Terra Australis (Latin for South Land) is a hypothetical continent
first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th
and 18th centuries. The existence of
Terra Australis was not based on
any survey or direct observation, but rather on the idea that
continental land in the
Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land
in the south. This theory of balancing land has been documented as
early as the 5th century on maps by Macrobius, who uses the term
Australis on his maps.
In the early 1800s, British explorer
Matthew Flinders popularized the
Australia after Terra Australis, giving his rationale that
there was "no probability" of finding any significant land mass
anywhere more south than Australia. The continent that would come
to be named
Antarctica would be explored decades after Flinders' 1814
book on Australia, which he had titled A Voyage to Terra Australis,
and after his naming switch had gained popularity.
Gerard de Jode, Universi Orbis seu Terreni Globi, 1578. This is a copy
on one sheet of Abraham Ortelius' eight-sheet Typus Orbis Terrarum,
Terra Australis is shown extending northward as far as New
1 Other names
2 Origins of Terra Australis
3 Mapping the Southern Continent
4 Decline of the idea
5 Kingdom of Beach
7 In fiction
8 See also
Terra Australis was one of several names applied to the largest
landmass of what is now known as the continent of Australia, after its
European discovery. Other names for the hypothetical landmass in the
southern hemisphere have included
Terra Australis Ignota, Terra
Australis Incognita ("the unknown land of the south") or Terra
Australis Nondum Cognita ("the southern land not yet known"). Other
names for the hypothetical continent have included Brasiliae Australis
("the south of Brazil"), Magellanica ("the land of Magellan"), La
Espíritu Santo (Spanish: "the southern land of the
Holy Spirit"), and La grande isle de
Java (French: "the great island
of Java"). Other names used for the continent were New Holland and
Origins of Terra Australis
Aristotle speculated, "Now since there must be a region bearing the
same relation to the southern pole as the place we live in bears to
our pole...". His ideas were later expanded by
Ptolemy (2nd century
AD), who believed that the
Indian Ocean was enclosed on the south by
land, and that the lands of the
Northern Hemisphere should be balanced
by land in the south.
Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero used the term cingulus
australis ("southern zone") in referring to the Antipodes in Somnium
Scipionis ("Dream of Scipio"). The land (terra in Latin) in this
zone was the Terra Australis.
Terra Australis Incognita—an "unknown land of the
South"—date back to Roman times and before, and were commonplace in
medieval geography, although not based on any documented knowledge of
the continent. Ptolemy's maps, which became well known in Europe
during the Renaissance, did not actually depict such a continent, but
they did show an
Africa which had no southern oceanic boundary (and
which therefore might extend all the way to the South Pole), and also
raised the possibility that the
Indian Ocean was entirely enclosed by
land. Christian thinkers did not discount the idea that there might be
land beyond the southern seas, but the issue of whether it could be
inhabited was controversial.
The first depiction of
Terra Australis on a globe was probably on
Johannes Schöner's lost 1523 globe on which
Oronce Fine is thought to
have based his 1531 double cordiform (heart-shaped) map of the
world. On this landmass he wrote "recently discovered but not
yet completely explored". The body of water beyond the tip of South
America is called the “Mare Magellanicum,” one of the first uses
of navigator Ferdinand Magellan's name in such a context.
Schöner called the continent Brasiliae Australis in his 1533 tract,
Opusculum geographicum. In it, he explained:
Brasilia Australis is an immense region toward Antarcticum, newly
discovered but not yet fully surveyed, which extends as far as Melacha
and somewhat beyond. The inhabitants of this region lead good, honest
lives and are not Anthropophagi [cannibals] like other barbarian
nations; they have no letters, nor do they have kings, but they
venerate their elders and offer them obedience; they give the name
Thomas to their children [after St Thomas the Apostle]; close to this
region lies the great island of Zanzibar at 102.00 degrees and 27.30
Mapping the Southern Continent
Terre Australle, 1583.
Discussion of various names used for
Australia over time.
Explorers of the Age of Discovery, from the late 15th century on,
Africa was almost entirely surrounded by sea, and that the
Indian Ocean was accessible from both west and east. These discoveries
reduced the area where the continent could be found; however, many
cartographers held to Aristotle's opinion. Scientists, such as
Gerardus Mercator (1569) and
Alexander Dalrymple as late as
1767 argued for its existence, with such arguments as that there
should be a large landmass in the south as a counterweight to the
known landmasses in the Northern Hemisphere. As new lands were
discovered, they were often assumed to be parts of the hypothetical
The German cosmographer and mathematician Johannes Schöner
(1477–1547) constructed a terrestrial globe in 1515, based on the
world map and globe made by
Martin Waldseemüller and his colleagues
at St. Dié in Lorraine in 1507. Where Schöner departs most
conspicuously from Waldseemüller is in his globe's depiction of an
Antarctic continent, called by him Brasilie Regio. His continent is
based, however tenuously, on the report of an actual voyage: that of
the Portuguese merchants Nuno Manuel and Cristóvão de Haro to the
River Plate, and related in the Newe Zeytung auss Presillg Landt
(“New Tidings from the Land of Brazil”) published in Augsburg in
1514. The Zeytung described the Portuguese voyagers passing
through a strait between the southernmost point of America, or Brazil,
and a land to the south west, referred to as vndtere Presill (or
This supposed “strait” was in fact the Rio de la Plata (or the San
Matias Gulf). By “vndtere Presill”, the Zeytung meant that part of
Brazil in the lower latitudes, but Schöner mistook it to mean the
land on the southern side of the “strait”, in higher latitudes,
and so gave to it the opposite meaning. On this slender foundation he
constructed his circum-Antarctic continent to which, for the reasons
that he does not explain, he gave an annular, or ring shape. In an
accompanying explanatory treatise, Luculentissima quaedam terrae
totius descriptio (“A Most Lucid Description of All Lands”), he
explained: “The Portuguese, thus, sailed around this region, the
Brasilie Regio, and discovered the passage very similar to that of our
Europe (where we reside) and situated laterally between east and west.
From one side the land on the other is visible; and the cape of this
region about 60 miles away, much as if one were sailing eastward
through the Straits of Gibraltar or Seville and Barbary or Morocco in
Africa, as our Globe shows toward the Antarctic Pole. Further, the
distance is only moderate from this Region of Brazil to Malacca, where
St. Thomas was crowned with martyrdom.” .
On this scrap of information, united with the concept of the Antipodes
inherited from Graeco-Roman antiquity, Schöner constructed his
representation of the southern continent. His strait served as
inspiration for Ferdinand Magellan's expedition to reach the Moluccas
by a westward route.
He took Magellan's discovery of
Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego in 1520 as further
confirmation of its existence, and on his globes of 1523 and 1533 he
described it as TERRA AVSTRALIS RECENTER INVENTA SED NONDUM PLENE
COGNITA (“Terra Australis, recently discovered but not yet fully
known”). It was taken up by his followers, the French cosmographer
Oronce Fine in his world map of 1531, and the Flemish cartographers
Gerardus Mercator in 1538 and
Abraham Ortelius in 1570. Schöner's
concepts influenced the
Dieppe school of mapmakers, notably in their
representation of Jave la Grande.
Guillaume Le Testu's 1556 Cosmographie Universel, 4me projection,
where the northward extending promontory of the Terre australle is
called Grande Jaue.
Terra Australis was depicted on the mid-16th-century
where its coastline appeared just south of the islands of the East
Indies; it was often elaborately charted, with a wealth of fictitious
detail. There was much interest in
Terra Australis among Norman and
Breton merchants at that time. In 1566 and 1570, Francisque and André
d'Albaigne presented Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France, with
projects for establishing relations with the Austral lands. Although
the Admiral gave favourable consideration to these initiatives, they
came to nought when Coligny was killed in 1572.
Hypothetical "Terra Australis" in a map by Cornelius Wytfliet from
Terra Australis occupies a large part of the southern hemisphere.
Gerardus Mercator believed in the existence of a large Southern
continent on the basis of cosmographic reasoning, set out in the
abstract of his Atlas or Cosmographic Studies in Five Books, as
related by his biographer, Walter Ghim, who said that even though
Mercator was not ignorant that the Austral continent still lay hidden
and unknown, he believed it could be "demonstrated and proved by solid
reasons and arguments to yield in its geometric proportions, size and
weight, and importance to neither of the other two, nor possibly to be
lesser or smaller, otherwise the constitution of the world could not
hold together at its centre".
The Flemish geographer and cartographer, Cornelius Wytfliet, wrote
Terra Australis in his 1597 book, Descriptionis
The terra Australis is therefore the southernmost of all other lands,
directly beneath the antarctic circle; extending beyond the tropic of
Capricorn to the West, it ends almost at the equator itself, and
separated by a narrow strait lies on the East opposite to New Guinea,
only known so far by a few shores because after one voyage and another
that route has been given up and unless sailors are forced and driven
by stress of winds it is seldom visited. The terra Australis begins at
two or three degrees below the equator and it is said by some to be of
such magnitude that if at any time it is fully discovered they think
it will be the fifth part of the world. Adjoining Guinea on the right
are the numerous and vast
Solomon Islands which lately became famous
by the voyage of Alvarus Mendanius.
Juan Fernandez, sailing from Chile in 1576, claimed he had discovered
the Southern Continent. The Polus Antarcticus map of 1641 by
Henricus Hondius, bears the inscription: ”Insulas esse a Nova Guinea
usque ad Fretum Magellanicum affirmat Hernandus Galego, qui ad eas
explorandas missus fuit a Rege Hispaniae Anno 1576 (Hernando Gallego,
who in the year 1576 was sent by the King of
Spain to explore them,
affirms that there are islands from
New Guinea up to the Strait of
Luis Váez de Torres, a Galician or Portuguese navigator who commanded
the San Pedro y San Pablo, the San Pedrico and the tender or yacht,
Los Tres Reyes Magos during the 1605–1606 expedition led by Pedro
Fernandes de Queiros in quest of the Southern Continent, proved the
existence of a passage south of New Guinea, now known as Torres
Strait. Commenting on this in 1622, the Dutch cartographer and
publisher of Queiros' eighth memorial, Hessel Gerritsz, noted on his
Map of the Pacific Ocean: "Those who sailed with the yacht of Pedro
Fernando de Quiros in the neighbourhood of
New Guinea to 10 degrees
westward through many islands and shoals and over 23 and 24 fathoms
for as many as 40 days, estimated that Nova Guinea does not extend
beyond 10 degrees to the south; if this be so, then the land from 9 to
14 degrees would be a separate land".
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, another Portuguese navigator sailing for
the Spanish Crown, saw a large island south of
New Guinea in 1606,
which he named La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo. He represented
this to the King of
Spain as the
Terra Australis incognita. In his
10th Memorial (1610), Queirós said: "It should be noted that New
Guinea is the top end of the Austral Land of which I treat, and that
people, and customs, with all the rest referred to, resemble
Dutch father and son Isaac and
Jacob Le Maire
Jacob Le Maire established the
Australische Compagnie (Australian Company) in 1615 to trade with
Terra Australis, which they called "Australia".
The cartographic depictions of the southern continent in the 16th and
early 17th centuries, as might be expected for a concept based on such
abundant conjecture and minimal data, varied wildly from map to map;
in general, the continent shrank as potential locations were
reinterpreted. At its largest, the continent included Tierra del
Fuego, separated from
South America by a small strait; New Guinea; and
what would come to be called Australia. In Ortelius's atlas Theatrum
Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570,
Terra Australis extends north of
the Tropic of Capricorn in the Pacific Ocean.
As long as it appeared on maps at all, the continent minimally
included the unexplored lands around the South Pole, but generally
much larger than the real Antarctica, spreading far north –
especially in the Pacific Ocean. New Zealand, first seen by the Dutch
Abel Tasman in 1642, was regarded by some as a part of the
Alexander Dalrymple, the Examiner of Sea Journals for the English East
India Company, whilst translating some Spanish documents captured
in the Philippines in 1762, found de Torres's testimony. This
discovery led Dalrymple to publish the Historical Collection of the
Several Voyages and Discoveries in the South
Pacific Ocean in
1770–1771. Dalrymple presented a beguiling tableau of the Terra
Australis, or Southern Continent:
The number of inhabitants in the Southern
Continent is probably more
than 50 millions, considering the extent, from the eastern part
discovered by Juan Fernandez, to the western coast seen by Tasman, is
about 100 deg. of longitude, which in the latitude of 40 deg. amounts
to 4596 geographic, or 5323 stature miles. This is a greater extent
than the whole civilized part of Asia, from Turkey to the eastern
extremity of China. There is at present no trade from
though the scraps from this table would be sufficient to maintain the
power, dominion, and sovereignty of Britain, by employing all its
manufacturers and ships. Whoever considers the Peruvian empire, where
arts and industry flourished under one of the wisest systems of
government, which was founded by a stranger, must have very sanguine
expectations of the southern continent, from whence it is more than
probable Mango Capac, the first Inca, was derived, and must be
convinced that the country, from whence Mango Capac introduced the
comforts of civilized life, cannot fail of amply rewarding the
fortunate people who shall bestow letters instead of quippos (quipus),
and iron in place of more awkward substitutes.
Dalrymple's claim of the existence of an unknown continent aroused
widespread interest and prompted the British government in 1769 to
James Cook in
HM Bark Endeavour to seek out the Southern
Continent to the South and West of Tahiti, discovered in June 1767 by
Samuel Wallis in HMS Dolphin and named by him King George Island.
The London press reported in June 1768 that two ships would be sent to
the newly discovered island and from there to "attempt the Discovery
of the Southern Continent". A subsequent press report stated: "We
are informed, that the Island which Captain Wallis has discovered in
the South-Sea, and named George's Land, is about fifteen hundred
Leagues to the Westward and to Leeward of the Coast of Peru, and about
five-and-thirty Leagues in circumference; that its principal and
almost sole national Advantage is, its Situation for exploring the
Terra Incognita of the Southern Hemisphere. The Endeavour, a
North-Country Cat, is purchased by the Government, and commanded by a
Lieutenant of the Navy; she is fitting out at Deptford for the
South-Sea, thought to be intended for the newly-discovered
Island". The aims of the expedition were revealed in days
following: "To-morrow morning Mr. Banks, Dr. Solano [sic], with Mr.
Green, the Astronomer, will set out for Deal, to embark on board the
Endeavour, Capt. Cook, for the South Seas, under the direction of the
Royal Society, to observe the Transit of Venus next summer, and to
make discoveries to the South and West of Cape Horn". The London
Gazetteer was more explicit when it reported on 18 August 1768: “The
gentlemen, who are to sail in a few days for George's Land, the new
discovered island in the Pacific ocean, with an intention to observe
the Transit of Venus, are likewise, we are credibly informed, to
attempt some new discoveries in that vast unknown tract, above the
latitude 40”. The results of this first voyage of
James Cook in
respect of the quest for the Southern
Continent were summed up by Cook
himself. He wrote in his Journal on 31 March 1770 that the Endeavour's
voyage "must be allowed to have set aside the most, if not all, the
Arguments and proofs that have been advanced by different Authors to
prove that there must be a Southern Continent; I mean to the Northward
of 40 degrees South, for what may lie to the Southward of that
Latitude I know not".
The second voyage of
James Cook aboard HMS Resolution explored
the South Pacific for the landmass between 1772 and 1775 whilst also
testing the Larcum Kendall's K1 chronometer as a method for measuring
Decline of the idea
The available territory for a southern continent had diminished
greatly in this 1657 map by Jan Janssonius.
Terra Australis Incognita
("unknown southern land") is printed across a region including the
south pole without any definite shorelines.
Over the centuries the idea of
Terra Australis gradually lost its
hold. In 1615,
Jacob le Maire
Jacob le Maire and Willem Schouten's rounding of Cape
Horn proved that
Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego was a relatively small island, while
in 1642 Abel Tasman's first pacific voyage proved that
not part of the mythical southern continent. Much later, James Cook
sailed around most of
New Zealand in 1770, showing that even it could
not be part of a large continent. On his second voyage he
circumnavigated the globe at a very high southern latitude, at some
places even crossing the south polar circle, showing that any possible
southern continent must lie well within the cold polar areas.
There could be no extension into regions with a temperate climate, as
had been thought before. In 1814,
Matthew Flinders published the book
A Voyage to Terra Australis. Flinders had concluded that the Terra
Australis as hypothesized by
Ptolemy did not exist, so
he wanted the name applied to what he saw as the next best thing:
"Australia". He wrote:
There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of
nearly equal extent, will ever be found in a more southern latitude;
Terra Australis will, therefore, remain descriptive of the
geographical importance of this country, and of its situation on the
globe: it has antiquity to recommend it; and, having no reference to
either of the two claiming nations, appears to be less objectionable
than any other which could have been selected.
...with the accompanying note at the bottom of the page:
Had I permitted myself any innovation upon the original term, it would
have been to convert it into AUSTRALIA; as being more agreeable to the
ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of
His conclusion would soon be revealed as a mistake, but by that time
the name had stuck.
Kingdom of Beach
Beach appeared on maps of the 16th century, notably that of Abraham
Ortelius of 1570 and that of
Jan Huygen van Linschoten
Jan Huygen van Linschoten of 1596, as the
northernmost part of the southern continent, the Terra Australis,
along with Locach. According to Marco Polo,
Locach was a kingdom where
gold was “so plentiful that no one who did not see it could believe
it”. Beach was in fact a mistranscription of Locach.
Marco Polo's name for the southern Thai kingdom of Lavo, or Lop Buri,
the “city of Lavo”, (ลพบร, after Lavo, the son of
Hindu mythology). In Chinese (Cantonese), Lavo was pronounced
“Lo-huk” (羅斛), from which
Marco Polo took his rendition of the
name. In the German cursive script, “Locach” and “Boeach”
look similar, and in the 1532 edition of Marco Polo's Travels his
Locach was changed to Boëach, later shortened to Beach.
They seem to have drawn on the map of the world published in Florence
in 1489 by Henricus Martellus, in which provincia boëach appears as
the southern neighbour of provincia ciamba.
Book III of Marco Polo's
Il Milione described his journey by sea from China to India by way of
Champa (= Southern Vietnam),
Java (which he called
Java Major), Locach
Java Minor). After a chapter describing the
Champa there follows a chapter describing
Java (which he
did not visit himself). The narrative then resumes, describing the
route southward from
Champa toward Sumatra, but by a slip of the pen
the name “Java” was substituted for “Champa” as the point of
Sumatra 1,300 miles to the south of
of Champa. Locach, located between
Champa and Sumatra, was likewise
misplaced far to the south of Java, by some geographers on or near an
extension of the Terra Australis.
As explained by Sir Henry Yule, the editor of an English edition of
Marco Polo's Travels: “Some geographers of the 16th century,
following the old editions which carried the travellers south-east of
Java to the land of “Boeach” (or Locac), introduced in their maps
a continent in that situation”.
Gerard Mercator did just that on
his 1541 globe, placing Beach provincia aurifera (“Beach the
gold-bearing province”) in the northernmost part of the Terra
Australis in accordance with the faulty text of Marco Polo's Travels.
It remained in this location on his world map of 1569, with the
amplified description, quoting Marco Polo, Beach provincia aurifera
quam pauci ex alienis regionibus adeunt propter gentis inhumanitatem
(“Beach the gold-bearing province, wither few go from other
countries because of the inhumanity of its people”) with Lucach
regnum shown somewhat to its south west. Following Mercator,
Abraham Ortelius also showed BEACH and LVCACH in these locations on
his world map of 1571. Likewise, Linschoten's very popular 1596 map of
the East Indies showed BEACH projecting from the map's southern edge,
leading (or misleading) Visscher and Tasman in their voyage of 1642 to
seek Beach with its plentiful gold in a location to the south of the
Solomon Islands somewhere between
Staten Land near
Cape Horn and the
Cape of Good Hope.
Confirmation that land existed where the maps showed Beach to be had
come from Dirk Hartog's landing in October 1616 on its west coast,
which he called
Eendrachtsland after the name of his ship. In August
1642, the Council of the Dutch
East India Company
East India Company despatched Abel
Tasman and Franchoijs Visscher on a voyage of which one of the objects
was to obtain knowledge of "all the totally unknown provinces of
Antarctica was finally sighted in the hypothetical area of Terra
Australis in 1820. The extent of
Terra Australis was finally
determined, also proving the
Southern Hemisphere has much less land
than the Northern.
Terra Australis proved to consist of only two small
Antarctica and Australia.
The unexplored southern continent was a frequent subject of fantastic
fiction in the 17th and 18th centuries in the
Imaginary voyages genre.
Among the works which dealt with imaginary visits to the continent
(which at the time was still believed to be real) were:
Mundus alter et idem, sive
Terra Australis antehac semper incognita
lustrata (1605), a satirical Latin work by Joseph Hall, Bishop of
The Isle of Pines, or, A late discovery of a fourth island near Terra
Australis incognita, by Henry Cornelius van Sloetten (1668) by Henry
La terre australe connue (1676) by Gabriel de Foigny.
Histoire des Sevarambes (1675–1679) by
Denis Vairasse d'Allais.
Voyages et avantures de Jaques Massé (c. 1715, falsely dated 1710) by
Tyssot de Patot.
Miscellanea aurea: The Fortunate Shipwreck, or a description of New
Terra Australis incognita (1720) by Thomas Killigrew.
Relation d'un voyage du Pole Arctique, au Pole Antarctique par le
centre du monde (1721), anonymous.
Relation du royaume des Féliciens (1727) by the Marquis de Lassay.
Viaggi di Enrico Wanton alle Terre incognite Australi (1749) by
Voyage de Robertson, aux Terres Australes, traduit sur le manuscrit
anglois (1767), anonymous.
La découverte australe par un homme-volant (1781) by Restif de la
The idea of
Terra Australis was also used by
Terry Pratchett in his
Discworld series of novels (1983–2014) where the World is balanced
by the strange and little known
Early world maps
History of cartography
Jave la Grande
Kunyu Wanguo Quantu
List of cartographers
Terra Australis Orogen
^ a b c John Noble Wilford: The Mapmakers, the Story of the Great
Pioneers in Cartography from Antiquity to Space Age, p. 139, Vintage
Books, Random House 1982, ISBN 0-394-75303-8
^ Ambrosius Aurelius Theodosius Macrobius, Zonenkarte. Retrieved 7
^ Matthew Flinders, A voyage to
Terra Australis (Introduction).
Retrieved 25 January 2013.
Book II 5
^ Duo [cingulis] sunt habitabiles, quorum australis ille, in quo qui
insistunt adversa vobis urgent vestigia, nihil ad vestrum genus ("Two
of them [the five belts or zones that gird and surround the earth] are
habitable, of which the southern, whose inhabitants are your
antipodes, bears no relation to your people"). Alfred Hiatt, "Terra
Australis and the Idea of the Antipodes", Anne M. Scott (ed), European
Perceptions of Terra Australis, Ashgate Publishing, 2012,
^ William Eisler,The Furthest Shore: Images of
Terra Australis from
the Middle Ages to Captain Cook, Cambridge University Press, 1995,
^ Albert-Marie-Ferdinand Anthiaume, "Un pilote et cartographe havrais
au XVIe siècle: Guillaume Le Testu", Bulletin de Géographie
Historique et Descriptive, Paris, Nos 1–2, 1911, pp. 135–202,
n.b. p. 176.
^ Franz von Wieser, Magalhães-Strasse und Austral-Continent. Auf den
Globen Johannes Schöner. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erdkunde im xvi.
Jahrhundert, Innsbruck, 1881 (reprinted Amsterdam, Meridian, 1967)
^ Pelletier, Monique (1995). "The cordiform World maps by Oronce
Fine". Cartographica Helvetica. 12: 27–37. Retrieved 31 December
^ Orontius Fineus: Rare
Special Collections Division, Library
of Congress, 1531, (147.03.00)
^ Johannes Schoener, Opusculum Geographicum, Norimberga, ,
Pt.II, cap.xx. Ioannis Schoneri ... Opusculum geographicum
^ Zuber, Mike A. (2011). "The Armchair Discovery of the Unknown
Southern Continent: Gerardus Mercator, Philosophical Pretensions and a
Competitive Trade". Early Science and Medicine. 16: 505–541.
^ Carlos Pedro Vairo, TERRA AUSTRALIS Historical Charts of Patagonia,
Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica. Ed. Zagier & Urruty Publicationa,
^ Newen Zeytung auss Presillg Landt
^ Chet Van Duzer, Johann Schöner's Globe of 1515: Transcription and
Study, Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, Transactions,
Volume 100, Part 5, 2010.
^ Franz von Wieser, Magalhães-Strasse und Austral-Continent. Auf den
Globen Johannes Schöner. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erdkunde im xvi.
Jahrhundert, Innsbruck, 1881 (reprinted Amsterdam, Meridian, 1967),
^ Armand Rainaud, Le
Continent Austral: Hypotheses et Découvertes,
Paris, Colin, 1893 (repr. Amsterdam, Meridian Pub. Co., 1965),
^ E.T. Hamy, "Francisque et André d'Albaigne: cosmographes lucquois
au service de la France"; "Nouveau documents sur les frères
d'Albaigne et sur le projet de voyage et de découvertes présenté à
la cour de France"; and "Documents relatifs à un projet
d’expéditions lointaines présentés à la cour de France en 1570",
in Bulletin de Géographie Historique et Descriptive, Paris, 1894, pp.
405–433; 1899, pp. 101–110; and 1903, pp. 266–273.
^ Walter Ghim, "Vita…Gerardi Mercatoris Rupelmundani", Gerardi
Mercatoris Atlas sive Cosmographice Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et
Fabricate Figura, Amsterdami, 1606, p. 12.
^ Australis igitur terra omnium aliarum terrarum australissima,
directe subiecta antarctico circulo, Tropicum Capricorni vltra ad
Occidentem excurrens, in ipfo penè aequatore finitur, tenuique
difcreta freto Nouam Guineam Orienti obijcit, paucis tãtum hactenus
littoribus cognitam, quòd post vnam atque alteram nauigationem,
curfus ille intermissus fit, & nisi coactis impulsifquc nautis
ventorum turbine, rarius eò adnauigetur. Australis terra initium
sumit duobus aut tribes gradibus fub aequatore, tantaeque a quibufdam
magnitudinis esse perhibetur, vt fi quando integrè deteda erit,
quintam illam mundi partem fore arbitrentur. Guinea a dextris adhrent
Salomoniae insulae multae & quae nauigatione Aluari Mendanij nuper
inclaruêre, &c. Cornelius Wytfliet, Descriptionis Ptolemaicae
Augmentum, Louvain, 1597, p. 20.
^ José Toribio Medina, El Piloto Juan Fernandez, Santiago de Chile,
1918, reprinted by Gabriela Mistral, 1974, pp. 136, 246.
^ An on-line image of this map is at: http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-t732.
Hessel Gerritsz (c. 1581–1632), Map of the Pacific Ocean, 1622,
Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, département des Cartes et
Plans, SH, Arch. 30
^ "He named it Austrialia del Espiritu Santo and claimed it for Spain"
The Spanish quest for
Terra Australis State Library of New South
Wales Page 1.
^ Translation by Dolores Turró of Memorial No. 10
^ Spieghel der Australische Navigatie; cited by A. Lodewyckx, "The
Name of Australia: Its Origin and Early Use", The Victorian Historical
Magazine, Vol. XIII, No. 3, June 1929, pp. 100–191.
^ Howard T. Fry,
Alexander Dalrymple (1737–1808) and the Expansion
of British Trade, London, Cass for the Royal Commonwealth Society,
1970, pp. 229–230.
^ Alexander Dalrymple, An Historical Collection of the several Voyages
and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, Vol.I, London, 1769 and
1770, pp. xxviii–xxix.
^ Andrew Cook, Introduction to An account of the discoveries made in
the South Pacifick Ocean / by Alexander Dalrymple ; first
printed in 1767, reissued with a foreword by Kevin Fewster and an
essay by Andrew Cook, Potts Point (NSW), Hordern House Rare Books for
the Australian National Maritime Museum, 1996, pp. 38–9.
^ The St. James's Chronicle, 11 June and The Public Advertiser, 13
^ The St. James's Chronicle, 18 June, The Gazetteer, 20 June and' 'The
Westminster Journal, 25 June 1768.
^ Lloyd's Evening Post, 5 August, The St. James's Chronicle, 6 August,
Courier du Bas-Rhin (Cleves), 1768.
^ Also in Lloyd's Evening Post, 19 August and The New York Journal, 3
^ W.J.L. Wharton, Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round
the World, London, 1893. See also J. C. Beaglehole and R. A. Skelton
(eds.), The Journals of Captain
James Cook on His Voyages of
Discovery, Vol. 1, The Voyage of the Endeavor, 1768–1771, Cambridge
University Press for the Hakluyt Society, 1955, p. 290.
^ a b Wales, William. "Log book of HMS 'Resolution'". Cambridge
Digital Library. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
^ Matthew Flinders, A Voyage to Terra Australis, London, Nicol, 1814,
Vol. I, p. iii.
^ Avan Judd Stallard, "Origins of the Idea of Antipodes: Errors,
Assumptions, and a Bare Few Facts", Terrae Incognitae, Volume 42,
Number 1, September 2010, pp. 34–51.
^ G. E. Gerini, Researches on Ptolemy's geography of Eastern Asia
(further India and Indo-Malay archipelago), London, Royal Asiatic
Society, Asiatic Society Monographs vol.1, 1909, p. 180.
^ Paul Pelliot, Notes on Marco Polo, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale,
1963, Vol.II, pp. 768–9, note 2.
^ Simon Grynaeus and Johann Huttich, Novus Orbis Regionum ac
Insularum, Basel and Paris, 1532,
Marco Polo cap.xi, "De provincia
Boëach"; cited in Thomas Suarez, Early Mapping of Southeast Asia,
Hong Kong, Periplus, 1999, p. 160.
^ Milione: il Milione nelle redazioni toscana e franco–italiana, Le
Divisament dou Monde, Gabriella Ponchi (ed.), Milano, Arnoldo
Mondadori Editore, 1982, p. 540: cap. clxiii, "La grant isle de
^ James R. McClymont, "The Theory of an Antipodal Southern Continent
during the Sixteenth Century", Report of the Fourth Meeting of the
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, Hobart,
January 1892, Hobart, the Association, 1893, pp. 442–462; Paul
Pelliot, Notes on Marco Polo, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1963,
Vol.II, p. 769.
Henry Yule (ed.), The
Book of Ser Marco Polo, London, Murray,
1921, Volume 2, pp. 276–280.
^ Peter van der Krogt, Globi Neerlandici: The Production of Globes in
the Low Countries, Utrecht, HES Publishers, 1993, p. 64, plate
^ Andrew Sharp, The Voyages of Abel Janszoon Tasman, Oxford, Clarendon
Press, 1968, p. 25.
^ J.E. Heeres, "Abel Janszoon Tasman, His Life and Labours", Abel
Tasman's Journal, Los Angeles, 1965, pp. 137, 141–2; cited in
Andrew Sharp, The Voyages of Abel Janszoon Tasman, Oxford, Clarendon
Press, 1968, p. 24.
Continents of the world
Possible future supercontinents
Mythical and hypothesised continents
See also Regions of the world