TIME MANAGEMENT is the process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities - especially to increase effectiveness , efficiency or productivity .
It is a meta -activity with the goal to maximize the overall benefit of a set of other activities within the boundary condition of a limited amount of time, as time itself cannot be managed because it is fixed.
The major themes arising from the literature on time management include the following:
* Creating an environment conducive to effectiveness * Setting of priorities * Carrying out activity around prioritization . * The related process of reduction of time spent on non-priorities * Incentives to modify behavior to ensure compliance with time-related deadlines.
* 1 Creating an effective environment
* 2 Setting priorities and goals
* 2.1 ABC analysis * 2.2 Pareto analysis * 2.3 The Eisenhower Method * 2.4 Domino Reaction method * 2.5 POSEC method * 2.6 Implementation of goals * 2.7 Task list organization * 2.8 Software applications
* 2.9.1 GTD (Getting Things Done) * 2.9.2 Pomodoro
* 3 Elimination of non-priorities * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
CREATING AN EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENT
Some time-management literature stresses tasks related to the creation of an environment conducive to "real" effectiveness. These strategies include principles such as:
* "get organized" - the triage of paperwork and of tasks * "protecting one's time" by insulation, isolation and delegation * "achievement through goal-management and through goal-focus" - motivational emphasis * "recovering from bad time-habits" - recovery from underlying psychological problems, e.g. procrastination
Writers on creating an environment for effectiveness refer to such matters as having a tidy office or home for unleashing creativity, and the need to protect "prime time". Literature also focuses on overcoming chronic psychological issues such as procrastination.
Excessive and chronic inability to manage time effectively may result
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
SETTING PRIORITIES AND GOALS
"Task list" redirects here. For application in Windows XP, see
Windows Task Manager
* "Work in Priority Order" - set goals and prioritize * "Set gravitational goals" - that attract actions automatically
These goals are recorded and may be broken down into a project , an action plan , or a simple task list. For individual tasks or for goals, an importance rating may be established, deadlines may be set, and priorities assigned. This process results in a plan with a task list or a schedule or calendar of activities. Authors may recommend a daily, weekly, monthly or other planning periods associated with different scope of planning or review. This is done in various ways, as follows.
A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the categorization of large data into groups. These groups are often marked A, B, and C—hence the name. Activities are ranked by these general criteria:
* A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important, * B – Tasks that are important but not urgent, * C – Tasks that are unimportant. (whether urgent or not)
Each group is then rank-ordered by priority. To further refine the prioritization, some individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC analysis can incorporate more than three groups.
ABC analysis is frequently combined with Pareto analysis .
This is the idea 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the disposable time. The remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. This principle is used to sort tasks into two parts. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is recommended that tasks that fall into the first category be assigned a higher priority.
The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that 80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. Similarly, 80% of results can be attributed to 20% of activity. If productivity is the aim of time management, then these tasks should be prioritized higher.
It depends on the method adopted to complete the task. There is always a simpler and easier way to complete the task. If one uses a complex way, it will be time consuming. So, one should always try to find out alternative ways to complete each task.
THE EISENHOWER METHOD
A basic "Eisenhower box" to help evaluate urgency and importance. Items may be placed at more precise points within each quadrant.
The "Eisenhower Method" stems from a quote attributed to Dwight D. Eisenhower : "I have two kinds of problems, the urgent and the important. The urgent are not important, and the important are never urgent."
Using the Eisenhower Decision Principle, tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not urgent, and then placed in according quadrants in an Eisenhower Matrix (also known as an "Eisenhower Box" or "Eisenhower Decision Matrix " ). Tasks are then handled as follows:
* Important/Urgent quadrant are done immediately and personally e.g. crises, deadlines, problems. * Important/Not Urgent quadrant get an end date and are done personally e.g. relationships, planning, recreation. * Unimportant/Urgent quadrant are delegated e.g. interruptions, meetings, activities. * Unimportant/Not Urgent quadrant are dropped e.g. time wasters, pleasant activities, trivia.
This method is said to have been used by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower .
DOMINO REACTION METHOD
This is the idea that there are actions that you invest in once and which produce over time in different channels. Writing a book is such an action, because it requires a one-time effort, and once you finish it, it continues serving you.
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POSEC is an acronym for PRIORITIZE BY ORGANIZING, STREAMLINING, ECONOMIZING AND CONTRIBUTING. The method dictates a template which emphasizes an average individual's immediate sense of emotional and monetary security. It suggests that by attending to one's personal responsibilities first, an individual is better positioned to shoulder collective responsibilities.
Inherent in the acronym is a hierarchy of self-realization, which
* Prioritize - Your time and define your life by goals. * Organize - Things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful (family and finances). * Streamline - Things you may not like to do, but must do (work and chores). * Economize - Things you should do or may even like to do, but they're not pressingly urgent (pastimes and socializing). * Contribute - By paying attention to the few remaining things that make a difference (social obligations).
IMPLEMENTATION OF GOALS
A to-do form tattooed into a person's arm, with some items already written out with a black pen.
A TASK LIST (also to-do list or things-to-do) is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or supplement to memory .
Task lists are used in self-management, grocery lists, business management , project management , and software development . It may involve more than one list.
When one of the items on a task list is accomplished, the task is checked or crossed off. The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil , usually on a note pad or clip-board. Task lists can also have the form of paper or software checklists .
Writer Julie Morgenstern suggests "do's and don'ts" of time management that include:
* Map out everything that is important, by making a task list * Create "an oasis of time" for one to control * Say "No" * Set priorities * Don't drop everything * Don't think a critical task will get done in one's spare time .
Numerous digital equivalents are now available, including Personal information management (PIM) applications and most PDAs . There are also several web-based task list applications, many of which are free.
TASK LIST ORGANIZATION
Task lists are often tiered. The simplest tiered system includes a general to-do list (or task-holding file) to record all the tasks the person needs to accomplish, and a daily to-do list which is created each day by transferring tasks from the general to-do list.
Task lists are often prioritized:
* A daily list of things to do, numbered in the order of their
importance, and done in that order one at a time until daily time
allows, is attributed to consultant
Ivy Lee (1877–1934) as the most
profitable advice received by
Charles M. Schwab
* An early advocate of "ABC" prioritization was Alan Lakein , in 1973. In his system "A" items were the most important ("A-1" the most important within that group), "B" next most important, "C" least important. * A particular method of applying the ABC method assigns "A" to tasks to be done within a day , "B" a week , and "C" a month . * To prioritize a daily task list, one either records the tasks in the order of highest priority, or assigns them a number after they are listed ("1" for highest priority, "2" for second highest priority, etc.) which indicates in which order to execute the tasks. The latter method is generally faster, allowing the tasks to be recorded more quickly. * Another way of prioritizing compulsory tasks (group A) is to put the most unpleasant one first. When it’s done, the rest of the list feels easier. Groups B and C can benefit from the same idea, but instead of doing the first task (which is the most unpleasant) right away, it gives motivation to do other tasks from the list to avoid the first one. * A completely different approach which argues against prioritising altogether was put forward by British author Mark Forster in his book "Do It Tomorrow and Other Secrets of Time Management". This is based on the idea of operating "closed" to-do lists, instead of the traditional "open" to-do list. He argues that the traditional never-ending to-do lists virtually guarantees that some of your work will be left undone. This approach advocates getting all your work done, every day, and if you are unable to achieve it helps you diagnose where you are going wrong and what needs to change.
Various writers have stressed potential difficulties with to-do lists such as the following:
Many companies use time tracking software to track an employee's working time, billable hours etc., e.g. law practice management software .
Many software products for time management support multiple users. They allow the person to give tasks to other users and use the software for communication.
Task list applications may be thought of as lightweight personal information manager or project management software .
Modern task list applications may have built-in task hierarchy (tasks are composed of subtasks which again may contain subtasks), may support multiple methods of filtering and ordering the list of tasks, and may allow one to associate arbitrarily long notes for each task.
In contrast to the concept of allowing the person to use multiple filtering methods, at least one software product additionally contains a mode where the software will attempt to dynamically determine the best tasks for any given moment.
TIME MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
GTD (Getting Things Done)
GTD Getting Things Done was created by David Allen and the basic idea behind this method is to finish all the small tasks immediately and a big task is to be divided into smaller tasks to start completing now. The reasoning behind this is to avoid the information overload or "brain freeze" which is likely to occur when there are hundreds of tasks. The thrust of GTD is to encourage the user to get their tasks and ideas out and on paper and organized as quickly as possible so they're easy to manage and see.
Francesco Cirillo's " Pomodoro Technique " was originally conceived in the late 1980s and gradually refined until it was later defined in 1992. The technique is the namesake of a pomodoro (Italian for tomato) shaped kitchen timer initially used by Cirillo during his time at university. The "Pomodoro" is described as the fundamental metric of time within the technique and is traditionally defined as being 30 minutes long, consisting of 25 minutes of work and 5 minutes of break time. Cirillo also recommends a longer break of 15 to 30 minutes after every four Pomodoros. Through experimentation involving various work groups and mentoring activities, Cirillo determined the "ideal Pomodoro" to be 20–35 minutes long.
ELIMINATION OF NON-PRIORITIES
According to Sandberg, task lists "aren't the key to productivity they're cracked up to be". He reports an estimated "30% of listers spend more time managing their lists than completing what's on them".
Hendrickson asserts that rigid adherence to task lists can create a "tyranny of the to-do list" that forces one to "waste time on unimportant activities".
* ^ Project
Library resources about TIME MANAGEMENT -------------------------
* Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries
* Allen, David (2001). Getting things done : the Art of Stress-Free Productivity. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-88906-8 . * Fiore, Neil A (2006). The Now Habit: A Strategic Program for Overcoming Procrastination and Enjoying Guilt- Free Play. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-58542-552-5 . * Le Blanc, Raymond (2008). Achieving Objectives Made Easy! Practical goal setting tools & proven time management techniques. Maarheeze: Cranendonck Coaching. ISBN 90-79397-03-2 . * Secunda, Al (1999). The 15 second principle : short, simple steps to achieving long-term goals. New York: New York : Berkley Books. p. 157. ISBN 0-425-16505-1 .