Thomas Pennant (14 June OS 1726 – 16 December 1798) was a Welsh
naturalist, traveller, writer and antiquarian. He was born and lived
his whole life at his family estate,
Downing Hall near Whitford,
Flintshire in Wales.
As a naturalist he had a great curiosity, observing the geography,
geology, plants, animals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish around
him and recording what he saw and heard about. He wrote acclaimed
books including British Zoology, the History of Quadrupeds, Arctic
Zoology and Indian Zoology although he never travelled further afield
than continental Europe. He knew and maintained correspondence with
many of the scientific figures of his day. His books influenced the
writings of Samuel Johnson. As an antiquarian, he amassed a
considerable collection of art and other works, largely selected for
their scientific interest. Many of these works are now housed at the
National Library of Wales.
As a traveller he visited Scotland and many other parts of Britain and
wrote about them. Many of his travels took him to places that were
little known to the British public and the travelogues he produced,
accompanied by painted and engraved colour plates, were much
appreciated. Each tour started at his home and related in detail the
route, the scenery, the habits and activities of the people he met,
their customs and superstitions and the wildlife he saw or heard
about. He travelled on horseback accompanied by his servant, Moses
Griffiths, who sketched the things they encountered, later to work
these up into illustrations for the books. He was an amiable man with
a large circle of friends and was still busily following his interests
into his sixties. He enjoyed good health throughout his life and died
at Downing at the age of seventy two.
1 Family background
3 Scientific work and publications
3.1 Early works
3.2 Tours in Scotland
3.3 Later works
5 Works by Pennant
8 Species named after him
11 External links
Bychton, from Pennant's 'A tour in Wales'
Downing Hall, Pennant's lifelong home
The Pennants were a family of Welsh gentry from the parish of
Whitford, Flintshire, who had built up a modest estate at Bychton by
the seventeenth century. In 1724 Thomas' father, David Pennant,
inherited the neighbouring Downing estate from a cousin, considerably
augmenting the family's fortune. Downing Hall, where Thomas was born
in the 'yellow room', became the main Pennant residence. This house
had been built in 1600 and the front and main entrance were set back
between two forward facing wings. By the time the Pennants moved there
it was in a state of disrepair and many alterations were set in hand.
It had a number of fine rooms including a well-stocked library and a
smoking room "most antiquely furnished with ancient carvings, and the
horns of all the European beasts of chase". The grounds were also very
overgrown and much effort was put into their improvement and the
creation of paths, vistas and pleasure gardens.
Thomas Pennant, miniature by Josiah Wedgewood
Pennant received his early education at
Wrexham Grammar School, before
moving to Thomas Croft's school in
Fulham in 1740. At the age of
twelve, Pennant later recalled, he had been inspired with a passion
for natural history through being presented with Francis Willughby's
Ornithology. In 1744 he entered Queen's College, Oxford, later moving
to Oriel College. Like many students from a wealthy background, he
left Oxford without taking a degree, although in 1771 his work as a
zoologist was recognised with an honorary degree.
Pennant married Elizabeth Falconer, the daughter of Lieutenant James
Falconer of the Royal Navy, in 1759 and they had a son, David Pennant,
born in 1763. Pennant's wife died the following year and fourteen
years later he married Ann Mostyn, daughter of Sir Thomas
A visit to
Cornwall in 1746–1747, where he met the antiquary and
naturalist William Borlase, awakened an interest in minerals and
fossils which formed his main scientific study during the 1750s. In
1750, his account of an earthquake at Downing was inserted in the
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, where there also
appeared in 1756 a paper on several coralloid bodies he had collected
at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire. More practically, Pennant used his
geological knowledge to open a lead mine, which helped to finance
improvements at Downing after he had inherited the estate in 1763.
In 1754, he was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries but by
1760 he was happily married and resigned his fellowship because "my
circumstances at that time were very narrow, my worthy father being
alive, and I vainly thought my happiness would have been permanent,
and that I never should have been called again from my retirement to
amuse myself in town, or to be of use to the society." When his
financial circumstances later improved, he became a patron and
collector. He amassed a considerable collection of works of art, many
of which had been commissioned and which were selected for their
scientific interest rather than their connoisseur value. He had
several works by
Nicholas Pocock representing topographical landforms,
mostly in Wales, and others by the artist Peter Paillou, probably
commissioned, representing different climate types. His portrait by
Thomas Gainsborough shows him as a country gentleman. Also included in
the "Pennant Collection", housed at the National Library of Wales, are
many watercolours by Moses Griffiths and John Ingleby, and some
drawings by Pennant himself.
The artist Moses Griffiths, a native of
Bryncroes in the Llŷn
Peninsula, provided illustrations to most of Pennant's books. He
was employed full-time by Pennant and accommodated at Downing. Many of
these paintings are included in the Pennant Collection held by the
National Museum of Wales. Another artist whom Pennant employed on
an occasional basis was John Ingleby of Halkin. He mostly supplied
town scenes and vignettes.
Scientific work and publications
"The Heron" engraved by
Peter Mazell from painting by Peter Paillou,
in Pennant's British Zoology
Pennant's first publications were scientific papers on the earthquake
he had experienced, other geological subjects and palaeontology. One
of these so impressed Carl Linnaeus, that in 1757, he put Pennant's
name forward and he was duly elected a member of the Royal Swedish
Society of Sciences. Pennant felt very honoured by this and continued
to correspond with Linnaeus throughout his life.
Observing that naturalists in other European countries were producing
volumes describing the animals found in their territories, Pennant
started, in 1761, a similar work about Britain, to be called British
Zoology. This was a comprehensive book with 132 folio plates in
colour. It was published in 1766 and 1767 in four volumes as quarto
editions, and further small editions followed. The illustrations were
so expensive to produce that he made little money from the
publication, and when there was a profit, he gave it to charity. For
example, the bookseller Benjamin White, brother of the naturalist
Gilbert White, received permission, on payment of £100, to publish
an octavo edition, and the money thus raised was donated to the Welsh
Charity School. Further appendix volumes were added later and the
text, largely written from personal observations, was translated into
Latin and German.
The book took several years to write and during that time, Pennant was
struck by personal tragedy when his wife died. Soon afterwards, in
February 1765 and apparently as a reaction, he set out on a journey to
the continent of Europe, starting in France where he met other
naturalists and scientists including the Comte de Buffon, Voltaire,
who he described as a "wicked wit", Haller and Pallas, and they
continued to correspond to their mutual advantage. He later complained
that the Comte used several of his communications on animals in his
Histoire Naturelle without properly attributing them to Pennant.
His meeting with Pallas was significant, because it led Pennant to
write his Synopsis of Quadrupeds. He and Pallas found each other's
company particularly congenial, and both were great admirers of the
English naturalist John Ray. The intention was that Pallas would write
the book but, having written an outline of what he planned, he got
called away by the Empress
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great to her court at St
Petersburg. At her request he led a "philosophical expedition" into
her distant territories that lasted six years, so Pennant took over
In 1767 Pennant was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. About this
time he met the much-travelled
Sir Joseph Banks
Sir Joseph Banks and visited him at his
home in Lincolnshire. Banks presented him with the skin of a new
species of penguin recently brought back from the Falkland Islands.
Pennant wrote an account of this bird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes
patagonicus), and all the other known species of penguin which was
published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
Tours in Scotland
Elephant and bison, from the History of Quadrupeds (1793)
While work on the Synopsis of Quadrupeds was still in progress,
Pennant decided on a journey to Scotland, a relatively unexplored
country and not previously visited by a naturalist. He set out in June
1769 and kept a journal and made sketches as he travelled. He visited
Farne Islands off the Northumberland coast on the way and was much
impressed by the breeding seabird colonies. He entered Scotland via
Berwick-on-Tweed and proceeded via
Edinburgh and up the east coast,
continuing through Perth, Aberdeen and Inverness. His return journey
south took him through Fort William, Glen Awe,
Inverary and Glasgow.
He was unimpressed by the climate but was interested in all he saw and
made enquiries about the local economy. He described in detail the
scenery around Loch Ness. He enthused over the Arctic char, a fish new
to him but did not mention a monster in the lake. He observed red
deer, black grouse, white hares and ptarmigan. He saw the capercaillie
in the forests of
Glenmoriston and Strathglass and mentioned the pine
grosbeak, the only occasion on which it has been recorded from
Scotland. He enquired into the fisheries and commerce of the different
places he passed through and visited the great houses, reporting on
the antiquities he found there. He finished his journey by visiting
Edinburgh again and travelling through Moffat, Gretna and Carlisle on
his way back to Wales, having taken about three months on his
travels. On his return home, Pennant wrote an account of his tour
in Scotland which met with some acclaim and which may have been
responsible for an increase in the number of English people visiting
In 1771 his Synopsis of Quadrupeds was published; a second edition was
expanded into a History of Quadrupeds. At the end of that same year,
1771, he published A Tour in Scotland in 1769. This proved so popular
that he decided to undertake another journey and in the summer of
1772, set out from
Chester with two companions, the Rev. John
Lightfoot, a naturalist, and Rev. J. Stewart, a Scotsman knowledgeable
in the customs of the country. They travelled through the Lake
District, Carlisle, Eskdale, which Pennant much admired,
Glasgow. In passing, he was fascinated by the account of the
inundation of the surrounding farmland by a bursting out of the Solway
Moss peatbog. The party set sail in a ninety-ton cutter from Greenock
to explore the outer isles. They first visited Bute and Arran and then
continued to Ailsa Craig. Pennant was interested in the birds, frogs
and molluscs and considered their distribution. The boat then rounded
Mull of Kintyre
Mull of Kintyre and continued to Gigha. They would have continued
Islay but were becalmed. During this enforced idleness, the
ever-industrious Pennant started on his ancient history of the
Hebrides. When the wind picked up they continued to Jura.
Cottage on Islay, by John Cleveley the Younger, in Pennant's A Tour in
Scotland, and Voyage to the
Here, as elsewhere, they were hospitably welcomed, lent horses to
explore the island and shown the principal sights and the improvements
that had been made. Pennant records the scenery, customs and
superstitions of the inhabitants with many an anecdote. They later
Islay where Pennant found geese nesting on the moors, a more
southerly nesting site for geese than had previously been recorded.
Their journey next took them to Colonsay,
Iona and Canna and
Mull and Skye. A projected journey to
prevented by adverse weather. Returning to the mainland, the party
paid off their boat and attempted to travel northwards to the most
northerly tip of Scotland. In this they were thwarted and had to
retrace their route, having met bogs, hazardous rocks and country that
even their "shoeless little steeds" had difficulty in negotiating.
They returned to
Skye for a while before parting company, Pennant
continuing his tour while his companions returned to England,
Lightfoot carrying with him most of the material he would later use
when writing his Flora Scotica. Pennant visited Inverary, Dunkeld,
Perth and Montrose. In the latter, he was surprised to learn that
sixty or seventy thousand lobsters were caught and sent to London each
year. He then travelled via Edinburgh, through Roxboroughshire and
River Tweed to cross the border at Birgham. Once in England
he travelled rapidly home to Downing.
A Tour in Wales, 1770, first published in 1778
Pennant's next publication, in 1774, was his account of the second
journey to Scotland. This was in two volumes with the second appearing
in 1776. These works include so much detail of the countryside, its
economy, natural history and the customs of the inhabitants that they
are still of interest today by way of comparison with the very
different state of things now. While these volumes were in
preparation, he started some new projects. In 1773 he returned to
Cumberland, Westmorland and Yorkshire to visit the parts of them that
he had missed previously. As with all his tours, he travelled on
horseback, keeping his daily journal and accompanied by Moses Griffith
who made copious sketches on the way. Pennant seems to have been an
unpretentious man of simple tastes, who was welcomed into the homes of
strangers wherever he went. He also made tours in Northamptonshire and
the Isle of Man. Whenever he travelled to London he took a slightly
different route, again recording what he saw and did and on the basis
of these details, some years later he wrote his Journey from Chester
to London. On one of these journeys, the church he visited at
Buckingham in the morning collapsed into ruins that evening.
Frontispiece to Arctic Zoology. Painting by Peter Paillou, engraved by
Over the next few years, Pennant made various excursions in North
Wales. As with his other tours, he started from Downing. Almost one
hundred pages in the first volume that he subsequently wrote were
about the ancient city of Chester. His emphasis in these books was on
history and the antiquities he saw, rather than on natural history. He
was interested in
Owain Glendower and his struggle with Henry IV for
supremacy in Wales. The first volume of Tour in Wales was published in
1778 but covered a limited area of the country. In an attempt to
remedy this, it was followed by a Journey to
Snowdon (part one in 1781
and part two in 1783), and these later jointly became the second
volume of his Tour. Although these also concentrated on the history of
the places visited, they provided some information on the zoology and
botany, in the later case with the assistance of Reverend
Lightfoot. Pennant includes tales of the strongwoman and harpist
Marged ferch Ifan
Marged ferch Ifan although he never met her.  Pennant mentions
tales of the beaver's presence on the
River Conwy with a deep stretch
being known as "Llyn yr afangc" (Beaver's pool). He also records
herons nesting at the top of the cliffs at St Orme's Head above the
noisy gulls, razorbills, guillemots and cormorants which had their own
nesting zones further down.
Pennant's interests ranged widely. In 1781, he had a paper published
in the Philosophical Transactions on the origins of the turkey,
arguing that it was a North American bird and not an Old World
species. Another paper, published at the instigation of Sir Joseph
Banks, was on earthquakes, several of which he had experienced in
Flintshire. In the same year he was made an honorary member of the
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland and in 1783, he was elected a
foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and
separately, a member of the Swedish Royal Physiographic Society in
In 1782, Pennant published his Journey from
Chester to London. He had
then intended to write a "Zoology of North America" but as he
explained in the "Advertisement", since he felt mortified by the loss
of British control over America, this was changed to Arctic
Zoology. The book was published, with illustrations by Peter
Brown, in 1785–1787. The first volume was on quadrupeds and the
second on birds. Compilation of the latter was assisted by an
Sir Joseph Banks
Sir Joseph Banks had made to Newfoundland in 1786. The work
was translated into German and French, and part of it into Swedish.
The volumes were much acclaimed and Pennant was elected a member of
the American Philosophical Society. In 1787, a supplementary volume
was published which included extra information on the reptiles and
fishes of North America.
Pennant is rarely thought of as a poet, but in 1782 he was moved to
write an "elegant little poem", Ode to Indifference, as he explains
"on account of a Lady speaking in praise of Indifference". In it he
"wittily constructs an erotic lyric from the invocation to John
Milton's L'Allegro." It includes the lines
Fly, Indifference, hated maid,
Seek Spitsbergen's horrid shade,
Teach the sweet coquette to know
Heart of ice in breast of snow;
— Pennant, 1782
In 1790 he published his Account of London, which went through a large
number of editions. It was written in the style of his previous works
and contained information on things of historical interest in the
parts of the capital to which his wanderings led him. By this stage of
his life he preferred to make tours in his imagination rather than in
reality and he published a second edition of his Indian Zoology. He
also conceived the idea of publishing a work on a global scale and set
to work on the first two volumes of what was planned to be a fourteen
volume series. Each country was to have maps and sketches, colour
plates and an account of the country's production with notes on its
natural history. All this was to be gleaned from the writing of others
who had seen these places themselves. The first two volumes appeared
early in 1798 and covered most of India and Ceylon. Volumes three and
four included the parts of India east of the Ganges, Malaysia, Japan
and China but before these were published he suffered a gradual
decline in health and vigour and died at Downing, in December 1798.
These two volumes were edited and published posthumously by his son,
David, as were also several other short papers and an autobiographical
work, The literary life of the late Thomas Pennant, Esq. By
Pennant met and corresponded widely over many years with other
naturalists. This gave him privileged access to manuscripts and
specimens, and his writings sometimes provide information about
otherwise lost discoveries. For example, he visited the botanist
Joseph Banks in September 1771 on his return from Captain James Cook's
four-year voyage of exploration; Banks appears to have passed his bird
specimens on to Pennant. Pennant's manuscripts describe the birds that
Banks saw on the voyage; and when he read John Latham's A General
Synopsis of Birds (1781–1785), Pennant saw that Latham had omitted
some of the land birds from Eastern Australia that Banks had
collected, and wrote to Latham to fill in the gaps. The naturalist
Peter Simon Pallas
Peter Simon Pallas asked Banks to inform Pennant of "the unhappy fate
of Captn. Cook", and in December 1779 he wrote to Pennant himself,
telling the story.
Letters to Pennant from the parson-naturalist
Gilbert White form the
first part of White's 1789 book, The Natural History and Antiquities
of Selborne. It is almost certain that the men were introduced by
Gilbert's brother Benjamin White, Pennant's publisher; Gilbert seized
on the opportunity to correspond, as a way of overcoming the
intellectual isolation of
Selborne in the absence of suitable learned
societies at which he could read papers and share ideas. He knew
that Pennant, with little skill or inclination as a field naturalist,
was gathering observations to publish in his books; he quickly
determined that he would make his own use of the correspondence, and
kept copies of every letter he sent to Pennant. White was more
careful than Pennant, and was sometimes critical; for example, in 1769
he objected that the goatsucker did not only make its sound while
flying as Pennant asserted, so it was wrong to suppose that the noise
must be made by the air beating against its "vastly extended
mouth". Pennant accepted White's criticisms graciously.
Unfortunately Pennant's letters to White have been lost: White's
Natural History begins with 44 of White's letters to Pennant, of which
the first nine were never posted; the remaining 35 letters are dated
between 4 August 1767 and 30 November 1780, covering topics as varied
as whether swallows hibernate or migrate (letter 10), ring ousels
(letter 20), whether peacock trains are really tails (letter 35), and
thunderstorms (letter 44).
Works by Pennant
First page of A Tour in Scotland 1769, published in 1771.
A Tour in Scotland 1769. John Monk, 1771.
A Synopsis of Quadrupeds. John Monk, 1771.
A Tour in Scotland, and Voyage to the
Hebrides 1772. John Monk, 1774.
Genera of Birds. Balfour and Smellie, 1773.
British Zoology. Benjamin White, 1776–1777.
A Tour in Wales. H.D. Symonds, 1778 & 1781.
A History of Quadrupeds. John Monk, 1781.
Free Thoughts on the Militia Laws. Benjamin White, 1781.
The Journey to Snowdon. Henry Hughs, 1781.
The Journey from
Chester to London. Benjamin White, 1782.
Arctic Zoology. Henry Hughs, 1784–1787.
Of the Patagonians. George Allan (private press), 1788.
Of London. Robert Faulder, 1790.
Indian Zoology. Robert Faulder, 1790.
A Letter to a member of parliament: On Mail-Coaches. R. Faulder, 1792.
The Literary Life of the Late Thomas Pennant. Benjamin and J. White,
The History of the Parishes of Whiteford and Holywell. Benjamin and J.
The View of Hindoostan. Henry Hughs, 1798–1800.
Western Hindoostan. Henry Hughs, 1798.
The View of India extra Gangem, China, and Japan. L. Hansard, 1800.
The View of the Malayan Isles, New Holland, and the Spicy Isles. John
A Journey from London to the Isle of Wight. E. Harding, 1801.
From Dover to the Isle of Wight. Wilson, 1801.
A Tour from Downing to Alston-Moor. E. Harding, 1801.
A Tour from Alston-Moor to Harrowgate, and Brimham Crags. J. Scott,
Pennant's two Scottish tours were praised by critics, as were his
natural history books. The Critical Review called the Tour in
Scotland 1769 "the best itinerary which has hitherto been written on
that country". Pennant's two Scottish tours made him the best
known writer on Scotland, and stimulated the great literary figure of
the age, Dr Johnson, to travel in Scotland and especially to the
Hebrides, resulting in notable works by both Johnson (A Journey to the
Western Islands of Scotland, 1775) and his friend and biographer James
Boswell (The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, 1786), According
to the historian David Allan, all three of these "famous" texts were
"deliberate attempts... to educate their English readers about
Scotland. The intention here was usually to instil both a genuine
curiosity and a profound sympathy for their fellow Britons" in marked
contrast, in Allan's view, to the prevailing English ignorance and
hostility to the people of Scotland; and he cites evidence that
readers found it "a beguiling vision that literally prescribed how
they would now see and respond—positively, fondly,
inquisitively—to Scotland and its culture". With rare praise,
Johnson said of Pennant "... he's the best traveller I ever read; he
observes more things than anyone else does." And in 1777, Johnson said
to Boswell "Our ramble in the islands hangs upon my imagination. I can
hardly help imagining that we shall go again. Pennant seems to have
seen a great deal which we did not see. When we travel again let us
look better about us."
The Gentleman's Magazine of 1797 reviewed The History of the Parishes
of Whiteford and Holywell, commenting on his claim ("Resurgam", Latin
for 'I shall rise') to have returned from the dead (having announced
the end of his literary life back in 1791), and continuing to joke
about his excesses throughout. For example, the review remarks that
the portrait of "the late Pretender" to the throne "at a certain time,
might have cost its possessor [Pennant] his seat on the bench of
"The Sclavonian Grebe" in Thomas Bewick's A History of British Birds,
Volume 2, Water Birds. 1847 edition.
After Pennant's death, the French zoologist and naturalist Georges
Cuvier wrote of him "When the life of a man is entirely devoted to the
sciences, it cannot be expected that it will present a variety of
incident; it will be found most truly in the analysis of his
works." Pennant is cited as an authority by Thomas Bewick
throughout his pioneering field guide,
A History of British Birds
A History of British Birds (2
volumes, 1797 and 1804). For example, under "The Golden Eagle",
Bewick writes that "Pennant says there are instances, though rare, of
their having bred in
Snowdon Hills". Bewick cites him for facts
about rare species like "The Sclavonian Grebe": "This species is not
numerous in the British Isles. Pennant says, they inhabit and breed in
the fens near Spalding, in Lincolnshire, and that the female makes a
nest not unlike that of the Crested Grebe, and lays four or five white
eggs." On occasion, Pennant's knowledge could be highly specific:
for "The Great-Crested Grebe", Bewick records that the nest "is made
of various kinds of dried fibres, stalks and leaves of water plants,
and (Pennant says) of the roots of bugbane, stalks of water-lily,
pond-weed and water-violet; when it happens to be blown from among the
reeds, it floats about upon the surface of the water".
Richard Mabey wrote that Pennant was "a doughty and
open-minded traveller, and his various Tours were best-sellers in
their time", adding Samuel Johnson's comment that Pennant was "the
best traveller I ever read". Mabey however comments that he "had
no great aptitude or instinct for field-work and nothing approaching
[Gilbert] White's critical intelligence", arguing that Pennant
"was essentially an intellectual entrepreneur, a popularizer and
compiler of other people's observations and ideas, and was able to
produce a large number of very readable guides as a result." Mabey
adds that Pennant had a "pushy and bombastic manner, and a reliance on
second-hand information that at times came close to plagiarism"
but admits that he was an innovative author of books, in particular by
seeking original reports "from a wide network of field observers",
meeting the fashion in the 1760s for natural history journalism.
Pennant's exploration of the Western Isles of Scotland was revisited
Nicholas Crane in a television documentary programme first
BBC Two on 16 August 2007, as part of the "Great British
Journeys" series. Pennant was the subject of the first in the eight
part series. The
Thomas Pennant Society was formed in 2007 as a
result of an initiative by an informal group, the Cymdeithas Thomas
Pennant. It aims to foster his memory and arranges a programme of
events connected with him including publishing leaflets and booklets,
holding lectures and arranging walks in "Pennant Country". It also
holds an annual dinner. In 2013, the society proposed to
Flintshire County Council that "Holywell and the north Flintshire
area" be designated 'Pennant Country'. Some Holywell town councillors
Species named after him
The following marine species were named with the epithets pennanti,
pennantii and pennantiana:
Anchomasa pennantiana Leach in Gray, 1852: synonym of Barnea parva
Arca pennantiana Leach in Gray, 1852: synonym of Striarca lactea
Argentina pennanti Walbaum, 1792: synonym of Maurolicus muelleri
Blennius pennantii Yarrell, 1835: synonym of Chirolophis ascanii
Cardium pennanti Reeve, 1844: synonym of
Laevicardium crassum (Gmelin,
Cardium pennantii Reeve, 1844: synonym of Laevicardium crassum
Ebalia pennantii Leach, 1817: synonym of Ebalia tuberosa (Pennant,
Gibbula pennanti (Philippi, 1846)
Lamna pennanti (Walbaum, 1792): synonym of
Lamna nasus (Bonnaterre,
Maurolicus pennanti (Walbaum, 1792): synonym of Maurolicus muelleri
Ovula pennantiana Leach, 1847: synonym of Simnia patula (Pennant,
Pasiphaë pennantia Leach in Gray, 1852: synonym of Timoclea ovata
Procolobus pennantii Waterhouse, 1838
Selachus pennantii Cornish, 1885: synonym of Cetorhinus maximus
Squalus pennanti Walbaum, 1792: synonym of
Lamna nasus (Bonnaterre,
Tetrodon pennantii Yarrell, 1836: synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus
lagocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Trochus pennanti Philippi, 1846: synonym of Gibbula pennanti
Venus pennanti Forbes, 1838: synonym of Chamelea striatula (da Costa,
Venus pennantii Forbes, 1838: synonym of Chamelea striatula (da Costa,
Vermilia pennantii Quatrefages, 1866: synonym of Pomatoceros triqueter
(Linnaeus, 1758): synonym of Spirobranchus triqueter (Linnaeus, 1758)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thomas Pennant.
^ Pennant writes "The title-page announces the termination of my
authorial existence, which took place on March 1st, 1791".
^ Jardine, 1833. p.3–4
^ a b c d e "
Thomas Pennant 1726 – 1798". Arddangosfa Thomas
Pennant. National Library of Wales. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
^ Pennant, David F. (1996). Pennant Notes. pp. 66–67.
^ a b c Cunningham, 1834.
^ Jardine, 1833. p.4
^ Literary Life. p. 2
^ Mabey, 1986. p. 105
^ Jardine, 1833. pp.7–8
^ Literary Life. pp.4–5
^ Literary Life. pp.7–8
^ Literary Life. pp.8–9
^ Jardine, 1833. pp.12–18
^ Literary Life. p.11
^ a b c Jardine, 1833. pp.18–27
^ Literary Life. pp.16–18
^ Jardine, 1833. p.29
^ a b Jardine, 1833. pp.30–31
^ 'Here Lived Peggy Evans', Forbidden Lives: LGBT stories from Wales,
Seren Books (2017)
^ Marged ferch Ifan, Welsh Biography, Retrieved 10 October 2015
^ Literary Life. pp.27–28
^ Arctic Zoology, 1785–1787. pp. 1–2.
^ Literary Life. pp.29–31
^ a b "Ode to Indifference". Virginia Tech, Center for Applied
Technologies in the Humanities. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
^ Jardine, 1833. pp.35–39
^ Medway, 2011.
^ Pallas, Peter Simon (15–26 December 1779). "Letter received by
Thomas Pennant from Peter Simon Pallas, 15, 26 December 1779 (Series
12.07)". State Library, New South Wales. Retrieved 16 April
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^ a b White, 1789
^ a b Mabey, 1986. pp. 105–108
^ a b Mabey, 1986. pp. 116–117
^ a b Withers, 2007.
^ Anon (January 1772). "Review: Tour of Scotland 1769". The Critical
^ Allan, David (2008). Making British Culture: English Readers and the
Scottish Enlightenment, 1740–1830. Routledge. p. 231.
^ Jenkins, Ralph E. (1972). "And I travelled after him: Johnson and
Pennant in Scotland". Texas Studies in Literature and Language. 14
(3): 445–462. JSTOR 40754219.
^ Anon (1797). The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 81. Google eBook.
^ Jardine, 1833. p.36
^ Bewick, 2 volumes, 1797 and 1804.
^ Bewick, 1797. p. 22
^ Bewick, 1804. p. 170
^ Bewick, 1804. p. 165
^ a b c d e f g Mabey, 1986. pp. 106–107
^ "Thomas Pennant: A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides
(1772)". Great British Journeys. BBC. Broadcast 16 August 2007.
Retrieved 11 April 2013. Check date values in: date= (help)
^ "Thomas Pennant". Cwmdeithas Thomas Pennant. Retrieved 28 July
^ Quayle, Kathryn (21 February 2013). "The Flintshire Chronicle". Plan
to name north Flintshire 'Pennant Country' to boost tourism. Retrieved
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^ World Register of Marine Species
Bewick, Thomas (1797–1804). A History of British Birds. Newcastle:
Beilby and Bewick.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Pennant, Thomas". Encyclopædia
Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Cunningham, G.G. (1834). "Thomas Pennant". Memoirs of Illustrious
Englishmen. 6. pp. 256–259. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
Jardine, Sir William (1833). Ornithology: Humming-birds: Memoir of
Pennant. Edinburgh: Lizars, Stirling and Kenney.
Mabey, Richard (1986). Gilbert White: A biography of the author of The
Natural History of Selborne. Century Hutchinson.
Medway, David G. (2011). "The contribution of Thomas Pennant
(1726–1798), Welsh naturalist, to the Australian ornithology of
Cook's first voyage (1768–1771)". Archives of Natural History. 38
(2): 278–286. doi:10.3366/anh.2011.0034.
Pennant, Thomas (1798). The literary life of the late Thomas Pennant,
Esq. By himself. Benjamin and J. White.
Warwick William Wroth (1895). "Pennant, Thomas". In Lee, Sidney.
Dictionary of National Biography. 44. London: Smith, Elder &
White, Gilbert (1789). The Natural History and Antiquities of
Selborne. Benjamin White.
Withers, Charles W. J. (2004–13). "Pennant, Thomas (1726–1798),
naturalist, traveller, and writer". Oxford Dictionary of National
Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
Works by or about
Thomas Pennant at Internet Archive
Full text of Thomas Pennant: A Tour in Scotland (1769) and Thomas
Pennant: The Journey from
Chester to London (1780) on A Vision of
Britain through Time, with links to the places mentioned.
Full text of Thomas Pennant: A tour in Wales (part 1) (1778) and
Thomas Pennant: A tour in Wales (part 2) (1781) at the University of
Oxford Text Archive.
The North American Birds of Thomas Pennant. A Review by W.L. McAtee.
Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History. Volume
4, Page 100-124 doi:10.3366/jsbnh.1918.104.22.168, ISSN 0260-9541,
January 1963. (paywall)
Thomas Pennant (1774) A tour in Scotland, and voyage to the Hebrides,
2 vols. - digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library
ISNI: 0000 0000 8086 284X
BNF: cb12142224g (data)