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MUHAMMED TEWFIK PASHA (Arabic : محمد توفيق باشا‎‎, Turkish : Muhammed Tevfik Paşa; April 30 or November 15, 1852 – January 7, 1892), also known as TAWFIQ OF EGYPT, was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan
Sudan
between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty
Dynasty
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Marriage * 3 Presidency * 4 Reign * 5 Death * 6 Issue * 7 Honours * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

EARLY LIFE

He was the eldest son of Khedive
Khedive
Ismail , and was born on November 15, 1852. His mother was Princess Shafiq-Nur. He was not sent to Europe to be educated like his younger brothers, but grew up in Egypt.

In 1866 Ismail succeeded in his endeavor to alter the order of succession to the Khedivate of Egypt
Egypt
. The title, instead of passing to the eldest living male descendant of Muhammad Ali , was now to descend from father to son. Ismail sought this alteration mainly because he disliked his uncle, Halim Pasha
Pasha
, who was his heir-presumptive , and he had imagined that he would be able to select whichever of his sons he pleased for his successor. But he found, after the change had been made, that the Great Powers (Britain, Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire) interpreted the new arrangement as applying strictly to the eldest son. Tewfik therefore became heir-apparent . He was given a palace near Cairo
Cairo
to live in, and for twelve years he passed an uneventful life, farming, and establishing a reputation for good sense and fair dealing with his fellow tenants.

MARRIAGE

In Cairo
Cairo
on 15 January 1873 he married Princess Emina Ilhamy ( Constantinople
Constantinople
, 24 May 1858 – Bebek , Bosphorus
Bosphorus
, 19 June 1931), daughter of Damad Ibrahim Ilhami Pasha
Pasha
(3 January 1836 – Constantinople
Constantinople
, 9 September 1860), and wife Nazrin Kadin (d. 1884).

PRESIDENCY

In 1878 he was appointed president of the council after the dismissal of Nubar Pasha
Pasha
. He held this office only for a few months; but this was long enough to show that, if he was unambitious and not particularly intelligent or energetic, he had the wisdom to refrain from taking a part in the intrigues which then formed the chief part of political life in Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan.

He went back to his estate, and settled down once more to a quiet country life. He was undisturbed only for a short time. On 26 June 1879, Ismail, at the insistence of Britain and France , was deposed by the sultan, who sent orders at the same time that Tewfik should be proclaimed Khedive.

REIGN

The new khedive was so displeased by the news of his accession that he soundly boxed the ears of the servant who first brought the tidings to him. Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
at that time was involved in financial and political troubles brought about by the policy of Ismail, and the situation was made worse by the inaction of Britain and France for some months following Tewfik's accession. Tewfik's people were dissatisfied, his army disaffected; his advisers were nearly all of the adventurer class, with their own ends to gain; and he himself had neither the character of a strong ruler nor the experience that would have enabled him to secure an orderly administration of affairs. Tewfik Pasha
Pasha

Disorder prevailed until November 1879, when the dual control was reestablished by the governments of Britain and France. For over two years Major
Major
Evelyn Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer ), Mr.
Mr.
(afterwards Sir
Sir
) Auckland Colvin , and Monsieur
Monsieur
de Blignieres practically governed the country, endeavouring to institute reforms while possessing no means of coercion.

During all this time the disaffection in the Egyptian army was increasing. Tewfik had been blamed for his failure to take a firm line with the rebels, but his attitude was governed by his relations with Britain and France, and he was unable to control events. The dissatisfaction culminated in the anti-foreign movement headed by Urabi Pasha
Pasha
, who had gained complete command of the army. In July 1882 the attitude of Urabi, who was carrying out defensive works on a large scale, made the British admiral ( Sir
Sir
Beauchamp Seymour , afterwards Lord Alcester) to declare that he would bombard the forts of Alexandria
Alexandria
unless they were handed over to him.

Before the bombardment began it was suggested to Tewfik that he should leave the city and embark either upon a man-of-war belonging to one of the neutral powers, or in his own yacht , or in a mail steamer which was then in the port. His answer was, "I am still Khedive, and I remain with my people in the hour of their danger." At his palace of Qasr el-Raml, three miles (five kilometers) from the town, he was beyond reach of the shells, but his life was nevertheless imperiled. When the rebel soldiers attacked the palace he managed to make his escape and to reach another palace after passing through the burning streets of Alexandria. Here he was obliged to agree that a guard of British bluejackets should protect him from further risk. He showed his courage equally during the cholera epidemic at Alexandria
Alexandria
in 1883.

He had gone back to Cairo
Cairo
after the Battle of Tel al-Kebir , had consented to the reforms insisted upon by Britain, and had assumed the position of a constitutional ruler under the guidance of Lord Dufferin , the British special commissioner. When cholera broke out, he insisted upon going to Alexandria. His wife accompanied him, and he went round the hospitals, setting an excellent example to the authorities of the city, and encouraging the patients by kind and hopeful words.

In 1884, Sir
Sir
Evelyn Baring (Lord Cromer) went back to Egypt
Egypt
as diplomatic agent and Consul-General of Britain. His first task was to demand that Tewfik should abandon the Sudan
Sudan
. Tewfik gave his consent with natural reluctance, but, having consented, he did everything he could to ensure the success of the policy which Baring had been sent to carry out. He behaved with equal propriety during the negotiations between Sir
Sir
H. Drummond Wolff and the Turkish envoy, Mukhtar Pasha
Pasha
, in 1886. His position was not a dignified one but that of a titular ruler compelled to stand by while others discussed and managed the affairs of his country. The Sultan was his suzerain ; in Britain he recognized his protector: to the representative of each he endeavoured to show friendliness and esteem. As time went on his confidence in Baring increased, until at last he deferred to the British agent in almost everything. On occasion, however, he acted on his own initiative, as when in June 1888 he dismissed Nubar Pasha
Pasha
and summoned Riaz Pasha
Pasha
to form a ministry, an action influenced, nevertheless, by Tewfik's knowledge of the divergence of views between Nubar and the British agent. Baring encouraged Tewfik to show his activity in matters of administration, and he took a great interest in all matters connected with irrigation, education and justice. He was not an imposing man, but he showed a genuine desire to govern his country for its own benefit. He understood the importance to Egypt
Egypt
of British assistance and support; his natural shrewdness made him accept the British conditions; his natural good feeling kept him from any inclination to intrigue.

In private life he was courteous and amiable. He had no desire to keep up the unapproachable state of an oriental ruler. Indeed, in many ways his manners and habits were less oriental than European. He married in 1873 his kinswoman, Emina Ilhamy
Emina Ilhamy
, with whom he lived very happily. She was his only wife and Tewfik was a strong advocate of monogamy.

DEATH

He died on 7 January 1892, at the Helwan
Helwan
Palace near Cairo
Cairo
, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Abbas II .

ISSUE

By his wife he had the following children:

* Princess Nazli bint Muhammed Hanım (1873 – Cairo
Cairo
, 1879) * Abbas II Hilmi Bey, Khedive
Khedive
of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
* Prince Mohammed Ali Tewfik ( Cairo
Cairo
, 9 November 1875 – Lausanne
Lausanne
, 18 March 1955), married on 25 November 1941 to Suzanne Hemon, without issue

* Princess Hadice Hanım ( Cairo
Cairo
, 2 May 1879 – Cairo
Cairo
, 22 February 1951), married in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 31 January 1895 to Prince Muhammed Abbas Halim Pasha
Pasha
( Shobra
Shobra
, 29 September 1866 – Helwan
Helwan
, 10 January 1935), and had issue:

* HGlory Nabila Vidjdan Halim (Halki , 31 March 1897 – 4 February 1966), married to Nagui Morali, without issue * HGlory Nabila Kerime Halim Hanım Efendi (Halki , 15 March 1898 – 28 March 1971), married firstly at Constantinople
Constantinople
, Beşiktaş , Beşiktaş Palace, on 26 March 1920 and divorced in 1932 her cousin Prince Şehzade Osman IV Fuad ( Constantinople
Constantinople
, Ortaköy , Ortaköy Palace, 24 February 1895 – Nice
Nice
, 19 May 1973, buried at Bobigny Cemetery in Paris
Paris
), 41st Head of the Imperial House of Turkey between 1954 and 1973, without issue, and married secondly in Cairo
Cairo
on 4 June 1934 to Prince Yusuf Kemal Pasha
Pasha
(17 October 1882 – 1 February 1967), without issue * HGlory Nabila Emine Halim Hanım Efendi ( Constantinople
Constantinople
, 1 June 1899 – Istanbul
Istanbul
, 6 December 1979), married firstly at Constantinople
Constantinople
, Nişantaşı , Nişantaşı Palace, on 4 June 1919 and divorced in 1923 her cousin Prince Şehzade Abdurrahim Hayri ( Constantinople
Constantinople
, Yıldız Palace
Yıldız Palace
, 14 August 1894 – Paris
Paris
, 1 June 1952), and had female issue, married secondly in Berlin
Berlin
on 28 May 1925 Kemaleddin Sami Pasha
Pasha
(1873 – Berlin
Berlin
, 15 April 1934), without issue, married thirdly in Halki on 10 October 1936 and divorced in 1937 Nabil Omar Said Halim (Yeniköy , Bosphorus
Bosphorus
, 16 February 1898 – 1954), without issue, and married fourthly Sabri Bey
Bey
, without issue

* HGlory Nabila Tewfika Halim (Halki , 6 August 1900 – ?), married in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 11 September 1919 to Abbas Celaloğlu (7 May 1897 – ?), and had issue:

* Sancar Celaloğlu, married to HGlory Nabila Ulfet Emine Osman (Çamlica , near Üsküdar , Bosphorus
Bosphorus
, 18 August 1918 – ?), and had issue:

* Rükiye Celaloğlu, unmarried and without issue

* HGlory Nabila Nimetullah Halim (Halki , 10 July 1908 – ?), married in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 27 August 1931 to Ahmad Celaloğlu, without issue * HGlory Nabila Zeyneb Halim (Halki , 10 April 1915 – ?), married in Helwan
Helwan
on 2 April 1931 and divorced in 1932 Ihsan Hasan Mohsen (1908 – Villa d'Este-Montorfana, 11 October 1949), without issue

* Princess Nimetallah Muhammed Hanım ( Cairo
Cairo
, 4 November 1881 – 1966), married firstly in Cairo
Cairo
on 8 January 1896 and divorced in 1903 Muhammed Celal Toussoun Pasha
Pasha
( Alexandria
Alexandria
, 1 January 1874 – 1932), created HH in 1902 but deprived of the title in 1931, and had issue, and married secondly in Cairo
Cairo
on 5 May 1904 to Prince Kamal el Dine Hussein ( Cairo
Cairo
, 20 December 1874 – Toulouse
Toulouse
, 6 August 1932), without issue:

* Nabil Adil Toussoun Pasha
Pasha
( Cairo
Cairo
, 28 November 1896 – ?), married firstly in Cairo
Cairo
in 1924 to Emine Sabry (? – Cairo
Cairo
, 3 May 1925), and had issue, and married secondly in Cairo
Cairo
on 29 June 1926 to Negibe Moheb, without issue:

* Nabil Muhammed Tewfik Toussoun (b. Cairo
Cairo
, 18 April 1925), Lecturer at the University of California
University of California
, unmarried and without issue

HONOURS

* Order of Honour , Imtiyaz Medal, 1868 * Order of the Osmans , Nishan-i-Osmania, 1868 * Order of Nobility, 1868 * Grand Cross of the Order of Vasa , 1868 * Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI), 1875 * Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kalākaua I , 1881 * Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus , 1886 * Grand Cross of the Order of Franz Joseph , 1886 * Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(GCB), 1887 * Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Lion , 1890 * Grand Cross of