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Tiger's historic range in about 1850 (pale yellow) and in 2006 (in green).[2]

Synonyms

Felis
Felis
tigris Linnaeus, 1758[3] Tigris
Tigris
striatus Severtzov, 1858 Tigris
Tigris
regalis Gray, 1867

The tiger ( Panthera
Panthera
tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for their pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. The species is classified in the genus Panthera
Panthera
with the lion, leopard, jaguar, and snow leopard. Tigers are apex predators, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. They are territorial and generally solitary but social animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support their prey requirements. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans. Tigers once ranged widely across Eurasia, from the Black Sea
Black Sea
in the west, to the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the south, and from Kolyma
Kolyma
to Sumatra
Sumatra
in the east. Over the past 100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java
Java
and Bali, and from large areas of Southeast, Southern, and Eastern Asia. Today, they range from the Siberian taiga to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps. The remaining six tiger subspecies have been classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN). Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. The extent of area occupied by tigers is estimated at less than 1,184,911 km2 (457,497 sq mi), a 41% decline from the area estimated in the mid-1990s.[1] The global population in the wild is estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other, in which about 2,000 tigers live on the Indian subcontinent.[4] In 2016, an estimate of a global wild tiger population of approximately 3,890 individuals was presented during the Third Asia
Asia
Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation.[5][6] The WWF declared that the world's count of wild tigers has risen for the first time in a century.[7] Tigers are among the most recognisable and popular of the world's megafauna. They have featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore, and continue to be depicted in modern films and literature. They appear on many flags, coats of arms, and as mascots for sporting teams. The tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and South Korea.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Taxonomy

2.1 Recent subspecies

3 Evolution and genetics

3.1 Hybrids

4 Characteristics

4.1 Size 4.2 Colour variations

5 Distribution and habitat 6 Biology and behaviour

6.1 Social and daily activities 6.2 Hunting and diet 6.3 Enemies and competitors 6.4 Reproduction

7 Threats

7.1 Commercial hunting and traditional medicine

8 Conservation

8.1 Rewilding and reintroduction projects 8.2 In captivity

9 Relation with humans

9.1 Tiger
Tiger
hunting 9.2 Man-eating tigers

10 Cultural depictions

10.1 In myth and legend 10.2 In literature, art and film 10.3 Political symbolism

11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

Etymology The word Panthera
Panthera
is probably of Oriental
Oriental
origin and retraceable to the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word panther, the Latin
Latin
word panthera, the Old French word pantère, most likely meaning "the yellowish animal", or from pandarah meaning whitish-yellow. The derivation from Greek pan- ("all") and ther ("beast") may be folk etymology.[8] The word specific name tigris derives from the Classical Greek language τίγρις meaning "tiger" as well as the river Tigris.[9] The Middle English
Middle English
tigre and the Old English
Old English
tigras (a plural word) were both used for the animal.[10] These derive from the Old French tigre, itself a derivative of the Latin
Latin
word tigris. The original source may have been the Persian tigra meaning pointed or sharp and the Avestan tigrhi meaning an arrow, perhaps referring to the speed with which a tiger launches itself at its prey.[11] Taxonomy In 1758, Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
described the tiger in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis
Felis
tigris.[3] In 1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock
Reginald Innes Pocock
subordinated the species under the genus Panthera
Panthera
using the scientific name Panthera
Panthera
tigris.[12][13] Recent subspecies Following Linnaeus's first descriptions of the species, several tiger specimens were described and proposed as subspecies.[14] The validity of several tiger subspecies was questioned in 1999. Most putative subspecies described in the 19th and 20th centuries were distinguished on basis of fur length and coloration, striping patterns and body size, hence characteristics that vary widely within populations. Morphologically, tigers from different regions vary little, and gene flow between populations in those regions is considered to have been possible during the Pleistocene. Therefore, it was proposed to recognize only two tiger subspecies as valid, namely P. t. tigris in mainland Asia, and P. t. sondaica in the Greater Sunda Islands
Greater Sunda Islands
and possibly in Sundaland.[15] Results of craniological analysis of 111 tiger skulls from Southeast Asian range countries indicate that Sumatran tiger
Sumatran tiger
skulls differ from Indochinese and Javan tiger
Javan tiger
skulls, whereas Bali
Bali
tiger skulls are similar in size to Javan tiger
Javan tiger
skulls. The authors proposed to classify Sumatran and Javan tiger
Javan tiger
as distinct species, P. sumatrae and P. sondaica with Bali
Bali
tiger as subspecies P. sondaica balica.[16] In 2015, morphological, ecological and molecular traits of all putative tiger subspecies were analysed in a combined approach. Results support distinction of the two evolutionary groups continental and Sunda tigers. The authors proposed recognition of only two subspecies, namely P. t. tigris comprising the Bengal, Malayan, Indochinese, South Chinese, Siberian and Caspian tiger
Caspian tiger
populations, and P. t. sondaica comprising the Javan, Bali
Bali
and Sumatran tiger populations. The authors also noted that this reclassification will affect tiger conservation management.[17] One conservation specialist welcomed this proposal as it would make captive breeding programmes and future rewilding of zoo-born tigers easier. One geneticist was sceptical of this study and maintained that the currently recognised nine subspecies can be distinguished genetically.[18] In 2017, the Cat
Cat
Classification Task Force of the IUCN
IUCN
Cat
Cat
Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and now recognizes the tiger populations in continental Asia
Asia
as P. t. tigris, and those in the Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
as P. t. sondaica.[19] At present, the ITIS and Catalogue of Life
Catalogue of Life
still list eight subspecies.[20][21] The following table is based on the classification of the species Panthera
Panthera
tigris provided in Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World.[14] It also reflects the classification used by the Cat
Cat
Classification Task Force:

Non-insular Asia

Subspecies Description Image

Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
(P. t. tigris) (Linnaeus, 1758)[19][14] The Bengal
Bengal
tiger's coat colour varies from light yellow to reddish yellow with black stripes.[22] Males attain a total nose-to-tail length of 270 to 310 cm (110 to 120 in) and weigh between 180 to 258 kg (397 to 569 lb), while females range from 240 to 265 cm (94 to 104 in) and 100 to 160 kg (220 to 350 lb).[23][24] In northern India
India
and Nepal, the average is larger; males weigh up to 235 kilograms (518 lb), while females average 140 kilograms (310 lb).[25] Recorded body weights of wild individuals indicate that it is the heaviest subspecies.[26] This population occurs in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, foremost in alluvial grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduous forests and mangrove habitats. It is extinct in Pakistan.[1] In 2014, the population in India
India
was estimated at 2,226 mature individuals,[27] 163–253 in Nepal
Nepal
and 103 in Bhutan.[28]

Caspian tiger
Caspian tiger
(P. t. tigris),[19] formerly P. t. virgata (Illiger, 1815)[14] The Caspian tiger
Caspian tiger
was described as having narrow and closely set stripes.[29] The size of its skull did not differ significantly from that of the Bengal
Bengal
tiger.[15] According to genetic analysis, it was closely related to the Siberian tiger.[30] The population inhabited forests and riverine corridors south and east of the Black and Caspian Seas, from Eastern Anatolia into Central Asia, along the coast of the Aral Sea
Aral Sea
and the southern shore of Lake Balkhash to the Altai Mountains.[29] It had been recorded in the wild until the early 1970s and is considered extinct since the late 20th century.[31]

Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger
(P. t. tigris),[19] formerly P. t. altaica (Temminck, 1844).[14] Also known as the Amur tiger. The Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger
has a thick coat with pale hues and few dark brown stripes.[29] Males have a head and body length of between 190 and 230 cm (75 and 91 in) and weigh between 180 and 306 kg (397 and 675 lb), while females average 160 to 180 cm (63 to 71 in) and 100 to 167 kg (220 to 368 lb). Tail length is about 60–110 cm (24–43 in).[23] This population inhabits the Amur-Ussuri region of Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
and Khabarovsk Krai
Khabarovsk Krai
in far eastern Siberia, with a small population in Hunchun
Hunchun
National Siberian Tiger
Tiger
Nature Reserve in northeastern China near the border to North Korea.[32][33] It is extinct in Mongolia, North Korea, and South Korea.[1] In 2005, there were 331–393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in the region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals.[34] As of 2015, there was an estimated population of 480-540 individuals in the Russian Far East.[35]

Indochinese tiger
Indochinese tiger
(P. t. tigris),[19] formerly P. t. corbetti Mazák, 1968[14] The Indochinese tiger
Indochinese tiger
was described as being smaller than the Bengal tiger and as having a smaller skull. Males average 108 inches (270 cm) in total length and weigh between 150 and 195 kg (331 and 430 lb), while females average 96 inches (240 cm) and 100–130 kg (220–290 lb).[23] This population occurs in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, but has not been recorded in Vietnam
Vietnam
since 1997. In 2010, the population in Indochina was estimated at about 350 individuals. In Southeast Asia, tiger populations have declined in key areas and are threatened by illegal production of tiger bone for use in traditional medicine.[1]

Malayan tiger
Malayan tiger
(P. t. tigris),[19] formerly P. t. jacksoni Luo et al., 2004 There is no clear difference between the Malayan and the Indochinese tiger in pelage or skull size.[36] It was proposed as a distinct subspecies on the basis of mt DNA
DNA
and micro-satellite sequences that differs from the Indochinese tiger.[37] Males range in total length from 190–280 cm (75–110 in) and weigh between 47.2 to 129.1 kg (104 to 285 lb), while females range from 180–260 cm (71–102 in) and 24 to 88 kg (53 to 194 lb).[38] The population was roughly estimated at 250 to 340 adult individuals in 2013, and likely comprised less than 200 mature breeding individuals at the time.[39] The geographic division between Malayan and Indochinese tigers is unclear as tiger populations in northern Malaysia
Malaysia
are contiguous with those in southern Thailand.[1] In Singapore
Singapore
the last tiger was shot in 1932; tigers are considered extirpated since the 1950s.[38]

South China tiger
South China tiger
(P. t. tigris),[19] formerly P. t. amoyensis (Hilzheimer, 1905)[14] The South China tiger
South China tiger
is considered to be the most ancient of the tiger subspecies and is distinguished by a particularly narrow skull, long-muzzled nose, rhombus-like stripes and vivid orange colour. Males range in total length from 230–260 cm (91–102 in) and weigh between 130 to 180 kg (290 to 400 lb), while females range from 220–240 cm (87–94 in) and 100 to 110 kg (220 to 240 lb).[23] The population is extinct in the wild.[1] Despite unconfirmed reports and some evidence of footprints, there has been no confirmed sighting in China
China
since the early 1970s.[40] As of 2007, the captive population consisted of 73 individuals, which derived from six wild founders.[41]

Sunda Islands

Subspecies Description Image

Javan tiger
Javan tiger
(P. t. sondaica) (Temminck, 1844)[19][14] The Javan tiger
Javan tiger
was small compared to tigers of the Asian mainland.[23] Males weighed 100–141 kg (220–311 lb) and females 75–115 kg (165–254 lb).[36] This population was limited to the Indonesian island of Java, and had been recorded until the mid-1970s.[42] After 1979, no more sightings were confirmed in the region of Mount Betiri.[43] An expedition to Mount Halimun Salak National Park
Mount Halimun Salak National Park
in 1990 did not yield any definite, direct evidence for the continued existence of tigers.[44]

Bali
Bali
tiger (P. t. sondaica),[19] formerly P. t. balica (Schwarz, 1912)[14] The Bali
Bali
tiger was the smallest tiger and limited to the Indonesian island of Bali. It had a weight of 90–100 kg (200–220 lb) in males and 65–80 kg (143–176 lb) in females.[45] A typical feature of Bali
Bali
tiger skulls is the narrow occipital plane, which is analogous with the shape of skulls of Javan tigers.[46] In Bali, tigers were hunted to extinction; the last Bali
Bali
tiger, an adult female, is thought to have been killed at Sumbar Kima, West Bali, on 27 September 1937, though there were unconfirmed reports that villagers found a tiger corpse in 1963.[47]

Sumatran tiger
Sumatran tiger
(P. t. sondaica),[19] formerly P. t. sumatrae Pocock, 1929[14] It is the smallest of all living tigers. Males range in total length from 220 to 255 cm (87 to 100 in) and weigh between 100 to 140 kg (220 to 310 lb), while females range between 215 to 230 cm (85 to 91 in) and 75 to 110 kg (165 to 243 lb).[23] The reasons for its small size compared to mainland tigers are unclear, but probably the result of competition for limited and small prey.[15] The population is thought to be of Asia
Asia
mainland origin and to have been isolated about 6,000 to 12,000 years ago after a rise in sea-level created the Indonesian island of Sumatra.[36][48] The population is the last surviving of the three Indonesian island tiger populations. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. By 2008, the wild population was estimated at between 441 and 679 in 10 protected areas covering about 52,000 km2 (20,000 sq mi).[49]

Evolution and genetics

Tiger
Tiger
phylogenetic relationships

Restoration of Panthera
Panthera
zdanskyi, an extinct relative whose oldest remains were found in northwest China, suggesting the origins of the tiger lineage

The tiger's closest living relatives were previously thought to be the Panthera
Panthera
species lion, leopard and jaguar. Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard diverged from the other Panthera
Panthera
species, and that both may be more closely related to each other than to the lion, leopard and jaguar.[50][51] Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago.[37] Fossil
Fossil
remains of the Longdan tiger were found in the Gansu province of northwestern China. This species lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene, about 2 million years ago, and is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and probably had a different coat pattern. Despite being considered more "primitive", the Longdan tiger was functionally and possibly ecologically similar to the modern tiger. As it lived in northwestern China, that may have been where the tiger lineage originated. Tigers grew in size, possibly in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids, which may have occurred in Southeast Asia
Asia
during the early Pleistocene.[52] The earliest fossils of true tigers are between 1.6 and 1.8 million years old and were found in Java. Distinct fossils are known from the early and middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
deposits in China
China
and Sumatra. The Trinil tiger ( Panthera
Panthera
tigris trinilensis) lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils found at Trinil
Trinil
in Java.[citation needed] The Wanhsien, Ngandong, Trinil
Trinil
and Japanese tigers became extinct in prehistoric times.[53] Tigers first reached India
India
and northern Asia
Asia
in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia, Japan, and Sakhalin. Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago.[54] Fossils found in Japan
Japan
indicate the local tigers were smaller than the mainland forms, possibly due to insular dwarfism. Until the Holocene, tigers also lived in Borneo
Borneo
and on the Palawan
Palawan
island in the Philippines.[55] The tiger's full genome sequence was published in 2013. It was found to have similar repeat composition than other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny.[56] Hybrids Further information: Felid hybrid, Panthera
Panthera
hybrid, Liger, and Tigon Lions have been known to breed with tigers (most often the Amur and Bengal
Bengal
tigers) to create hybrids called ligers and tigons. Such hybrids were once commonly bred in zoos, but this is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conservation. Hybrids are still bred in private menageries and in zoos in China.[citation needed] The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress.[57] Because the lion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the female tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent species. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species (spots and stripes on a sandy background). Male
Male
ligers are sterile, but female ligers are often fertile. Males have about a 50% chance of having a mane, but, even if they do, their manes will be only around half the size of that of a pure lion. Ligers are typically between 10 and 12 ft (3.0 and 3.7 m) in length, and can weigh between 800 and 1,000 lb (360 and 450 kg) or more.[57] The less common tigon is a cross between a lioness and a male tiger.[58] Because the male tiger does not pass on a growth-promoting gene and the lioness passes on a growth inhibiting gene, tigons are often relatively small, only weighing up to 150 kg (330 lb). Like ligers, they have physical and behavioural traits from both parental species, and males are sterile. Females are sometimes fertile and have occasionally given birth to litigons when mated to a male Asiatic lion.[59] Characteristics

Though the tiger's skull is similar to that of the lion, the lower jaw structure is a reliable indicator of the species

The tiger has a muscular body with powerful forelimbs, a large head and a tail that is about half the length of its body. Its pelage is dense and heavy, and colouration varies between shades of orange and brown with white ventral areas and distinctive vertical black stripes that are unique in each individual.[60][23] Stripes are likely advantageous for camouflage in vegetation such as long grass with strong vertical patterns of light and shade.[61][62] The tiger is one of only a few striped cat species; it is not known why spotted patterns and rosettes are the more common camouflage pattern among felids.[63] A tiger's coat pattern is still visible when it is shaved. This is due not to skin pigmentation, but to the stubble and hair follicles embedded in the skin, similar to human beards (colloquially five o'clock shadow), and is in common with other big cats.[64] They have a mane-like heavy growth of fur around the neck and jaws and long whiskers, especially in males. The pupils are circular with yellow irises. The small, rounded ears have a prominent white spot on the back, surrounded by black.[23] These false "eyespots", called ocelli, apparently play an important role in intraspecies communication.[65] The skull is similar to that of the lion, though the frontal region is usually not as depressed or flattened, with a slightly longer postorbital region. The skull of a lion has broader nasal openings. However, due to variation in skulls of the two species, the structure of the lower jaw is a more reliable indicator of the species.[29] The tiger also has fairly stout teeth; the somewhat curved canines are the longest among living felids with a crown height of up to 90 mm (3.5 in).[23] Size

The Siberian tiger, the largest tiger in captivity, but not in the wild, and the tallest tiger at the shoulder, besides the Bengal
Bengal
tiger

The Bengal
Bengal
tiger

Tigers are the most variable in size of all big cats, much more so than lions.[22] Barring hybrids like the liger,[57] the Bengal
Bengal
and Siberian tigers, and Asiatic lion[66] appear to be the tallest felids at the shoulder.[67] The Bengal
Bengal
and Siberian tigers are also ranked with the extinct Caspian tiger
Caspian tiger
among the biggest felids that ever existed.[23] However, on average in the wild, an adult, male Siberian tiger (176.4 kilograms (389 lb)) is outweighed by both an adult, male Bengal
Bengal
tiger[26][68] and Southern African lion
Southern African lion
(187.5–193.3 kilograms (413–426 lb)).[69][70] Males vary in total length from 250 to 390 cm (98 to 154 in) and weigh between 90 to 306 kg (198 to 675 lb) with skull length ranging from 316 to 383 mm (12.4 to 15.1 in). Females vary in total length from 200 to 275 cm (79 to 108 in), weigh 65 to 167 kg (143 to 368 lb) with skull length ranging from 268 to 318 mm (10.6 to 12.5 in).[71] The heaviest wild tiger ever reported had a total body length of 3.38 m (11.1 ft) over curves.[67] In either sex, the tail represents about 0.6 to 1.1 m (24 to 43 in) of total length.[23] There is a notable sexual dimorphism between males and females, latter being consistently smaller than males. The size difference between males and females is proportionally greater in the larger tiger subspecies, with males weighing up to 1.7 times more than females. Males also have wider forepaw pads than females, enabling gender to be told from tracks.[72] Large male Siberian tigers can reach a total length of more than 3.5 m (11.5 ft) over curves and 3.3 m (10.8 ft) between pegs, with a weight of up to 306 kg (675 lb). This is considerably larger than the weight of 75 to 140 kg (165 to 309 lb) reached by the Sumatran tiger. At the shoulder, tigers may variously stand 0.7 to 1.22 m (2.3 to 4.0 ft) tall.[45] The heaviest tiger on record was a Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
shot in 1967 allegedly weighing 388.7 kg (857 lb); unverified is whether this individual had a full or empty stomach.[73][22] It has been hypothesised that body size of different tiger populations may be correlated with climate and be explained by thermoregulation and Bergmann's rule, or by distribution and size of available prey species.[23][74] Colour variations

White tigers, this recessive colour variant is found in the Bengal
Bengal
and Siberian tigers, and with regular stripes and blue eyes. It is not albinism.

A golden tiger, another colour variant, results in thicker light-gold fur, pale legs and faint orange stripes

A well-known allele found only in the Bengal
Bengal
subspecies produces the white tiger, a colour variant first recorded in the early 19th century and found in an estimated one in 10,000 natural births. Genetically, whiteness is recessive: a cub is white only when both parents carry the allele for whiteness.[75] It is not albinism, pigment being evident in the white tiger's stripes and in their blue eyes.[61] The causative mutation changes a single amino acid in the transporter protein SLC45A2.[76] White tigers are more frequently bred in captivity, where the comparatively small gene pool can lead to inbreeding. This has given white tigers a greater likelihood of being born with physical defects, such as cleft palate, scoliosis (curvature of the spine), and strabismus (squint).[75] Even apparently healthy white tigers generally do not live as long as their orange counterparts. Attempts have been made to cross white and orange tigers to remedy this, often mixing with other subspecies in the process.[77] Another recessive gene creates the "golden" or "golden tabby" colour variation, sometimes known as "strawberry". Golden tigers have thicker than usual light-gold fur, pale legs, and faint orange stripes. Few golden tigers are kept in captivity; they are invariably at least part Bengal. Some golden tigers carry the white tiger gene,[78] and when two such tigers are mated, they can produce some stripeless white offspring. Although a "pseudo-melanistic" effect—wide stripes that partially obscure the orange background—has been seen in some pelts, no true black tigers have been authenticated, with the possible exception of one dead specimen examined in Chittagong
Chittagong
in 1846. These wholly or partially melanistic tigers, if they exist, are assumed to be intermittent mutations rather than a distinct species.[79][80] There are further unconfirmed reports of a "blue" or slate-coloured variant, the Maltese tiger. However, while some felids do exhibit this colouration as a solid coat, there is no known genetic configuration that would result in black stripes on a blue-gray background.[79] Distribution and habitat

Historical distribution

At the end of the last glacial period about 20,000 years ago, the tiger was widespread from Eastern Anatolia Region
Eastern Anatolia Region
and Mesopotamia, in Central Asia
Asia
to eastern Siberia
Siberia
and South and Southeast Asia
Asia
to the Indonesian islands of Java, Bali
Bali
and Sumatra.[73] Today, tigers are regionally extinct in Afghanistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Singapore.[1] Fossil
Fossil
remains indicate tigers were also present in Beringia
Beringia
in the north, Japan
Japan
to the east, and Borneo
Borneo
and Palawan
Palawan
in the Philippines
Philippines
in the south during the Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and Early Holocene.[73][54][53][81][82][83][84] During the 20th century, tigers became extinct in Western and Central Asia, and were restricted to isolated pockets in the remaining parts of their range. They were extirpated on the island of Bali
Bali
in the 1940s, around the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the 1970s, and on Java
Java
in the 1980s. This was the result of habitat loss and the ongoing killing of tigers and tiger prey. Today, their significantly fragmented and depopulated range extends eastward from India
India
to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, North Korea
North Korea
and Russia. The northern limit of their range is close to the Amur River
Amur River
in southeastern Siberia. The only large island they still inhabit is Sumatra.[1] Since the beginning of the 20th century, tigers' historical range has shrunk by 93%. In the decade from 1997 to 2007, the estimated area known to be occupied by tigers has declined by 41%.[2][85] The tiger occupies a wide range of habitat types, but will usually require sufficient cover, proximity to water, and an abundance of prey. It prefers dense vegetation, for which its camouflage colouring is ideally suited, and where a single predator is not at a disadvantage compared with the multiple cats in a pride.[61] A further habitat requirement is the placement of suitably secluded den locations, which may consist of caves, large hollow trees, or dense vegetation.[86] The Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
in particular lives in many types of forests, including wet, evergreen, and the semi-evergreen forests of Assam
Assam
and eastern Bengal, swampy mangrove forests of the Ganges Delta, deciduous forest in the Terai, and thorn forests in the Western Ghats. In various parts of its range it inhabits or had inhabited additionally partially open grassland and savanna as well as taiga forests and rocky habitats.[citation needed] Biology and behaviour

Tigers are comfortable in water and frequently bathe

Social and daily activities

Captive male South Chinese tiger marking his territory

Play media

A captive tiger swimming and playing with a piece of wood in a pool

Adult tigers lead largely solitary lives. They establish and maintain territories but have much wider home ranges within which they roam. Resident adults of either sex generally confine their movements to their home ranges, within which they satisfy their needs and those of their growing cubs. Individuals sharing the same area are aware of each other's movements and activities.[80] The size of the home range mainly depends on prey abundance, and, in the case of males, on access to females. A tigress may have a territory of 20 km2 (7.7 sq mi), while the territories of males are much larger, covering 60 to 100 km2 (23 to 39 sq mi). The range of a male tends to overlap those of several females, providing him with a large field of prospective mating partners.[87] The tiger is a long-ranging species, and individuals disperse over distances of up to 650 km (400 mi) to reach tiger populations in other areas.[88] It is strong swimmer and often bathes in ponds, lakes and rivers, thus keeping cool in the heat of the day. Among the big cats, only the jaguar shares a similar fondness for water.[89] Individuals can cross rivers up to 7 km (4.3 mi) wide and can swim up to 29 km (18 mi) in a day.[86] They are able to carry prey through or capture it in the water.[citation needed] Young female tigers establish their first territories close to their mother's. The overlap between the female and her mother's territory reduces with time. Males, however, migrate further than their female counterparts and set out at a younger age to mark out their own area. A young male acquires territory either by seeking out an area devoid of other male tigers, or by living as a transient in another male's territory until he is older and strong enough to challenge the resident male. Young males seeking to establish themselves thereby comprise the highest mortality rate (30–35% per year) amongst adult tigers.[90] To identify his territory, the male marks trees by spraying urine[91][92] and anal gland secretions, as well as marking trails with scat and marking trees or the ground with their claws. Females also use these "scrapes", as well as urine and scat markings. Scent markings of this type allow an individual to pick up information on another's identity, sex and reproductive status. Females in oestrus will signal their availability by scent marking more frequently and increasing their vocalisations.[61] Although for the most part avoiding each other, tigers are not always territorial and relationships between individuals can be complex. An adult of either sex will sometimes share its kill with others, even those who may not be related to them. George Schaller
George Schaller
observed a male share a kill with two females and four cubs. Unlike male lions, male tigers allow females and cubs to feed on the kill before the male is finished with it; all involved generally seem to behave amicably, in contrast to the competitive behaviour shown by a lion pride.[65] In his book Tiger, Stephen Mills describes a social eating event witnessed by Valmik Thapar and Fateh Singh Rathore in Ranthambhore National Park thus:

A dominant tigress they called Padmini killed a 250 kg (550 lb) male nilgai – a very large antelope. They found her at the kill just after dawn with her three 14-month-old cubs and they watched uninterrupted for the next ten hours. During this period the family was joined by two adult females and one adult male, all offspring from Padmini's previous litters, and by two unrelated tigers, one female the other unidentified. By three o'clock there were no fewer than nine tigers round the kill.[90]

A Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger
swimming at Wuppertal Zoo

Occasionally, male tigers participate in raising cubs, usually their own, but this is extremely rare and not always well understood. In May 2015, Amur tigers were photographed by camera traps in the Sikhote-Alin Bioshpere Reserve. The photos show a male Amur tiger pass by, followed by a female and three cubs within the span of about two minutes.[93] In Ranthambore, a male Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
raised and defended two orphaned female cubs after their mother had died of illness. The cubs remained under his care, he supplied them with food, protected them from his rival and sister, and apparently also trained them.[94] Male
Male
tigers are generally more intolerant of other males within their territories than females are of other females. Territory disputes are usually solved by displays of intimidation rather than outright aggression. Several such incidents have been observed in which the subordinate tiger yielded defeat by rolling onto its back and showing its belly in a submissive posture.[95] Once dominance has been established, a male may tolerate a subordinate within his range, as long as they do not live in too close quarters.[90] The most aggressive disputes tend to occur between two males when a female is in oestrus, and may rarely result in the death of one of the males.[90][95]

Young male Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
showing flehmen response while sniffing urine marking in Bandhavgarh National Park, India

Facial expressions include the "defense threat", where an individual bares its teeth, flattens its ears and its pupils enlarge. Both males and females show a flehmen response, a characteristic grimace, when sniffing urine markings but flehmen is more often associated with males detecting the markings made by tigresses in oestrus. Like other Panthera, tigers roar, particularly in aggressive situations, during the mating season or when making a kill. There are two different roars: the "true" roar is made using the hyoid apparatus and forced through an open mouth as it progressively closes, and the shorter, harsher "coughing" roar is made with the mouth open and teeth exposed. The "true" roar can be heard at up to 3 km (1.9 mi) away and is sometimes emitted three or four times in succession. When tense, tigers will moan, a sound similar to a roar but more subdued and made when the mouth is partially or completely closed. Moaning can be heard 400 m (1,300 ft) away.[23] Chuffing, soft, low-frequency snorting similar to purring in smaller cats, is heard in more friendly situations.[96] Other vocal communications include grunts, woofs, snarls, miaows, hisses and growls.[23] Hunting and diet

An adult tiger showing incisors, canines and part of the premolars and molars, while yawning in Franklin Park Zoo

Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
subduing an Indian boar
Indian boar
at Tadoba National Park

In the wild, tigers mostly feed on large and medium-sized animals, preferring ungulates weighing at least 90 kg (200 lb).[97][98] They typically have little or no deleterious effect on their prey populations.[86] Sambar deer, chital, barasingha, wild boar, gaur, nilgai and both water buffalo and domestic buffalo, in descending order of preference, are the tiger's favoured prey in Tamil Nadu, India,[97] while gaur and sambar are the preferred prey and constitute the main diet of tigers in other parts of India.[99][100] They also prey on other predators, including dogs, leopards, pythons, sloth bears, and crocodiles. In Siberia, the main prey species are Manchurian wapiti
Manchurian wapiti
and wild boar (the two species comprising nearly 80% of the prey selected) followed by sika deer, moose, roe deer, and musk deer.[101] Asiatic black bears and Ussuri brown bears may also fall prey to tigers,[45][102][103] and they constitute up to 40.7% of the diet of Siberian tigers depending on local conditions and the bear populations.[104] In Sumatra, prey include sambar deer, muntjac, wild boar, Malayan tapir
Malayan tapir
and orangutan.[105][106] In the former Caspian tiger's range, prey included saiga antelope, camels, Caucasian wisent, yak, and wild horses. Like many predators, tigers are opportunistic and may eat much smaller prey, such as monkeys, peafowl and other ground-based birds, hares, porcupines, and fish.[97][61]

Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
attacking a sambar in Ranthambore Tiger
Tiger
Reserve

Tigers generally do not prey on fully grown adult Asian elephants and Indian rhinoceros
Indian rhinoceros
but incidents have been reported.[107][108] More often, it is the more vulnerable small calves that are taken.[109] Tigers have been reported attacking and killing elephants ridden by humans during tiger hunts in the 19th century.[110] When in close proximity to humans, tigers will also sometimes prey on such domestic livestock as cattle, horses, and donkeys.[111] Old or wounded tigers, unable to catch wild prey, can become man-eaters; this pattern has recurred frequently across India. An exception is in the Sundarbans, where healthy tigers prey upon fishermen and villagers in search of forest produce, humans thereby forming a minor part of the tiger's diet.[112] Although almost exclusively carnivorous, tigers will occasionally eat vegetation for dietary fibre such as fruit of the slow match tree.[111]

Tiger
Tiger
dentition (above) and Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(below). The large canines make the killing bite; the carnassials tear flesh.

Tigers are thought to be mainly nocturnal predators,[113] but in areas where humans are typically absent, they have been observed via remote-controlled, hidden cameras, hunting in daylight.[114] They generally hunt alone and ambush their prey as most other cats do, overpowering them from any angle, using their body size and strength to knock the prey off balance. Successful hunts usually require the tiger to almost simultaneously leap onto its quarry, knock it over, and grab the throat or nape with its teeth.[86] Despite their large size, tigers can reach speeds of about 49–65 km/h (30–40 mph) but only in short bursts; consequently, tigers must be close to their prey before they break cover. If the prey catches wind of the tiger's presence before this, the tiger usually abandons the hunt rather than chase prey or battle it head-on. Horizontal leaps of up to 10 m (33 ft) have been reported, although leaps of around half this distance are more typical. One in 2 to 20 hunts, including stalking near potential prey, ends in a successful kill.[86][115][116] When hunting larger animals, tigers prefer to bite the throat and use their powerful forelimbs to hold onto the prey, often simultaneously wrestling it to the ground. The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its target dies of strangulation.[65] By this method, gaurs and water buffaloes weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighing about a sixth as much.[117] Although they can kill healthy adults, tigers often select the calves or infirm of very large species.[118] Healthy adult prey of this type can be dangerous to tackle, as long, strong horns, legs and tusks are all potentially fatal to the tiger. No other extant land predator routinely takes on prey this large on their own.[119][120] Whilst hunting sambars, which comprise up to 60% of their prey in India, tigers have reportedly made a passable impersonation of the male sambar's rutting call to attract them.[97][111] With smaller prey, such as monkeys and hares, the tiger bites the nape, often breaking the spinal cord, piercing the windpipe, or severing the jugular vein or common carotid artery.[121] Though rarely observed, some tigers have been recorded to kill prey by swiping with their paws, which are powerful enough to smash the skulls of domestic cattle,[111] and break the backs of sloth bears.[122] During the 1980s, a tiger named "Genghis" in Ranthambhore National Park was observed frequently hunting prey through deep lake water, a pattern of behaviour that had not previously been witnessed in over 200 years of observations. Moreover, he appeared to be unusually successful, with 20% of hunts ending in a kill.[123] After killing their prey, tigers sometimes drag it to conceal it in vegetative cover, usually pulling it by grasping with their mouths at the site of the killing bite. This, too, can require great physical strength. In one case, after it had killed an adult gaur, a tiger was observed to drag the massive carcass over a distance of 12 m (39 ft). When 13 men simultaneously tried to drag the same carcass later, they were unable to move it.[86] An adult tiger can go for up to two weeks without eating, then gorge on 34 kg (75 lb) of flesh at one time. In captivity, adult tigers are fed 3 to 6 kg (6.6 to 13.2 lb) of meat a day.[86] Enemies and competitors

Tiger
Tiger
hunted by wild dogs (dholes) as illustrated in Samuel Howett & Edward Orme, Hand Coloured, Aquatint Engravings, 1807

Tigers usually prefer to eat prey they have caught themselves, but are not above eating carrion in times of scarcity and may even pirate prey from other large carnivores. Although predators typically avoid one another, if a prey item is under dispute or a serious competitor is encountered, displays of aggression are common. If these are not sufficient, the conflicts may turn violent; tigers may kill competitors as leopards, dholes, striped hyenas, wolves, bears, pythons, and crocodiles on occasion. Tigers may also prey on these competitors.[45][122][124][125][126][127] Attacks on smaller predators, such as badgers, lynxes, and foxes, are almost certainly predatory.[97] Crocodiles, bears, and large packs of dholes may win conflicts against tigers and in some cases even kill them.[45][29][128][129] The considerably smaller leopard avoids competition from tigers by hunting at different times of the day and hunting different prey.[130] In India's Nagarhole National Park, most prey selected by leopards were from 30 to 175 kg (66 to 386 lb) against a preference for prey weighing over 176 kg (388 lb) in the tigers. The average prey weight in the two respective big cats in India
India
was 37.6 kg (83 lb) against 91.5 kg (202 lb).[131] With relatively abundant prey, tigers and leopards were seen to successfully coexist without competitive exclusion or interspecies dominance hierarchies that may be more common to the African savanna, where the leopard exists with the lion.[131] Golden jackals may feed on the tiger's kills.[132] Reproduction " Tiger
Tiger
cub" redirects here. For other uses, see Tiger
Tiger
Cub.

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to Mating
Mating
tigers.

A Siberian tigress with her cub at the Buffalo Zoo, New York

Two cubs playing with soccer ball at Frankfurt Zoo

Mating
Mating
can occur all year round, but is more common between November and April.[86] A female is only receptive for three to six days. Mating
Mating
is frequent and noisy during that time. Gestation ranges from 93 to 112 days, with an average of 103 to 105 days. Litters consist of one or three cubs, rarely also six. Cubs weigh from 680 to 1,400 g (1.50 to 3.09 lb) each at birth, and are born blind. Females lactate for five to six months.[60] The females rears them alone, with the birth site and maternal den in a sheltered location such as a thicket, cave or rocky crevice. The father generally takes no part in rearing them. Unrelated wandering male tigers often kill cubs to make the female receptive, since the tigress may give birth to another litter within five months if the cubs of the previous litter are lost. The mortality rate of tiger cubs is about 50% in the first two years.[86] Few other predators attack tiger cubs due to the diligence and ferocity of the mother. Apart from humans and other tigers, common causes of cub mortality are starvation, freezing, and accidents.[120] A dominant cub emerges in most litters, usually a male.[123] This cub is more active than its siblings and takes the lead in their play, eventually leaving its mother and becoming independent earlier. The cubs open their eyes at six to fourteen days old. By eight weeks, the cubs make short ventures outside the den with their mother, although they do not travel with her as she roams her territory until they are older. The cubs are nursed for three to six months. Around the time they are weaned, they start to accompany their mother on territorial walks and they are taught how to hunt. The cubs often become capable (and nearly adult size) hunters at eleven months old. The cubs become independent around eighteen months of age, but it is not until they are around two to two and a half years old that they fully separate from their mother. Females reach sexual maturity at three to four years, whereas males do so at four to five years. The oldest recorded captive tiger lived for 26 years. A wild specimen, having no natural predators, could in theory live to a comparable age.[86] Threats Major threats to the tiger include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching for fur and body parts, which have simultaneously greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild[1] In India, only 11% of the historical tiger habitat remains due to habitat fragmentation.[133] Demand for tiger parts for use in traditional Chinese medicine has also been cited as a major threat to tiger populations.[134][135] Commercial hunting and traditional medicine

A hunting party poses with a killed Javan tiger, 1941

See also: Tiger
Tiger
penis Historically, tigers have been hunted at a large scale so their famous striped skins could be collected. The trade in tiger skins peaked in the 1960s, just before international conservation efforts took effect. By 1977, a tiger skin in an English market was considered to be worth US$4,250.[86] Many people in China
China
and other parts of Asia
Asia
have a belief that various tiger parts have medicinal properties, including as pain killers and aphrodisiacs.[136] There is no scientific evidence to support these beliefs. The use of tiger parts in pharmaceutical drugs in China
China
is already banned, and the government has made some offences in connection with tiger poaching punishable by death.[which?] Furthermore, all trade in tiger parts is illegal under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora and a domestic trade ban has been in place in China
China
since 1993.[137] However, the trading of tiger parts in Asia
Asia
has become a major black market industry and governmental and conservation attempts to stop it have been ineffective to date.[86] Almost all black marketers engaged in the trade are based in China
China
and have either been shipped and sold within in their own country or into Taiwan, South Korea
South Korea
or Japan.[86] The Chinese subspecies was almost completely decimated by killing for commerce due to both the parts and skin trades in the 1950s through the 1970s.[86] Contributing to the illegal trade, there are a number of tiger farms in the country specialising in breeding the cats for profit. It is estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 captive-bred, semi-tame animals live in these farms today.[138][139][140] However, many tigers for traditional medicine black market are wild ones shot or snared by poachers and may be caught anywhere in the tiger's remaining range (from Siberia
Siberia
to India
India
to the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
to Sumatra). In the Asian black market, a tiger penis can be worth the equivalent of around $300 U.S. dollars. In the years of 1990 through 1992, 27 million products with tiger derivatives were found.[86] In July 2014 at an international convention on endangered species in Geneva, Switzerland, a Chinese representative admitted for the first time his government was aware trading in tiger skins was occurring in China.[141] Conservation Main article: Tiger
Tiger
conservation

Tiger
Tiger
population status (2016)[5]

Country Estimate

Bangladesh 106

Bhutan 103

Cambodia 0

China >7

India 2,226

Indonesia 371

Laos 2

Malaysia 250

Myanmar no data

Nepal 198

Russia 433

Thailand 189

Vietnam <5

Total 3,890

At the start of the 20th century, it was estimated there were over 100,000 tigers in the wild, but the population has dwindled outside of captivity to between 1,500 and 3,500.[142][143] Some estimates suggest that there are fewer than 2,500 mature breeding individuals, with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature breeding individuals.[1] The global wild tiger population was estimated by the World Wide Fund for Nature at 3,200 in 2011 and 3,890 in 2015—Vox reported that this was the first increase in a century.[144][145] India
India
is home to the world's largest population of wild tigers.[5] A 2014 census estimated a population of 2,226, a 30% increase since 2011.[27] In 1973, India's Project Tiger, started by Indira Gandhi, established over 25 tiger reserves in reclaimed land, where human development was forbidden. The project was credited with tripling the number of wild Bengal
Bengal
tigers from some 1,200 in 1973 to over 3,500 in the 1990s, but a 2007 census showed that numbers had dropped back to about 1,400 tigers because of poaching.[146] Following the report, the Indian government pledged $153 million to the initiative, set up measures to combat poaching, promised funds to relocate up to 200,000 villagers in order to reduce human-tiger interactions,[147] and set up eight new tiger reserves.[148] India
India
also reintroduced tigers to the Sariska Tiger
Tiger
Reserve[149] and by 2009 it was claimed that poaching had been effectively countered at Ranthambore National Park.[150] In the 1940s, the Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger
was on the brink of extinction with only about 40 animals remaining in the wild in Russia. As a result, anti-poaching controls were put in place by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and a network of protected zones (zapovedniks) were instituted, leading to a rise in the population to several hundred. Poaching
Poaching
again became a problem in the 1990s, when the economy of Russia
Russia
collapsed. The major obstacle in preserving the species is the enormous territory individual tigers require (up to 450 km2 needed by a single female and more for a single male).[151] Current conservation efforts are led by local governments and NGO's in concert with international organisations, such as the World Wide Fund for Nature
World Wide Fund for Nature
and the Wildlife Conservation Society.[152] The competitive exclusion of wolves by tigers has been used by Russian conservationists to convince hunters to tolerate the big cats. Tigers have less impact on ungulate populations than do wolves, and are effective in controlling the latter's numbers.[153] In 2005, there were thought to be about 360 animals in Russia, though these exhibited little genetic diversity.[34] However, in a decade later, the Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger
census was estimated from 480 to 540 individuals.

Camera trap
Camera trap
image of wild Sumatran tiger

Having earlier rejected the Western-led environmentalist movement, China
China
changed its stance in the 1980s and became a party to the CITES treaty. By 1993 it had banned the trade in tiger parts, and this diminished the use of tiger bones in traditional Chinese medicine.[154] After this, the Tibetan people's trade in tiger skins became a relatively more important threat to tigers. The pelts were used in clothing, tiger-skin chuba being worn by singers and participants in horse racing festivals, and had become status symbols. In 2004, international conservation organizations launched successful environmental propaganda campaigns in China
China
against the Tibetan tiger skin trade. There was outrage in India, where many Tibetans live, and the 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
was persuaded to take up the issue. Since then there has been a change of attitude, with some Tibetans publicly burning their chubas.[155] In 1994, the Indonesian Sumatran Tiger
Tiger
Conservation Strategy addressed the potential crisis that tigers faced in Sumatra. The Sumatran Tiger Project (STP) was initiated in June 1995 in and around the Way Kambas National Park in order to ensure the long-term viability of wild Sumatran tigers and to accumulate data on tiger life-history characteristics vital for the management of wild populations.[156] By August 1999, the teams of the STP had evaluated 52 sites of potential tiger habitat in Lampung Province, of which only 15 these were intact enough to contain tigers.[157] In the framework of the STP a community-based conservation programme was initiated to document the tiger-human dimension in the park in order to enable conservation authorities to resolve tiger-human conflicts based on a comprehensive database rather than anecdotes and opinions.[158] The Wildlife
Wildlife
Conservation Society and Panthera
Panthera
Corporation formed the collaboration Tigers Forever, with field sites including the world's largest tiger reserve, the 21,756 km2 (8,400 sq mi) Hukaung Valley
Hukaung Valley
in Myanmar. Other reserves were in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
in India, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, the Russian Far East covering in total about 260,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).[159] Tigers have been studied in the wild using a variety of techniques. Tiger
Tiger
population have been estimated using plaster casts of their pugmarks, although this method was criticized as being inaccurate.[160] More recent techniques include the use of camera traps and studies of DNA
DNA
from tiger scat, while radio-collaring has been used to track tigers in the wild.[161] Tiger
Tiger
spray has been found to be just as good, or better, as a source of DNA
DNA
than scat.[162] The exact number of wild tigers is unknown, as many estimates are outdated or educated guesses; few estimates are based on reliable scientific censuses. The table shows estimates according to IUCN
IUCN
Red List accounts and range country governments dating from 2009 to April 2016.[5] Rewilding and reintroduction projects Further information: Rewilding (conservation biology), Save China's Tigers, Reintroduction, and Siberian Tiger
Tiger
Introduction Project In 1978, the Indian conservationist Billy Arjan Singh
Billy Arjan Singh
attempted to rewild a tiger in Dudhwa National Park; this was the captive-bred tigress Tara.[163] Soon after the release, numerous people were killed and eaten by a tigress that was subsequently shot. Government officials claimed it was Tara, though Singh disputed this. Further controversy broke out with the discovery that Tara was partly Siberian tiger.[164][165][166][167]

A rewilded South China tiger
South China tiger
hunting blesbok in South Africa

The organisation Save China's Tigers
Save China's Tigers
has attempted to rewild the South China
China
tigers, with a breeding and training programme in a South African reserve known as Laohu Valley Reserve
Laohu Valley Reserve
(LVR) and eventually reintroduce them to the wild of China.[168] A future rewilding project was proposed for Siberian tigers set to be reintroduced to northern Russia's Pleistocene
Pleistocene
park. The Siberian tigers sent to Iran
Iran
for a captive breeding project in Tehran are set to be rewilded and reintroduced to the Miankaleh peninsula, to replace the now extinct Caspian tigers.[169][170][171] In captivity

Tigers made to perform at Ringling Brothers
Ringling Brothers
and Barnum and Bailey Circus

In Ancient Roman times, tigers were kept in menageries and amphitheatres to be exhibited, trained and paraded, and were often provoked to fight humans and exotic beasts.[172][173] Since the 17th century, tigers, being rare and ferocious, were sought after to keep at European castles as symbols of their owners' power.[174] Tigers became central zoo and circus exhibits in the 18th century: a tiger could cost up to 4,000 francs in France (for comparison, a professor of the Beaux-Arts at Lyons earned only 3,000 francs a year),[175] or up to $3,500 in the United States where a lion cost no more than $1,000.[176] China
China
(2007) had over 4,000 captive tigers, of which 3,000 were held by about twenty larger facilities, with the rest held by some 200 smaller facilities.[177] The USA (2011) had 2,884 tigers in 468 facilities.[178] Nineteen states have banned private ownership of tigers, fifteen require a license, and sixteen states have no regulation.[179] Genetic ancestry
Genetic ancestry
of 105 captive tigers from fourteen countries and regions showed that forty-nine animals belonged distinctly to five subspecies; fifty-two animals had mixed subspecies origins.[180] As such, "many Siberian tigers in zoos today are actually the result of crosses with Bengal
Bengal
tigers."[181] The Tiger
Tiger
Species
Species
Survival Plan has condemned the breeding of white tigers, alleging they are of mixed ancestry and of unknown lineage. The genes responsible for white colouration are represented by 0.001% of the population. The disproportionate growth in numbers of white tigers points to inbreeding among homozygous recessive individuals. This would lead to inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variability.[182] Relation with humans

Tiger hunting
Tiger hunting
on elephant-back, India, 1808

Tiger
Tiger
hunting Main article: Tiger
Tiger
hunting The tiger has been one of the big five game animals of Asia. Tiger hunting took place on a large scale in the early 19th and 20th centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by the British in colonial India
India
as well as the maharajas and aristocratic class of the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence India. A single maharaja or English hunter could claim to kill over a hundred tigers in their hunting career.[86] Tiger hunting
Tiger hunting
was done by some hunters on foot; others sat up on machans with a goat or buffalo tied out as bait; yet others on elephant-back.[183] Man-eating tigers Main article: Tiger
Tiger
attack Wild tigers that have had no prior contact with humans actively avoid interactions with humans. However, tigers cause more human deaths through direct attack than any other wild mammal.[86] Attacks are occasionally provoked, as tigers lash out after being injured while they themselves are hunted. Attacks can be provoked accidentally, as when a human surprises a tiger or inadvertently comes between a mother and her young,[184] or as in a case in rural India
India
when a postman startled a tiger, used to seeing him on foot, by riding a bicycle.[185] Occasionally tigers come to view people as prey. Such attacks are most common in areas where population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats and reduced their wild prey. Most man-eating tigers are old, missing teeth, and unable to capture their preferred prey.[61] For example, the Champawat Tiger, a tigress found in Nepal
Nepal
and then India, had two broken canines. She was responsible for an estimated 430 human deaths, the most attacks known to be perpetrated by a single wild animal, by the time she was shot in 1907 by Jim Corbett.[67] According to Corbett, tiger attacks on humans are normally in daytime, when people are working outdoors and are not keeping watch.[186] Early writings tend to describe man-eating tigers as cowardly because of their ambush tactics.[187]

Stereographic photograph (1903), captioned "Famous 'man-eater' at Calcutta—devoured 200 men, women and children before capture—India"[188]

Man-eaters have been a particular problem in recent decades in India and Bangladesh, especially in Kumaon, Garhwal and the Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal, where some healthy tigers have hunted humans. Because of rapid habitat loss attributed to climate change, tiger attacks have increased in the Sundarbans.[189] The Sundarbans area had 129 human deaths from tigers from 1969 to 1971. In the 10 years prior to that period, about 100 attacks per year in the Sundarbans, with a high of around 430 in some years of the 1960s.[86] Unusually, in some years in the Sundarbans, more humans are killed by tigers than vice versa.[86] In 1972, India's production of honey and beeswax dropped by 50% when at least 29 people who gathered these materials were devoured.[86] In 1986 in the Sundarbans, since tigers almost always attack from the rear, masks with human faces were worn on the back of the head, on the theory that tigers usually do not attack if seen by their prey. This decreased the number of attacks only temporarily. All other means to prevent attacks, such as providing more prey or using electrified human dummies, worked less well.[190] At least 27 people were killed or seriously injured by captive tigers in the United States from 1998 to 2001.[191][191] In some cases, rather than being predatory, tiger attacks on human seem to be territorial in nature. At least in one case, a tigress with cubs killed eight people entering her territory without consuming them at all.[192] Cultural depictions Tigers and their superlative qualities have been a source of fascination for mankind since ancient times, and they are routinely visible as important cultural and media motifs. They are also considered one of the charismatic megafauna, and are used as the face of conservation campaigns worldwide. In a 2004 online poll conducted by cable television channel Animal
Animal
Planet, involving more than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries, the tiger was voted the world's favourite animal with 21% of the vote, narrowly beating the dog.[193] In myth and legend See also: Tiger
Tiger
worship

The Hindu goddess Durga
Durga
riding a tiger. Guler school, early 18th century

In Chinese myth and culture, the tiger is one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. In Chinese art, the tiger is depicted as an earth symbol and equal rival of the Chinese dragon
Chinese dragon
– the two representing matter and spirit respectively. The Southern Chinese martial art Hung Ga is based on the movements of the tiger and the crane. In Imperial China, a tiger was the personification of war and often represented the highest army general (or present day defense secretary),[194] while the emperor and empress were represented by a dragon and phoenix, respectively. The White Tiger
Tiger
(Chinese: 白虎; pinyin: Bái Hǔ) is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. It is sometimes called the White Tiger
Tiger
of the West
West
(西方白虎), and it represents the west and the autumn season.[194] The tiger's tail appears in stories from countries including China
China
and Korea, it being generally inadvisable to grasp a tiger by the tail.[195][196] In Buddhism, the tiger is one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolising anger, with the monkey representing greed and the deer lovesickness.[194] The Tungusic peoples
Tungusic peoples
considered the Siberian tiger a near-deity and often referred to it as "Grandfather" or "Old man". The Udege and Nanai called it "Amba". The Manchu considered the Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger
as "Hu Lin," the king.[72] In Hinduism, the god Shiva wears and sits on tiger skin.[197] The ten-armed warrior goddess Durga rides the tigress (or lioness) Damon into battle. In southern India the god Ayyappan
Ayyappan
was associated with a tiger.[198] The weretiger replaces the werewolf in shapeshifting folklore in Asia;[199] in India
India
they were evil sorcerers, while in Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia
Malaysia
they were somewhat more benign.[200] In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, tigers are fiercer and more ruthless than lions.[201] In literature, art and film See also: Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
§ Literature

William Blake's first printing of The Tyger, c. 1795

In William Blake's poem in the Songs of Experience, titled "The Tyger," the tiger is a menacing and fearful animal. In Yann Martel's 2001 Man Booker Prize
Man Booker Prize
winning novel Life of Pi, the protagonist, surviving shipwreck for months in a small boat, somehow avoids being eaten by the other survivor, a large Bengal
Bengal
tiger. The story was adapted in Ang Lee's 2012 feature film of the same name. Jim Corbett's 1944 Man-Eaters of Kumaon
Man-Eaters of Kumaon
tells ten true stories of his tiger-hunting exploits in what is now the northern Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
region of India. The book has sold over four million copies,[202] and has been the basis of both fictional and documentary films. In Rudyard Kipling's 1894 The Jungle Book, the tiger, Shere Khan, is the mortal enemy of the human protagonist, Mowgli; the book has formed the basis of both live-action and animated films. Other tiger characters aimed at children tend to be more benign, as for instance Tigger
Tigger
in A. A. Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh
Winnie-the-Pooh
and Hobbes of the comic strip Calvin and Hobbes, both of whom are represented as simply stuffed animals come to life. Tiger
Tiger
are also mascots for various sports teams around the world. Tony the Tiger
Tiger
is a famous mascot for Kellogg's
Kellogg's
breakfast cereal Frosted Flakes. The Esso (Exxon) brand of petrol was advertised from 1969 onwards with the slogan 'put a tiger in your tank', and a tiger mascot; more than 2.5 million synthetic tiger tails were sold to motorists, who tied them to their petrol tank caps.[203] The tiger appears in heraldry but is distinct from the heraldic beast tyger, a wolflike, snouted creature which has its roots in European Medieval bestiaries. Political symbolism

An early silver coin of king Uttama Chola
Uttama Chola
found in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
shows the Chola Tiger
Tiger
sitting between the emblems of Pandyan
Pandyan
and Chera

The tiger is one of the animals displayed on the Pashupati seal of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The tiger was the emblem of the Chola Dynasty and was depicted on coins, seals and banners.[204] The seals of several Chola copper coins show the tiger, the Pandyan
Pandyan
emblem fish and the Chera
Chera
emblem bow, indicating that the Cholas had achieved political supremacy over the latter two dynasties. Gold coins found in Kavilayadavalli in the Nellore district
Nellore district
of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
have motifs of the tiger, bow and some indistinct marks.[205] The tiger symbol of Chola Empire was later adopted by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and the tiger became a symbol of the unrecognised state of Tamil Eelam and Tamil independence movement.[206] The Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
is the national animal of India
India
and Bangladesh.[207] The Malaysian tiger is the national animal of Malaysia.[208] The Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger
is the national animal of South Korea. Since the successful economies of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Singapore were described as the Four Asian Tigers, a tiger economy is a metaphor for a nation in rapid development. See also

Cats portal Mammals portal Extinct and Endangered Species
Species
portal Asia
Asia
portal

21st Century Tiger, information about tigers and conservation projects Animal
Animal
track Physical comparison of tigers and lions Siegfried & Roy, two famous tamers of tigers Tiger
Tiger
in Chinese culture Tiger
Tiger
Temple, a Buddhist temple in Thailand
Thailand
famous for its tame tigers Tiger
Tiger
versus lion

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John Hampden Porter (1894). "The Tiger". Wild beasts; a study of the characters and habits of the elephant, lion, leopard, panther, jaguar, tiger, puma, wolf, and grizzly bear. pp. 196–256.  Sankhala, Kailash (1997). Indian Tiger. Roli Books Pvt Limited, India. ISBN 978-81-7437-088-4. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Tigers

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Panthera
Panthera
tigris (category)

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Panthera
Panthera
tigris

Species
Species
portrait Tiger; IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography for Panthera
Panthera
tigris Tiger
Tiger
Stamps: Tiger
Tiger
images on postage stamps from many different countries Year of the tiger. Video collection on occasion of the Year of the Tiger, 2010. BBC. Video clips. BBC archive on Wildlife
Wildlife
Finder. "Is this the last chance to save the tiger?". 19 November 2010. By Pralad Yonzon. The Kathmandu Post. Tale of the Cat
Cat
at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 26 February 2010). 1 March 2010. By Andrew Marshall. TIME Magazine "India's tiger population increases by 30% in past three years; country now has 2,226 tigers". 20 January 2015. By Vishwa Mohan. Times of India. Retrieved 17 July 2016.

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland
Sundaland
leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan
Palawan
stink badger (M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga ( Elephant
Elephant
seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal
Bengal
fox (V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental
Oriental
small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey
Honey
badger (M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q19939 ADW: Panthera_tigris ARKive: panthera-tigris EoL: 328674 EPPO: PNTHTI Fossilworks: 90651 GBIF: 5219416 iNaturalist: 41967 ITIS: 183805 IUCN: 15955 MSW: 14000259 NCBI: 9694 Species+: 6047

Authority control

LCCN: sh85135318 GND: 4185512-7 BNF: cb11933675r (d

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