabinet , the Cato Street conspiracy , is exposed. * 10 March: Astronomical Society of London
London
established. * 1 May: The Cato Street conspirators are the last to suffer decapitation following their hanging for treason outside Newgate Prison . * 1 August: Regent\'s Canal opens from Camden to Limehouse Basin . * c. September: John Constable
John Constable
begins painting on Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath regularly. * Approximate date: Clerkenwell
Clerkenwell
Prison in operation.

* 1821

* 4 July: Redesigned Haymarket Theatre opens. * 19 July: George IV is crowned in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. His estranged wife, Caroline of Brunswick , is turned away from the coronation ceremony. This is the last coronation at which the full ceremony of the King\'s Champion is carried out. * December: " Spa Fields Congregational families" begin an Owenite community in Islington
Islington
inspired by George Mudie . * De Beauvoir Town and Ladbroke Estate developments begin.

* 1822

* 20 October: First edition of The Sunday Times newspaper published under this title. * Royal Academy of Music founded (opens March 1823; Royal charter granted June 1830), initially near Hanover Square with William Crotch as first Principal.

* 1823

* Dr. George Birkbeck
George Birkbeck
establishes the London
London
Mechanics' Institute, predecessor of Birkbeck, University of London
London
and Finsbury Midwifery Institution is established. * Pimm 's oyster bar in business.

* 1824

* 16 February: Athenaeum Club founded; established in temporary premises by May. * 10 May: National Gallery
National Gallery
opens to the public in John Julius Angerstein 's former house in Pall Mall . * 30 November: Banker Henry Fauntleroy is hanged for forgery before a crowd of 100,000. * Thomas Cubitt
Thomas Cubitt
is commissioned by Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster
Westminster
, to create a great swathe of building in Belgravia centred on Belgrave Square
Belgrave Square
and Pimlico
Pimlico
. The following year, Cubitt begins to lay out estates in Clapham
Clapham
. * Grosvenor Canal
Grosvenor Canal
opens in Pimlico
Pimlico
.

* 1825

* 21 March: British première of Beethoven 's Symphony No. 9 (1824) is presented by the Philharmonic Society of London
London
(who had commissioned it in 1817) at its Argyll Rooms conducted by Sir George Smart (and with the choral " Ode to Joy " sung in Italian). * 15 June: Foundation stone for new London
London
Bridge laid. * 3–5 Porchester Terrace built in Westminster. * Regent Street
Regent Street
laid out. * Reconstruction of Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
by architect John Nash . * The first horse-drawn omnibuses established in London. * The Terrific Register: Or, Record of Crimes, Judgments, Providences, and Calamities first published. * Approximate date: London
London
is estimated to overtake Peking
Peking
as the world\'s largest city .

* 1826

* 11 February: University of London
London
established. * April: Zoological Society of London
London
established. * King's Library, the first purpose-built part of the British Museum , is completed. * Bridge over The Serpentine , designed by John and George Rennie , opens. * Waterman\'s Arms pub built in Putney. * Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge established. * London, Ontario
London, Ontario
established.

* 1827

* 21 May: The Standard newspaper begins publication. * 6 October: First Hammersmith Bridge , a toll suspension bridge over the Thames, opens. * Clarence House
Clarence House
completed in Westminster. * Remodelling of St. James\'s Park by John Nash completed. * Metropolitan Turnpike Trust established.

* 1828

* 17 April: Royal Free Hospital
Royal Free Hospital
, established as the London
London
General Institution for the Gratuitous Care of Malignant Diseases by surgeon William Marsden , opens. * 27 April: London
London
Zoo opens; the Tower of London
London
menagerie is transferred there. * 21 June: King\'s College London
London
founded. * July: Stone Kingston Bridge opens. * 12 August: Kensington
Kensington
Canal opens. * 25 October: St Katharine Docks open. * New Guildhall Library opens. * Samuel Reiss's Grand Cigar Divan opens.

* 1829

* 21 March: A duel is fought between the Prime Minister (the Duke of Wellington ) and George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea , in Battersea
Battersea
Fields , provoked by the Duke's support for Catholic Emancipation and foundation of the secular King\'s College London
London
. Deliberately off-target shots are fired by both and honour is satisfied without injury. * 4 July: George Shillibeer introduces his three-horse Omnibus between the Yorkshire Stingo near Paddington Green and Bank via the New Road . * 29 September: Metropolitan Police
Police
of Sir Robert Peel
Robert Peel
starts operation within a 7-mile (11 km) radius of Charing Cross. * November: Thomas Hornor 's Panoramic view of London, the largest panoramic painting ever created, is completed in the London
London
Colosseum , purpose-designed by Decimus Burton in Regent\'s Park . * General Post Office
General Post Office
headquarters building in St Martin\'s Le Grand completed.

* 1830

* Spring: Hertford Union Canal opens to connect Regent\'s Canal with Lee Navigation . * 28 July: First police officer to be killed on duty in the UK, Joseph Grantham in Somers Town . * 6 December: The City's Court of Common Council orders removal of inscriptions on the Monument to the Great Fire of London
London
and the house in Pudding Lane where the fire started falsely blaming it on Papists. * 16 December: Last hanging for piracy at Execution Dock , Wapping
Wapping
. * Geographical Society of London
London
founded. * London
London
Mechanics\' Institute admits its first women students. * Price\'s Patent
Patent
Candles founded by William Wilson at Vauxhall
Vauxhall

* 1831

* 29 March: Exeter Hall opens in The Strand . * 1 August: The new London
London
Bridge is officially opened in the presence of the new king. * 8 September: Coronation of King King William IV in Westminster Abbey. * c. September: Lowther Arcade opens. * October: King\'s College London
London
opens. * July–August 1832: St Dunstan-in-the-West church in Fleet Street rebuilt. * Royal Surrey Gardens
Royal Surrey Gardens
laid out as zoological and pleasure gardens. * Young\'s take over the 16th century Ram Brewery in Wandsworth
Wandsworth
. * The house which will eventually contain Abbey Road Studios
Abbey Road Studios
is built in the St John\'s Wood district.

* 1832

* 12 February: Second cholera pandemic begins to spread in London, starting from the East End. It is declared officially over in early May but deaths continue. It will claim at least 3000 victims. * 11 July: Kensal Green Cemetery
Kensal Green Cemetery
authorised by Act of Parliament, first of the " Magnificent Seven cemeteries " (consecrated 24 January 1833). * Finsbury (UK Parliament constituency) , Lambeth
Lambeth
(UK Parliament constituency) , Marylebone (UK Parliament constituency) , and Tower Hamlets (UK Parliament constituency) established.

* 1833

* 1 January: London
London
Fire Engine Establishment formed under the leadership of James Braidwood merging the existing insurance company brigades. * New Hungerford Market building and Leather Market ( Bermondsey
Bermondsey
) open.

* 1834

* 14 July: Lyceum Theatre opens. * 16 October: Burning of Parliament . * 23 December: Architect and inventor Joseph Hansom patents the Hansom cab . * Old Bailey
Old Bailey
renamed as the Central Criminal Court. * The Institute of British Architects in London, predecessor of the Royal Institute of British Architects , is formed. * Harrods
Harrods
founded as a grocer in Stepney
Stepney
in the East End.

* 1835

* November: The Grand Junction Canal company's Kingsbury ("Welsh Harp") Reservoir in Brent is first filled. * Regent\'s Park opens to the public. * Madame Tussauds
Madame Tussauds
wax museum in business. * Geological Museum founded as The Museum of Practical Geology.

* 1836

* 2 January: Bentley\'s Miscellany literary magazine begins publication under the editorship of Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
. * 8 February: First section of London
London
and Greenwich
Greenwich
Railway , the first steam-worked line in London, begins operating between Spa Road and Deptford
Deptford
. * 2 April: Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
marries Catherine Hogarth at St Luke\'s Church, Chelsea . * 7 June: First University Boat Race held on the Thames in London; Cambridge wins. * 9 June: London
London
Working Men\'s Association formed; later a centre for Chartism . * 28 November: University of London
London
chartered. * December: Dickens first meets his lifelong friend, the biographer and critic John Forster . * 14 December: London
London
and Greenwich
Greenwich
Railway trains begin to start from London
London
Bridge station , making it the first permanent London terminus. * Statue of King George IV at Kings Cross completed by this date; it is demolished in 1845.

* 1837

* 11 January: The Royal Institute of British Architects in London
London
is granted its royal charter . * 20 January: Death of the neo-classical architect Sir John Soane gives effect to the creation of his London
London
house as Sir John Soane\'s Museum . * February: Serialisation of Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
' novel Oliver Twist begins in Bentley\'s Miscellany . * 1 June: The Government-funded Normal School of Design, predecessor of the Royal College of Art
Royal College of Art
, begins classes at Somerset House
Somerset House
. * 3 June: The London
London
Hippodrome opens in Bayswater
Bayswater
. * 20 June: At 6.00 a.m., Francis Conyngham, 2nd Marquess Conyngham ( Lord Chamberlain
Lord Chamberlain
) and William Howley
William Howley
( Archbishop of Canterbury ) call on Princess Victoria of Kent
Kent
at Kensington
Kensington
Palace to tell her she has become Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
on the death of her uncle William IV. * 13 July: Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
moves from Kensington
Kensington
Palace into Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
, the first reigning British monarch to make this, rather than St James\'s Palace , their London
London
home. * 20 July: Euston railway station
Euston railway station
, London's first mainline railway terminus, is opened by the London
London
and Birmingham Railway . * 28 August: Army and Navy Club founded. * 7 December: West Norwood Cemetery
West Norwood Cemetery
consecrated (authorised 1836). * Art Union of London
London
founded. * Brown\'s Hotel established.

* 1838

* 10 January: A fire destroys Lloyd\'s Coffee House
Coffee House
and the Royal Exchange . * 8 April: The National Gallery
National Gallery
first opens to the public in the building purpose-designed for it by William Wilkins in Trafalgar Square (which is being cleared at this time). * 4 June: First section of the Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway
opens from original London
London
Paddington station
Paddington station
to Maidenhead
Maidenhead
. * 28 June: Coronation of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. * 6 August: The Polytechnic Institution , Britain's first polytechnic , opens in Regent Street
Regent Street
. * Hampton Court Palace state rooms and gardens open to the public, without charge. * Kew Bridge
Kew Bridge
Pumping Station at Brentford begins operation. * Langham Sketching Club formed.

* 1839

* 20 May: Highgate
Highgate
Cemetery dedicated. * 5 June: London
London
and Croydon
Croydon
Railway begins operating. * Sisters of Mercy establish the first Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
convent in England
England
since the Reformation
Reformation
, at Bermondsey
Bermondsey
. * City of London
London
Police
Police
given statutory authority.

* 1840

* 10 February: Marriage of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in St James's
St James's
Palace.

* 15 April

* King\'s College Hospital opens in Portugal Street. * West London
London
Synagogue established.

* 27 April: The foundation stone of the new Palace of Westminster is laid as its reconstruction following the Burning of Parliament in 1834 begins (completed in 1860). * June: World Anti-Slavery Convention held in Exeter Hall . * 1 July: Eastern Counties Railway extended to a new London terminus, Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
railway station , known until 1847 as Shoreditch. * 6 July: London
London
and Blackwall Railway (cable worked) opens to a temporary City terminus in Minories . * 15 September: Northern and Eastern Railway opens its first section from Stratford together with the first Stratford Depot which over the next century will become the largest motive power depot in the UK. * 30 September: Foundation of Nelson\'s Column laid, Trafalgar Square being laid out and paved during the year. * Abney Park , Nunhead and Brompton , three of the "Magnificent Seven cemeteries ", are opened. * W. Harrison Ainsworth 's novels Guy Fawkes and The Tower of London and Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
' The Old Curiosity Shop are serialised.

* 1841

* February–November: Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
' novel Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of \'Eighty is published serially. * 8 March: Establishment of The Hospital for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest, predecessor of the Royal Brompton Hospital . * 6 June: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 1841 : Population: 123,563; county 1,825,714; Greater London
London
2,235,344. * 12 July: London
London
and Brighton Railway begins operating from Norwood Junction (extended 21 September through to Brighton). * 17 July: Punch magazine begins publication. * 2 August: Fenchurch Street railway station opens for the London and Blackwall Railway . * 30 October: A fire at the Tower of London
London
destroys its Grand Armoury and causes a quarter of a million pounds worth of damage. * Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , first open to the public. * The City of London
London
and Tower Hamlets Cemetery , last of the " Magnificent Seven cemeteries " open. * Fourth plinth, Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
, constructed for an equestrian statue of William IV; this is never erected due to lack of funds and the plinth remains empty until 1999. * London
London
Library begins operation in Pall Mall . * Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes founded. * Chemical Society of London
London
and London
London
Philanthropic Society founded.

* 1842

* 14 May: The Illustrated London
London
News begins publication. * 10 & 19 November: Fleet and Marshalsea debtors' prisons closed. * Pentonville Prison begins operating. * Charles Edward Mudie begins his Mudie\'s Select Library business from his stationery shop in Bloomsbury.

* 1843

* 20 January: Daniel M\'Naghten shoots and kills the Prime Minister's private secretary, Edward Drummond , in Whitehall
Whitehall
. * 25 March: Marc Isambard Brunel 's Thames Tunnel , the first tunnel under the river, opens to pedestrians. * 2 September: The Economist newspaper first published (preliminary issue dated August). * 3–4 November: The statue of Nelson placed atop Nelson\'s Column in Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
. * Development of Cubitt Town begins. * International Peace Congress held.

* 1844

* 27 May: West London
London
Railway opens. * 6 June: Young Men\'s Christian Association founded. * 28 October: Royal Exchange opens. * First recorded eel and mash shop in London.

* 1845

* 3 January: First known arrest of a fugitive achieved through use of the then new electric telegraph when John Tawell is arrested after being followed by a detective alerted prior to Tawell's arrival at Paddington station
Paddington station
. * 7 February: In the British Museum
British Museum
, a drunken visitor smashes the Portland Vase which takes months to repair. * 15 March: First University Boat Race to use the modern-day Putney to Mortlake course (albeit in the reverse direction to that later adopted). * 26 March: Sisterhood of the Holy Cross ('Park Village Community') established as the first Anglican sisterhood , to minister to the poor of St Pancras .

* 1 May

* Hungerford Bridge
Hungerford Bridge
opens as a tolled suspension footbridge. * First cricket match to be played at the Kennington Oval .

* Fuller\'s Brewery established as a partnership to run the Griffin Brewery in Chiswick . * Laying out of Victoria Park in the East End, the first "People's Park", begins. * Metropolitan Buildings Office established.

* 1846

* 3 April: Last London-based mail coach runs, to Norwich
Norwich
. * 26 August: North London
London
Railway authorised as East & West India Docks & Birmingham Junction Railway, opening from 1850.

* 1847

* New Oxford
Oxford
Street constructed. * Entrance wing to British Museum
British Museum
constructed. * Royal Brompton Hospital admits its first patients. * Bernard Quaritch sets up his own bookselling business.

* 1848

* 10 April: "Monster" Chartist rally on Kennington Common . * 21 April–23 November: Chopin
Chopin
visits London
London
and Scotland, his last public appearance on a concert platform being on 16 November at the Guildhall . * 4 July: St George\'s Church, Southwark
Southwark
is opened, the largest post- Reformation
Reformation
Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church in London
London
at this date, becoming a cathedral in 1852. The first marriage held here (10 August) is of its architect, Augustus Pugin
Augustus Pugin
. * 11 July: Waterloo station opens. * October: The Palm house
Palm house
at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , designed by architect Decimus Burton and iron-founder Richard Turner , is completed and opened. * The Duke of Wellington , Constable of the Tower since 1826, has a north bastion added to the Tower of London
London
in response to the Chartist threat. * Metropolitan Evening Classes for Young Men, a predecessor of London
London
Metropolitan University , are instituted at Crosby Hall , Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
, by Rev. Charles Mackenzie. * Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes completes its first dwellings, Metropolitan Buildings, at Kings Cross . * Queen\'s College, London
London
, founded, the world's first school to award academic qualifications to young women. * Samuel Reiss's Grand Cigar Divan becomes Simpson\'s Grand Divan Tavern .

* 1849

* May: First exhibition of paintings by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood : John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais
' Isabella and Holman Hunt 's Rienzi at the Royal Academy summer exhibition , and Dante Gabriel Rossetti 's Girlhood of Mary Virgin at the Institution for the Free Exhibition of Modern Art 's "St. George's Gallery" in Knightsbridge next to Hyde Park Corner . * July: Second cholera pandemic (1849–51): Horsleydown cholera outbreak. * 9 August: "The Bermondsey
Bermondsey
Horror": Marie Manning and her husband, Frederick, murder Patrick O'Connor. On 13 November they are hanged together publicly by William Calcraft at Horsemonger Lane Gaol for the crime. * 12 October: 5 workmen are killed by toxic gases in a Pimlico sewer. * 17 December: The customer, probably Edward Coke , collects the first bowler hat (devised by hatmakers Thomas and William Bowler) from hatters James Lock & Co. of St James\'s . * Bedford College founded by Elizabeth Jesser Reid as the Ladies College in Bedford Square
Bedford Square
, a non-sectarian higher education institution to provide a liberal female education . * Harrods
Harrods
moves to Knightsbridge , and Gatti\'s cafe in Holborn
Holborn
in business.

* 1850

* 4 April: North London
London
Collegiate School for girls established in new premises with Frances Buss as Principal. * 25 May: The hippopotamus Obaysch arrives at London
London
Zoo from Egypt , the first to live in the British Isles since prehistoric times. * London
London
butchers C Lidgate opens for the first time.

1850S–1870S

* 1851

* March: Marble Arch
Marble Arch
relocated to Hyde Park . * 1 May: The Great Exhibition opens in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park. * 16 July: A Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
educational training college, predecessor of St Mary\'s University , is established in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
. * Reuters
Reuters
news agency in business. * The Royal Marsden is established as the Free Cancer
Cancer
Hospital by surgeon William Marsden , the world's first specialist cancer hospital. * Ticket office at Tower of London
London
erected by Office of Works , the UK's first government-funded tourist infrastructure. * Hungerford Hall built in Westminster. * Westminster
Westminster
College , a Methodist teacher training institution, is established. * Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Prison ( Surrey
Surrey
House of Correction) admits its first inmates. * Henry Mayhew 's social survey London
London
Labour and the London
London
Poor is collected in book form.

* 1852

* 3 February: The new chamber of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in the Palace of Westminster
Westminster
, designed by Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin
Augustus Pugin
, is opened. * 11 February: The first British public toilet for women opens in Bedford Street. * 14 February: Great Ormond Street Hospital
Great Ormond Street Hospital
admits its first child patient. * March: Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
' novel Bleak House begins serialization. * May: The Museum of Manufactures, predecessor of the Victoria and Albert Museum , opens, initially at Marlborough House
Marlborough House
. * 14 October: King\'s Cross railway station opens. * Metropolis Water Act 1852 prohibits extraction of drinking water from the Thames tideway after 31 August 1855. * Taylor in the following year it absorbs a substantial proportion of the horse-bus operators in London. * 22 December: Metropolitan Board of Works established. * London
London
and Middlesex
Middlesex
Archaeological Society established. * The London
London
School of Jewish Studies opens as the Jews' College, a rabbinical seminary . * First municipal underground public toilet opens in the City for gentlemen.

* 1856

* 5 March: Fire destroys Covent Garden
Covent Garden
Theatre . * 15 March: The Boat Race 1856 , first of the annual series rowed between Cambridge and Oxford
Oxford
University Boat Clubs on the Thames in London. * 22 August: Eastern Counties Railway opens its branch to Loughton ; from 1947 this will be the oldest section of the London
London
Underground . * 9 November: Last Lord Mayor\'s Show in which barges on the Thames are used. * 2 December: National Portrait Gallery formally established. * Surrey
Surrey
Music Hall built in Royal Surrey Gardens
Royal Surrey Gardens
.

* 1857

* 2 May: British Museum
British Museum
Reading Room opens. * 22 June: South Kensington
Kensington
Museum is opened by the Queen. It is a predecessor of the Victoria and Albert Museum but includes the collection of machinery which becomes the Science Museum ; it is also the world’s first museum to incorporate a refreshment room. * Peek Freans established as biscuit manufacturers in Bermondsey
Bermondsey
.

* 1858

* 1 January: Designation of London
London
postal districts completed. * 31 January: Isambard Kingdom Brunel 's SS Great Eastern
SS Great Eastern
is launched at Millwall . * 3 April: Chelsea Bridge
Chelsea Bridge
, a toll iron suspension bridge over the Thames, opens to the public. * 10 April: Big Ben , the Great Bell for the Palace of Westminster's clock tower, is recast at Whitechapel Bell Foundry . * 1 July: Papers by Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
and Alfred Russel Wallace announcing a theory of evolution by natural selection are read at the Linnean Society of London
London
. * 2 July–August: Great Stink . * 17 July: Salvage of the Lutine bell , which is subsequently hung in Lloyd\'s of London
London
. * Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes completes Albert Cottages, Stepney
Stepney
. * Blackheath F.C. founded, an early rugby football club.

* 1859

* 15 January: National Portrait Gallery opens. * 16 March: Jewish Board of Guardians first meets, in the East End. * 21 April: First drinking fountain erected by the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle
Cattle
Trough Association . * 7 September: The clock and chimes of the newly completed Clock Tower at the Palace of Westminster
Westminster
become fully operational. The great bell, which first chimed on 11 July, acquires the nickname " Big Ben " by association with Benjamin Hall, 1st Baron Llanover . * Red House in Bexleyheath , a key building in the Arts and Crafts Movement , is designed by its owner, William Morris
William Morris
, and the architect Philip Webb . * Wilton\'s Music Hall opens in the East End. * Approximate date: Rail service to Great Northern Cemetery at New Southgate begins.

* 1860

* 9 July: The Nightingale Training School and Home for Nurses , the first nursing school based on the ideas of Florence Nightingale
Florence Nightingale
, opens at St Thomas\' Hospital . * 1 October: First section of Victoria station opens, with trains using the Grosvenor Bridge across the Thames. * November: The 'Temporary Home for Lost and Starving Dogs', predecessor of the Battersea Dogs and Cats Home , is established by Mary Tealby. * 29 December: The world's first ocean-going (all) iron-hulled and armoured battleship , HMS Warrior is launched on the Thames at Blackwall .

* 1861

* 20 February: Storms damage the Crystal Palace . * 18 March: Metropolitan Tabernacle dedicated. * 23 March: First of George Francis Train 's demonstration horse-drawn trams in London
London
begins operating on the Bayswater
Bayswater
Road ; none last beyond the end of the year. * 22 June: Tooley Street fire breaks out; James Braidwood is killed while fighting it. * 31 July: Church of St James the Less, Pimlico
Pimlico
, consecrated. * Crimean War Memorial unveiled, including sculptures of Other Ranks . * Stationers\' Company\'s School established. * Amateur Photographic Association formed.

* 1862

* 26 March: Peabody Trust housing association established by London-based American banker George Peabody
George Peabody
as the Peabody Donation Fund. * 1 May–1 November: 1862 International Exhibition or "Great London Exposition" held in South Kensington
Kensington
. * 24 May: New Westminster
Westminster
Bridge , an iron arched bridge designed by Thomas Page , opens. * 10 November: First Lambeth
Lambeth
Bridge , a toll suspension bridge designed by Peter W. Barlow , opens. * c. November: Joseph Bazalgette
Joseph Bazalgette
begins construction of the Thames Embankment . * Royal Agricultural Hall opens in Islington
Islington
. * Science collections of the South Kensington
Kensington
Museum move to separate buildings on Exhibition Road
Exhibition Road
. * Derry & Toms established as drapers in Kensington
Kensington
High Street . * Edward Stanford first publishes Stanford's Library Map of London and its suburbs.

* 1863

* 10 January: The first section of the London
London
Underground , the Metropolitan Railway between Paddington and Farringdon Street , opens to the public, operated by steam. * 2 March: Clapham
Clapham
Junction railway station opens. * March: American-born painter James McNeill Whistler settles close to the Thames in Chelsea , where he will live for most of the rest of his life. * 12 June: The Arts Club is founded by Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, Anthony Trollope , Frederic Leighton
Frederic Leighton
and others in Mayfair
Mayfair
as a social meeting place for those involved or interested in the creative arts. * 26 October: The Football Association is founded at the Freemasons\' Tavern in Long Acre . * 19 December: The first game is played under the new Football Association rules at Mortlake between Ebenezer Morley 's Barnes Club and Richmond F.C. , ending in a goalless draw. * Alexandra Park opens in Haringey . * Siemens & Halske relocates from Millbank
Millbank
to former Woolwich Dockyard area, where its submarine-cable factory becomes a major employer. * William Whiteley opens the drapery that becomes Whiteleys department store in Westbourne Grove
Westbourne Grove
and Curwen Press in business. * Lyon\'s Inn , one of the Inns of Chancery , is dissolved and demolished

* 1864

* 11 January: Charing Cross
Charing Cross
railway station and bridge are opened by South Eastern Railway . New Hungerford Bridge
Hungerford Bridge
opens 1 May to pedestrians as part of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Bridge and Strand Musick Hall opens in arches underneath station. * April: Giuseppe Garibaldi visits London. * 13 June: Hammersmith
Hammersmith
& City line is opened. * 28 September: International Workingmen\'s Association founded in London. * 21 December: Blackfriars Railway Bridge is opened by London, Chatham and Dover Railway . * Aerated Bread Company opens the first A.B.C. tea shop, in the forecourt of Fenchurch Street railway station .

* 1865

* 7 February: Pall Mall Gazette newspaper begins publication. * April: Official opening of Crossness Pumping Station , a major landmark in completion of the new London
London
sewerage system designed by Joseph Bazalgette
Joseph Bazalgette
for the Metropolitan Board of Works . Construction of the complementary Abbey Mills Pumping Station begins and is completed in 1868. * 10 April: New Hampton Court Bridge , built in iron, opens. * June: Jumbo
Jumbo
, a large African elephant
African elephant
, is transferred to London Zoo and becomes a popular attraction. * 2 July: The Christian Mission, later renamed The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army
, is founded in Whitechapel by William and Catherine Booth . * 1 November: Broad Street station opens as a City terminus for passengers on the North London
London
Railway . * c. November: Eleanor cross
Eleanor cross
reproduction erected in front of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
railway station . * Café Royal in business in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
. * Major outbreak of rinderpest in British cattle leads to the abolition of urban cowkeeping by London
London
dairies.

* 1866

* 1 January: Metropolitan Fire Brigade set up by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act 1865 under control of the Metropolitan Board of Works and under the leadership of Eyre Massey Shaw . * July: Elizabeth Garrett Anderson opens the St Mary\'s Dispensary in Bryanston Square , Marylebone, where women can seek medical advice from exclusively female practitioners. * 23–25 July: Demonstrations in Hyde Park in favour of parliamentary reform turn violent. * 1 September: Cannon Street station
Cannon Street station
is opened as a terminus by the South Eastern Railway . * A cholera epidemic in London
London
causes over 5,000 deaths. * Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Music Hall established. * John I. Thornycroft 12 local residents are killed. * Autumn/Winter: Wasps Rugby Football Club formed. * Rebuilding of Palace of Westminster
Westminster
completed.

* 1868

* 14 March: Millwall Dock opens * 26 May: Last public hanging in Britain – Fenian
Fenian
bomber Michael Barrett outside Newgate
Newgate
Prison for his part in the Clerkenwell explosion .

* 1 October

* St Pancras railway station train shed , designed by W. H. Barlow , opens (construction of the permanent station buildings and Midland Grand Hotel , designed by George Gilbert Scott , has only just begun).

* Metropolitan Railway extended from Paddington (Bishop's Road) station to Gloucester Road via Bayswater
Bayswater
and Notting Hill Gate Underground stations .

* 24 November: Smithfield Meat Market opens. * 8 December: The Echo newspaper begins publication. * 10 December: The world's first traffic lights are installed in Parliament Square
Parliament Square
. * 21 December: New Gaiety Theatre opens. * 24 December: First section of District line of the London Underground opens from South Kensington
Kensington
to Westminster
Westminster
. * Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
Co-operative Society established as the Royal Arsenal Supply Association, a consumers\' co-operative .

* 1869

* 6 March: The first international cycle race is held at Crystal Palace . * 22 May: Sainsbury\'s first store opens, in Drury Lane
Drury Lane
. * 6 November: New Blackfriars Bridge and Holborn
Holborn
Viaduct are opened by Queen Victoria. * November: Albert Embankment , engineered by Joseph Bazalgette
Joseph Bazalgette
, completed. * 7 December: First train runs through the Thames Tunnel on the East London
London
Line . * The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
closes its Deptford
Deptford
and Woolwich
Woolwich
Dockyards .

* 1870

* 16 April: Vaudeville Theatre opens. * 2 May: First permanent horse-drawn street trams in London
London
, in the Brixton Road . * July: Monet
Monet
and Pissarro
Pissarro
move to London, fleeing the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
. * 13 July: Victoria Embankment , engineered by Joseph Bazalgette
Joseph Bazalgette
, opens. * 2 August: Official opening of the Tower Subway beneath the Thames, the world's first underground passenger "tube" railway. Although this lasts as a railway operation only until November, it demonstrates the technologically successful first use of the cylindrical wrought iron tunnelling shield devised by Peter W. Barlow and James Henry Greathead . * Gas Light and Coke Company opens Beckton Gas Works which becomes the largest in Europe. * Barkers of Kensington
Kensington
established as drapers in Kensington
Kensington
High Street. * Opera
Opera
Comique opens in Westminster.

* 1871

* 29 March: Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
opens in South Kensington; it incorporates a grand organ by Henry Willis & Sons , the world's largest at this time. * 24 April: Murder
Murder
of servant girl Jane Clouson in Eltham
Eltham
. * Spring: James McNeill Whistler publishes Sixteen etchings of scenes on the Thames and paints his first "moonlights" (later called "nocturnes") of the river. * c. May: French painter James Tissot
James Tissot
flees Paris for London. * 14 June: Camille Pissarro
Pissarro
marries his mistress Julie Vellay in Croydon
Croydon
and returns to France. * 18 July: Slade School of Fine Art established. * 15 September: The Army & Navy Co-operative Society Ltd is incorporated, origin of the Army & Navy Stores . * Metropolitan Board of Works purchases its first portion of Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath to preserve it from housing development. * Maison Bertaux patisserie founded in Soho
Soho
. * Approximate date: Berners Club for Women active.

* 1872

* 16 March: In the first ever final of the FA Cup
FA Cup
, the world's oldest Association football competition, London
London
club Wanderers F.C. defeat Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
A.F.C. 1–0 at The Oval
The Oval
in Kennington
Kennington
. * 14 May: New church of St Mary Abbots
St Mary Abbots
in Kensington
Kensington
, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott , consecrated. * 24 June: Bethnal Green Museum opens in the East End. * 1 July: Metropolitan Turnpike Trust dissolved. * 3 July: Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
opens the Albert Memorial
Albert Memorial
in memory of her husband Prince Albert . * 18 July: Philanthropist Angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts , becomes the first woman to be made an Honorary Freeman of the City of London
London
. * 3 August: The Artizans, Labourers the gateway is re-erected at Theobalds Park in Hertfordshire. * 24 February: Anti-Russian demonstrations in Hyde Park . * 5 March: William Burges moves into The Tower House which he has designed for himself in the Holland Park district. * 25 May: Opening of Gilbert and Sullivan 's comic opera HMS Pinafore , at the Opera
Opera
Comique on the Strand with a first run of 571 performances. * July: American-born painter James McNeill Whistler moves into the White House, designed by E. W. Godwin in Tite Street , Chelsea ; also this year Oscar Wilde moves (initially) into No. 1 in the same street by the same architect. * 8 August: Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Act requires it to be preserved for public recreation in the care of the Corporation of London
London
. * August: Gaiety Theatre becomes the first in London
London
to light its stage with carbon arc lamps . * 3 September: Over 640 die when the crowded pleasure boat Princess Alice collides with the collier Bywell Castle in the Thames off Woolwich. * 12 September: Cleopatra\'s Needle erected on the Victoria Embankment .

* October

* The University of London
London
becomes the first in the UK to admit women on equal terms with men. * William Morris
William Morris
moves into Kelmscott House on the Thames waterfront at Hammersmith
Hammersmith
.

* Gamages open. * Leather, Hide and Wool Exchange built in Bermondsey
Bermondsey
. * St John\'s Wood Art School and Sette of Odd Volumes (club) founded.

* 1879

* 2 March: Murder of Julia Martha Thomas at Richmond . * 24 May: Metropolitan Board of Works frees Albert , Chelsea , Vauxhall
Vauxhall
and Lambeth
Lambeth
Bridges of tolls. * 1 August: D\'Oyly Carte Opera
Opera
Company established. * 16 August: Fulham F.C. founded as the Fulham St Andrew's Church Sunday School football club. * November–March 1880: Probably the longest ever fog in its history engulfs London. * First telephone exchange in London. * Electric street lighting introduced, initially on the Thames Embankment and Waterloo Bridge .

1880S–1890S

* 1880

* 31 May: St James\'s Gazette newspaper begins publication. * 24 June: Royal Albert Dock opens. * Summer: Burnham Beeches in Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
purchased by the Corporation of London
London
to preserve the woodlands for public recreation. * 27 September: Guildhall School of Music opens. * 28 October: London
London
Topographical Society founded as the Topographical Society of London. * 17 November: The University of London
London
awards the first degrees to women. * The Old Vic
The Old Vic
theatre is taken over by Emma Cons as the Royal Victoria Hall and coffee tavern.

* 1881

* 3 April: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 1881 : Population: 50,569; county 3,779,728; Greater London
London
4,766,661. One-seventh of the UK population live in London. * 18 April: The Natural History Museum opens in South Kensington. * 26 July: First publication of The Evening News . * 10 October: Richard D\'Oyly Carte 's Savoy Theatre
Savoy Theatre
opens, the world's first public building to be fully lit by electricity, using Joseph Swan 's incandescent light bulbs . The run of Gilbert and Sullivan 's new satirical opera Patience transfers from the Opera Comique. The stage is first lit electrically on 28 December. * 15 December: Rebuilt Leadenhall Market opened. * "Great Paul", Britain's heaviest swinging bell, is hung in the south-west tower of St Paul\'s Cathedral . * London
London
Municipal Reform League founded. * Leyton Orient F.C. formed as Eagle Cricket
Cricket
Club by members of the Glyn Cricket
Cricket
Club.

* 1882

* 12 January: Holborn
Holborn
Viaduct power station in the City, the world's first coal-fired public electricity generating station, begins operation. * 25 January: London
London
Chamber of Commerce founded. * 24 March: Jumbo
Jumbo
the elephant departs from Britain having been sold by London
London
Zoo to the American showman P. T. Barnum . * 5 September: Tottenham Hotspur F.C. founded as Hotspur F.C. * 25 September: Young Men’s Christian Institute, the former Royal Polytechnic Institute and a predecessor of the University of Westminster
Westminster
, opens in new premises in Regent Street
Regent Street
provided by Quintin Hogg . * 22 October: London
London
Press Club established. * 25 November: The Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera Iolanthe is first produced at the Savoy Theatre
Savoy Theatre
. * 4 December: Royal Courts of Justice
Royal Courts of Justice
open on the Strand in Westminster. * Christchurch Rangers, the earliest predecessor of Queens Park Rangers F.C. , is founded. * London
London
and Provincial Photographic Association established.

* 1883

* 17 March: Karl Marx
Karl Marx
buried at Highgate
Highgate
Cemetery . * 7 May: Royal College of Music
Royal College of Music
opens with George Grove
George Grove
as first Director. * 4 August: The Noel Park estate of the Artizans, Labourers & General Dwellings Company is formally opened. * 30 October: Two Clan na Gael dynamite bombs explode in the London Underground .

* 1884

* January: London
London
Hydraulic Power Company set up by Act to merge the Wharves John Burns encourages the demonstrators. * 10 March: First Crufts
Crufts
dog show held. * 10 May: London, Chatham and Dover Railway
London, Chatham and Dover Railway
duplicates Blackfriars Railway Bridge by construction of the parallel St Paul's Railway Bridge to serve a new terminus north of the Thames, St Paul's (renamed Blackfriars station in 1937). * 19 May: Highgate
Highgate
Wood purchased by the Corporation of London
London
to preserve it for public recreation. * 29 May: Replacement Putney Bridge
Putney Bridge
in stone opens over the Thames. * 11 December: Arsenal F.C. , formed as Dial Square by (mostly Scottish) workers at the Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
in Woolwich
Woolwich
, play their first match , on the Isle of Dogs ; the club is renamed Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
soon afterwards, supposedly on 25 December. * 25 December: Great snow storm in London. * 26 December: Olympia exhibition centre opens as the National Agricultural Hall. * Queens Park Rangers F.C. formed by merger of existing clubs in north-west London. * Shaftesbury Avenue
Shaftesbury Avenue
completed.

* 1887

* April–May: First Colonial Conference held at the Colonial Office . * 14 May: People's Palace, a predecessor of Queen Mary University of London
London
, is opened in the East End by Queen Victoria. * 11 June: Replacement Hammersmith Bridge , a suspension bridge over the Thames, opens. * 6/7 August: A fourth major fire devastates Whiteleys
Whiteleys
department store in Bayswater. * 13 November ("Bloody Sunday "): A large socialist demonstration addressed by respectable speakers is violently broken up by the police; at a 20 November demonstration against police brutality a bystander is killed. * November: Arthur Conan Doyle
Arthur Conan Doyle
's first detective novel , A Study in Scarlet , is published in Beeton\'s Christmas Annual by Ward Lock & Co . in London, introducing the London
London
consulting detective Sherlock Holmes and his friend and chronicler Dr. Watson
Dr. Watson
. * Earl\'s Court site first used as a showground. * London
London
Social Camera Club established.

* 1888

* 13 February: The first issue of the Financial Times goes on sale (originally launched on 9 January by Horatio Bottomley as the London Financial Guide). * 23 March: A meeting called by William McGregor to discuss establishment of The Football League is held in London. * 3 April: Prostitute Emma Elizabeth Smith is brutally attacked by two or three men, dying of her injuries the following day, first of the Whitechapel murders but probably not a victim of Jack the Ripper . * 26 May: Punch magazine begins serialisation of George and Weedon Grossmith 's humorous The Diary of a Nobody , the first entry being for "April 3". * June: London
London
matchgirls strike of 1888 organised by Annie Besant . * 7 August: Whitechapel murders : The body of prostitute Martha Tabram is found, a possible victim of Jack the Ripper . * 13 August: The Local Government Act , effective from 1889, establishes the County of London
London
. * 31 August: Whitechapel murders: The mutilated body of prostitute Mary Ann Nichols is found in Buck\'s Row , perhaps the first victim of Jack the Ripper . * September: Woolwich
Woolwich
Market officially established at Beresford Square . * 8 September: Whitechapel murders: The mutilated body of prostitute Annie Chapman is found. She is considered to be the second victim of Jack the Ripper. * 27 September: Whitechapel murders: The ' Dear Boss letter ' signed " Jack the Ripper ", the first time the name is used, is received by the Central News Agency. * 30 September: Whitechapel murders: The bodies of prostitutes Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes , the latter mutilated, are found. They are generally considered Jack the Ripper 's third and fourth victim respectively. * 2 October: The Whitehall
Whitehall
Mystery : Dismembered remains of a woman's body are discovered at three central London
London
locations, one being the construction site of New Scotland Yard . * 3 October: Gilbert and Sullivan 's Savoy opera The Yeomen of the Guard premières at the Savoy Theatre
Savoy Theatre
. * 9 November: Whitechapel murders: The mutilated body of prostitute Mary Jane Kelly is found. She is considered to be the fifth, and last, of Jack the Ripper 's victims. A number of similar murders in England follows, but the police attribute them to copy-cat killers. * 17 December: The Lyric Theatre opens in the West End. * The Star newspaper begins publication, covering the Whitechapel murders intensively. * Parliament Hill purchased by the Metropolitan Board of Works to preserve it as a public viewpoint. * First police boxes erected in London. * Eagle Cricket
Cricket
Club renamed Orient Football Club .

* 1889

* 23 March: Woolwich
Woolwich
Free Ferry inaugurated. * 1 April: Elected London
London
County Council takes up its powers, in succession to the Metropolitan Board of Works . Lord Rosebery is its first chairman. * 24 April: Garrick Theatre opens. * 6 July: Several aristocrats are implicated in the Cleveland Street scandal after police raid a male brothel. * 6 August: Savoy Hotel
Savoy Hotel
opens. * 14 August–15 September: London
London
Dock Strike of 1889 : Dockers strike for a minimum wage of sixpence an hour ("The dockers' tanner"), which they eventually receive, a landmark in the development of New Unionism . * 30 August: Official opening of Royal Mail Mount Pleasant Sorting Office . * Morley Memorial College for Working Men and Women opens in south London. * Chenies Street Chambers Ladies Residential Dwellings open in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
as partly co-operative residential apartments for single women.

* 1890

* 21 July: Replacement Battersea Bridge
Battersea Bridge
over the Thames opens. * 10 October: Brentford F.C. established by members of Brentford Rowing
Rowing
Club. * November: Scotland Yard , headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service , moves to a building on the Victoria Embankment , as New Scotland Yard . * 4 November: The City it is taken over by the London
London
County Council in 1897. * London
London
Camanachd sport club formed.

* 1895

* 1 January: Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
Institute opens. * 14 February: Première of Oscar Wilde 's last play, the comedy The Importance of Being Earnest , at St. James\' Theatre . * 18 February: The Marquess of Queensberry (father of Lord Alfred Douglas , Oscar Wilde's lover), leaves his calling card at the Albemarle Club , inscribed: "For Oscar Wilde, posing somdomite", i.e. a sodomite , inducing Wilde to charge him with criminal libel . * 3–5 April: Libel case of Wilde v Queensberry at the Old Bailey
Old Bailey
: Queensberry, defended by Edward Carson
Edward Carson
, is acquitted. Evidence of Wilde 's homosexual relationships with young men renders him liable to criminal prosecution under the Labouchere Amendment . * 6 April: Oscar Wilde is arrested at the Cadogan Hotel for "unlawfully committing acts of gross indecency with certain male persons" and detained on remand in Holloway Prison . * 25 May: Criminal case of Regina v. Wilde: After a retrial at the Old Bailey, Oscar Wilde is convicted of gross indecency and is taken to Pentonville Prison to begin his two years' sentence of hard labour . * 29 June: Formation of Thames Ironworks F.C. by workers at the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company
Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company
in Canning Town , predecessors of West Ham United F.C. , is announced. * 17 July: Great Wheel
Great Wheel
opens at the Earl\'s Court exhibition grounds; at 308 ft (94 m) it is the world's tallest Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
at this date. Last used in October 1906, it is demolished in 1907. * 20 July: Rebuilt Lyric Theatre (Hammersmith) opens. * 10 August: The first ever indoor promenade concert , origin of The Proms , is held at the Queen\'s Hall , Langham Place , opening a series promoted by impresario Robert Newman with 26-year-old Henry Wood as sole conductor. * 25 September: Snow falls in London. * October: London
London
School of Economics holds its first classes. * November: The Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifle, produced at the Royal Small Arms Factory , Enfield, is adopted as standard issue by the British Army , remaining in service until the 1960s. * The Agapemonites complete the Ark of the Covenant church in Upper Clapton .

* 1896

* 10 January: Birt Acres
Birt Acres
demonstrates his film projector , the Kineopticon, the first in Britain, to the Lyonsdown Photographic Club in New Barnet , the first film show to an audience in the UK. * 14 January: Acres demonstrates his Kineopticon to the Royal Photographic Society at the Queen\'s Hall .

* 20 February:

* Robert W. Paul demonstrates his film projector, the Theatrograph (later known as the Animatograph), at the Alhambra Theatre . * The Lumiere Brothers first project their films in Britain, at the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square
Leicester Square
.

* 21 March: Kineopticon opened on Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus /Shaftesbury Avenue corner, but is destroyed by fire after a few weeks. * May: "Watkin\'s Tower " at Wembley Park opens to public. Never completed beyond its first stage, it is demolished by 1907 and Wembley Stadium (1923) eventually built on the site. * 4 May: Daily Mail newspaper begins publication. * 19 May: Croydon
Croydon
Town Hall complex opens. * July: Robert W. Paul shoots the first actuality film of a London street scene, Blackfriars Bridge (first screened the following month). * 26 July–1 August: International Socialist Workers and Trade Union Congress held in London. * 17 August: Bridget Driscoll becomes the first person in the world to be killed in a car accident, in the grounds of The Crystal Palace .

* November: Arthur Morrison 's social realist novella A Child of the Jago is published. * 1 October: Trocadero restaurant of J. Lyons and Co. opened. * Completion of the first flats in the London
London
County Council 's Boundary Estate in the East End, the country's earliest public housing scheme, replacing part of the notorious Old Nichol
Old Nichol
slum. * Knight, Frank & Rutley , estate agents, established.

* 1897

* 22 May: The Blackwall Tunnel
Blackwall Tunnel
, at this time the world's longest subaqueous tunnel, opens for road traffic beneath the Thames in the East End. * 22 June: Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
's Diamond Jubilee
Diamond Jubilee
celebrations. * 21 July: The National Gallery
National Gallery
of British Art (modern-day Tate Britain ) opens on Millbank. * 10 August: The Automobile Club of Great Britain
Great Britain
(modern-day Royal Automobile Club ) founded in London. * 19 August: First horseless, electric, taxicabs begin operating in London.

* 1898

* 21 June: At the launch of HMS Albion from the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company at Blackwell , 34 spectators drown when a stage collapses. * 19 July: French novelist Émile Zola arrives in London
London
to escape imprisonment for criminal libel over his open letter J\'accuse on the Dreyfus affair . * 8 August: Waterloo his passenger, Maj. James Richer, dies of injuries three days later. * 15 March: Marylebone station , the last mainline London
London
terminus , is opened by the Great Central Railway . * 17 May: Foundation stone of the Victoria and Albert Museum is laid by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, her last public engagement. * 24 May: Kensington
Kensington
Palace state rooms are opened to the public by the Office of Works . * 13 July: London
London
Government Act 1899 divides the County of London into 28 metropolitan boroughs with effect from 1 November 1900: Battersea
Battersea
, Bermondsey
Bermondsey
, Bethnal Green , Camberwell
Camberwell
, Chelsea , Deptford
Deptford
, Finsbury , Fulham , Greenwich
Greenwich
, Hammersmith
Hammersmith
, Hackney , Hampstead
Hampstead
, Holborn
Holborn
, Islington
Islington
, Kensington
Kensington
, Lambeth
Lambeth
, Lewisham , Paddington , Poplar , St Marylebone , St Pancras , Shoreditch
Shoreditch
, Southwark
Southwark
, Stepney
Stepney
, Stoke Newington , Wandsworth
Wandsworth
, Westminster
Westminster
, and Woolwich
Woolwich
(including North Woolwich
Woolwich
). * 9 October: The Motor Traction Company introduces the first motor buses in regular London
London
service, from Kennington
Kennington
to Victoria station .

20TH CENTURY

1900S–1930S

Main article: History of London (1900–39)

* 1900

* 9 January: Influenza
Influenza
outbreak in London. * 15 January: London
London
Hippodrome opens as a venue for circus performances. * c. July: Memorial to Heroic Self Sacrifice at Postman\'s Park in the City unveiled. * 5 July: Thames Ironworks F.C. relaunched as West Ham United F.C. * 30 July: Central London
London
Railway (the modern-day Central line Tube) opens. * First historic building acquired by London
London
County Council , Prince Henry\'s Room at 17 Fleet Street
Fleet Street
. * Passmore Edwards Museum opens in West Ham
West Ham
(closed 1994). * Completion of the Arnold Cross estate, Shoreditch
Shoreditch
, Britain's first council estate to be commenced (10 years previously).

* 1901

* 2 February: Funeral procession of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, from Victoria to Paddington stations . * 21 February: Apollo Theatre opens in Shaftesbury Avenue
Shaftesbury Avenue
. * 12 March: The Whitechapel Art Gallery , designed by Charles Harrison Townsend , opens. * 1 April: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 1901 ; Population: 26,923; county 4,509,618; Greater London
London
6,581,402. * 4 April: Electric trams introduced. * 18 May: Alexandra Palace opens to the public. * 20 June: Edward Elgar
Edward Elgar
premières his concert overture Cockaigne (In London
London
Town) at the Queen\'s Hall . * 29 June: The Horniman Museum , designed by Charles Harrison Townsend , opens in Forest Hill . * 5 August: Britain's first permanent cinema opens in Islington
Islington
. * Ealing
Ealing
Tenants begin development of Brentham Garden Suburb housing cooperative . * London
London
County Council begins development of Norbury Estate , the first beyond its boundaries at this time. * London
London
County Council takes over blue plaque scheme from the Society of Arts . * Will Barker begins making moving pictures in London.

* 1902

* 1 March: First GPO telephone exchange in London
London
opens, Faraday Building . * April * Vladimir Lenin (under the alias Jacob Richter) begins a year's stay in London
London
where he edits the newspaper Iskra
Iskra
, studies in the British Museum
British Museum
Reading Room and in October first meets Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
. * The Roehampton Club is opened as a private members' sporting club. * 9 April: Underground Electric Railways Company of London
London
formed to consolidate the group of Underground lines controlled by American financier Charles Yerkes . * June: A cast of Thomas Thornycroft 's sculpture Boadicea and Her Daughters is erected posthumously on the Victoria Embankment in Westminster. * 26 June: The coronation of King Edward VII
Edward VII
and Queen Alexandra , scheduled for this date, is postponed due to the King's illness. * July: Leicester Galleries open to exhibit modern art in Leicester Square . * 4 August: Greenwich
Greenwich
foot tunnel opens. * 9 August: Coronation of King Edward VII
Edward VII
and Queen Alexandra in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. * 22 November: Golders Green Crematorium , the first in London, opens. * 1 December: Metropolis Water Act creates Metropolitan Water Board to absorb existing water suppliers on 24 June 1904. * Ealing
Ealing
Studios established by Will Barker . * Original Hammersmith
Hammersmith
Hospital established. * Rosa Lewis acquires The Cavendish Hotel .

* 1903

* 27 January: Fire at Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum kills 51. * 6 March: Tyburn
Tyburn
Convent
Convent
and Shrine of the Martyrs established by Adorers of the Sacred Heart of Montmartre . * 20 May: New Kew Bridge
Kew Bridge
is opened by King Edward VII. * By June: Westminster
Westminster
Cathedral (Roman Catholic) is opened. * June–August: London's wettest summer (and year). * 18 June: Explosion at Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
, Woolwich
Woolwich
, kills 16. * August: 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party moves from Brussels
Brussels
to London. * 2 November: Tabloid newspaper Daily Mirror begins publication. * November: The London
London
County Council erects its first blue plaque , to Thomas Babington Macaulay (d. 1859) at Holly Lodge, Campden Hill . * 16 December: The London
London
County Council erects its earliest surviving blue plaque, to novelist Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
(d. 1870) on his former home in Doughty Street . * The London
London
County Council's Latchmere Estate in Battersea
Battersea
opens, the first public housing in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to be built using a council's own direct labour force. * New Baltic Exchange (building) completed. * William Foyle and his brother Gilbert establish the bookselling business of Foyles . * Pepys Club founded. * Clement\'s Inn , last of the Inns of Chancery , is dissolved and demolished to make way for the redevelopment of Aldwych
Aldwych
.

* 1904

* 9 February: City of London
London
by-election, 1904 held. * 9 June: The London
London
Symphony Orchestra performs its first concert. * 4 July: Branch railway to original Uxbridge
Uxbridge
station is opened by the Metropolitan Railway . * 15 August: Metropolitan Fire Brigade renamed as London
London
Fire Brigade . * 1 September: Brentford F.C. first plays at Griffin Park
Griffin Park
. * 11 October: Loftus Road Stadium is first used by Shepherd\'s Bush F.C. * Late October: The first members of what will become the Bloomsbury Group move to the Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
district. * 24 December: The Coliseum Theatre opens. * 27 December: Première of Peter Pan . * Herbert Beerbohm Tree
Herbert Beerbohm Tree
establishes an Academy of Dramatic Art, which will become RADA , at His Majesty\'s Theatre in the Haymarket . * G. K. Chesterton
G. K. Chesterton
's novel The Napoleon of Notting Hill is published.

* 1905

* February: Lots Road Power Station begins generating electricity for the Underground Group railways and tramways. Through the year, the District Railway and Circle line convert their passenger operations from steam to electric trains. * 1 May: Anglican Diocese of Southwark
Southwark
created, raising the Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie to the dignity of Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral . * 10 March: Chelsea Football Club founded. * 6 May: Naval, Shipping and Fisheries Exhibition opens at Earl\'s Court . * 18 October: London
London
County Council 's new street at Kingsway and redevelopment of Aldwych
Aldwych
are opened. * 21 October: Henry Wood
Henry Wood
first conducts a performance of his Fantasia on British Sea Songs at a Trafalgar Day concert.

* 1906

* 13 January: Woolwich
Woolwich
Town Hall opened by Labour MP Will Crooks , Woolwich
Woolwich
Council having resisted a royal opening. * 24 February: Kingsway tramway subway opens. * 27 February: City of London
London
by-election, February 1906 held. * 10 March: Bakerloo line
Bakerloo line
opens. * 15 May: Our Dumb Friends League opens its first animal hospital , in Victoria .

* 24 May

* The Ritz Hotel opens in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
, the first significant steel-framed building in London
London
(although regulations require the masonry external walls to be loadbearing). * Greenwich
Greenwich
Power Station (begun 1902) begins generating electricity for the London
London
County Council Tramways .

* 26 May: Replacement Vauxhall Bridge
Vauxhall Bridge
opens. * 28 July: Tooting Bec Lido is opened as Tooting
Tooting
Bathing-Lake on Tooting Commons . * 23 October: Suffragettes
Suffragettes
disrupt the State Opening of Parliament .

* 15 December: Piccadilly
Piccadilly
line opens. * Hampstead
Hampstead
Garden Suburb established by Samuel and Henrietta Barnett and laid out by Raymond Unwin . * Brown Dog affair : Anti-vivisection Brown Dog statue erected in Battersea
Battersea
, provoking riots.

* 1907

* 7 February: The "Mud March ", the first large procession organized by the National Union of Women\'s Suffrage Societies , takes place. * 11 February: Explosions at Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
, Woolwich
Woolwich
, shatter windows within a large radius. * 27 February: Old Bailey
Old Bailey
(criminal court) building opens. * 22 March: The first taxicabs with taximeters begin operating in London. * 13 May–1 June: 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party held at the Brotherhood Church in Hackney . Lenin
Lenin
, Trotsky
Trotsky
, Stalin
Stalin
and Litvinov attend, the latter two staying in the Whitechapel Rowton House . * September: A cast of G. F. Watts ' sculpture Physical Energy is erected posthumously in Kensington
Kensington
Gardens . * 11 September: Camden Town Murder
Murder
.

* 1908

* 26 May–October: Franco-British Exhibition held at what becomes known as White City in Shepherd\'s Bush . * 12 June: Rotherhithe
Rotherhithe
Tunnel opens to road traffic and pedestrians.

* 13 June: Women\'s suffrage march and rally at the Royal Albert Hall . * June: The distinctive 'bar and circle' design of station nameboards is introduced on the London
London
Underground . * 13–25 July: 1908 Summer Olympics held at the White City Stadium as part of the Franco-British Exhibition and of a festival of sport beginning on 14 May. The marathon is run on 24 July and the Winter Olympics are held here on 19–31 October. * 19 July: The Metropolitan Railway converts the last of its steam-hauled passenger services south of Harrow to electric operation.

* October: First Ideal Home Exhibition held, at Olympia sponsored by the Daily Mail newspaper. * November: Horace, Eustace and Oswald Short found Short Brothers , the first aircraft manufacturing company in England, in Battersea
Battersea
. * Walter Sickert paints the series of problem pictures The Camden Town Murder
Murder
.

* 1909

* 23 January: The Tottenham Outrage , an armed robbery and the murder of a ten-year-old boy and a police constable in Tottenham
Tottenham
, carried out by two Latvian anarchists . * 26 February: First film shown in colour using Kinemacolor at the Palace Theatre . * 15 March: Selfridges, Oxford
Oxford
Street (department store) opens. * 31 March: Port of London
London
Authority takes over the London
London
docks, and also management of the Thames Tideway
Tideway
from the Thames Conservancy . * 9 May: Metropolitan Water Board 's Honor Oak covered reservoir inaugurated. * 20 May: Imperial International Exhibition opens at White City . * 5 June: Alliott Verdon Roe begins flights in the first fixed-wing aircraft of all-British manufacture, the Roe I Triplane , from Walthamstow
Walthamstow
Marshes . * 26 June: The Victoria and Albert Museum opens in the building designed for it by Aston Webb in South Kensington
Kensington
by Edward VII
Edward VII
and Queen Alexandra ; the Science Museum is constituted as a fully independent institution. * 2 October: The first rugby football match at Twickenham
Twickenham
Stadium is played. * 1 December: The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway
London, Brighton and South Coast Railway
publicly inaugurates England's first suburban surface railway electrification system on its South London
London
line, known as the "Elevated Electric". * 20 December: Fire at Arding it is restarted on 1 April, and Oxford wins. * April/May: Thousands of Jewish workers in the West End garment trade in the strike, followed by thousands more in the East End inspired by Rudolf Rocker . * May: East Finchley Picturedrome (built 1910) opens as a cinema. * 1 May: Statue of Peter Pan appears in Kensington
Kensington
Gardens . * 10 August: Frank McClean flies a Short Brothers floatplane up the Thames between the upper and lower parts of Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
and underneath London
London
Bridge . * 26 October: Woolwich
Woolwich
foot tunnel opens.

* 1913

* 8 January: Poetry Bookshop established in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
by Harold Monro ; it becomes a literary meeting place. * 10 February: News reaches London
London
of the failure of Capt. Scott 's 1912 Polar expedition. * 15 March: King George V
George V
Reservoir in Enfield inaugurated for the Metropolitan Water Board . * 20 May: First Chelsea Flower Show . * Summer–Autumn: Sir Aston Webb remodels Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
's main East Front. * 26 June: First woman magistrate appointed, Miss Emily Dawson. * 19 July: London
London
County Council Tramways operates its last horse trams , in Islington
Islington
.

* 26 July

* 50,000 women take part in a pilgrimage in Hyde Park organised by the National Union of Women\'s Suffrage Societies . * King\'s College Hospital opened on its new site in Camberwell
Camberwell
.

* 6 September: Arsenal F.C. , previously based in Plumstead
Plumstead
in South London, move into their new stadium at Highbury
Highbury
. * John Archer becomes the first black mayor of a London
London
borough, Battersea. * Caroline Spurgeon becomes the first woman professor at the University of London
London
. * The London
London
Group of artists is formed by merger of the Camden Town Group and the Vorticists . * Twickenham
Twickenham
Film Studios established. * Carter's Crisps of London
London
introduce commercial manufacture of potato crisps to the UK.

* 1914

* March: The London
London
Group hold their first art exhibition, at the Goupil Gallery . * 10 March: Suffragette
Suffragette
Mary Richardson damages the Velázquez painting the Rokeby Venus in the National Gallery
National Gallery
, with a meat cleaver. * 4 May: Suffragette
Suffragette
Mary Wood attacks John Singer Sargent
John Singer Sargent
's portrait of Henry James
Henry James
at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition with a meat cleaver. At the same exhibition on 12 May, Gertrude Mary Ansell attacks the recently deceased Hubert von Herkomer
Hubert von Herkomer
's portrait of the Duke of Wellington, and on 26 May 'Mary Spencer' (Maude Kate Smith) attacks George Clausen 's painting Primavera. * 1 July: Isleworth Studios officially opens for film production. * 31 July: London
London
Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange
closes until 4 January 1915.

* 4 August

* Last horsebus in London
London
operates, in Peckham
Peckham
. * Declaration of war by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on the German Empire
German Empire
at 23:00.

* September: Cover of magazine London
London
Opinion first carries the iconic drawing by Alfred Leete of Lord Kitchener with the recruiting slogan Your Country Needs You used as poster in the London
London
district. * 14 October: Royal Flying Corps first permanently stations aircraft at Hounslow Heath Aerodrome . * 6 November: Carl Hans Lody becomes the first of eleven convicted World War I
World War I
German spies to be shot at dawn by firing squad in the Tower of London
London
up to 1916. * Geffrye Museum is opened in Shoreditch
Shoreditch
by the London
London
County Council . * City Livery Club founded.

* 1915

* 1 January: Ilford rail crash kills ten on the Great Eastern Main Line . * February: London
London
County Council establishes an emergency ambulance corps, predecessor of the London
London
Ambulance Service , under the control of the London
London
Fire Brigade . By July 1916 it is staffed entirely by women. * 3 May: Royal Flying Corps opens Northolt aerodrome . * 31 May: Bombing
Bombing
by German Zeppelins begins. * 19 July: A cast of Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
's sculpture The Burghers of Calais is unveiled in Victoria Tower Gardens
Victoria Tower Gardens
in Westminster. * October: Stag Lane Aerodrome set up. * ' Metro-land ' first coined to promote the area served by the Metropolitan Railway .

* 1916

* 5 June: School of Oriental Studies chartered. * 3 August: The musical comedy Chu Chin Chow , written, produced, directed and starring Oscar Asche , with music by Frederic Norton , premières at His Majesty\'s Theatre . It will run for five years and a total of 2,238 performances (more than twice as many as any previous musical), a record that will stand for nearly forty years. * 28 November: First bombing of central London
London
by a fixed-wing aircraft when a German LVG C.II biplane drops 6 bombs near Victoria station . * Underground Electric Railways Company of London
London
adopts Johnston (typeface) as part of its corporate identity .

* 1917

* 19 January: Silvertown explosion : a blast at a munitions factory in east London
London
kills 73 and injures over 400. The resulting fire causes over £2M-worth of damage. * April: Leonard and Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
take delivery of the hand printing press they require in order to establish the Hogarth Press
Hogarth Press
at their home, Hogarth House in Richmond upon Thames . * 4/5 May: Bombs dropped on London
London
by fixed-wing aircraft: Cleopatra\'s Needle damaged. * 6/7 May: Bomb dropped on London
London
by a fixed-wing aircraft: 1 killed. * 7 May: The mass explosion of mines in the Battle of Messines on the Western Front (World War I)
Western Front (World War I)
can be felt in London. * 13 June: Daylight bombing raid on London
London
by fixed-wing aircraft: 162 killed. * 7 July: A bomb damages Ironmongers\' Hall beyond repair. * The Ivy restaurant opened by Abel Giandellini. * London
London
postal districts subdivided by numbers.

* 1918

* 28 January: Night of unusually heavy bombing in London
London
and south-east England. * 30 August: Strike of 20,000 London
London
policemen with demands of increased pay and union recognition. * 27 October–2 November: 2,200 deaths in London
London
over this period due to " Spanish Flu
Spanish Flu
". * British Antique Dealers\' Association headquartered in London. * South Suburban Co-operative Society , a consumers\' co-operative , is formed by merger of the Croydon
Croydon
Co-operative Society (established 1887) with others.

* 1919

* March: " Battle of Bow Street " between North American servicemen and the Metropolitan Police. * 18 July: The Cenotaph, Whitehall
Whitehall
, unveiled as a temporary memorial. * 31 July: Police
Police
strike in London
London
and Liverpool
Liverpool
for recognition of the National Union of Police
Police
and Prison Officers; over 2,000 strikers are dismissed. * 25 August: Aircraft Transport and Travel airline begins operating its daily route to Paris–Le Bourget Airport from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome . * 30 December: Lincoln\'s Inn admits its first woman bar student. * Construction of Wormholt Estate in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
, a pioneering example of postwar public housing , begins. * City Literary Institute established.

* 1920

* 17 March: Edith Cavell Memorial unveiled by Queen Alexandra in St Martin's Place. * 29 March: Croydon
Croydon
Aerodrome opens. * 9 June: Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
opens at The Crystal Palace . * 13 July: London
London
County Council bans foreigners from almost all council jobs. * 18 August: First night bus services introduced. * September: London
London
Co-operative Society , a consumers\' co-operative , is established by merger of the Stratford and Edmonton Co-operative Societies. * 11 November: The Cenotaph, Whitehall
Whitehall
, designed by Edwin Lutyens
Edwin Lutyens
, unveiled to commemorate the dead of World War I
World War I
; The Unknown Warrior is buried in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. * Devonshire House in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
demolished. * London
London
School of Journalism founded.

* 1921

* 17 March: Dr Marie Stopes opens the UK's first birth control clinic in Holloway . * 26 April: Police
Police
patrol London
London
on motorcycles for the first time. * 6 June: Southwark
Southwark
Bridge opens. * 8 July: Port of London
London
Authority opens King George V
George V
Dock , the last of London's upstream enclosed docks to be constructed. * 1 September: Poplar Rates Rebellion : Led by George Lansbury , the Borough council
Borough council
in Poplar withholds collection of part of its rates , leading to six weeks’ imprisonment for thirty councillors (including six women) and hasty passage of The London
London
Authorities (Financial Provision) Act through Parliament to equalise tax burdens between rich and poor boroughs. * 9 September: Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
visits London
London
(where he was probably born in 1889) and is met by thousands. * London
London
County Council begins construction of a large estate of public housing at Bellingham ; it is followed from 1924 by the nearby Downham Estate .

* 1922

* 21 March: Rebuilt Waterloo station officially opens. * 11 May: Radio station
Radio station
2LO
2LO
begins daily broadcasts from Marconi House in The Strand . * 19 May: City of London
London
by-election, 1922 held. * 22 June: Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson is killed by Irish republican gunmen outside his home in Belgravia
Belgravia
. * 17 July: County Hall opens as the new headquarters of the London County Council . * July: HMS President (1918) is moored permanently on the Thames alongside Victoria Embankment as a drill ship for the Royal Naval Reserve . * Ada Salter becomes the first woman mayor of a London
London
borough, Bermondsey.

* 1923

* 28 April: The Empire Stadium, Wembley
Wembley
, opens to the public for the first time and holds the FA Cup
FA Cup
Final between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham
West Ham
United football clubs. Crowds are cleared from the pitch by mounted police, including one on a white horse. * September: T. S. Eliot 's poem The Waste Land (1922) is first published in Britain in book form complete with notes in a limited edition by the Hogarth Press
Hogarth Press
of Richmond upon Thames , run by Eliot's Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
Group friends Leonard and Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
, the type handset by Virginia (completed in July). * 27 November: City and South London
London
Railway Tube tunnel under reconstruction collapses under Newington Causeway .

* 1924

* 1 February: City of London
London
by-election, 1924 held. * 2 February: A substantially rewritten version of Roi Cooper Megrue and Walter C. Hackett 's 1914 farce It Pays to Advertise in a new production by actor-manager Tom Walls opens at the Aldwych
Aldwych
Theatre . It runs until 10 July 1925, a total of 598 performances, and is the first of a sequence of twelve " Aldwych
Aldwych
farces ". * March: Leonard and Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
move themselves and the Hogarth Press back to a house in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
at 52 Tavistock Square . * 31 March: The last of 1,702 new steam locomotives is built at Stratford Works , a GER Class L77 for suburban services from Liverpool
Liverpool
Street station. This is the last full-size locomotive built in London. * 20 April: Opening of a Euston – Camden Town link connects the previously-separate City & South London
London
and Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead
Hampstead
Tube railways. * 23 April: British Empire Exhibition
British Empire Exhibition
opens at Wembley
Wembley
for the first of two seasons.

* 1925

* 14 May: Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
's novel Mrs Dalloway is published by the Hogarth Press
Hogarth Press
in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
. Woolf is beginning work on To the Lighthouse . * 19 May: Jacob Epstein 's Rima, the Hudson memorial , is unveiled in Hyde Park by the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin , who is among those disconcerted by the sculpture's modernity. * 13 June: Metropolitan Water Board 's Queen Mary Reservoir opens in Middlesex. * 22 July: The first of Ben Travers ' " Aldwych
Aldwych
farces ", A Cuckoo in the Nest , opens at the Aldwych
Aldwych
Theatre .

* 2 October

* John Logie Baird successfully transmits the first television pictures with a greyscale image. * London's first double-decker buses with covered top decks are introduced.

* West African Students\' Union established.

* 1926

* 16 January: BBC
BBC
radio play about worker's revolution causes a panic in London. * 26 January: John Logie Baird demonstrates his television system from a room in Frith Street , Soho
Soho
. In 1928 Selfridges
Selfridges
sell the first set. * 9 February: Flooding of London
London
suburbs. * 3–12 May: 1926 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
general strike . * 13 September: An extension of the London
London
Underground Tube line from Clapham
Clapham
Common to Morden
Morden
and a new link under the Thames between Kennington
Kennington
and Charing Cross
Charing Cross
complete a through rail route between Morden
Morden
and Edgware of 19.32 mi. (31.94 km), known initially as the Edgware, Highgate
Highgate
he leaves Kenwood House
Kenwood House
on Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath to the nation as a museum for his art collection, the "Iveagh Bequest", and the surrounding estate is added to the Heath to preserve it from housing development and opens to the public in 1928. * 3 December: Post Office Railway , a private Tube line for carrying mail, opens. * 12 December: 1600 people hospitalised in London
London
when they hurt themselves on the icy streets. * Delhi
Delhi
London
London
air traffic begins. * Evelyn Sharp 's The London
London
Child about the plight of slum children in London
London
is published.

* 1928

* 6–7 January: 1928 Thames flood . 14 drown. On 7 January the moat at the Tower of London
London
(drained in 1843 and planted with grass) is completely refilled by a storm surge and the basement of the Tate Gallery floods. * March: Science Museum opens in its own building in Exhibition Road . * 3 September: Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
, at St Mary\'s Hospital , accidentally rediscovers the antibiotic Penicillin
Penicillin
. * October: Firestone Tyre Factory on the 'Golden Mile ' of the Great West Road, designed by Wallis, Gilbert and Partners
Wallis, Gilbert and Partners
in Art Deco
Art Deco
style, opens. * 20 December: Gas explosion in High Holborn . * British Home Stores
British Home Stores
opens its first department store at Brixton
Brixton
. * First police boxes with telephones erected in London.

* 1929

* 5 July: Heston Air Park opens. * 20 September: Clarence Hatry confesses to financial forgery. * 3 October: Dominion Theatre opens in Tottenham
Tottenham
Court Road . * 28 October: Sharp fall on the London
London
Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange
, following a similar crash on Wall Street
Wall Street
on 24 October. * 1 December: Underground Electric Railways Company of London officially opens its notable new headquarters building at 55 Broadway , above St. James\'s Park station , designed by Charles Holden
Charles Holden
, incorporating sculptures by Jacob Epstein , Eric Gill and Henry Moore . * Grosvenor House Hotel opens. * Oxo Tower
Oxo Tower
in Southwark
Southwark
completed. * First Tesco
Tesco
grocery store opens, at Burnt Oak , Edgware . * Foyles bookshop moves to new larger premises in the Foyles Building in Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Road .

* 1930

* June: Harmondsworth Aerodrome at Heathrow begins operating. * 29 September: Whitehall
Whitehall
Theatre opens. * 15 October: New Victoria Cinema and variety theatre opens.

* 1931

* 6 January: Sadler\'s Wells Theatre reopens under the management of Lilian Baylis . * 13 March: League of Coloured Peoples founded. * 18 April: The Dorchester hotel opens in Park Lane
Park Lane
. * 26 April: UK Census: Population: 4,397,003 county; 8,203,942 Greater London. * 5 May: The Vic-Wells Ballet, later to become The Royal Ballet
Ballet
, debuts. * 15 May: Shoppers in Bayswater
Bayswater
escape with their lives when a chemical factory explodes. * 16 May: London
London
United Tramways introduce the first trolleybuses in London
London
, between Twickenham
Twickenham
and Teddington
Teddington
. * 23 May: The Zoological Society of London
London
opens Whipsnade Zoo
Whipsnade Zoo
in Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
. * 19 July: Sudbury Town station on the London
London
Underground Piccadilly line opens as rebuilt by Charles Holden
Charles Holden
, the first of his iconic modern designs for the network.

* 7 September

* Second Round Table Conference on the constitutional future of India opens in London
London
with Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
representing the Indian National Congress . * Gala Cinema, Tooting
Tooting
opens with a spectacular interior.

* October: First vehicle (a light truck) off the Ford Dagenham production line. * 12 November: The Abbey Road Studios
Abbey Road Studios
are opened by Sir Edward Elgar . * 21 November: The infamous Red-and-White Party, given by Arthur Jeffress in Maud Allan ’s Regent’s Park townhouse in London, marks the end of the " Bright young things " subculture in Britain. * Daily Express Building in Fleet Street
Fleet Street
constructed.

* 1932

* 10 March: Victoria Coach Station
Victoria Coach Station
opens. * 15 March: First radio broadcast from the newly opened Broadcasting House . * 19 July: Replacement Lambeth
Lambeth
Bridge opens. * Summer: Open Air Theatre, Regent\'s Park , is established as a regular venue. * October: Courtauld Institute of Art opens. * 7 October: The London
London
Philharmonic Orchestra makes its debut, at the Queen\'s Hall . * 27 October: Arrival of the National Hunger March in London
London
leads to several violent clashes with police. * 10 December: Branch railway to Stanmore is opened by the Metropolitan Railway . * The Hoover Building on the Western Avenue in Perivale is designed by Wallis, Gilbert and Partners
Wallis, Gilbert and Partners
in Art Deco
Art Deco
style. * Queen Mary's Rose Garden laid out in Regent\'s Park in place of the Royal Botanic Society 's gardens. * Honourable Company of Master Mariners (formed 25 June 1926) becomes the first City livery company granted this status since 1746. * Jewish Museum London
London
founded.

* 1933

* January: London
London
Underground diagram designed by Harry Beck introduced to public. * 9 January: George Orwell 's Down and Out in Paris and London
London
is published. * 1 July: London
London
Passenger Transport Board begins operation, taking over operation of all buses, trams and Underground railways in the Greater London
London
area. Lord Ashfield is chairman and Frank Pick is vice-chairman and chief executive officer. * 3 July: Official opening of Chiswick , Twickenham
Twickenham
and Hampton Court Bridges over the Thames. * 19 July: New Freemasons\' Hall (Masonic Peace Memorial) opened in Great Queen Street
Great Queen Street
. * Battersea
Battersea
Power Station begins operation. * New store for Derry also, terraced houses in Genesta Road, Plumstead
Plumstead
designed by Lubetkin are completed and 35 houses are built as part of a 'Modern Homes' exhibition in Gidea Park . * Harrow Garden Village is completed by Metropolitan Railway Country Estates . * P. L. Travers ' children's story Mary Poppins
Mary Poppins
is first published.

* 1935

* January: London
London
County Council launches a green belt scheme. * 3 July: The Geological Museum opens in a new building in Exhibition Road
Exhibition Road
, South Kensington
Kensington
. * 13 July: Official completion of the London
London
County Council's Becontree estate, the largest housing estate in the world, consisting of some 27,000 new council houses which are home to more than 100,000 people, is marked by opening of Parsloes Park . The first families had moved to the estate which straddles the borders of Dagenham , Barking and Ilford , in 1921. * Further notable examples of modern architecture completed: Hornsey Town Hall , by Reginald Uren; Highpoint I flats, Highgate
Highgate
, by Lubetkin and Arup; and houses in Kerry Avenue, Stanmore .

* 1936

* 6 June: Beehive, Gatwick Airport (terminal) opens in West Sussex. * 7 July: Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
opens in adapted buildings of Bethlem Royal Hospital in Geraldine Mary Harmsworth Park , Southwark. * 4 October: Battle of Cable Street in the East End between Oswald Mosley 's British Union of Fascists
British Union of Fascists
and anti-fascist demonstrators. * 31 October: Jarrow March : 207 miners from Jarrow arrive in London on a protest against unemployment and poverty. * 2 November: BBC
BBC
launch the world's first regular "high definition" television service, broadcast from Alexandra Palace . * 30 November: The Crystal Palace is destroyed in a fire. * 9 December: A KLM
KLM
( Netherlands
Netherlands
airline) Douglas DC-2
Douglas DC-2
airliner crashes in Purley shortly after takeoff from Croydon
Croydon
Airport , killing 14 (including Juan de la Cierva and Arvid Lindman ) with just two survivors. * New Peter Jones (department store) opens in Sloane Square . * Adelphi Buildings demolished; replacement Art Deco
Art Deco
building completed 1938. * The Geographers' Map Co.'s first A to Z Atlas and Guide to London and the Suburbs is published.

* 1937

* 20 April: Granada Cinema, Woolwich
Woolwich
, opens. * 27 April: National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
opens at Greenwich
Greenwich
in former Royal Hospital School premises. * 6 May: Replacement Chelsea Bridge
Chelsea Bridge
opens. * 12 May: Coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. * 28 August: The London
London
Underground Morden– Edgware line is renamed Northern line . * 1 September: Earls Court Exhibition Centre opens. * October: Formation of the Euston Road School , a private School of Drawing and Painting originally established in Fitzroy Street by William Coldstream
William Coldstream
, Claude Rogers and Victor Pasmore , and giving name to the group of naturalist artists associated with it. * 16 December: The musical Me and My Girl opens in the West End Victoria Palace Theatre ; the dance number "The Lambeth
Lambeth
Walk " becomes popular. * December: The Hawker Hurricane enters service with the Royal Air Force as its first monoplane fighter aircraft with No. 111 Squadron at Northolt . * Dolphin Square flats completed. * Senate House (University of London) , designed by Charles Holden
Charles Holden
, completed.

* 1938

* 6 January: Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud arrives in London
London
having fled from Vienna
Vienna
. * 6 April: City of London
London
by-election, 1938 held. * June: London
London
Green Belt placed on a statutory basis by Green Belts ( London
London
central London
London
hospitals evacuated. * 3 September: Declaration of war by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on Nazi Germany , beginning World War II
World War II
. Shortly after 11.00, Chamberlain announces this news on BBC
BBC
Radio , speaking from 10 Downing Street
10 Downing Street
. Twenty minutes later, air raid sirens sound in London
London
(a false alarm). * September–December – The Tower of London
London
serves as a general prisoner of war collection centre. * Large London
London
County Council estate of flats at White City completed.

1940S–1990S

* 1940

* 5 February: City of London
London
by-election, 1940 held. * 24 August: First air raid of the war on London. * 7 September: The Blitz : Bombing
Bombing
of city by the German air force begins, the first of 57 consecutive nights of strategic bombing . * September: Replacement Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Bridge in steel opens across the Thames. * Autumn: War Cabinet
War Cabinet
begins meeting at the disused Down Street tube station . * 13 October: 19 people (mostly Belgian refugees) are killed when a German bomb penetrates Bounds Green station on the Underground which is in use as an air-raid shelter * 14 October: At least 64 people are killed when a German bomb penetrates Balham station on the Underground which is in use as an air-raid shelter; a double-decker bus falls into the crater. * 15 October: The Dame Alice Owen\'s School bombing . * 9 November: Church of All Hallows, Twickenham
Twickenham
, a partial reconstruction of Christopher Wren 's All Hallows Lombard Street (1694), is consecrated. * November–March 1942: Tube tunnels built for Central line eastern extension converted into aircraft component factories for Plessey . * 29–30 December: Second Great Fire of London
London
caused by bombing. More than 160 civilians and 14 firemen are killed; Guildhall is among many buildings badly damaged or destroyed. The famous photograph St Paul\'s Survives is taken this morning.

* 1941

* 11 January: At least 56 people are killed when a German bomb hits Bank Underground station , leaving a large crater in the road at Bank junction . * 8 March: At least 34 people are killed when a German bomb hits the Café de Paris nightclub. * 16–17 April: Serious bomb damage to railway routes across the Thames, the Metropolitan line
Metropolitan line
and the north transept of St Paul\'s Cathedral ; Lord Stamp is amongst those killed. * 18 April: Heaviest air-raid of the year on London. * 10–12 May: Bombing
Bombing
guts the Commons Chamber of the Houses of Parliament, the Queen's Hall (causing The Proms to be relocated to the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
) and the Great Synagogue of London
London
. The intensive period of The Blitz ends, leaving around 25,000 civilians dead in London. * Spring: Noël Coward
Noël Coward
composes the song " London
London
Pride ". * 15 August: Josef Jakobs , parachuted into England
England
as a German spy, is shot by military firing squad at the Tower of London
London
, the last person to be executed here. * Patrick Hamilton 's darkly comic eve-of-war novel Hangover Square: a tale of darkest Earl\'s Court is published.

* 1942

* 9–12 February: Gordon Cummins murders and mutilates four women in the blackout , for which he will be hanged at Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Prison on 25 June (during an air raid). * 11 August: Traffic admitted onto the new Waterloo Bridge across the Thames.

* 1943

* 17 January: Anti-aircraft shrapnel shells kill 23 people and injure 60 during a raid on London
London
by 118 planes; six are reported losses. * 20 January: Sandhurst Road School Disaster : A bomb kills 38 children and 6 teachers at a school in Catford . * 3 March: Bethnal Green tube station disaster: 173 would-be shelterers crushed to death in a panic. * August: John Christie begins his serial killings at 10 Rillington Place, Notting Hill . * The County of London
London
Plan , prepared by J. H. Forshaw and Patrick Abercrombie to guide the London
London
County Council in postwar reconstruction, is published.

* 1944

* 21–22 January: Start of Operation Steinbock (the "Baby Blitz"), a nocturnal Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
bombing offensive chiefly targeted at the Greater London
London
area (continues until May). On this attack, few aircraft reach the target area. * 26 February: Last heavy air-raids on London. * 13 June: The first V-1 flying bomb
V-1 flying bomb
attack on London
London
takes place. Eight civilians are killed when one lands in Grove Road
Grove Road
, Hackney . The bomb earns the nickname "doodlebug". * 18 June: A V-1 flying bomb
V-1 flying bomb
hits the Guards Chapel, Wellington Barracks , killing 121. * July: Deep-level shelters built in 1941–2 are opened to public. * 12 August: The V-1 flying bomb
V-1 flying bomb
campaign against London
London
by the Germans reaches its 60th day, with more than 6,000 deaths, 17,000 injuries and damage or destruction to around 1 million buildings. * 8 September: The first V-2 rocket attack on London
London
takes place, striking in the Chiswick district and resulting in the deaths of three people. * October: " Cleft chin murder ": U.S. Army deserter Karl Hulten and 18-year-old Welsh-born waitress Elizabeth Jones go on a 6-day crime spree including the murder of a taxi driver, for which Hulten will be hanged at Pentonville Prison . * 25 November: A V-2 rocket destroys the Woolworths store in New Cross Road, killing 168, the highest death toll from one of these weapons. More than 100 people survive with injuries. * Town planner Patrick Abercrombie
Patrick Abercrombie
publishes the Greater London
London
Plan . * Ministry of Works builds the first demonstration temporary prefab houses designed for postwar reconstruction, in Northolt ; another is exhibited in May outside the Tate Gallery .

* 1945

* 8 March: A V-2 rocket hits Smithfield Market
Smithfield Market
, killing 110. * 27 March: Last day of V-2 rocket attacks on London. One hits Hughes Mansions, Stepney
Stepney
, killing 134 and the last falls in Orpington
Orpington
with one fatality. * April: Sybil Campbell is appointed a stipendiary magistrate in London, the first woman to become a professional judge in the UK. * 17 July: Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia , is born in Claridge\'shotel . * 15 August: V-J Day : Crowds celebrate the end of World War II. * 2 October: London
London
Underground introduces fluorescent lighting of Tube platforms ( Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus , westbound Piccadilly
Piccadilly
line ).

* 1946

* 1 January: First international flight from London
London
Heathrow Airport . On 31 May it opens fully for civilian use. * 10 January: First United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
convenes at Methodist Central Hall Westminster
Westminster
. On 17 January the United Nations Security Council holds its first meeting at Church House . * 20 February: Royal Opera
Opera
House in Covent Garden
Covent Garden
re-opens after the War with The Royal Ballet
Ballet
(relocated from Sadler\'s Wells Theatre ) performing The Sleeping Beauty . * 8 June: London
London
Victory Celebrations . * 8 September: Mass squat by homeless families of the Ivanhoe Hotel and other empty properties in London
London
organised by the Communist Party . * 9 November: Shooting of Margaret Cook in Carnaby Street
Carnaby Street
. * 11 November: Stevenage
Stevenage
, a village in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, is designated by the government as Britain's first new town to relieve overcrowding and replace bombed homes in London. * 4 December: Central line ( London
London
Underground) extended from Liverpool
Liverpool
Street to Stratford . * Development of Churchill Gardens housing estate in Pimlico
Pimlico
by Westminster
Westminster
City Council to the design of Powell and Moya begins.

* 1947

* 5 May: Central line ( London
London
Underground) extended from Stratford to Leytonstone . * 15 May: London
London
Philharmonic Choir makes its debut, at the Royal Albert Hall . * 5 November: Guy the Gorilla arrives at London
London
Zoo . * December: The tradition of a Christmas tree
Christmas tree
donated by Norway for Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
begins. * Last horse-drawn hackney carriage operates in London.

* 1948

* 12 January: The London
London
Co-operative Society opens Britain's first supermarket , in Manor Park . In the same month, Marks 8,346,137 Greater London. * 3 May–30 September: Festival of Britain
Festival of Britain
on the South Bank, including the Royal Festival Hall
Royal Festival Hall
, Dome of Discovery and Skylon . Pleasure Gardens and a Fun Fair are opened in Battersea Park
Battersea Park
and the Lansbury Estate in Poplar is begun this year as a housing showcase. * 11 June: London
London
Transport Executive introduces a Circular Tour of London
London
using double-decker buses for the Festival. * 15 June: Ealing
Ealing
Comedy film The Lavender Hill Mob
The Lavender Hill Mob
released. * 15 August: First Miss World beauty pageant as the 'Festival Bikini Contest'. * 4 September: William Girling Reservoir is opened in the Lee Valley Reservoir Chain by the Metropolitan Water Board . * 3 November: Express Dairies open Britain's first full-size supermarket in Streatham Hill
Streatham Hill
. * December: John Wyndham 's novel The Day of the Triffids , opening in a post-apocalyptic London, is published.

* 1952

* April: London
London
Transport Executive opens Stockwell Garage with Europe's largest unsupported roof span at this date. * 21 May: Eastcastle Street robbery : a post office van is held up in the West End and £287,000 stolen, Britain's largest postwar robbery up to this date; the robbers are never caught. * 15 June: Polish secret agent Krystyna Skarbek is stabbed to death at the Shelbourne Hotel in Earls Court
Earls Court
. Her murderer, Dennis George Muldowney, Is tried and hanged on 30 September. * 5 July: The last of the original trams in London
London
runs; citizens of London
London
turn out in force to say farewell. * 8 October: Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash : a multiple collision claims the lives of 108 people. * 25 November: Agatha Christie 's play The Mousetrap starts its run at the New Ambassadors Theatre . It will still be running in London sixty years later, having transferred next door to St Martin\'s Theatre in 1974. * 4–9 December: Great Smog blankets London, causing transport chaos and, it is believed, around 4,000 deaths. * 30 December: Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
bascules are raised as a London Transport bus crosses. * Bankside Power Station commissioned.

* 1953

* 8 April: 12 killed in Stratford tube crash , the first major accident on the Tube with passenger fatalities. * 2 June: Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey. * c. June: Kieran Kelly begins his career as the serial killer of at least 16 men (up to 1983), mostly by pushing them under London Underground trains. * Civil Service Club founded. * First Italian espresso coffee bar opens in the UK, The Moka in Frith Street , Soho
Soho
. * 1st century Roman leather bikini briefs found in Queen Street in the City.

* 1954

* September: Kidbrooke School in Greenwich
Greenwich
opens as Britain's first purpose-built comprehensive school . * 18 September: Marble head of Mithras
Mithras
from London
London
Mithraeum unearthed in Walbrook Square. * 10 December: Tea clipper Cutty Sark (1869) towed into permanent dry dock at Greenwich
Greenwich
for preservation. * The first UK Wimpy Bar opens at the Lyons Corner House in Coventry Street. * Span Developments begin development of the Cator Estate in Blackheath .

* 1955

* 13 July: Ruth Ellis becomes the last woman to be hanged in the UK, at HM Prison Holloway , for shooting dead a lover, David Blakely, outside a pub in Hampstead
Hampstead
on 10 April (Easter Sunday). * 2 December: Barnes rail crash : collision due to signal error and consequent fire: 13 killed, 35 injured. * 8 December: Ealing
Ealing
Comedy film The Ladykillers released. * 16 December: New terminal at London
London
Airport is opened by The Queen .

* 1956

* 24 January: Plans are announced for the construction of thousands of new homes in the Barbican area, devastated by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
during World War II
World War II
. * 8 February: London
London
Transport introduces the first (experimental) AEC Routemaster double-deck bus into public service, on route 2 . At the 9 November Lord Mayor\'s Show it forms part of the procession, advertised as "London's Bus
Bus
Of The Future". * 14 March: A memorial to Karl Marx
Karl Marx
is unveiled at the new site of his grave in Highgate
Highgate
Cemetery by Harry Pollitt , General Secretary of the Communist Party of Great Britain
Great Britain
. * 28 March: Crystal Palace transmitting station brought into use. * 21 May: 24-hour fire in former Goodge Street deep-level shelter . * 5 July: Parliament passes the Clean Air Act in response to the Great Smog of 1952. * Opening of the first Jewish seminary for Liberal and Reform Judaism in England
England
Leo Baeck College , as the Jewish Theological College of London
London
at West London
London
Synagogue ; its first two students are Lionel Blue and Michael Leigh. * Pollock\'s Toy Museum established.

* 1957

* 13 June: Oxford
Oxford
Street bus accident: 8 killed when a double-decker collides with a queue. * 4 December: Lewisham rail crash (Southern Region of British Railways): 90 killed in rear-end collision in fog and bridge collapse. * Michael Young and Peter Willmott 's sociological study Family and Kinship in East London
London
is published.

* 1958

* 30 January: Dagenham East rail crash (Eastern Region of British Railways): 10 killed in rear-end collision in fog. * 21 March: Opening of the London
London
Planetarium , the first in Britain. * 5 May–19 June: London
London
bus crew strike. * 9 June: Gatwick Airport opens in West Sussex. * 10 June: City of Westminster
Westminster
installs first regular parking meters , in Grosvenor Square (following an experimental installation in 1956). Double yellow lines also introduced in Metropolitan Police District during year. * 26 July: Abolition of the presentation of débutantes to the royal court. * 30 August–5 September: 1958 Notting Hill race riots . * 26 September: Austin FX4 taxi launched. * 13 October: Michael Bond 's children's story A Bear Called Paddington, introducing the character Paddington Bear , is published. * First boutique , His Clothes, to be opened in Carnaby Street
Carnaby Street
, by John Stephen . * New store for Barkers of Kensington
Kensington
, begun in the 1930s, is completed.

* 1959

* January: Ealing
Ealing
Jazz Club opens. * 23 April: London
London
Heliport opens on the Thames in Battersea
Battersea
. * 28 May: The Mermaid Theatre opens in the City of London
London
.

* 30 September

* Chiswick flyover is opened by Jayne Mansfield . * Last flights from Croydon
Croydon
Aerodrome .

* 12 October: Large-scale diamond robbery in London. * 17 October: London
London
County Council opens Park Lane
Park Lane
Underpass. * 30 October: Ronnie Scott\'s Jazz Club opens in Soho
Soho
. * 11 November: London
London
Transport introduces the production AEC Routemaster double-deck bus into full public service. * Bracken House , the Financial Times headquarters in the City of London
London
, designed by Sir Albert Richardson , is completed. * London
London
County Council completes first portion of Alton Estate in Roehampton
Roehampton
, considered a model of post-war public housing . * London
London
Pride (beer) first produced at Fuller\'s Brewery . * Colin MacInnes ' novel Absolute Beginners is published.

* 1960

* 18 April: 60,000 protestors stage a demonstration in London against nuclear weapons. * 15 September: The first traffic wardens deployed in London. * September: Metropolitan Water Board 's Thames–Lea Valley Aqueduct inaugurated. * Embassy of the United States London
London
Chancery Building, designed by Eero Saarinen , opens in Grosvenor Square on land leased from the Grosvenor Estate in Mayfair
Mayfair
.

* 1961

* 6 July: Last judicial execution at HM Prison Pentonville : Edwin Bush (21) hanged by Harry Allen for the stabbing on 3 March of Elsie Batten in an antique shop in Cecil Court ; he is the first British criminal caught through the Identikit facial composite system. * 8 September: Last judicial execution in London: Henryk Niemasz hanged at HM Prison Wandsworth
Wandsworth
by Harry Allen for double murder. * 16 November: Hammersmith
Hammersmith
flyover opens. * December: Demolition of the Euston Arch begins; much of the stone is used for repairs to the Prescott Channel . * Empress State Building completed on the site of the Empress Hall in West Brompton .

* 1962

* May: Joe Orton and Kenneth Halliwell are prosecuted and jailed for defacing Islington
Islington
library books. * 8 May: Last trolleybuses in London
London
run. * 6 June: The Beatles
The Beatles
play their first session at Abbey Road Studios . * 1 July: A heavy smog develops over London. * 12 July: The Rollin\' Stones play their first gig, at the Marquee Club in Oxford
Oxford
Street. From February 1963 they get a residency at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond . * 31 July: A crowd assaults a rally of the right-wing Union Movement of Sir Oswald Mosley . * 10 October: The former Anglican church of All Saints in Knightsbridge (1849) is elevated to be the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Mother of God and All Saints of the Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh . * 6 November: New building for Commonwealth Institute opens in Kensington. * 2–7 December: Severe smog in London
London
causes numerous deaths. * Queen\'s Gallery opens.

* 1963

* 16 May: London
London
Tourist Board established. * 31 July: London
London
Government Act 1963 passed. * Millbank
Millbank
Tower completed as a headquarters for Vickers
Vickers
. * Nell Dunn 's short story collection Up the Junction is published (film 1968).

* 1964

* 21 January: Strand Underpass opens using part of former Kingsway tramway subway . * 2 February: " Hammersmith
Hammersmith
nudes" murder case: First of six definite prostitute victims of an unknown serial killer, " Jack the Stripper ", found. * 5 September: Biba opens its first store, in Kensington
Kensington
. * 23 December: "Pirate" radio station Radio London
London
begins broadcasting from MV Galaxy anchored outside British territorial waters off Frinton , Essex. * December: London
London
Record Society founded as a text publication society .

* 1965

* 7 January: The Kray Twins
Kray Twins
are arrested on suspicion of running a protection racket . * 30 January: State funeral procession of Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
. * 11 March: Goldie the Eagle is recaptured 13 days after escaping from London
London
Zoo.

* 1 April: Reorganisation of local government in London.

* The Greater London
London
Council comes into its powers, replacing the London
London
County Council and greatly expanding the metropolitan area of the city. Labour have an elected majority. The county of Middlesex
Middlesex
is abolished as an administrative district with most being incorporated into the GLC area (except Staines
Staines
and Sunbury transferred to Surrey
Surrey
, and Potters Bar
Potters Bar
transferred to Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
). London
London
Ambulance Service and Greater London
London
Record Office established. * Inner London
London
boroughs created: Camden , Greenwich
Greenwich
, Hackney , Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham , Islington
Islington
, Kensington
Kensington
and Chelsea , Lambeth , Lewisham , Southwark
Southwark
, Tower Hamlets , Wandsworth
Wandsworth
, and Westminster . Inner London
London
Education Authority takes responsibility for schools in these areas. * Outer London
London
boroughs created: Barking and Dagenham , Barnet , Bexley , Brent , Bromley , Croydon
Croydon
, Ealing
Ealing
, Enfield , Haringey , Harrow , Havering , Hillingdon , Hounslow , Kingston upon Thames , Merton , Newham , Redbridge , Richmond upon Thames , Sutton , and Waltham Forest .

* 8 July: Great Train Robber Ronnie Biggs escapes from Wandsworth Prison . * 24 July: Freddie Mills , former British boxing champion, is found shot in his car in Soho
Soho
, dying the next day. * 8 October: Post Office Tower officially opens as a telecommunications hub. * 4 November: Cities of London
London
and Westminster
Westminster
by-election, 1965 held. * Mary Quant
Mary Quant
introduces the miniskirt from her shop Bazaar on the Kings Road
Kings Road
in Chelsea .

* 1966

* 8 March

* City University London
London
chartered. * London
London
Free School established.

* 9 March: Ronnie, one of the Kray twins
Kray twins
, shoots George Cornell (an associate of rivals The Richardson Gang ) dead at The Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel , a crime for which he is finally convicted in 1969. * 27 March: Theft of the Jules Rimet Trophy : Pickles , a mongrel dog, finds the FIFA World Cup Trophy (stolen 7 days earlier from an exhibition) wrapped in newspaper in a south London
London
garden. * 15 April: Time magazine uses the phrase "Swinging London
London
". * 9 June: Brunel University chartered at Uxbridge
Uxbridge
. * August: Notting Hill Carnival begins. * 12 August: Shepherd\'s Bush murders : Three policemen are shot dead in Braybrook Street , Shepherd\'s Bush . * 22 October: British spy George Blake escapes from Wormwood Scrubs prison; he is next seen in Moscow. * 23 December: UFO Club ( UK underground ) opens. * 31 December: Thieves steal millions of pounds worth of paintings from Dulwich
Dulwich
Art Gallery . * Centre Point
Centre Point
, a 32-floor office building at St Giles Circus designed by Richard Seifert for property speculator Harry Hyams , is completed. It remains empty for around a decade. * Greater London
London
Council proposes construction of Ringway 1 , the inner city "Motorway Box". * 1966–January 1970: Introduction of all-figure dialling within the London
London
Director telephone system ends the use of alphabetic exchange names.

* 1967

* January: The London-set film Blowup
Blowup
is released in the UK. * 23 January: Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
, a village in Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
, is formally designated as a new town by the government, intended to accommodate overspill population from London, 50 miles to the south. * 1 March: Queen Elizabeth Hall opens as a concert venue on the South Bank. * 31 March: Royal Ordnance Factory closes at Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
, Woolwich
Woolwich
. * 1 April: Royal Arsenal
Royal Arsenal
, Woolwich
Woolwich
, ceases production. * 3 April: Anguillan -born Norwell Roberts becames the first black officer in the Metropolitan Police
Police
Service . * 13 April: The Conservative Party wins the Greater London
London
Council elections. * 5 May: The Kinks ' single " Waterloo Sunset " is released. * 20 May: In the first all- London
London
FA Cup
FA Cup
final , Tottenham
Tottenham
Hotspur defeat Chelsea 2-1 at Wembley
Wembley
Stadium . * 9 July: The Southern Region of British Railways operates the last steam locomotives into a London
London
terminus (Waterloo ) in regular service. * 9 August: Playwright Joe Orton (age 34) is battered to death by his lover Kenneth Halliwell (who commits suicide) in their Islington home. * October–November: Unofficial London
London
dock workers' strike. * 5 November: Southern Region of British Railways Hither Green rail crash : 49 killed in high-speed derailment. * 7 November: St Pancras railway station is made a Grade I listed building , a landmark in the appreciation of Victorian architecture . * 5 December: The Beatles
The Beatles
open the Apple Shop . * St Christopher\'s Hospice , the world's first purpose-built secular hospice specialising in palliative care of the terminally ill , is established in South London
London
by Cicely Saunders with the support of Albertine Winner .

* 1968

* 3 January: Heston services fully opens on the M4 motorway . * 17 March: Police
Police
and protestors clash at an anti-Vietnam War protest outside the Embassy of the United States in Grosvenor Square with many injured and arrested. * 18 April: The facing stones of the 1831 London
London
Bridge are sold to American entrepreneur Robert P. McCulloch who rebuilds it at Lake Havasu City , Arizona
Arizona
. * 16 May: Ronan Point tower block in Newham partially collapses following a gas explosion ; 4 killed. * 30 July: Thames Television takes over the weekday independent television franchise for the London
London
area. * 2 August: London
London
Weekend Television takes over the weekday independent television franchise for the London
London
area. * 1 September: London
London
Transport Board opens first section of Victoria line
Victoria line
Tube railway. * 30 September: St Katharine Docks closed to shipping. * 14 October: Euston railway station
Euston railway station
officially reopens after rebuilding. * 27 October: Police
Police
and protestors clash after an anti-Vietnam War protest outside the Embassy of the United States in Grosvenor Square .

* First residence at Thamesmead
Thamesmead
occupied and Balfron Tower (GLC social housing in Poplar designed by Ernő Goldfinger ) completed. * Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral of the Holy Family in Exile consecrated in former King\'s Weigh House Congregational church of 1891 in Mayfair
Mayfair
.

* 1969

* 24 January: Violent protests by students close the London
London
School of Economics , which does not re-open for three weeks. * 30 January: The Beatles\' rooftop concert : The Beatles
The Beatles
gave their last public performance, on the roof of Apple Records
Apple Records
. * 7 March: The London
London
Underground Victoria line
Victoria line
is officially opened throughout by The Queen . * 7 May: Christopher Wren 's church of St Mary Aldermanbury
St Mary Aldermanbury
(1677) is rededicated at Westminster
Westminster
College , Fulton, Missouri . * 21 September: Police
Police
evict squatters from the London
London
Street Commune . * Scratchwood services opens on the M1 motorway .

* 1970

* 1 January: Control of London
London
Transport passes from the London Transport Board to the Greater London
London
Council as its London
London
Transport Executive ; London
London
Country Bus
Bus
Services pass to the National Bus Company . * March: Babes in the Wood murders (Epping Forest) . * July: Westway opens. * 18 September: American rock star Jimi Hendrix , 27, dies at St Mary Abbot\'s Hospital , Kensington
Kensington
, from a suspected drug-induced heart attack. * 6 October: BBC
BBC
Radio London
London
begins broadcasting. * 27 November: The Gay Liberation Front organises its first march in London. * c. 23 December: Last ship leaves Surrey Commercial Docks . * City of London
London
Polytechnic , North East London
London
Polytechnic and Thames Polytechnic formed by mergers. * Whitgift Centre shopping centre and office complex completed in Croydon
Croydon
.

* 1971

* 1 May: A bomb planted by The Angry Brigade explodes in the Biba Kensington
Kensington
store. * 21 May: Polytechnic of Central London
London
formed by merger of previous institutions, a successor to the 1838 Polytechnic. Also this year, the Polytechnic of North London
London
is founded by merger of the Northern and North-Western polytechnics. * 6 June: The London
London
Underground operates its last steam locomotives (used for maintenance trains). * 14 June: The first Hard Rock Cafe
Hard Rock Cafe
opens near Hyde Park Corner . * 23 July: The Victoria line
Victoria line
's extension to Brixton
Brixton
is officially opened by Princess Alexandra . * 21 October: HMS Belfast (C35) (1939) opens as a museum ship on the Thames. * 31 October: A terrorist bomb explodes at the top of the Post Office Tower .

* 1972

* 30 May: Five children are killed in an accident on the Big Dipper ( Battersea
Battersea
Park) . * 1 July: First official national Gay Pride
Gay Pride
march, origin of Pride London
London
. * 8 November: Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange
Tower opens. * Brunswick Centre completed in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
.

* 1973

* 26 February: The Poet Laureate John Betjeman
John Betjeman
's film about London, Metro-Land , is released. * 3 March: Two Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(IRA) bombs explode in London, killing one person and injuring 250 others. * 8 March: IRA bombs explode in Whitehall
Whitehall
and the Old Bailey
Old Bailey
, killing one person. * 17 March: Rebuilt London
London
Bridge opens. * 26 March: Women admitted to the London
London
Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange
for the first time. * 23 August: IRA bomb found at Baker Street
Baker Street
station and defused, the first postwar terrorist targeting of the London
London
Underground. * 8 September: The IRA detonates bombs at Victoria Station and in Manchester.

* 10 September

* IRA bombs at King\'s Cross and Euston railway stations injure 13 people. * The fashion retailer Biba re-opens in the former Derry piers below Staines
Staines
pass from the Port of London
London
Authority to the Greater London Council . * 27 May: London
London
Transport 's first woman bus driver, Jill Viner, begins shifts. * 15 June: The Red Lion Square disorders see members of the fascist National Front clash with counter-protesters in the West End; 21-year-old Kevin Gateley, a university student, is killed. * 17 June: A Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(IRA) bomb explodes at the Palace of Westminster
Westminster
, damaging Westminster Hall
Westminster Hall
. * 17 July: An IRA bomb explodes at the White Tower in the Tower of London
London
, killing one person and injuring 41; another bomb explodes outside a government building in south London. * 12 October: The first UK McDonald\'s opens in Woolwich
Woolwich
. * 22 October: An IRA bomb explodes at Brooks\'s club. * 7 November: An IRA bomb explodes at the Kings Arms, Woolwich
Woolwich
, killing two persons and injuring 28. * 11 November: New Covent Garden
Covent Garden
Market opens at Nine Elms . * 22 December: A suspected IRA bomb explodes at the home of Conservative Party leader and former Prime Minister Edward Heath . * Sex (boutique) is opened by Malcolm McLaren and Vivienne Westwood in the King\'s Road .

* 1975

* 28 February: Moorgate tube crash : 43 are killed when a Northern line ( Highbury
Highbury
Branch) train accelerates into a dead end tunnel. * June: Snow falls at Lord\'s . * 14 August: Heaviest rainfall recorded in London, 17.8 cm (7 in.) in 2 hours at Hampstead
Hampstead
. * 5 September: A Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(IRA) bomb explodes at The London
London
Hilton on Park Lane
Park Lane
killing two people and injuring 63. * 28 September–3 October: Spaghetti House siege ; 9 hostages are taken. * 9 October: An IRA bomb explodes outside Green Park
Green Park
tube station killing one person and injuring 20. * 23 October: Oncologist Gordon Hamilton Fairley is killed by an IRA bomb intended for Sir Hugh Fraser . * November: The last coin, a gold sovereign, is minted at the Royal Mint 's original London
London
location. * 18 November: Walton\'s Restaurant bombing . * 6–12 December: Balcombe Street siege : 4 members of the IRA take hostages before surrendering to police. * Southwark
Southwark
Towers built.

* 1976

* 29 January: Twelve Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
bombs explode in the West End. * 2 March: Brent Cross
Brent Cross
shopping centre opens. * 13 April: Whitbread
Whitbread
cease brewing at Chiswell Street
Chiswell Street
. * 20 August–14 July 1978: Grunwick dispute : An industrial dispute involving trade union recognition at the Grunwick Film Processing Laboratories in Willesden
Willesden
. * 25 October: Official opening of the National Theatre on the South Bank. * First purpose-built (Thai style) Buddhist temple built in Britain, the Wat Buddhapadipa in Wimbledon .

* 1977

* 24 February: City of London
London
and Westminster
Westminster
South by-election, 1977 held. * 11 April: London
London
Transport 's Silver Jubilee AEC Routemaster buses are launched. * 5 May: Greater London
London
Council election, 1977 : Conservatives secure a substantial majority over Labour. * 13 August: Battle of Lewisham : An attempt by the far-right National Front to march from New Cross
New Cross
to Lewisham leads to counter-demonstrations and violent clashes. * 16 September: Glam rock star Marc Bolan
Marc Bolan
is killed in a car crash in Barnes , two weeks before his 30th birthday. * 31 October: " Frestonia
Frestonia
" attempts to secede from the UK. * 16 December: Piccadilly
Piccadilly
line extended to Heathrow Central tube station . * London
London
Hydraulic Power Company closes its last pumping station, in Wapping
Wapping
Wall . * Garden Museum
Garden Museum
established at former church of St Mary-at-Lambeth. * J. Lyons and Co. closes its last Corner House restaurant.

* 1978

* 20 August: Gunmen open fire on an Israeli El Al airline bus in London. * 7 September: Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov
Georgi Markov
is stabbed with a poison-tipped umbrella as he walks across Waterloo Bridge, probably on orders of his country's intelligence service; he dies 4 days later. * 1 December–13 November 1979: The Times
The Times
and The Sunday Times newspapers suspend publication over a dispute by journalists. * London
London
Borough of Camden low-rise high-density social housing schemes completed on Alexandra Road Estate (by Neave Brown ) and Branch Hill (by Gordon Benson and Alan Forsyth). * Asharq Al-Awsat newspaper begins publication.

* 1979

* 30 March: Airey Neave , World War II
World War II
veteran and Conservative Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
spokesman, is killed by an Irish National Liberation Army bomb in the House of Commons car park. * 7 April: The last RT type bus runs in London. * 1 May: The London
London
Underground Jubilee line is inaugurated. * 14 September: The government announces plans to regenerate the London
London
Docklands with housing and commercial developments. * 18 October: The new Lyric Theatre in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
opens. The first play is George Bernard Shaw's You Never Can Tell .

* 1980

* 28 March: London
London
Transport Museum opens in the former Covent Garden flower market. * 30 April–5 May: Iranian Embassy siege , ended by intervention of the Special Air Service
Special Air Service
. * 10 July: Alexandra Palace gutted by fire for the second time in its history. * 16 August: Two nightclubs in Denmark Street gutted by fire, killing 37. * St George\'s Hospital moves from Hyde Park Corner to Tooting
Tooting
. * London
London
Chinatown Community Centre established. * Royal Society of Chemistry , with headquarters at Burlington House , formed by merger.

* 1981

* 18 January: New Cross
New Cross
Fire : Eleven young black people are killed and thirty injured in an arson attack on a house in New Cross
New Cross
. * 29 March: London
London
Marathon first run. * 11 April: 1981 Brixton
Brixton
riot . * 20 April: More than 100 people are arrested and 15 police officers are injured in clashes with black youths in the Finsbury Park , Forest Green and Ealing
Ealing
areas. * 7 May: Ken Livingstone becomes leader of the Greater London Council after Labour wins the GLC elections. * 11 June: National Westminster
Westminster
Tower opens. * 21 June: Fire at Goodge Street tube station . * 2 July: London
London
Docklands Development Corporation set up. * 29 July: Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer in St Paul's Cathedral. * 4 October: London
London
Transport Executive (GLC) introduces 'Fares Fair' average 32% reduction of public transport fares, declared unlawful 17 December following legal challenge by London
London
Borough of Bexley . * 10 October: Chelsea Barracks
Chelsea Barracks
is bombed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army , killing two. * November: Port of London
London
Authority closes the Royal Docks , the last functioning upstream docks, to general trade. * Greater London
London
Council public housing stock passed to boroughs. * Whiteleys
Whiteleys
department store in Bayswater
Bayswater
closes.

* 1982

* 19 January: Billingsgate Fish Market opens on a new site in the Isle of Dogs , having closed at its old site in the City 3 days earlier. * 3 March: Barbican Centre opens as an arts and conference venue. * 28 May: Pope John Paul II\'s visit to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
begins. Following arrival from Gatwick Airport at Victoria station he attends Mass at Westminster
Westminster
Cathedral . On 29 May there is an open-air Mass at Wembley
Wembley
Stadium and on 30 May a meeting at Crystal Palace Stadium with the Polish Catholic community. * 17 June: The body of Italian banker Roberto Calvi is found hanging from Blackfriars Bridge . * 20 July: Hyde Park and Regent\'s Park bombings . * 12 October: London
London
Victory Parade of 1982 . * October: Thames Barrier begins operating (official opening 8 May 1984). * Broadgate
Broadgate
development in the City begins. * Black Audio Film Collective active.

* 1983

* 14 January: Shooting of Stephen Waldorf : Armed police shoot and severely injure an innocent car passenger in Earl\'s Court , believing him to be an escaped prisoner. * 4 April: Gunmen escape with £7 million from a Security Express van, the biggest cash haul in British history. * 16 May: Wheel clamps are first used to combat illegal parking in London. * July–August: London
London
temperatures reach and exceed 30 °C. * 22 September: Docklands redevelopment begins with the opening of an Enterprise Zone on the Isle of Dogs . * 7 October: A plan to abolish the Greater London
London
Council is announced. * 4 November: Dennis Nilsen is sentenced at the Old Bailey
Old Bailey
to life imprisonment for the murder of at least 12 young men in a series of killings committed since 1978 in north London. * 26 November: Brink\'s-Mat robbery : £26M-worth of gold bullion and other valuables are stolen from a warehouse at Heathrow International Trading Estate. * 17 December: A Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(IRA) car bomb kills six, three police and three members of the public, and injures 90 outside Harrods
Harrods
. A second bomb on Christmas Day in Oxford
Oxford
Street explodes without injuries. * Mary Donaldson becomes first woman Lord Mayor of London
London
and Sam Beaver King becomes first black mayor of the London
London
Borough of Southwark
Southwark
. * Thames Water shuts down the reciprocating stationary steam engines at its Waddon pumping station , the last in Britain to pump drinking water by steam. * Chelsea Physic Garden
Chelsea Physic Garden
opens to the general public as a heritage attraction for the first time. * Sankofa Film and Video Collective founded.

* 1984

* 4 April: Churchill War Rooms open as a museum. * 17 April: Murder
Murder
of Yvonne Fletcher : a police officer is shot from the Embassy of Libya in St. James\'s Square . * 29 June: London
London
Transport passes from control of the Greater London
London
Council to London
London
Regional Transport (reporting to the Department of Transport). * 23 November: Serious fire in Victoria line
Victoria line
tunnel at Oxford
Oxford
Circus tube station . * Regent\'s College established in Regent\'s Park , moving to the premises vacated by Bedford College in 1985. * London
London
Fashion Week begins.

* 1985

* 6 January: Introduction of Capitalcard, predecessor of the Travelcard , the first season ticket valid on both London
London
Transport and British Rail services. * 16 January: The Dorchester Hotel is bought by the Sultan of Brunei . * 19 February: Soap opera EastEnders
EastEnders
debuts on BBC
BBC
television. * 11 March: Harrods
Harrods
is bought by Mohammed Al Fayed . * 6 October: Death of Keith Blakelock
Death of Keith Blakelock
: A police constable is brutally murdered in the Broadwater Farm riot on the Broadwater Farm estate of 1967–71 in Tottenham
Tottenham
. * Bedford College merges with Royal Holloway College , moving to the latter's Egham campus.

* 1986

* 24 January–5 February 1987: Wapping
Wapping
dispute : Employees of News International strike over the transfer of the company's newspaper production to Wapping
Wapping
with the adoption of new technology. Within a year of the strike's collapse most national newspapers will follow News International's lead in moving from Fleet Street
Fleet Street
to Docklands.

* 31 March

* Greater London
London
Council abolished. Responsibility for the blue plaque scheme passes to English Heritage
English Heritage
. * A fire damages Hampton Court Palace .

* 12 April: Heathrow Terminal 4 opens. * 27 June: Last train from Broad Street station . * 27 October: "Big Bang ": Deregulation
Deregulation
of the London
London
Stock Exchange , leading to substantial changes in the City financial markets . * 29 October: M25 motorway ( London
London
orbital) completed, creating a new de facto definition of the Greater London
London
area. * 18 November: Lloyd\'s building , designed by Richard Rogers , opens.

* 1987

* January: Westminster
Westminster
cemeteries scandal begins. * 24 February–23 July: London
London
Daily News published. * 10 May: The City church of St Mary-at-Hill is gutted by fire. * 30 July: Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
begins operation. * 15–16 October: Great Storm of 1987 . * 26 October: London
London
City Airport begins commercial operation. * 18 November: King\'s Cross fire : 31 killed on Underground station escalator. * Richmond Riverside, London
London
, designed by Quinlan Terry , completed.

* 1988

* 16 May: Thameslink north-south cross- London
London
suburban rail services introduced. * July: Surrey
Surrey
Quays Shopping Centre opens on the site of the Surrey Commercial Docks in Rotherhithe
Rotherhithe
, leading to a de facto renaming of the surrounding residential area as Surrey
Surrey
Quays . * 1 August: A British Army
British Army
soldier is killed by IRA terrorists at Inglis Barracks in Mill Hill. * 12 December: Clapham
Clapham
Junction rail crash : 35 killed in double collision following signalling installation error. * Approximate date: Al-Hayat
Al-Hayat
newspaper headquartered in London.

* 1989

* 4 March: Purley station rail crash : five killed in collision following driver's error. * 29 June: A replacement sundial column is unveiled at Seven Dials .

* 20 August: Marchioness disaster : 51 killed when dredger Bowbelle collides with chartered pleasure boat Marchioness on the Thames near Cannon Street Railway Bridge in the early hours. * c. October–December: Gates erected across Downing Street
Downing Street
. * Design Museum
Design Museum
opens in Shad Thames . * Hampstead
Hampstead
Heath management taken over by Corporation of London
London
. * North East London
London
Polytechnic renamed Polytechnic of East London
London
. * Truman\'s Brewery closes.

* 1990

* 26 January: Last trains use Holborn
Holborn
Viaduct station . * 31 March: Poll Tax Riot
Riot
. * 1 April: Inner London
London
Education Authority abolished. * 3 May: London
London
local elections, 1990 . In Westminster
Westminster
these give rise to the homes for votes scandal . * 10 July: Princess Anne opens the first Hampton Court Palace Flower Show . * 20 July: A Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
bomb explodes at Stock Exchange
Stock Exchange
Tower .

* 1991

* 7 February: Downing Street
Downing Street
mortar attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
. * 2 April: HM Prison Belmarsh becomes operational on part of the Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal site. * 26 August: One Canada Square (the " Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
tower") opens. * Embankment Place office and commercial complex designed by Terry Farrell and Partners above Cannon Street railway station opens.

* 1992

* 10 April: Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(IRA) detonates a truck bomb at the Baltic Exchange in the City, killing three and causing at least £800 million worth of damage. * 9 October: Two suspected IRA bombs explode in London, but there are no injuries. * November: University of East London
London
formed from the Polytechnic of East London. * 1 December: University of Westminster
Westminster
formed from the Polytechnic of Central London, a successor to the 1838 Polytechnic. * 10 December: Eleven people are injured by IRA bombs in Wood Green . * 16 December: Four people are injured by IRA bombs in Oxford
Oxford
Street . * London
London
Guildhall University formed from the City of London Polytechnic, University of Greenwich
Greenwich
formed from Thames Polytechnic and University of North London
London
formed from the Polytechnic of North London. * The Ark office block in Hammersmith
Hammersmith
, designed by Ralph Erskine , completed. * Bramah Tea and Coffee Museum opens, originally at Butler\'s Wharf .

* 1993

* 22 April: Murder
Murder
of Stephen Lawrence in Eltham
Eltham
, leads ultimately to cultural changes to attitudes on racism especially within the police. * 24 April: 1993 Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
bombing : An IRA truck bomb explodes in the City, killing one person and causing £350 million worth of damage. * 4 August: Millwall F.C. 's New Den stadium opens in Bermondsey
Bermondsey
. * Thames Water Ring Main completed.

* 1994

* 26 February: Clerkenwell
Clerkenwell
cinema fire : 11 die as the result of arson at the Dream City adult cinema. * 5 April: The isolated Waterloo ">

* 1996

* 9 February: 1996 Docklands bombing : A Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) truck bomb explodes at Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
, killing two. * 18 February: An IRA bomb explodes on a bus in central London, killing the transporter, Edward O\'Brien , and injuring eight other people, including the driver. * 20 December: London
London
Docklands Development Corporation powers in Surrey
Surrey
Docks revert to the London
London
Borough of Southwark
Southwark
.

* 1997

* 31 January: London
London
Docklands Development Corporation powers in Limehouse and Wapping
Wapping
revert to the London
London
Borough of Tower Hamlets . * March: The London
London
Aquarium opens in the former County Hall on the South Bank