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Tilbury
Tilbury
is a town in the borough of Thurrock, Essex, England. The present town was established as separate settlement in the late 19th century, on land that was mainly part of Chadwell St Mary. It contains a 16th century fort and an ancient cross-river ferry. Tilbury
Tilbury
is part of the Port of London
Port of London
with a major deep-water port which contributes to the local economy.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Tilbury
Tilbury
Ferry 2.2 Tilbury
Tilbury
Fort

3 Governance 4 Geography 5 Transport and industry 6 People and culture 7 Sport and leisure 8 References

Etymology[edit] The name of the present town of Tilbury
Tilbury
is derived (by way of the port) from the nearby settlements of East and West Tilbury. The name of these settlements is derived from the Saxon burgh, "fortified place", either belonging to Tila, or perhaps at a lowland place.[2] The 8th century spelling (Bede) was "Tilaburg", and the spelling in Domesday was "Tilberia".[3] History[edit] Tilbury's history is closely connected with its geographical location (see below). Its counterpart on the south bank of the River Thames, Gravesend, has long been an important communications link, and it was there that a cross-river ferry (see below) was connected, mainly due to the narrowness of the river at this point. In addition, Gravesend and Northfleet
Northfleet
(also on the south shore) both became vitally important to shipping on the Thames: the former as the first port of call for foreign shipping bound for London, and the latter as a naval dockyard. There is archaeological evidence of Roman occupation. At the time, sea-levels had dropped, making the marshes habitable. There may well have been a Roman settlement on the site of what is now Tilbury Docks.[4] In the 12th century the river, which had hitherto consisted of difficult channels with uncharted shoals, was changed by the process of embanking the river and enclosing areas of marsh. This improved the river's flow, and also resulted in improved land resources on the marsh.[5] It was nevertheless an unhealthy place in which to live; Daniel Defoe,[6] who, in 1696, operated a tile and brick factory in the Tilbury
Tilbury
marshes[7] and lived in a nearby house, wrote about "the Essex
Essex
ague". In 1588 Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
came ashore here to review her main army at the nearby village of West Tilbury
West Tilbury
(see Speech to the Troops at Tilbury). In 1852 an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
had authorised the building of the London Tilbury
Tilbury
and Southend Railway (LTSR), with a short spur to take advantage of the ferry over the Thames; a pier nearby was constructed for the steamboat traffic. The station was originally named Tilbury Fort and opened in 1854. The station was renamed Tilbury
Tilbury
Riverside railway station in 1936.[8] A few houses were built for the railway workers, but it was not until the construction of Tilbury
Tilbury
Docks (see below) that there was any settlement worthy of a name. Whilst the docks were being built, the thousands of workers were either provided with temporary accommodation or had to commute from surrounding villages and towns. As a result of overcrowding, more permanent housing was built once the docks were completed, including tenement blocks; but these were poorly constructed, and until the formation of Tilbury
Tilbury
District Council (see below) the town was in a poor state, as it largely remained until 1918, when government funds were available to better the situation.[9] Tilbury
Tilbury
Ferry[edit]

The Tilbury
Tilbury
Ferry in 1640

The landing stage in 2001

Main article: Gravesend - Tilbury
Tilbury
Ferry Tilbury–Gravesend Ferry has operated from very early times. A sketch-map of 1571[10] shows evidence of two jetties, the one on the north bank leading to a northward road crossing the marsh. There are also houses marked on the marsh itself, which became important for sheep grazing; and there is some evidence to suggest that the ferry was used for the cross-river transport of animals and wool.[11] Although the 17th century drawing might suggest a boat too small for large consignments, the long-established Gravesend market encouraged such traffic, and a contemporary account suggests that one of the boats used was a hoy, a forerunner of the Thames sailing barge.[12] Tilbury
Tilbury
Fort[edit] Main article: Tilbury
Tilbury
Fort The curve and narrowness of the river here made it a suitable place to construct forts for the defence of London against foreign invaders. The first permanent fort at Tilbury[13] was a D-shaped blockhouse built in 1539 by Henry VIII and initially called the "Thermitage Bulwark", because it was on the site of a hermitage dissolved in 1536. The Tilbury
Tilbury
blockhouse was designed to cross-fire with a similar structure at New Tavern, Gravesend. During the Armada campaign (1588), the fort was reinforced with earthworks and a palisade, and a boom of chains, ships' masts and cables was stretched across the Thames to Gravesend, anchored by lighters. The fort was rebuilt under Charles I and is now owned by English Heritage. Governance[edit] Until 1903, the marshland area was part of the traditional parish and civil parish of Chadwell St Mary, which reached south to the River Thames. The parish of Tilbury
Tilbury
Docks was established in 1903 and the Tilbury
Tilbury
Urban District Council (UDC) in 1912; it merged with Thurrock UDC in 1936. This in turn became a borough in 1984 and then the Thurrock
Thurrock
Unitary Authority in 1998. There are two wards covering the town, each served by two councillors: Tilbury
Tilbury
Riverside and Thurrock Park for the southern part and Tilbury
Tilbury
St Chad's in the north.[14] As of May 2016 there are 3 Labour and 1 UKIP councillors.[15] The Member of Parliament for Thurrock
Thurrock
is Jackie Doyle-Price. Geography[edit] Tilbury
Tilbury
is on the north bank of the River Thames, where the river's meander has caused it to narrow to approximately 800 yards (732 m) in width. The area to the north is one-time marshlands; to the north of that there is higher ground, where lie the villages of Chadwell St Mary, West and East Tilbury. The town lies to the north of the London-Southend railway line. The major landmarks are the docks, the cruise-ship landing stage, and the Tilbury
Tilbury
Power Station. There are two churches in Tilbury: St John's (Church of England) and Our Lady Star of the Sea (Roman Catholic); there is also a Convent of Mercy. There is, in addition, a synagogue in Dock Road.[16] The educational institutions in Tilbury include primary education, which are Lansdowne Primary School, St Mary's RC Primary School and Tilbury
Tilbury
Manor Primary School. The last serve Infant and Nursery, as well as Junior children. Transport and industry[edit]

Map of the town from 1946

Main article: Port of Tilbury The Port of Tilbury
Port of Tilbury
handles a variety of bulk cargo, timber, cars and container traffic and remains, along with Southampton
Southampton
and Felixstowe, one of Britain's three major container ports. It is the main UK port for importing paper, including newsprint. The one-time passenger landing stage was reopened by the Port of Tilbury
Port of Tilbury
group as the London Cruise Terminal, though it is no longer served by the railway. Until the introduction of standardised containers, the majority of the town's inhabitants were employed in the docks. The resulting loss of jobs has never been made up, and Tilbury
Tilbury
today has high unemployment and education and employment prospects are widely perceived as poor.[9] Thurrock
Thurrock
Council, together with Kent County Council, subsidises the ferry between Tilbury
Tilbury
and Gravesend, which is currently operated by the Lower Thames & Medway Passenger Boat Company. Tilbury
Tilbury
Town railway station is on the c2c (London, Tilbury
Tilbury
and Southend) rail route. Tilbury Riverside railway station
Tilbury Riverside railway station
was closed on 29 November 1992, although the railway still serves the nearby container depot.[17] Bus route 99 (operated in partnership by both c2c rail and Ensignbus) now connects Tilbury Town railway station
Tilbury Town railway station
and the ferry. Ensignbus
Ensignbus
services 66 and 73/73C serve Tilbury, connecting to Grays and Lakeside Shopping Centre. National Cycle Route 13 from London to Norfolk
Norfolk
passes through the town. People and culture[edit] The Tilbury
Tilbury
Band, dating from 1919, is among the leading brass bands in the UK.[18] Tilbury
Tilbury
and its environs have been used in some television episodes. Tilbury Fort
Tilbury Fort
was used as a location for Sharpe's Regiment, starring Sean Bean; an episode of London's Burning (a fireman drama show) was shot in the old fire station in Civic Square; and a scene from an episode of James Nesbitt's Murphy's Law was filmed at Tilbury
Tilbury
Docks' Cruise Terminal.[citation needed] Notable people who have had some connection with Tilbury
Tilbury
include: two football players, John Evans (1929–2004), who played for Liverpool, and Tom Scannell (1925–1994); Noel Betowski, artist, who was born there in 1952; and Thomas Horrocks Openshaw
Thomas Horrocks Openshaw
(1856–1929), who was a consultant surgeon at Tilbury
Tilbury
Hospital. Tilbury
Tilbury
was home to one of the UK's most notorious gangs of skinheads, the Tilbury
Tilbury
Trojan Skins,[19] who were featured the headlines in a Sun newspaper article[when?] entitled Aggro Britain. The skinheads were also featured in the 1982 film Pink Floyd—The Wall. Tilbury
Tilbury
is featured in the award-winning 2009 film Fish Tank, with the star, Katie Jarvis, having been recruited after a scout saw her arguing with her boyfriend at Tilbury
Tilbury
Town railway station. Some of the scenes from the 2007 TV film of Oliver Twist
Oliver Twist
were filmed at Tilbury
Tilbury
Fort. In the 2014 BBC series The Honourable Woman, the title character Nessa Stein is made Baroness of Tilbury
Tilbury
in the first episode.[20] Sport and leisure[edit] Tilbury
Tilbury
has a Non-League football
Non-League football
club Tilbury F.C.
Tilbury F.C.
who play at Chadfields. References[edit]

^ "Town population 2011". City Populations. Retrieved 7 September 2016.  ^ James Kemble, Essex
Essex
Place-Names (Historical Publications, 2007) ^ Domesday Book
Domesday Book
Online ^ FCJ Spurrell, Early sites and embankments on the margins of the Thames estuary (in The Archaeological Journal, 1885) ^ The Book of Gravesham Sydney Harker, 1979 ISBN 0-86023-091-0 ^ Defoe. D. (1724). A tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Daniel Defoe". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008.  ^ Disused stations: site record (Subterranean Britannica) ^ a b Thurrock: a Visionary Brief in the Thames Gateway ^ Drawn by a one-time Portreve (Mayor) of Gravesend, William Bourne, and included in The Book of Gravesham Sydney Harker, 1979 ISBN 0-86023-091-0] ^ Tilbury
Tilbury
Ferry: historical notes ^ Journey described by Celia Fiennes ^ Tilbury
Tilbury
Fort ^ Thurrock
Thurrock
Council ^ Thurrock
Thurrock
Council ^ Tilbury
Tilbury
churches etc ^ Tilbury
Tilbury
Riverside station (Subterranea Britannica ^ The Tilbury
Tilbury
Band ^ Thurrock: A Visionary Brief in the Thames Gateway ^ https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/tvandradioblog/2014/jul/03/honourable-woman-recap-episode-one-maggie-gyllenhaal

v t e

Ceremonial county
Ceremonial county
of Essex

Unitary authorities

Southend-on-Sea Thurrock

Boroughs or districts

Basildon Braintree Brentwood Castle Point Chelmsford Colchester Epping Forest Harlow Maldon Rochford Tendring Uttlesford

Major settlements

Aveley Basildon Billericay Braintree Brentwood Brightlingsea Buckhurst Hill Burnham-on-Crouch Canvey Island Chelmsford Chigwell Chipping Ongar Clacton-on-Sea Coggeshall Colchester Corringham Dovercourt Eastwood Epping Frinton-on-Sea Grays Great Dunmow Hadleigh Halstead Harlow Harwich Holland-on-Sea Leigh-on-Sea Loughton Maldon Manningtree Pitsea Purfleet Rayleigh Rochford Saffron Walden Shoeburyness South Benfleet Southend-on-Sea South Woodham Ferrers Southminster Stanford-le-Hope Thaxted Tilbury Waltham Abbey Walton-on-the-Naze West Mersea West Thurrock Wickford Witham Wivenhoe

Rivers

Blackwater Brain Cam Can Chelmer Ching Cobbins Brook Colne Crouch River Lea River Lee Flood Relief Channel Mardyke Pincey Brook Prittle Brook Roach Roding Roman Stort Stour Stour Brook Ter Thames

Topics

Flag Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements SSSIs Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Museums Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs

Category

v t e

Thurrock

Traditional parishes in Thurrock

Aveley Bulphan Chadwell St Mary Corringham East Tilbury Fobbing Grays Horndon-on-the-Hill Langdon Hills Little Thurrock Mucking Orsett South Ockendon Stanford-le-Hope Stifford West Thurrock West Tilbury

Other places in Thurrock

Baker Street Belhus Biggin Bill Meroy Creek Chafford Gorges Nature Park Chafford Hundred Globe Pit Hangman's Wood High House, Purfleet Linford Wood Lower Horse Mardyke (river) Orsett
Orsett
Heath Purfleet Rainham Marshes Nature Reserve Shell Haven Terrel's Heath Thurrock
Thurrock
Thameside Nature Park Tilbury
Tilbury
Town

Historic buildings in Thurrock

Baker Street Mill, Orsett Bata Factory Belmont Castle Coalhouse Fort The Dell High House, Purfleet Orsett
Orsett
Hall South Ockendon
South Ockendon
Windmill State C

.