TIME is an American weekly news magazine published in
New York City
New York City .
It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by
Henry Luce ,
who built a highly profitable stable of magazines.
A European edition (
Time Europe, formerly known as
Time Atlantic) is
published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since
2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (
Time Asia) is based in Hong
Kong . The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand
Pacific Islands , is based in
Sydney , Australia. In December
Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.
Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine,
and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in
the United States.
In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3
million in 2012.
Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October
2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department .
Nancy Gibbs has
been the managing editor since October 2013.
* 1 History
* 2 Circulation
* 3 Style
* 4.1 Person of the Year
* 4.3 Red X covers
Time for Kids
* 7 Staff
* 7.1 Editors
* 7.2 Managing editors
* 7.3 Notable contributors
* 7.4 Snapshot: 1940 editorial staff
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
The first issue of
Time (March 3, 1923), featuring Speaker
Joseph G. Cannon .
Time magazine was created in 1923 by
Briton Hadden and
Henry Luce ,
making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States. The
two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor
respectively of the
Yale Daily News . They first called the proposed
magazine Facts. They wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man
could read it in an hour. They changed the name to
Time and used the
slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was considered carefree and
liked to tease Luce and saw
Time as important but also fun, which
accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities (including
politicians), the entertainment industry, and pop culture—criticized
as too light for serious news.
It set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the
magazine's cover depicted a single person. More recently,
incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over
the years. Notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs,
Matej Turk, etc. The first issue of
Time was published on March 3,
1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon , the retired Speaker of the House of
Representatives , on its cover; a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1,
including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the
original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a
commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary. The cover price was
15¢ (equivalent to $2.11 today) On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce
became the dominant man at
Time and a major figure in the history of
20th-century media. According to
Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a
Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen
was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time
Inc". In his book, The March of
Time , 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding
also noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and then
general manager of Time, later publisher of Life , for many years
Time Inc., and in the long history of the corporation the
most influential and important figure after Luce".
Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy
like Henry P. Davison, partner of
J.P. Morgan & Co. , publicity man
Martin Egan and
J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce,
Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a
Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were
Yale graduates. After Hadden
died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of
Time Inc., using money he
obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his
father, who was the head of the
Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain
New England . However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest
Time stockholder was
Henry Luce , who ruled the media conglomerate in
an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's
second-largest stockholder, according to
Time Inc.: The Intimate
History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen
was also named a
Time Inc. director and vice-president. J. P. Morgan
retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of
stocks, both over
Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were Brown
W. A. Harriman ">
Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth
about $109 million, and it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of
more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of
Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983.
The Larsen family's
Time stock was worth around $80 million during the
1960s, and Roy Larsen was both a
Time Inc. director and the chairman
of its Executive Committee, later serving as Time's vice-chairman of
the board until the middle of 1979. According to the September 10,
1979 issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in
the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory
retirement at age 65."
Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923,
Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U.S.
radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both Time
magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According to The
Time , as early as 1924, Larsen had brought
Time into the
infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining
quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". Then, in
1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme
series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time
magazine which was originally broadcast over 33 stations throughout
the United States".
Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time
, to be broadcast over
CBS , beginning on March 6, 1931. Each week,
the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its
Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of
millions previously unaware of its existence", according to
The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941, leading
to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s. Between
1931 and 1937, Larsen's The March of
Time radio program was broadcast
CBS radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast over NBC
radio – except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not aired.
People Magazine was based on Time's People page.
In 1989, when Time, Inc. and Warner Communications merged, Time
became part of
Time Warner , along with
Warner Bros. .
Jason McManus succeeded Henry Grunwald as Editor-in-Chief
and oversaw the transition before
Norman Pearlstine succeeded him in
Time magazine became part of AOL
Time Warner, which reverted
to the name
Time Warner in 2003.
Time moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery to
a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is delivered
to subscribers on Saturday. The magazine actually began in 1923 with
During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for roughly a
week due to "editorial changes", including the layoff of 49 employees.
Time announced that they were introducing a personalized
print magazine, Mine, mixing content from a range of
publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met
with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to
be truly personal.
The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for
every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted
from scanned images using optical character recognition technology.
There are still minor errors in the text that are remnants of the
conversion into digital format.
Time Inc. and Apple have come to an agreement wherein U.S.
Time will be able to read the iPad versions for free,
at least until the two companies sort out a viable digital
In January 2013,
Time Inc. announced that it would cut nearly 500
jobs – roughly 6% of its 8,000 staff worldwide. Although Time
magazine has maintained high sales, its ad pages have declined
significantly over time.
Also in January 2013,
Time Inc. named Martha Nelson as the first
female editor-in-chief of its magazine division. In September 2013,
Nancy Gibbs was named as the first female managing editor of Time
Time magazine paid circulation by year
During the second half of 2009, the magazine saw a 34.9% decline in
newsstand sales. During the first half of 2010, there was another
decline of at least one-third in
Time magazine sales. In the second
half of 2010,
Time magazine newsstand sales declined by about 12% to
just over 79,000 copies per week. As of 2012, it has a circulation of
3.3 million, making it the eleventh most circulated magazine in the
United States, and the second most circulated weekly behind People .
As of 2014, its circulation was 3,286,467
Time initially possessed a distinctive writing style, making regular
use of inverted sentences . This was parodied in 1936 by Wolcott Gibbs
The New Yorker
The New Yorker : "Backward ran sentences until reeled the mind
Where it all will end, knows God!"
Until the mid-1970s,
Time had a weekly section called "Listings",
which contained capsule summaries and/or reviews of then-current
significant films, plays, musicals, television programs, and literary
bestsellers similar to
The New Yorker
The New Yorker 's "Current Events" section.
Time is also known for its signature red border, first introduced in
1927. The iconic red border was homaged or satirized by Seattle's The
Stranger newspaper in 2010.
The border has only been changed four times since 1927: The issue
released shortly after the
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks on the United States
featured a black border to symbolize mourning . However, this edition
was a special "extra" edition published quickly for the breaking news
of the event; the next regularly scheduled issue contained the red
border. Additionally, the April 28, 2008
Earth Day issue, dedicated to
environmental issues , contained a green border. The next change in
border was in the September 19, 2011 issue, commemorating the 10th
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks with a metallic silver border. The
most recent change (again with a silver border) was in the December
31, 2012 issue, noting
Barack Obama 's selection as Person of the
Time engineered a style overhaul of the magazine. Among
other changes, the magazine reduced the red cover border in order to
promote featured stories, enlarged column titles, reduced the number
of featured stories, increased white space around articles, and
accompanied opinion pieces with photographs of the writers. The
changes have met both criticism and praise.
PERSON OF THE YEAR
Time Person of the Year
Time's most famous feature throughout its history has been the annual
"Person of the Year" (formerly "Man of the Year") cover story, in
Time recognizes the individual or group of individuals who have
had the biggest impact on news headlines over the past 12 months. The
distinction is supposed to go to the person who, for good or ill, has
most affected the course of the year; it is therefore not necessarily
an honor or a reward. In the past, such figures as
Adolf Hitler and
Joseph Stalin have been Man of the Year.
In 2006, Person of the Year was designated as "You" , a move that was
met with split reviews. Some thought the concept was creative; others
wanted an actual person of the year. Editors Pepper and Timmer
reflected that, if it had been a mistake, "we're only going to make it
In recent years,
Time has assembled an annual list of the 100 most
influential people of the year. Originally, they had made a list of
the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. These issues
usually have the front cover filled with pictures of people from the
list and devote a substantial amount of space within the magazine to
the 100 articles about each person on the list. There have, in some
cases, been over 100 people, when two people have made the list
together, sharing one spot.
The magazine also compiled "All-TIME 100 best novels" and "All-TIME
100 best movies " lists in 2005, "The 100 Best TV Shows of
All-TIME" in 2007, and "All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons" in 2012.
In February 2016,
Time included the British and male author Evelyn
Waugh on its "100 Most Read Female Writers in College Classes" list
(he was 97th on the list) which created much media attention and
concerns about the level of basic education among the magazine's
Time later issued a retraction. In a
BBC interview with
Justin Webb , Professor
Valentine Cunningham of Corpus Christi
College, Oxford , described the mistake as "a piece of profound
ignorance on the part of
RED X COVERS
Time red X covers: from left to right, Adolf Hitler, Saddam
Hussein, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, and Osama bin Laden
During its history, for five non-consecutive occasions,
released a special issue with a cover showing an X scrawled over the
face of a man or a national symbol. The first
Time magazine with a red
X cover was released on May 7, 1945, showing a red X over Adolf Hitler
's face. The second X cover was released more than three months later
on August 20, 1945, with a black X (to date, the magazine's only such
use of a black X) covering the flag of Japan , representing the recent
surrender of Japan and which signaled the end of
World War II
World War II .
Fifty-eight years later, on April 21, 2003,
Time released another
issue with a red X over
Saddam Hussein 's face, two weeks after the
invasion. On June 13, 2006,
Time magazine printed a red X cover issue
following the death of
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in a U.S. airstrike in
Iraq . The most recent red X cover issue of
Time was published on May
2, 2011, after the death of Osama bin Laden .
TIME FOR KIDS
Time for Kids
Time for Kids is a division magazine of
Time that is especially
published for children and is mainly distributed in classrooms. TFK
contains some national news, a "
Cartoon of the Week", and a variety of
articles concerning popular culture . An annual issue concerning the
environment is distributed near the end of the U.S. school term. The
publication rarely exceeds ten pages front and back.
Time LightBox is a photography blog created and curated by Time's
photo department, that was launched in 2011. In 2011 Life picked
LightBox for its Photo Blog Awards.
Briton Hadden (1923–1929)
Henry Luce (1929–1949)
T. S. Matthews (1949–1953)
T. S. Matthews
James R. Gaines
Aravind Adiga ,
Time correspondent for three years, winner of the
Man Booker Prize for fiction
James Agee , book and movie editor for Time
Ann Blackman , deputy news chief in Washington
Ian Bremmer , current Editor-at-Large
Margaret Carlson , the first female columnist for Time
Robert Cantwell , writer, editor 1936—1941
Whittaker Chambers , writer, senior editor 1939—1948
Richard Corliss , film critic for the magazine since 1980
Brad Darrach , film critic
Nigel Dennis , drama critic
John Gregory Dunne , reporter; later author and screenwriter
Peter Economy , author and editor
Alexander Eliot , art editor from 1945 to 1961, author of 18 books
on art, mythology, and history, including Three Hundred Years of
American Painting, published by
Dean E. Fischer , reporter and editor, 1964–81
Nancy Gibbs , essayist and editor-at-large ; has written more than
Time cover stories
Lev Grossman , writes primarily about books for the magazine
Deena Guzder , a human rights journalist and author
* Jerry Bernard Hannifin, award-winning chief aerospace
correspondent for four decades, as well as specialist on Latin
America, and licensed pilot
Wilder Hobson , reporter in 1930s and '40s
* Robert Hughes , Time's long-tenured art critic
Pico Iyer , essayist and novelist, essayist for
Time since 1986
Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. , photo editor 1952–60; also a historian
and Hollywood screenwriter
Weldon Kees , critic
* Joe Klein , author (Primary Colors ) and a
Time columnist who
wrote the "In the Arena" column
Louis Kronenberger , drama critic 1938–1961
Andre Laguerre , Paris bureau chief 1948–1956, London bureau
chief 1951–1956, also wrote about sports for Time; later longtime
managing editor of
Nathaniel Lande , author, filmmaker, and former creative director
Will Lang Jr. 1936–1968,
Time Life International
Marshall Loeb , writer and editor from 1956 through 1980
* John Moody , Vatican and Rome correspondent 1986 through 1996
* Jim Murray , West Coast correspondent 1948–1955
Lance Morrow , backpage essayist from 1976 through 2000
Richard Schickel , film critic from 1965 through 2010
Hugh Sidey , political reporter and columnist, beginning in 1957
Donald L. Barlett and
James B. Steele , investigative reporters
who won two National Magazine Awards while at Time
Joel Stein , columnist who wrote the Joel 100 just after Time
Magazine's Most Influential issue in 2006
Calvin Trillin , food writer, was a reporter for
Time from 1960 to
David Von Drehle , current Editor-at-Large
Lasantha Wickrematunge , journalist
* Robert Wright , contributing editor
Fareed Zakaria , current Editor-at-Large
SNAPSHOT: 1940 EDITORIAL STAFF
William Saroyan lists the full
Time editorial department in
the play, Love's Old Sweet Song.
This 1940 snapshot includes:
* Editor: Henry R. Luce
* Managing Editors: Manfred Gottfried, Frank Norris, T.S. Matthews
* Associate Editors: Carlton J. Balliett Jr., Robert Cantwell, Laird
S. Goldsborough, David W. Hulburd Jr., John Stuart Martin, Fanny Saul,
Walter Stockly, Dana Tasker, Charles Weretenbaker
* Contributing Editors: Roy Alexander, John F. Allen, Robert W. Boyd
Jr., Roger Butterfield, Whittaker Chambers, James G. Crowley, Robert
Fitzgerald, Calvin Fixx, Walter Graebner, John Hersey, Sidney L.
James, Eliot Janeway, Pearl Kroll, Louis Kronenberger, Thomas K. Krug,
John T. McManus, Sherry Mangan, Peter Matthews, Robert Neville,
Emeline Nollen, Duncan Norton-Taylor, Sidney Olsen, John Osborne,
Content Peckham, Green Peyton, Williston C. Rich Jr., Winthrop
Sargeant, Robert Sherrod, Lois Stover, Leon Svirsky, Felice Swados,
Samuel G. Welles Jr., Warren Wilhelm, and Alfred Wright Jr.
* Editorial Assistants: Ellen May Ach, Sheila Baker, Sonia Bigman,
Elizabeth Budelrnan, Maria de Blasio, Hannah Durand, Jean Ford,
Dorothy Gorrell, Helen Gwynn, Edith Hind, Lois Holsworth, Diana
Jackson, Mary V. Johnson, Alice Lent, Kathrine Lowe, Carolyn Marx,
Helen McCreery, Gertrude McCullough, Mary Louise Mickey, Anna North,
Mary Palmer, Tabitha Petran, Elizabeth Sacartoff, Frances Stevenson,
Helen Vind, Eleanor Welch, and Mary Welles.
* United States portal
Heroes of the Environment
* List of people on the cover of
The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power ", 1991 article about
Scientology , by
Richard Behar , which received the
Gerald Loeb Award
Is God Dead? , one of Time's most famous covers
* ^ A B C "Consumer Magazines".
Alliance for Audited Media .
Retrieved October 6, 2016.
* ^ "
Time Canada to close". mastheadonline.com. December 10, 2008.
Retrieved September 6, 2011.
* ^ A B Byers, Dylan (August 7, 2012). "
Time Magazine still on top
Time Inc (30 July 2012). "Richard Stengel". TIME Media Kit.
Time Inc. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
* ^ A B Maza, Erik (17 September 2013). "
Nancy Gibbs Named Time\'s
Managing Editor". WWD. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
* ^ "History of TIME". TIME magazine.
* ^ Brinkley, The Publisher, pp 88–89
* ^ "Instant History: Review of First Issue with Cover".
Brycezabel.com. 1923-03-03. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
* ^ "
Time Inc. Layoffs: Surveying the Wreckage". Gawker. Retrieved
December 15, 2007.
* ^ "Time\'s foray into personal publishing". April 27, 2009.
Retrieved December 15, 2007.
* ^ Adams, Russell (2011-05-02). "WSJ.com,
Time Inc. in iPad Deal
With Apple". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
* ^ "
Time Inc. Cutting Staff", Wall Street Journal, January 30,
2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
* ^ "
Time Inc to Shed 500 Jobs", Greenslade Blog, The Guardian,
January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
* ^ A B Haughney, Christine (September 17, 2013). "
Names Its First Female Managing Editor". The New York Times.
* ^ Clifford, Stephanie (February 8, 2010). "Magazines\' Newsstand
Sales Fall 9.1 Percent". The New York Times.
The New Yorker
The New Yorker - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved
* ^ "TIME Magazine archives". Time.
* ^ Lin, Tao (September 21, 2010). "Great American Novelist".
TheStranger.com . Retrieved May 30, 2011.
* ^ MSNBC-TV report by Andrea Mitchell, April 17, 2008, 1:45 pm .
* ^ Joe Hagan (4 March 2007). "The
Time of Their Lives". NYMag.com.
New York Magazine. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
* ^ Bruce Nussbaum (25 March 2007). "Does The Redesign of Time
Magazine Mean It Has A New Business Model As Well?". Bloomberg
Businessweek. BLOOMBERG L.P. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
* ^ Will, George F. (December 21, 2006). "Full Esteem Ahead". The
* ^ "The
Time of Their Lives". Retrieved April 22, 2007.
* ^ Corliss, Richard ; Schickel, Richard (February 12, 2005).
"All-TIME 100 Movies". Time.
* ^ "Best Soundtracks". Time. February 12, 2005.
* ^ Corliss, Richard (June 2, 2005). "That Old Feeling: Secrets of
Time 100". Time.
* ^ Poniewozik, James (September 6, 2007). "The 100 Best TV Shows
of All-TIME". Time.
* ^ "All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons". Time. April 2, 2012.
* ^ "Evelyn Waugh: \'Time\' Names Male Writer in List of "100 Most
Read Female Writers" " by Jennifer Deutschman, Evelyn Waugh:
List of \'Most-Read Female Authors\' Includes a Man by Jonna Lorenz
* ^ "Evelyn Waugh: 'Time' Names Male Writer in List of "100 Most
Read Female Writers" " by Jennifer Deutschman
Time magazine correction:
Evelyn Waugh was not a woman
* ^ Gustini, Ray (May 2, 2011). "A Brief History of Time
Magazine\'s \'X\' Covers". The Wire .
* ^ Laurent, Olivier (31 July 2013). "Changing Time: How LightBox
has renewed Time\'s commitment to photography". British Journal of
Photography . Retrieved 6 January 2015.
* ^ "Life.com\'s 2011 Photo Blog Awards", Life.com, as saved by the
Wayback Machine on 6 January 2012. The citation reads:
Elegant and commanding, intimate and worldly,
beautifully designed LightBox blog is an essential destination for
those who appreciate contemporary photography. Much more than
photojournalism, Lightbox (which, like LIFE.com, is owned by Time
Inc.) explores today's new documentary and fine art photography from
the perspective of the photo editors at
Time -- arguably the strongest
editors working in their field today. LightBox offers fascinating
dispatches from every corner of the world... * ^ Blackman, Ann.
Ann Blackman – Off to Save the World: How JULIA TAFT Made a
Difference". Promotional website. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
* ^ "Kennedy Space Center--The Chroniclers". Retrieved June 26,
* ^ Saroyan, William (1940). Love\'s Old Sweet Song: A Play in
Three Acts. Samuel French. pp. 71–73. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
Baughman, James L. "Henry R. Luce and the Business of Journalism."
Business vol. 2: The World of
Time Inc.: The Intimate History,
1941–1960 (1973), official corporate history
* Herzstein, Robert E. Henry R. Luce, Time, and the American Crusade
in Asia (2006) excerpt and text search
* Herzstein, Robert E. Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the
Man Who Created the American Century (1994).
* Wilner, Isaiah. The Man
Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal,
and the Creation of
Time Magazine, HarperCollins, New York, 2006
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