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The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
(also known as Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back) is a 1980 American epic space opera film directed by Irvin Kershner. Leigh Brackett
Leigh Brackett
and Lawrence Kasdan
Lawrence Kasdan
wrote the screenplay, with George Lucas
George Lucas
writing the film's story and serving as executive producer. The second installment in the original Star Wars trilogy, it was produced by Gary Kurtz
Gary Kurtz
for Lucasfilm
Lucasfilm
and stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, David Prowse, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, and Frank Oz. The film is set three years after Star Wars. The Galactic Empire, under the leadership of the villainous Darth Vader
Darth Vader
and the Emperor, is in pursuit of Luke Skywalker
Luke Skywalker
and the rest of the Rebel Alliance. While Vader relentlessly pursues the small band of Luke's friends—Han Solo, Princess Leia
Princess Leia
Organa, and others—across the galaxy, Luke studies the Force under Jedi Master
Jedi Master
Yoda. When Vader captures Luke's friends, Luke must decide whether to complete his training and become a full Jedi
Jedi
Knight or to confront Vader and save them. Following a difficult production, The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
was released on May 21, 1980. It received mixed reviews from critics initially but has since grown in esteem, becoming the most critically acclaimed chapter in the Star Wars
Star Wars
saga; it is now widely regarded as one of the greatest films of all time.[8][9][10][11] The film ranks #3 on Empire's 2008 list of the 500 greatest movies of all time.[12] It became the highest-grossing film of 1980 and, to date, has earned more than $538 million worldwide from its original run and several re-releases. When adjusted for inflation, it is the second-highest-grossing sequel of all time and the 13th-highest-grossing film in North America.[13] The film was followed by Return of the Jedi, which was released in 1983. In 2010, the film was selected for preservation in the United States' National Film Registry
National Film Registry
by the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
for being "culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant."

Contents

1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Production

3.1 Development 3.2 Writing 3.3 Effects 3.4 Filming

4 Themes 5 Releases

5.1 Special
Special
Edition 5.2 Home media

6 Reception

6.1 Box office 6.2 Critical response 6.3 Accolades

6.3.1 Legacy

7 Soundtrack 8 Other media

8.1 Novelization 8.2 Comic book adaptation 8.3 Book-and-record set 8.4 Video games 8.5 Radio adaptation

9 See also 10 References

10.1 Notes 10.2 Citations 10.3 Works cited 10.4 Bibliography

11 External links

Plot[edit] Three years after the destruction of the Death Star, the Rebel Alliance has been driven from their former base on Yavin IV
Yavin IV
by the Galactic Empire. The rebels, led by Princess Leia, have set up a new base on the ice planet Hoth. The Imperial fleet, led by Darth Vader, continues to hunt for the Rebels' new base by dispatching probe droids across the galaxy. Luke Skywalker
Luke Skywalker
is captured by a wampa while investigating one such probe, but he manages to escape from the wampa's cave with his lightsaber. Before Luke succumbs to the freezing temperatures, the spirit of his late mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobi, instructs him to go to the Dagobah system to train under Jedi Master
Jedi Master
Yoda. Luke is found by Han Solo, and the duo are eventually rescued by a search party. Meanwhile, the probe alerts the Imperial fleet to the rebels' location. The Empire launches a large-scale attack, using AT-AT Walkers to capture the base, which forces the rebels to retreat. Han and Leia escape on the Millennium Falcon
Millennium Falcon
with C-3PO
C-3PO
and Chewbacca, but the ship's hyperdrive malfunctions. They hide in an asteroid field, where Han and Leia grow closer and eventually kiss. Vader summons bounty hunters to assist in finding the Falcon. Luke, meanwhile, escapes with R2-D2
R2-D2
in his X-wing
X-wing
fighter and crash-lands on the swamp planet Dagobah. He meets a diminutive creature who reveals himself to be Yoda; after conferring with Obi-Wan's spirit, Yoda
Yoda
reluctantly accepts Luke as his student. After evading the Imperial fleet, Han's group travel to the floating Cloud City on the planet of Bespin, which is run by Han's old friend, Lando Calrissian. Unbeknownst to the group, the bounty hunter Boba Fett tracks the Falcon; shortly after their arrival, Lando leads the group into a trap and they are handed over to Darth Vader
Darth Vader
and Boba Fett. Vader plans to use the group as bait to lure out Luke, intending to capture him alive and take him to Emperor Palpatine. Luke sees a premonition of Han and Leia in pain and, against the wishes of Yoda and Obi-Wan, abandons his training to rescue them. Vader intends to hold Luke in suspended animation via carbon freezing, and selects Han to be frozen as a test subject. Han survives the process and is given to Fett, who intends to deliver Han to Jabba the Hutt. Lando initiates an escape and frees Leia and the others, but they are too late to stop Fett from departing with Han. They fight their way back to the Falcon and flee Cloud City. Meanwhile, Luke arrives at Cloud City and engages with Vader in a lightsaber duel that leads them over the city's central air shaft. Vader severs Luke's right hand, disarming him; when Luke refuses to join Vader against the Emperor, accusing him of murdering his father, Vader reveals that he, in fact, is his father. Horrified by the truth, Luke intentionally falls into the air shaft and is ejected beneath the floating city, where he grabs onto an antenna. He makes a telepathic plea to Leia, who senses it and persuades Lando to return for him in the Falcon. After Luke is brought on board, they are chased by TIE fighters but R2-D2
R2-D2
reactivates the Falcon's hyperdrive, allowing them to escape. Aboard a medical frigate in the Rebel fleet, Luke's severed hand is replaced with a robotic hand. Lando and Chewbacca
Chewbacca
set off for Tatooine in the Falcon in order to find Jabba the Hutt
Jabba the Hutt
and save Han. As the Falcon departs, Luke, Leia, R2-D2, and C-3PO
C-3PO
gaze out on the galaxy and await word from Lando. Cast[edit] See also: List of The Empire Strikes Back characters
List of The Empire Strikes Back characters
and List of Star Wars cast members

Mark Hamill
Mark Hamill
as Luke Skywalker: A Jedi
Jedi
in training, who is powerfully connected with the Force. Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
as Han Solo: A smuggler and Captain of the Millennium Falcon. Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
as Leia Organa: A leader of the Rebel Alliance, the former Princess of the destroyed planet Alderaan. Billy Dee Williams
Billy Dee Williams
as Lando Calrissian: Administrator of Cloud City and an old friend to Han Solo. Anthony Daniels
Anthony Daniels
as C-3PO: A humanoid protocol droid in the Rebel Alliance. David Prowse
David Prowse
as Darth Vader: A warrior of the dark side of the Force and the Emperor's second-in command. The character's voice is provided by James Earl Jones. Peter Mayhew
Peter Mayhew
as Chewbacca: A Wookiee and loyal friend to Han Solo. Kenny Baker as R2-D2: An astromech droid in the Rebel Alliance
Rebel Alliance
and long-time friend to C-3PO. He also portrays a GONK power droid in the background. Frank Oz
Frank Oz
as Yoda: The wise, centuries-old Grand Master of the Jedi, who is Luke's self-exiled Jedi Master
Jedi Master
living on Dagobah. Oz was assisted by several other performers, including Kathryn Mullen, David Barclay, Wendy Froud, Wendy Midener, and Deep Roy.[14] Jeremy Bulloch
Jeremy Bulloch
as Boba Fett: A bounty hunter, hired by the Galactic Empire. Jason Wingreen
Jason Wingreen
provided Fett's voice in the film's original theatrical cut and the 1997 Special
Special
Edition. In the 2004 and 2011 special editions, Temuera Morrison, who played Jango Fett
Jango Fett
in Attack of the Clones and all his clones, replaced Wingreen as Fett's voice. Bulloch also makes a cameo appearance as the Imperial officer who grabs Leia when she tells Luke to avoid Vader's trap with John Morton doubling as Fett in this scene. Several different actors portray the Emperor: The evil ruler of the Galactic Empire and Darth Vader's powerful Sith
Sith
Master, who appears via hologram. Clive Revill
Clive Revill
originally provided the voice of the Emperor, while Marjorie Eaton
Marjorie Eaton
portrayed the Emperor's physical form,[15][16] filmed under heavy makeup with superimposed chimpanzee eyes.[17][18] Ultimately they were replaced by Ian McDiarmid, who portrayed the character in later films, for the 2004 Special
Special
Edition and subsequent releases.[19][20] Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
appears briefly as Obi-Wan Kenobi's Force-ghost: Luke's deceased mentor, who guides him to Yoda.

Denis Lawson
Denis Lawson
reprises his role as Wedge Antilles
Wedge Antilles
from the first film. John Hollis plays 'Lobot', Lando's personal aide. Julian Glover appears as General Veers, a general who leads the Empire in the battle of Hoth; Kenneth Colley
Kenneth Colley
portrays Admiral Piett, the Empire's top admiral; Michael Sheard
Michael Sheard
as Admiral Ozzel, Vader's previous admiral; Michael Culver
Michael Culver
appears as Captain Needa, one of the Empire's captains who failed to catch the Millennium Falcon; John Ratzenberger
John Ratzenberger
portrays Major Derlin, one of the officers who led the rebels in the battle of Hoth; Bruce Boa appears as General Rieekan, Princess Leia's military advisor on Hoth; Christopher Malcolm plays Rebel snowspeeder pilot Zev Senesca, who finds Skywalker and Solo
Solo
on the surface of Hoth; and John Morton portrays Dak, Luke's gunner in the battle of Hoth
Hoth
who was killed by an AT-AT. Richard Oldfield is Rebel pilot Hobbie Klivian. Morris Bush portrays the bounty hunter Dengar, Alan Harris portrays the bounty hunter Bossk and Chris Parsons portrays the robotic bounty hunter 4-LOM. Production[edit] Development[edit]

George Lucas, writer/director of the first film, decided to only executive produce and co-write this film

George Lucas' 1977 film Star Wars
Star Wars
exceeded all expectations in terms of profit, had a revolutionary effect on the film industry, and had an unexpected resonance as a cultural phenomenon. Lucas hoped to become independent from the Hollywood film industry, choosing to finance The Empire Strikes Back himself with $33 million from loans and the previous film's earnings, going against the principles of many Hollywood producers never to invest one's own money.[21] Now fully in command of his Star Wars
Star Wars
enterprise, Lucas chose not to direct The Empire Strikes Back because of his other production roles, including overseeing his special effects company Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and handling of the financing. Lucas offered the role of director to Irvin Kershner, one of his former professors at the USC School of Cinematic Arts.[22]

Lucas hired veteran independent film maker and his former professor Irvin Kershner
Irvin Kershner
to direct the movie

Kershner was known for smaller-scale, character-driven films, but had more recently directed the true-life drama Raid on Entebbe (1977) and the thriller Eyes of Laura Mars
Eyes of Laura Mars
(1978). Kershner initially turned Lucas down, citing his belief that a sequel would never meet the quality or originality of Star Wars. He called his agent, who immediately demanded that he take the job.[21] Writing[edit] Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett
Leigh Brackett
to write Star Wars II with him.[21] They held story conferences and, by late November 1977, Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment called The Empire Strikes Back. The treatment is similar to the final film, except that Darth Vader
Darth Vader
does not reveal he is Luke's father. In the first draft that Brackett would write from this, Luke's father appears as a ghost to instruct Luke.[23] Brackett finished her first draft in early 1978; Lucas has said he was disappointed with it, but before he could discuss it with her, she died of cancer.[24] With no writer available, Lucas had to write his next draft himself. It was this draft in which Lucas first made use of the "Episode" numbering for the films; Empire Strikes Back was listed as Episode II.[25] As Michael Kaminski argues in The Secret History of Star Wars, the disappointment with the first draft probably made Lucas consider different directions in which to take the story.[26] He made use of a new plot twist: Darth Vader
Darth Vader
claims to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the yearlong struggles writing the first film, and quickly wrote two more drafts,[27] both in April 1978. He also took the script to a darker extreme by having Han Solo
Han Solo
encased in carbonite and left in limbo.[28] This new story point of Darth Vader
Darth Vader
being Luke's father had drastic effects on the series. Michael Kaminski argues in his book that it is unlikely that the plot point had ever seriously been considered or even conceived before 1978, and that the first film was clearly operating under an alternate storyline where Vader was separate from Luke's father;[29] there is not a single reference to this plot point before 1978. After writing the second and third drafts of Empire Strikes Back in which the point was introduced, Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin Skywalker was Ben Kenobi's brilliant student and had a child named Luke, but was swayed to the dark side by The Emperor (who was really a Sith
Sith
Lord and not simply just a politician). Anakin battled Ben Kenobi on the site of a volcano and was wounded, but then resurrected as Darth Vader. Meanwhile, Kenobi hid Luke on Tatooine
Tatooine
while the Republic became the Empire and Vader systematically hunted down the Jedi.[30] With this new backstory in place, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy, changing Empire Strikes Back from Episode II to Episode V in the next draft.[27] Lawrence Kasdan
Lawrence Kasdan
had just completed writing Raiders of the Lost Ark, and the screenplay impressed Lucas,[31] who hired him to write the next drafts with additional input from director Irvin Kershner. Kasdan, Kershner, and producer Gary Kurtz
Gary Kurtz
saw the film as a more serious and adult film, which was helped by the new, darker storyline, and developed the series from the light adventure roots of the first film.[32] Effects[edit]

Play media

The Imperial AT-AT
AT-AT
walkers at the Battle of Hoth
Hoth
were created using models and a new stop motion animation technique developed by Phil Tippett for The Empire Strikes Back. When making Dragonslayer (1981) Tippett called it "go motion". Landscape paintings (by Mike Pangrazio) were used as backgrounds to enhance the scenery.

After the release of Star Wars, ILM grew from being a struggling company and moved to Marin County, California.[21] The Empire Strikes Back provided the company with new challenges. Whereas Star Wars mostly featured space sequences, The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
featured not only space dogfights but also an ice planet battle opening sequence and elements of cities that floated among the clouds. For the battle scenes on the ice planet Hoth, the initial intent was to use bluescreen to composite the Imperial walkers into still-shots from the original set. Instead, an artist (Michael Pangrazio) was hired to paint landscapes, resulting in the Imperial walkers being shot using stop motion animation in front of the landscape paintings.[21] The original designs for the AT-ATs were, according to Phil Tippett, "big armored vehicles with wheels". Many believe the finished design was inspired by the Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
container cranes, but Lucas denied this.[33] In designing the Jedi Master
Jedi Master
Yoda, Stuart Freeborn used his own face as a model and added the wrinkles of Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
for the appearance of exceptional intelligence.[34] Sets for Dagobah were built five feet above the stage floor, allowing puppeteers to crawl underneath and hold up the Yoda
Yoda
puppet. The setup presented communication problems for Frank Oz, who portrayed Yoda, as he was underneath the stage and unable to hear the crew and Mark Hamill above.[35] Hamill later expressed his dismay at being the only human character on set for months; he felt like a trivial element on a set of animals, machines, and moving props. Kershner commended Hamill for his performance with the puppet.[21][36] Filming[edit] Filming began in Norway, at the Hardangerjøkulen
Hardangerjøkulen
glacier near the town of Finse, on March 5, 1979. Like the filming of Star Wars, where the production in Tunisia coincided with the area's first major rainstorm in fifty years, the weather was against the film crew. While filming in Norway, they encountered the worst winter storm in fifty years. Temperatures dropped to −20 °F (−29 °C), and 18 feet (5.5 m) of snow fell.[21] On one occasion, the crew were unable to exit their hotel. They achieved a shot involving Luke's exit of the Wampa cave by opening the hotel's doors and filming Mark Hamill running out into the snow while the crew remained warm inside.[21] Mark Hamill's face was scarred in a motor accident that occurred between filming of Star Wars
Star Wars
and The Empire Strikes Back. Despite reports to the contrary, the scene in which Luke is knocked unconscious by the Wampa was not added specifically to explain this change to Hamill's face. Lucas admitted that the scene "helped" the situation, though he felt that Luke's time fighting in the rebellion was sufficient explanation.[36] The production then moved to Elstree Studios in London on March 13,[31] where over 60 sets were built, more than double the number used in the previous film.[21] A fire in January on Stage 3 (during filming of Stanley Kubrick's The Shining) forced the budget to be increased from $18.5 million to $22 million, and by July the budget increased $3 million more. Filming finished by mid-September.[31] One memorable exchange of dialogue was partially ad-libbed. Originally a scene in which Princess Leia
Princess Leia
professed her love to Han Solo, with Han replying "I love you too." Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
felt the characterization was not being used effectively, and Kershner agreed. After several takes, the director told the actor to improvise on the spot, and Ford changed Solo's line to "I know."[21] During production, great secrecy surrounded the fact that Darth Vader was Luke's father. The film includes a brief image of Vader with his mask off, facing away from the camera. For the original viewers of the film, this scene made it clear that Vader is not a droid.[36] Like the rest of the crew, Prowse—who spoke all of Vader's lines during filming—was given a false page that contained dialogue with the revelatory line being "Obi-Wan killed your father."[21][37][38] Hamill was informed just moments before cameras rolled on his close-up,[39] and did not tell anyone, including his wife; according to Hamill, Ford did not learn the truth until he watched the film.[40] To preserve the dramatic opening sequences of his films, Lucas wanted the screen credits to come at the end of the films. While this practice has become more common over the years, this was a highly unusual choice at the time. The Writers and Directors Guilds of America had no problem allowing it on Star Wars, back in 1977, because the writer-director credit (George Lucas) matched the company name, but when Lucas did the same thing for the sequel it became an issue because Lucas had his last name on the start of the film (Lucasfilm), while the director and the writers had theirs on the end. They fined him over $250,000 and attempted to pull Empire out of theaters. The DGA also attacked Kershner; to protect his director, Lucas paid all the fines to the guilds. Due to the controversy, he left the Directors and Writers Guilds, and the Motion Picture Association.[21] The initial production budget of $18 million[5] was 50 percent more than that of the original. After the various increases in budget, The Empire Strikes Back became one of the most expensive films of its day and after the bank threatened to call in his loan, Lucas was forced to approach 20th Century Fox. Lucas made a deal with the studio to secure the loan in exchange for paying the studio more money, but without the loss of his sequel and merchandising rights. After the film's box office success, unhappiness at the studio over the deal's generosity to Lucas caused studio president Alan Ladd, Jr. to quit. The departure of his longtime ally caused Lucas to take Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
to Paramount Pictures.[21] Themes[edit] See also: Star Wars
Star Wars
sources and analogues Like its predecessor, The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
draws from several mythological stories and world religions. It also includes elements of 1930s film serials such as Flash Gordon, a childhood favorite of Lucas', that similarly featured a city afloat in the sky.[41][42] Releases[edit] The world premiere of The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
was held on May 17, 1980, at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. (as a special Children's World Premiere event). The film had a Royal Charity Premiere in London at the Odeon Cinema in Leicester Square
Leicester Square
on May 20. The special event was dubbed "Empire Day", a playful take the British Commonwealth Day
Commonwealth Day
holiday (known as Empire Day prior to 1958), where legions of stormtroopers were unleashed across the city.[43] A series of other charity benefit premieres were held in numerous locations on May 19 and 20. The film went on to official general release in North America and the U.K. on May 21, 1980. The first wave of release included 126 70 mm prints, before a wider release in June 1980 (which were mostly 35 mm prints).[44] During the initial theatrical run in Europe and Australia, the short film Black Angel by Star Wars
Star Wars
art director Roger Christian was shown before the feature.[45] Though the film was simply titled The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
in its original promotional materials, the film still started with the title Star Wars
Star Wars
on-screen which was followed by the opening crawl that gave the film's subtitle as Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, causing some surprise among cinema goers at the time as the original Star Wars film had not been given an episode number or subtitle for its first release in 1977.[46] However, Episode IV: A New Hope was added to its opening crawl from its 1981 re-release onwards. Like A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back was rated PG by the Motion Picture Association of America, and certificate U in the United Kingdom. This original version was released on CED in 1984[47][48] and on VHS
VHS
and Laserdisc several times during the 1980s and 1990s.[citation needed] Special
Special
Edition[edit]

The 1997 theatrical release poster of the new Special
Special
Edition version of the film (art by Drew Struzan)

As part of Star Wars's 20th anniversary celebration in 1997, The Empire Strikes Back was digitally remastered and re-released along with Star Wars
Star Wars
and Return of the Jedi
Jedi
under the title Star Wars Trilogy: Special
Special
Edition. Lucas took this opportunity to make several minor changes to the film. These included explicitly showing the Wampa creature on Hoth
Hoth
in full form, creating a more complex flight path for the Falcon as it approaches Cloud City, digitally replacing some of the interior walls of Cloud City with vistas of Bespin, and replacing certain lines of dialogue. A short sequence was also added depicting Vader's return to his Super Star Destroyer
Super Star Destroyer
after dueling with Luke, created from alternate angles of a scene from Return of the Jedi. Most of the changes were small and aesthetic; however, some fans believe that they detract from the film.[19] The film was also resubmitted to the MPAA for rating; it was again rated PG, but under the Association's new description nomenclature, the reason given was for "sci-fi action/violence".[49] This version of the film runs 127 minutes. Home media[edit]

DVD
DVD
release

The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
was released on DVD
DVD
in September 2004, bundled in a box set with A New Hope, Return of the Jedi, and a bonus disc of extra features. The films were digitally restored and remastered, with additional changes made by George Lucas.[19] The bonus features include a commentary by George Lucas, Irvin Kershner, Ben Burtt, Dennis Muren, and Carrie Fisher, as well as an extensive documentary called Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars
Star Wars
Trilogy. Also included are featurettes, teasers, trailers, TV spots, still galleries, video game demos, and a preview of Revenge of the Sith. For the DVD
DVD
release, Lucas and his team made changes that were mostly implemented to ensure continuity between The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
and the recently released prequel trilogy films. The most noticeable of these changes was replacing the stand-in used in the holographic image of the Emperor (with Clive Revill
Clive Revill
providing the voice) with actor Ian McDiarmid providing some slightly altered dialogue. With this release, Lucas also supervised the creation of a high-definition digital print of The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
and the original trilogy's other films. It was reissued in December 2005 as part of a three-disc "limited edition" boxed set that did not feature the bonus disc.[50] The film was reissued again on a separate two-disc Limited Edition DVD for a brief time from September 12, 2006, to December 31, 2006, this time with the film's original, unaltered version as bonus material. It was also re-released in a trilogy box set on November 4, 2008.[51] There was controversy surrounding the initial release, because the DVDs featured non-anamorphic versions of the original films based on LaserDisc releases from 1993 (as opposed to newly remastered, film-based high definition transfers). Since non-anamorphic transfers fail to make full use of the resolution available on widescreen televisions, many fans were disappointed with this choice.[52]

Blu-ray release

On August 14, 2010, George Lucas
George Lucas
announced that all six Star Wars films in their Special
Special
Edition form would be released on Blu-ray Disc in Fall 2011.[53] On January 6, 2011, 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
Home Entertainment announced the Blu-ray release for September 2011 in three different editions.[54]

Digital release

On April 7, 2015, Walt Disney Studios, 20th Century Fox, and Lucasfilm jointly announced the digital releases of the six released Star Wars films. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment
Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment
released The Empire Strikes Back through the iTunes Store, Amazon Video, Vudu, Google Play, and Disney Movies Anywhere on April 10, 2015.[55] Reception[edit] Box office[edit] The film grossed $6,415,804 on its opening weekend in limited release on 126 screens. After four weeks on release, it expanded to 824 screens and grossed $10,840,307 for the weekend [5] setting a new weekly record of $20,380,052.[56] Within three months of the release of The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas had recovered his $33 million investment and distributed $5 million in bonuses to employees.[21] It earned $181,379,640 during its first run in the United States and Canada. It was re-released on July 31, 1981 and grossed a further $26,758,774 and again on November 19, 1982 with a gross of $14,535,852 to bring its gross to $222,674,266 [57] and about $450 million worldwide. When The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
returned to cinemas in 1997, it grossed $21,975,993 on its first weekend of re-release. As of 2007, the film has grossed $290,475,750 domestically and $538,375,067 worldwide.[5] 35 years after the film's initial release, it re-entered the UK box office at number 9 grossing $470,000 from June 4–7, 2015.[58] Critical response[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2017)

The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
received mixed reviews from critics upon its initial release. For example, Vincent Canby
Vincent Canby
of The New York Times wrote a largely negative review of the film.[59] David Denby of New York magazine called the film "a Wagnerian pop movie—grandiose, thrilling, imperiously generous in scale, and also a bit ponderous".[60] Judith Martin of The Washington Post
The Washington Post
criticized the film's "middle-of-the-story" plot, which she claimed had no particular beginning or end.[61] However, this was a concept that Lucas had intended.[36] On the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, The Empire Strikes Back currently holds a 94% approval rating, based on 87 reviews, with an average rating of 8.9/10.[62] Rotten Tomatoes
Rotten Tomatoes
summarizes: "Dark, sinister, but ultimately even more involving than A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back defies viewer expectations and takes the series to heightened emotional levels."[62] Bob Stephens of The San Francisco Examiner described The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
as "the greatest episode of the Star Wars
Star Wars
Trilogy" in 1997.[63] In 2016, James Charisma of Playboy ranked the film #3 on a list of 15 Sequels That Are Way Better Than The Originals.[64] Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
described the film as the strongest and "most thought-provoking" film of the original trilogy.[65] Chuck Klosterman
Chuck Klosterman
suggested that while "movies like Easy Rider
Easy Rider
and Saturday Night Fever
Saturday Night Fever
painted living portraits for generations they represented in the present tense, The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
might be the only example of a movie that set the social aesthetic for a generation coming in the future."[66] Accolades[edit] At the Academy Awards in 1981, The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
won the Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing, which was awarded to Bill Varney, Steve Maslow, Greg Landaker, and Peter Sutton.[67] In addition, this film received the Special
Special
Achievement Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Visual Effects that was awarded to Brian Johnson, Richard Edlund, Dennis Muren, and Bruce Nicholson. Composer John Williams
John Williams
was also nominated for the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Score, and Norman Reynolds, Leslie Dilley, Harry Lange, Alan Tomkins, and Michael Ford were nominated for the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Production Design.[68] In addition, John Williams
John Williams
was awarded the British Academy Film Award for his compositions: the Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music. The Empire Strikes Back also received British Academy Film Award nominations for Best Sound and Best Production Design. Williams was also nominated for a Grammy Award
Grammy Award
and a Golden Globe Award for his musical score of the film.[69] The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
received four Saturn Awards, for Mark Hamill as Best Actor, Irvin Kershner
Irvin Kershner
for Best Director, Brian Johnson and Richard Edlund
Richard Edlund
for Best Special
Special
Effects, and the Saturn Award
Saturn Award
for Best Science Fiction Film. The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. The film was nominated for the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Screenplay.[70] The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
was awarded the Golden Screen Award in Germany.[71] Legacy[edit] Darth Vader
Darth Vader
was ranked as the third-greatest film villain of all time in the American Film Institute's 2003 list of the 100 greatest heroes and villains,[72] and Wizard magazine selected the ending of The Empire Strikes Back as the greatest cliffhanger of all time.[73] The line "No, I am your father" is often misquoted as "Luke, I am your father."[74] The line was selected as one of the 400 nominees for the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes, a list of the greatest American film quotes.[75] Yoda's statement to Luke Skywalker, "Try not! Do, or do not. There is no try", was also a nominee for the same list by the AFI.[75] The film was selected in 2010 to be preserved by the Library of Congress as part of its National Film Registry.[76][77] It is unclear whether a copy of the 1980 theatrical version or the 1997 Special Edition has been archived by the NFR, or indeed if any copy has been provided by Lucasfilm
Lucasfilm
and accepted by the Registry.[78][79] In the 2014 Empire Magazine list, "The 301 Greatest Movies of All Time" voted by fans, The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
was named as the greatest film ever made.[80] American Film Institute
American Film Institute
lists

AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – Nominated AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – Nominated AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains:

Darth Vader
Darth Vader
– No. 3 Villain

AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:

"I am your father." – Nominated "Do, or do not. There is no try." – Nominated

AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – Nominated

Soundtrack[edit] Main article: The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
(soundtrack) The musical score of The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
was composed and conducted by John Williams, and it was performed by the London Symphony Orchestra at a cost of about $250,000.[81] In 1980, the company RSO Records published this film's original musical score as both a double LP album and as an 8-track cartridge in the United States. Its front cover artwork features the mask of Darth Vader against a backdrop of outer space,[82] as seen on the advance theatrical poster for the film. In 1985, the first Compact disc (CD) issue of the film score was made by the company Polydor Records, which had absorbed both RSO Records and its music catalog. Polydor Records
Polydor Records
used a shorter, one compact-disc edition of the music as their master. In 1993, 20th Century Fox Film Scores released a special boxed set of four compact discs: the Star Wars
Star Wars
Trilogy: The Original Soundtrack Anthology. This anthology included the film scores of all three members of the original Star Wars
Star Wars
Trilogy in separate CDs, even though there was significant overlap between the three (such as the Star Wars
Star Wars
theme music).[83] In 1997, the record company RCA Victor released a definitive two-CD set to accompany the publications of all three of the Special
Special
Editions of the films of the Star Wars
Star Wars
Trilogy. This original limited-edition set of CDs featured a 32-page black booklet that was enclosed within a protective outer slip-case. The covers of the booklet and of the slip-case have selections from the poster art of the Star Wars Trilogy: Special
Special
Edition. All of the tracks have been digitally re-mastered supposedly for superior clarity of sound. RCA Victor next re-packaged the Special
Special
Edition set later on in 1997, offering it in slim-line jewel case packaging as an unlimited edition, but without the packaging that the original "black booklet" version offered.[84] In 2004, the Sony Classical Records
Sony Classical Records
company purchased the sales rights of the original trilogy's musical scores—primarily because it already had the sales rights of the music from the trilogy of prequels: The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, and Revenge of the Sith. Hence in 2004, the Sony Classical company began manufacturing copies of the film-score CDs that RCA Victor had been making since 1997, including the one for The Empire Strikes Back. This set was made with new cover artwork similar to that of the film's first publication on DVD. Despite the digital re-mastering by Sony Classical, their CD version made and sold since 2004 is essentially the same as the version by RCA Victor.[85] Other media[edit] Novelization[edit] Main article: The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
(novel) A novelization of the film was released on April 12, 1980, and published by the company Del Rey Books. The novelization was written by Donald F. Glut, and it was based on the screenplay by Lawrence Kasdan, Leigh Brackett, and George Lucas.[86] This novelization was originally published as Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. However, the later editions have been renamed Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
to conform with the change in the titles of the Star Wars
Star Wars
saga. Like the other novelizations of the Star Wars
Star Wars
Trilogy, background information is added to explain the happenings of the story beyond that which is depicted on-screen.[citation needed] Comic book adaptation[edit] Main article: Star Wars
Star Wars
(1977 comic book) Marvel Comics
Marvel Comics
published a comic book adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back which was written by Archie Goodwin and illustrated by Al Williamson and Carlos Garzon. It was published simultaneously in four formats: as a magazine (Marvel Super Special
Special
#16),[87] an oversized tabloid edition (Marvel Special
Special
Edition Featuring Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back),[88] as part of a serialized comic book series, and as a paperback pocket book.[89] In the paperback and tabloid versions, which were published first and for which early concept designs were the only available art reference, Yoda
Yoda
was given a quite different appearance than in the films: Yoda
Yoda
is thinner, he has long white hair, and he has purple skin, rather than green skin. For the magazine and serialized comic book editions, there was enough time for the artwork featuring Yoda
Yoda
to be revised extensively, and his appearance was changed to match that in the film. Comic book historians and industry professionals have remarked that Marvel's Star Wars
Star Wars
comics published in the years before The Empire Strikes Back include plot points similar to those later used in the film. However, the film's makers have not acknowledged receiving any inspiration from the comic books.[90] Book-and-record set[edit]

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Lucasfilm
Lucasfilm
adapted the story for a children's book-and-record set. Released in 1980, the 24-page Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back read-along book was accompanied by a 33⅓ rpm 7-inch gramophone record. Each page of the book contained a cropped frame from the film with an abridged and condensed version of the story. The record was produced by Buena Vista Records. Video games[edit] Main article: List of Star Wars
Star Wars
video games Video games based on the film have been released on several consoles. Additionally, several Star Wars
Star Wars
video games feature or mention key events seen in the film, but are not entirely based upon the film. In 1982 Parker Brothers
Parker Brothers
released Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
for the Atari 2600
Atari 2600
games console, which featured the speeder attack on the AT-ATs on Hoth.[91] The arcade game Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back followed in 1985. The game features familiar battle sequences and characters played from a first-person perspective. Specific battles include the Battle of Hoth
Hoth
and the subsequent escape of the Millennium Falcon through an asteroid field.[92] A conversion was released in 1988 for the ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64, BBC Micro, Atari ST, and Commodore Amiga.[93] In 1992, JVC released the LucasArts-developed video game also titled Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) console.[94] The player assumes the role of Luke Skywalker and maneuvers through Skywalker's story as seen in the film. In 1992, Ubisoft
Ubisoft
released a version for the Game Boy. Like its previous incarnation, it follows the story of Luke Skywalker.[95] Super Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
was developed for the console Super Nintendo Entertainment System
Nintendo Entertainment System
(SNES) by LucasArts
LucasArts
and was released by JVC in 1993. The SNES game is similar in spots to the 1991 NES release, and is on a 12-megabit cartridge.[96] Radio adaptation[edit] Main article: Star Wars
Star Wars
(radio) A radio play adaptation of The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
was written by Brian Daley, and was produced for and broadcast on the National Public Radio network in the U.S. during 1983. It was based on characters and situations created by George Lucas, and on the screenplay by Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan. Its director was John Madden, with sound mixing and post-production work done by Tom Voegeli.[97] Mark Hamill, Billy Dee Williams, and Anthony Daniels
Anthony Daniels
reprised their roles as Luke Skywalker, Lando Calrissian, and C-3PO
C-3PO
respectively, with John Lithgow
John Lithgow
voicing Yoda. This radio play was designed to last for five hours of radio time, usually presented in more than one part.[98] Radio agencies estimate that about 750,000 people tuned in to listen to this series radio play beginning on February 14, 1983.[99] In terms of the canonical Star Wars
Star Wars
story, this radio drama has been given the highest designation, G-canon.[100][101] See also[edit]

Star Wars
Star Wars
portal Film in the United States portal 1980s portal Science fiction portal

The Story of Star Wars Splinter of the Mind's Eye, a science fiction novel set in the Star Wars universe List of films considered the best List of films featuring extraterrestrials List of Star Wars
Star Wars
films and television series

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Although the theatrical and home video distribution rights to all other Star Wars
Star Wars
films were to be transferred to Walt Disney Studios by May 2020,[1] 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
was to continue to own theatrical, home video, digital, and broadcast distribution rights to A New Hope for the foreseeable future.[2] On December 14, 2017, The Walt Disney Company announced it is acquiring most of Fox's parent company, 21st Century Fox, including the film studio and all distribution rights to A New Hope.[3]

Citations[edit]

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Lucasfilm
to Disney". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 27, 2013.  ^ " The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
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Star Wars
Ep. V: The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
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Yoda
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DVD
DVD
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Dennis Muren
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Mark Hamill
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Mark Hamill
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Star Wars
and Other Musings". Mindjack Film. Retrieved May 26, 2006.  ^ " George Lucas
George Lucas
Announces Star Wars
Star Wars
on Blu-Ray at Celebration V". Lucasfilm. StarWars.com. August 14, 2010. Archived from the original on August 16, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.  ^ "Pre-order Star Wars: The Complete Saga on Blu-ray Now!". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm. January 6, 2011. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011.  ^ Vlessing, Etan (April 6, 2015). "'Star Wars' Movie Franchise Headed to Digital HD". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 7, 2015.  ^ "Smokey 2 No. 1 in Domestic B.O. Maiden Wk. With $17,805,900". Daily Variety. August 25, 1980.  ^ "'Star Wars' B.O. History". Variety. May 17, 1999. p. 30.  ^ Alex Ritman (June 10, 2015). "U.K. Box Office: 'Empire Strikes Back' Returns to Top 10". The Hollywood Reporter. (Prometheus Global Media). Retrieved June 10, 2015.  ^ Canby, Vincent (June 15, 1980). "'The Empire Strikes Back' Strikes a Bland Note'". New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2007.  ^ Denby, David (May 26, 1980). " Star Wars
Star Wars
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Movie Reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved April 28, 2011.  ^ Stephens, Bob (February 21, 1997). ""Empire Strikes Back' is the best of "Star Wars' trilogy". Sfgate.com. Retrieved July 26, 2006.  ^ Charisma, James (March 15, 2016). "Revenge of the Movie: 15 Sequels That Are Way Better Than The Originals". Playboy. Retrieved July 16, 2016.  ^ Ebert, Roger (February 21, 1997). "The Empire Strikes Back". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved July 26, 2006.  ^ Klosterman, Chuck (June 22, 2004). Sex, Drugs, and Cocoa Puffs: A Low Culture Manifesto. Scribner. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7432-3601-0.  ^ "The 53rd Academy Awards (1981) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved October 7, 2011.  ^ "The Empire Strikes Back—Awards & Nominations". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on May 26, 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2007.  ^ "How Many Academy Awards Did The Empire Strikes Back
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National Film Registry
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hit theaters and Marvel published their adaptation of the movie in a few different formats. The earliest version appeared in a paperback-size book followed by the magazine-size Marvel Super Special
Special
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Works cited[edit]

——— (2008) [2007]. "The Secret History of Star Wars" (3.0 ed.).  Missing or empty url= (help) Bouzereau, Laurent (1997). The Annotated Screenplays. Del Rey. ISBN 0-345-40981-7. 

Bibliography[edit] Arnold, Alan. Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of Making the Empire Strikes Back. Sphere Books, London. 1980. ISBN 978-0-345-29075-5 External links[edit]

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Stakeout on Dope Street
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(1961) Face in the Rain
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(1963) The Luck of Ginger Coffey (1964) A Fine Madness
A Fine Madness
(1966) The Flim-Flam Man (1967) Loving (1970) Up the Sandbox
Up the Sandbox
(1972) S*P*Y*S
S*P*Y*S
(1974) The Return of a Man Called Horse
The Return of a Man Called Horse
(1976) Raid on Entebbe (1977) Eyes of Laura Mars
Eyes of Laura Mars
(1978) The Empire Strikes Back
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(1980) Body Heat
Body Heat
(1981) Twice Upon a Time (1983) Latino (1985) Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985) Labyrinth (1986) Howard the Duck (1986) Star Tours
Star Tours
(1987) Powaqqatsi
Powaqqatsi
(1988) Tucker: The Man and His Dream (1988) The Land Before Time
The Land Before Time
(1988) Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008) Star Tours
Star Tours
– The Adventures Continue (2011) Red Tails
Red Tails
(2012)

Television

Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (1984) Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (1985) Star Wars: Ewoks
Ewoks
(1985-86) Star Wars: Droids (1985-86) The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
(1992-96) Star Wars: Clone Wars (2003-05) The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones Documentaries (2007-08) Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008-14) Star Wars
Star Wars
Detours (Cancelled)

Related

American Zoetrope Indiana Jones Lucasfilm

ILM LucasArts Lucasfilm
Lucasfilm
Animation Skywalker Sound Pixar

Skywalker Ranch Star Wars

The Star Wars
Star Wars
Corporation

THX Edutopia

v t e

Lucasfilm

Productions

Films

American Graffiti
American Graffiti
(1973) Star Wars
Star Wars
(1977) More American Graffiti
American Graffiti
(1979) The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
(1980) Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
(1981) Return of the Jedi
Jedi
(1983) Twice Upon a Time (1983) Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
(1984) Latino (1985) Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985) Labyrinth (1986) Howard the Duck (1986) Tucker: The Man and His Dream (1988) Willow (1988) The Land Before Time
The Land Before Time
(1988) Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
(1989) Radioland Murders
Radioland Murders
(1994) Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999) Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002) Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith
Sith
(2005) Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
(2008) Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008) Red Tails
Red Tails
(2012) Strange Magic (2015) Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015) Rogue One
Rogue One
(2016) Star Wars: The Last Jedi
Jedi
(2017) Solo
Solo
(2018)

TV series

Star Wars: Droids (1985–86) Star Wars: Ewoks
Ewoks
(1985–86) Maniac Mansion (1990–93) The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
(1992–93) Star Wars: Clone Wars (2003–05) Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008–14) Star Wars
Star Wars
Rebels (2014–18) Lego Star Wars: The Freemaker Adventures (2016–present) Star Wars
Star Wars
Detours (unaired)

TV films

Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (1984) Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (1985)

Theme park films

Captain EO
Captain EO
(1986) Star Tours
Star Tours
(1987) ExtraTERRORestrial Alien Encounter
ExtraTERRORestrial Alien Encounter
(1995) Star Tours
Star Tours
– The Adventures Continue (2011)

Franchises

Star Wars Indiana Jones

Related productions

THX 1138
THX 1138
(1971)

Divisions

Industrial Light & Magic Skywalker Sound Lucasfilm
Lucasfilm
Animation LucasArts

Former divisions

The Droid Works

EditDroid SoundDroid

Kerner Optical Pixar THX

People

George Lucas
George Lucas
(Founder) Kathleen Kennedy (President) Howard Roffman (EVP, Franchise Management)

Parent: Walt Disney Studios (The Walt Disney Company)

v t e

Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation

The Incredible Shrinking Man
The Incredible Shrinking Man
(1958) no award (1959) The Twilight Zone (1960) The Twilight Zone (1961) The Twilight Zone (1962) Dr. Strangelove
Dr. Strangelove
or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1965) "The Menagerie" (Star Trek) (1967) "The City on the Edge of Forever" (Star Trek) (1968) 2001: A Space Odyssey (1969) News coverage of Apollo 11
Apollo 11
(1970) A Clockwork Orange (1972) Slaughterhouse-Five (1973) Sleeper (1974) Young Frankenstein
Young Frankenstein
(1975) A Boy and His Dog (1976) Star Wars
Star Wars
(1978) Superman (1979) Alien (1980) The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
(1981) Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
(1982) Blade Runner
Blade Runner
(1983) Return of the Jedi
Jedi
(1984) 2010 (1985) Back to the Future
Back to the Future
(1986) Aliens (1987) The Princess Bride (1988) Who Framed Roger Rabbit
Who Framed Roger Rabbit
(1989) Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
(1990) Edward Scissorhands
Edward Scissorhands
(1991) Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1992) "The Inner Light" (Star Trek: The Next Generation) (1993) Jurassic Park (1994) "All Good Things..." (Star Trek: The Next Generation) (1995) "The Coming of Shadows" (Babylon 5) (1996) "Severed Dreams" (Babylon 5) (1997) Contact (1998) The Truman Show (1999) Galaxy Quest
Galaxy Quest
(2000) Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
(2001) The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2002)

v t e

Saturn Award
Saturn Award
for Best Science Fiction Film

Slaughterhouse-Five (1972) Soylent Green
Soylent Green
(1973) Rollerball (1974/1975) Logan's Run (1976) Star Wars
Star Wars
(1977) Superman (1978) Alien (1979) The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back
(1980) Superman II
Superman II
(1981) E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
(1982) Return of the Jedi
Jedi
(1983) The Terminator
The Terminator
(1984) Back to the Future
Back to the Future
(1985) Aliens (1986) RoboCop
RoboCop
(1987) Alien Nation (1988) Total Recall (1989/1990) Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) Star Trek
Star Trek
VI: The Undiscovered Country (1992) Jurassic Park (1993) Stargate (1994) 12 Monkeys
12 Monkeys
(1995) Independence Day (1996) Men in Black (1997) Armageddon/Dark City (1998) The Matrix
The Matrix
(1999) X-Men (2000) A.I. Artificial Intelligence
A.I. Artificial Intelligence
(2001) Minority Report (2002) X2: X-Men United (2003) Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith
Sith
(2005) Children of Men
Children of Men
(2006) Cloverfield
Cloverfield
(2007) Iron Man (2008) Avatar (2009) Inception
Inception
(2010) Rise of the Planet of the Apes
Rise of the Planet of the Apes
(2011) The Avengers (2012) Gravity (2013) Interstellar (2014) Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015) Rogue One: A Star Wars
Star Wars
Story (2016)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 186700474 LCCN: n80020079 GND: 4396738-3 SUDOC: 182088855 BNF: cb1443

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