The Crusades, including:
Siege of Ascalon (1153)
Battle of Montgisard
Battle of Montgisard (1177)
Battle of Marj Ayyun (1179)
Battle of Hattin
Battle of Hattin (1187)
Siege of Acre (1190–1191)
Battle of Arsuf
Battle of Arsuf (1191)
Siege of Al-Dāmūs
Siege of Al-Dāmūs (1210)
Battle of Legnica
Battle of Legnica (1241)
Siege of Acre (1291)
First Grand Master
Hugues de Payens
Last Grand Master
Jacques de Molay
Part of a series on the
Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ
and of the Temple of Solomon
Trials and dissolution
Omne Datum Optimum (1139)
Milites Templi (1144)
Militia Dei (1145)
Pastoralis Praeeminentiae (1307)
Faciens misericordiam (1308)
Ad providam (1312)
Vox in excelso (1312)
Supreme Order of Christ
Order of Christ
In popular culture
Military order (monastic society)
Catholic chivalric orders
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of
Christ and of the Temple of Solomon
(Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also
known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the
Knights Templar or simply
as Templars, were a
Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by
Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See. The order was
founded in 1119 and active from about 1129 to 1312.
The order, which was among the wealthiest and most powerful, became a
favoured charity throughout
Christendom and grew rapidly in membership
and power. They were prominent in Christian finance. Templar knights,
in their distinctive white mantles with a red cross, were among the
most skilled fighting units of the Crusades. Non-combatant members
of the order, who formed as much as 90% of the order's members,
managed a large economic infrastructure throughout Christendom,
developing innovative financial techniques that were an early form of
banking, building its own network of nearly 1,000 commanderies
and fortifications across Europe and the Holy Land, and arguably
forming the world's first multinational corporation.
The Templars were closely tied to the Crusades; when the
Holy Land was
lost, support for the order faded. Rumours about the Templars'
secret initiation ceremony created distrust, and King Philip IV of
France – deeply in debt to the order – took advantage of the
situation to gain control over them. In 1307, he had many of the
order's members in France arrested, tortured into giving false
confessions, and burned at the stake.
Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V disbanded the
order in 1312 under pressure from King Philip.
The abrupt reduction in power of a significant group in European
society gave rise to speculation, legend, and legacy through the ages.
The appropriation of their name by later organizations has kept the
name "Templar" alive to the present day, while helping to obscure its
1.3 Arrests, charges and dissolution
1.4 Chinon Parchment
2.1 Ranks within the order
2.1.1 Three main ranks
2.1.2 Grand Masters
2.2 Behaviour, clothing and beards
3.1 Modern organizations
3.1.1 Temperance movement
3.2 Modern popular culture
4 See also
6 Further reading
7 External links
Main article: History of the Knights Templar
After Europeans in the
First Crusade recovered
Jerusalem in 1099, many
Christians made pilgrimages to various sacred sites in the Holy Land.
Although the city of
Jerusalem was relatively secure under Christian
control, the rest of
Outremer was not. Bandits and marauding
highwaymen preyed upon pilgrims, who were routinely slaughtered,
sometimes by the hundreds, as they attempted to make the journey from
the coastline at
Jaffa through to the interior of the Holy Land.
In 1119, the French knight
Hugues de Payens
Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II
Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and proposed
creating a monastic order for the protection of these pilgrims. King
Baldwin and Patriarch Warmund agreed to the request, probably at the
Council of Nablus
Council of Nablus in January 1120, and the king granted the Templars a
headquarters in a wing of the royal palace on the
Temple Mount in the
captured Al-Aqsa Mosque. The
Temple Mount had a mystique because
it was above what was believed to be the ruins of the Temple of
Solomon. The Crusaders therefore referred to the Al-Aqsa Mosque
as Solomon's Temple, and from this location the new order took the
name of Poor Knights of
Christ and the Temple of Solomon, or "Templar"
knights. The order, with about nine knights including Godfrey de
Saint-Omer and André de Montbard, had few financial resources and
relied on donations to survive. Their emblem was of two knights riding
on a single horse, emphasising the order's poverty.
The first headquarters of the Knights Templar, on the
Temple Mount in
Jerusalem. The Crusaders called it the
Temple of Solomon
Temple of Solomon and from this
location derived their name of Templar.
The impoverished status of the Templars did not last long. They had a
powerful advocate in Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, a leading Church
figure, the French abbot primarily responsible for the founding of the
Cistercian Order of monks and a nephew of André de Montbard, one of
the founding knights. Bernard put his weight behind them and wrote
persuasively on their behalf in the letter 'In Praise of the New
Knighthood', and in 1129, at the Council of Troyes, he led a
group of leading churchmen to officially approve and endorse the order
on behalf of the church. With this formal blessing, the Templars
became a favoured charity throughout Christendom, receiving money,
land, businesses, and noble-born sons from families who were eager to
help with the fight in the Holy Land. Another major benefit came in
1139, when Pope Innocent II's papal bull
Omne Datum Optimum exempted
the order from obedience to local laws. This ruling meant that the
Templars could pass freely through all borders, were not required to
pay any taxes, and were exempt from all authority except that of the
With its clear mission and ample resources, the order grew rapidly.
Templars were often the advance shock troops in key battles of the
Crusades, as the heavily armoured knights on their warhorses would set
out to charge at the enemy, ahead of the main army bodies, in an
attempt to break opposition lines. One of their most famous victories
was in 1177 during the Battle of Montgisard, where some 500 Templar
knights helped several thousand infantry to defeat Saladin's army of
more than 26,000 soldiers.
Knight is truly a fearless knight, and secure on every side,
for his soul is protected by the armour of faith, just as his body is
protected by the armour of steel. He is thus doubly armed, and need
fear neither demons nor men."
Bernard de Clairvaux, c. 1135,
De Laude Novae Militae—In Praise of the New Knighthood
Although the primary mission of the order was militaristic, relatively
few members were combatants. The others acted in support positions to
assist the knights and to manage the financial infrastructure. The
Templar Order, though its members were sworn to individual poverty,
was given control of wealth beyond direct donations. A nobleman who
was interested in participating in the
Crusades might place all his
assets under Templar management while he was away. Accumulating wealth
in this manner throughout
Christendom and the Outremer, the order in
1150 began generating letters of credit for pilgrims journeying to the
Holy Land: pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar
preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value
of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy
Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
This innovative arrangement was an early form of banking and may have
been the first formal system to support the use of cheques; it
improved the safety of pilgrims by making them less attractive targets
for thieves, and also contributed to the Templar coffers.
Based on this mix of donations and business dealing, the Templars
established financial networks across the whole of Christendom. They
acquired large tracts of land, both in Europe and the Middle East;
they bought and managed farms and vineyards; they built massive stone
cathedrals and castles; they were involved in manufacturing, import
and export; they had their own fleet of ships; and at one point they
even owned the entire island of Cyprus. The Order of the Knights
Templar arguably qualifies as the world's first multinational
Battle of Hattin
Battle of Hattin in 1187, the turning point in the Crusades
In the mid-12th century, the tide began to turn in the Crusades. The
Muslim world had become more united under effective leaders such as
Saladin, and dissension arose amongst Christian factions in, and
concerning, the Holy Land. The
Knights Templar were occasionally at
odds with the two other Christian military orders, the Knights
Hospitaller and the Teutonic Knights, and decades of internecine feuds
weakened Christian positions, both politically and militarily. After
the Templars were involved in several unsuccessful campaigns,
including the pivotal Battle of Hattin,
Jerusalem was recaptured by
Muslim forces under
Saladin in 1187. The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick
II reclaimed the city for
Christians in the
Sixth Crusade of 1229,
without Templar aid, but only held it briefly for a little more than a
decade. In 1244, the
Ayyubid dynasty together with Khwarezmi
mercenaries recaptured Jerusalem, and the city did not return to
Western control until 1917 when the British captured it from the
Ottoman Empire in World War I.
The Templars were forced to relocate their headquarters to other
cities in the north, such as the seaport of Acre, which they held for
the next century. It was lost in 1291, followed by their last mainland
Tartus in what is now Syria) and
present-day Israel. Their headquarters then moved to
Limassol on the
island of Cyprus, and they also attempted to maintain a garrison
Arwad Island, just off the coast from Tortosa. In 1300, there
was some attempt to engage in coordinated military efforts with the
Mongols via a new invasion force at Arwad. In 1302 or 1303,
however, the Templars lost the island to the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate
in the Siege of Arwad. With the island gone, the Crusaders lost their
last foothold in the Holy Land.
With the order's military mission now less important, support for the
organization began to dwindle. The situation was complex, however,
since during the two hundred years of their existence, the Templars
had become a part of daily life throughout Christendom. The
organisation's Templar Houses, hundreds of which were dotted
throughout Europe and the Near East, gave them a widespread presence
at the local level. The Templars still managed many businesses, and
many Europeans had daily contact with the Templar network, such as by
working at a Templar farm or vineyard, or using the order as a bank in
which to store personal valuables. The order was still not subject to
local government, making it everywhere a "state within a state"—its
standing army, though it no longer had a well-defined mission, could
pass freely through all borders. This situation heightened tensions
with some European nobility, especially as the Templars were
indicating an interest in founding their own monastic state, just as
the Teutonic Knights had done in Prussia and the Knights
Hospitaller were doing in Rhodes.
Arrests, charges and dissolution
In 1305, the new Pope Clement V, based in Avignon, France, sent
letters to both the Templar Grand Master
Jacques de Molay
Jacques de Molay and the
Hospitaller Grand Master Fulk de Villaret to discuss the possibility
of merging the two orders. Neither was amenable to the idea, but Pope
Clement persisted, and in 1306 he invited both Grand Masters to France
to discuss the matter. De Molay arrived first in early 1307, but de
Villaret was delayed for several months. While waiting, De Molay and
Clement discussed criminal charges that had been made two years
earlier by an ousted Templar and were being discussed by King Philip
IV of France and his ministers. It was generally agreed that the
charges were false, but Clement sent the king a written request for
assistance in the investigation. According to some historians, King
Philip, who was already deeply in debt to the Templars from his war
with the English, decided to seize upon the rumours for his own
purposes. He began pressuring the church to take action against the
order, as a way of freeing himself from his debts.
Christ Castle in Tomar, Portugal. Built in 1160 as a
stronghold for the Knights Templar, it became the headquarters of the
renamed Order of Christ. In 1983, it was named a
UNESCO World Heritage
At dawn on Friday, 13 October 1307 (a date sometimes linked with the
origin of the
Friday the 13th
Friday the 13th superstition) King Philip IV
ordered de Molay and scores of other French Templars to be
simultaneously arrested. The arrest warrant started with the phrase:
"Dieu n'est pas content, nous avons des ennemis de la foi dans le
God is not pleased. We have enemies of the faith in the
kingdom"]. Claims were made that during Templar admissions
ceremonies, recruits were forced to spit on the Cross, deny Christ,
and engage in indecent kissing; brethren were also accused of
worshipping idols, and the order was said to have encouraged
homosexual practices. The Templars were charged with numerous
other offences such as financial corruption, fraud, and secrecy.
Many of the accused confessed to these charges under torture, and
their confessions, even though obtained under duress, caused a scandal
in Paris. The prisoners were coerced to confess that they had spat on
the Cross: "Moi, Raymond de La Fère, 21 ans, reconnais que [j'ai]
craché trois fois sur la Croix, mais de bouche et pas de cœur" (free
translation: "I, Raymond de La Fère, 21 years old, admit that I have
spat three times on the Cross, but only from my mouth and not from my
heart"). The Templars were accused of idolatry and were suspected of
worshipping either a figure known as
Baphomet or a mummified severed
head they recovered, amongst other artefacts, at their original
headquarters on the
Temple Mount that many scholars theorise might
have been that of John the Baptist, among other things.
Relenting to Phillip's demands, Pope Clement then issued the papal
Pastoralis Praeeminentiae on 22 November 1307, which instructed
all Christian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seize
their assets. Pope Clement called for papal hearings to determine
the Templars' guilt or innocence, and once freed of the Inquisitors'
torture, many Templars recanted their confessions. Some had sufficient
legal experience to defend themselves in the trials, but in 1310,
having appointed the archbishop of Sens, Philippe de Marigny, to lead
the investigation, Philip blocked this attempt, using the previously
forced confessions to have dozens of Templars burned at the stake in
With Philip threatening military action unless the pope complied with
his wishes, Pope Clement finally agreed to disband the order, citing
the public scandal that had been generated by the confessions. At the
Council of Vienne
Council of Vienne in 1312, he issued a series of papal bulls,
including Vox in excelso, which officially dissolved the order, and Ad
providam, which turned over most Templar assets to the
Templars being burned at the stake.
As for the leaders of the order, the elderly Grand Master Jacques de
Molay, who had confessed under torture, retracted his confession.
Geoffroi de Charney, Preceptor of Normandy, also retracted his
confession and insisted on his innocence. Both men were declared
guilty of being relapsed heretics, and they were sentenced to burn
alive at the stake in Paris on 18 March 1314. De Molay reportedly
remained defiant to the end, asking to be tied in such a way that he
could face the Notre Dame Cathedral and hold his hands together in
prayer. According to legend, he called out from the flames that
both Pope Clement and King Philip would soon meet him before God. His
actual words were recorded on the parchment as follows : "Dieu
sait qui a tort et a péché. Il va bientot arriver malheur à ceux
qui nous ont condamnés à mort" (free translation : "
who is wrong and has sinned. Soon a calamity will occur to those who
have condemned us to death"). Pope Clement died only a month
later, and King Philip died in a hunting accident before the end of
With the last of the order's leaders gone, the remaining Templars
around Europe were either arrested and tried under the Papal
investigation (with virtually none convicted), absorbed into other
military orders such as the Knights Hospitaller, or pensioned off and
allowed to live out their days peacefully. By papal decree, the
property of the Templars was transferred to the Knights Hospitaller,
which also absorbed many of the Templars' members. In effect, the
dissolution of the Templars could be seen as the merger of the two
rival orders. Templar organizations simply changed their name,
Knights Templar to Order of
Christ and also a parallel Supreme
Christ of the
Holy See in which both are considered the
Main article: Chinon Parchment
In September 2001, a document known as the "Chinon Parchment" dated
17–20 August 1308 was discovered in the
Vatican Secret Archives
Vatican Secret Archives by
Barbara Frale, apparently after having been filed in the wrong place
in 1628. It is a record of the trial of the Templars and shows that
Clement absolved the Templars of all heresies in 1308 before formally
disbanding the order in 1312, as did another Chinon Parchment
dated 20 August 1308 addressed to Philip IV of France, also mentioning
that all Templars that had confessed to heresy were "restored to the
Sacraments and to the unity of the Church". This other Chinon
Parchment has been well-known to historians, having been
Étienne Baluze in 1693 and by Pierre Dupuy in
The current position of the Roman
Catholic Church is that the medieval
persecution of the
Knights Templar was unjust, that nothing was
inherently wrong with the order or its rule, and that Pope Clement was
pressed into his actions by the magnitude of the public scandal and by
the dominating influence of King Philip IV, who was Clement's
Main article: List of Knights Templar
Templar chapel from the 12th century in Metz, France. Once part of the
Templar commandery of Metz, the oldest Templar institution of the Holy
The Templars were organized as a monastic order similar to Bernard's
Cistercian Order, which was considered the first effective
international organization in Europe. The organizational structure
had a strong chain of authority. Each country with a major Templar
presence (France, Poitou, Anjou, Jerusalem, England, Aragon, Portugal,
Italy, Tripoli, Antioch, Hungary, and Croatia) had a Master of the
Order for the Templars in that region.
All of them were subject to the Grand Master, appointed for life, who
oversaw both the order's military efforts in the East and their
financial holdings in the West. The Grand Master exercised his
authority via the visitors-general of the order, who were knights
specially appointed by the Grand Master and convent of
visit the different provinces, correct malpractices, introduce new
regulations, and resolve important disputes. The visitors-general had
the power to remove knights from office and to suspend the Master of
the province concerned.
No precise numbers exist, but it is estimated that at the order's peak
there were between 15,000 and 20,000 Templars, of whom about a tenth
were actual knights.
Ranks within the order
Three main ranks
There was a threefold division of the ranks of the Templars: the noble
knights, the non-noble sergeants, and the chaplains. The Templars did
not perform knighting ceremonies, so any knight wishing to become a
Knight Templar had to be a knight already. They were the most
visible branch of the order, and wore the famous white mantles to
symbolise their purity and chastity. They were equipped as heavy
cavalry, with three or four horses and one or two squires. Squires
were generally not members of the order but were instead outsiders who
were hired for a set period of time. Beneath the knights in the order
and drawn from non-noble families were the sergeants. They brought
vital skills and trades such as blacksmithing and building, and
administered many of the order's European properties. In the Crusader
States, they fought alongside the knights as light cavalry with a
single horse. Several of the order's most senior positions were
reserved for sergeants, including the post of Commander of the Vault
of Acre, who was the de facto Admiral of the Templar fleet. The
sergeants wore black or brown. From 1139, chaplains constituted a
third Templar class. They were ordained priests who cared for the
Templars' spiritual needs. All three classes of brother wore the
order's red cross.
Main article: Grand Masters of the Knights Templar
Templar building at Saint Martin des Champs, France
Starting with founder
Hugues de Payens
Hugues de Payens in 1118–1119, the order's
highest office was that of Grand Master, a position which was held for
life, though considering the martial nature of the order, this could
mean a very short tenure. All but two of the Grand Masters died in
office, and several died during military campaigns. For example,
Siege of Ascalon in 1153, Grand Master Bernard de Tremelay
led a group of 40 Templars through a breach in the city walls. When
the rest of the Crusader army did not follow, the Templars, including
their Grand Master, were surrounded and beheaded. Grand Master
Gérard de Ridefort
Gérard de Ridefort was beheaded by
Saladin in 1189 at the Siege of
The Grand Master oversaw all of the operations of the order, including
both the military operations in the
Holy Land and
Eastern Europe and
the Templars' financial and business dealings in Western Europe. Some
Grand Masters also served as battlefield commanders, though this was
not always wise: several blunders in de Ridefort's combat leadership
contributed to the devastating defeat at the Battle of Hattin. The
last Grand Master was Jacques de Molay, burned at the stake in Paris
in 1314 by order of King Philip IV.
Behaviour, clothing and beards
Representation of a
Knight Templar (
Ten Duinen Abbey
Ten Duinen Abbey museum, 2010
Depiction of two Templars seated on a horse (emphasising poverty),
with Beauséant, the "sacred banner" (or gonfanon) of the Templars,
argent a chief sable (Matthew Paris, c. 1250).
Bernard de Clairvaux and founder
Hugues de Payens
Hugues de Payens devised the specific
code of behaviour for the Templar Order, known to modern historians as
the Latin Rule. Its 72 clauses defined the ideal behaviour for the
Knights, such as the types of garments they were to wear and how many
horses they could have. Knights were to take their meals in silence,
eat meat no more than three times per week, and not have physical
contact of any kind with women, even members of their own family. A
Master of the Order was assigned "4 horses, and one chaplain-brother
and one clerk with three horses, and one sergeant brother with two
horses, and one gentleman valet to carry his shield and lance, with
one horse." As the order grew, more guidelines were added, and the
original list of 72 clauses was expanded to several hundred in its
The knights wore a white surcoat with a red cross and a white mantle
also with a red cross; the sergeants wore a black tunic with a red
cross on the front and a black or brown mantle. The white
mantle was assigned to the Templars at the
Council of Troyes in 1129,
and the cross was most probably added to their robes at the launch of
Second Crusade in 1147, when Pope Eugenius III, King Louis VII of
France, and many other notables attended a meeting of the French
Templars at their headquarters near Paris. According to
their Rule, the knights were to wear the white mantle at all times,
even being forbidden to eat or drink unless they were wearing it.
The red cross that the Templars wore on their robes was a symbol of
martyrdom, and to die in combat was considered a great honour that
assured a place in heaven. There was a cardinal rule that the
warriors of the order should never surrender unless the Templar flag
had fallen, and even then they were first to try to regroup with
another of the Christian orders, such as that of the Hospitallers.
Only after all flags had fallen were they allowed to leave the
Although not prescribed by the Templar Rule, it later became customary
for members of the order to wear long and prominent beards. In about
Alberic of Trois-Fontaines described the Templars as an "order
of bearded brethren"; while during the interrogations by the papal
commissioners in Paris in 1310–11, out of nearly 230 knights and
brothers questioned, 76 are described as wearing a beard, in some
cases specified as being "in the style of the Templars", and 133 are
said to have shaved off their beards, either in renunciation of the
order or because they had hoped to escape detection.
Initiation, known as Reception (receptio) into the order, was a
profound commitment and involved a solemn ceremony. Outsiders were
discouraged from attending the ceremony, which aroused the suspicions
of medieval inquisitors during the later trials. New members had to
willingly sign over all of their wealth and goods to the order and
take vows of poverty, chastity, piety, and obedience. Most
brothers joined for life, although some were allowed to join for a set
period. Sometimes a married man was allowed to join if he had his
wife's permission, but he was not allowed to wear the white
See also: List of places associated with the Knights Templar
Temple Church, London. As the chapel of the New Temple in London, it
was the location for Templar initiation ceremonies. In modern times it
is the parish church of the Middle and Inner Temples, two of the Inns
of Court, and a popular tourist attraction.
With their military mission and extensive financial resources, the
Knights Templar funded a large number of building projects around
Europe and the Holy Land. Many of these structures are still standing.
Many sites also maintain the name "Temple" because of centuries-old
association with the Templars. For example, some of the Templars'
lands in London were later rented to lawyers, which led to the names
of the Temple Bar gateway and the Temple Underground station. Two of
Inns of Court
Inns of Court which may call members to act as barristers are
Inner Temple and
Middle Temple – the entire area known as
Distinctive architectural elements of Templar buildings include the
use of the image of "two knights on a single horse", representing the
Knights' poverty, and round buildings designed to resemble the Church
of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
The story of the persecution and sudden dissolution of the secretive
yet powerful medieval Templars has drawn many other groups to use
alleged connections with them as a way of enhancing their own image
and mystery. The
Knights Templar were dismantled in the Rolls of
Catholic Church in 1309 with the martyrdom of Jacques de Molay;
there is no clear historical connection between them and any modern
organization, the earliest of which emerged publicly in the 18th
Main article: IOGT
Many temperance organizations named themselves after the Poor
Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, citing the
belief that the original
Knights Templar "drank sour milk, and also
because they were fighting 'a great crusade' against 'this terrible
vice' of alcohol." The largest of these, the International Order
of Good Templars (IOGT), grew throughout the world after being started
in the 19th century and continues to advocate for the abstinence of
alcohol and other drugs.
Knights Templar (Freemasonry)
Freemasonry has incorporated the symbols and rituals of several
medieval military orders in a number of
Masonic bodies since the 18th
century at least. This can be seen in the "Red
Constantine," inspired by the Military Constantinian Order; the "Order
of Malta," inspired by the Knights Hospitaller; and the "Order of the
Temple", inspired by the Knights Templar. The Orders of Malta and the
Temple feature prominently in the York Rite. One theory on the origin
Freemasonry claims direct descent from the historical Knights
Templar through its final fourteenth-century members who allegedly
took refuge in
Scotland and aided
Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce in his victory at
Bannockburn. This theory is usually rejected by both Masonic
authorities and historians due to lack of evidence.
Modern popular culture
Knights Templar in popular culture
Knights Templar have become associated with legends concerning
secrets and mysteries handed down to the select from ancient times.
Rumours circulated even during the time of the Templars themselves.
Masonic writers added their own speculations in the 18th century, and
further fictional embellishments have been added in popular novels
such as Ivanhoe, Foucault's Pendulum, and The Da Vinci Code, modern
movies such as National Treasure, The Last Templar, and Indiana Jones
and the Last Crusade, as well as video games such as
Broken Sword and
Beginning in the 1960s, there have been speculative popular
publications surrounding the order's early occupation of the Temple
Jerusalem and speculation about what relics the Templars may
have found there, such as the
Holy Grail or the Ark of the
Covenant, or the historical accusation of idol worship (Baphomet)
transformed into a context of "witchcraft".
The association of the
Holy Grail with the Templars has precedents
even in 12th century fiction; Wolfram von Eschenbach's
the knights guarding the Grail Kingdom templeisen, apparently a
conscious fictionalisation of the templarii.
List of Knights Templar sites
^ as reproduced in T. A. Archer, The Crusades: The Story of the Latin
Jerusalem (1894), p. 176. The design with the two knights
on a horse and the inscription SIGILLVM MILITVM XRISTI is attested in
1191, see Jochen Burgtorf, The Central Convent of Hospitallers and
Templars: History, Organization, and Personnel (1099/1120–1310),
Volume 50 of History of Warfare (2008), ISBN 978-90-04-16660-8,
^ a b c Burman, p. 45.
^ a b c d Barber, in Supplying the Crusader States, says: "By Molay's
time the Grand Master was presiding over at least 970 houses,
including commanderies and castles in the east and west, serviced by a
membership which is unlikely to have been less than 7,000, excluding
employees and dependents, who must have been seven or eight times that
^ Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the
Temple. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-42041-5.
^ Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the
Temple. Cambridge University Press, 1996. Page xxi–xxii.
^ a b c d e The History Channel, Decoding the Past: The Templar Code,
7 November 2005, video documentary written by Marcy Marzuni.
^ Selwood, Dominic (2002). Knights of the Cloister. Templars and
Hospitallers in Central-Southern Occitania 1100–1300. Woodbridge:
The Boydell Press. ISBN 0851158285.
^ Martin, p. 47.
^ Nicholson, p. 4.
^ a b c d The History Channel, Lost Worlds: Knights Templar, 10 July
2006, video documentary written and directed by Stuart Elliott.
^ a b Ralls, Karen (2007).
Knights Templar Encyclopedia. Career Press.
p. 28. ISBN 978-1-56414-926-8.
^ Miller, Duane (2017). 'Knights Templar' in War and Religion, Vol. 2.
Santa Barbara, California: ABC–CLIO. pp. 462–464. Retrieved
28 May 2017.
^ Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars. Cambridge University
Press, 1978. ISBN 0-521-45727-0.
^ Burman, pp. 13, 19.
^ Selwood, Dominic. "Birth of the Order". Retrieved 20 April
^ Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 7.
^ Read, The Templars. p. 91.
^ Selwood, Dominic. "The
Knights Templar 4: St Bernard of Clairvaux".
Retrieved 29 May 2013.
^ Selwood, Dominic (1996). 'Quidam autem dubitaverunt: the Saint, the
Sinner and a Possible Chronology', in Autour de la Première Croisade.
Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne. pp. 221–230.
^ Burman, p. 40.
^ Stephen A. Dafoe. "In Praise of the New Knighthood".
TemplarHistory.com. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
^ a b Sean Martin, The Knights Templar: The History & Myths of the
Legendary Military Order, 2005. ISBN 1-56025-645-1.
^ Benson, Michael (2005). Inside Secret Societies. Kensington
Publishing Corp. p. 90.
^ Martin, p. 99.
^ Martin, p. 113.
^ Demurger, p.139 "During four years,
Jacques de Molay
Jacques de Molay and his order
were totally committed, with other Christian forces of
Armenia, to an enterprise of reconquest of the Holy Land, in liaison
with the offensives of Ghazan, the Mongol Khan of Persia.
^ Nicholson, p. 201. "The Templars retained a base on
(also known as Ruad island, formerly Arados) off
until October 1302 or 1303, when the island was recaptured by the
^ Nicholson, p. 5.
^ Nicholson, p. 237.
^ Barber, Trial of the Templars, 2nd ed. "Recent Historiography on the
Dissolution of the Temple". In the second edition of his book, Barber
summarises the views of many different historians, with an overview of
the modern debate on Philip's precise motives.
^ "Convent of
Christ in Tomar". World Heritage Site. Archived from the
original on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
^ "Friday the 13th". snopes.com. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
^ David Emery. "Why
Friday the 13th
Friday the 13th is unlucky".
urbanlegends.about.com. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
^ a b "Les derniers jours des Templiers". Science et Avenir: 52–61.
^ Riley-Smith, Johnathan (1995). The Oxford Illustrated History of the
Crusades. Oxford: Oxford Press. p. 213.
^ Barber, Trial of the Templars, p. 178.
^ Edgeller, Johnathan (2010). Taking the Templar Habit: Rule,
Initiation Ritual, and the Accusations against the Order (PDF). Texas
Tech University. pp. 62–66. Archived from the original (PDF) on
30 April 2011.
^ Martin, p. 118.
^ Martin, p. 122.
^ Sobecki, p. 963.
^ a b Barber, Trial, 1978, p. 3.
^ Martin, pp. 123–124.
^ Martin, p. 125.
^ Martin, p. 140.
Malcolm Barber has researched this legend and concluded that it
originates from La Chronique métrique attribuée à Geffroi de Paris,
ed. A. Divèrres, Strasbourg, 1956, pages 5711–5742. Geoffrey of
Paris was "apparently an eye-witness, who describes de Molay as
showing no sign of fear and, significantly, as telling those present
God would avenge their deaths". Barber, The Trial of The
Templars, page 357, footnote 110, Second edition (Cambridge University
Press, 2006). ISBN 0-521-67236-8
^ In The New Knighthood Barber referred to a variant of this legend,
about how an unspecified Templar had appeared before and denounced
Clement V and, when he was about to be executed sometime later, warned
that both Pope and King would "within a year and a day be obliged to
explain their crimes in the presence of God", found in the work by
Ferretto of Vicenza, Historia rerum in Italia gestarum ab anno 1250 ad
annum usque 1318 (Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood, pages 314–315,
Cambridge University Press, 1994). ISBN 0-521-55872-7
^ a b Moeller
^ a b José Vicente de Bragança, The Military Order of
Christ and the
Papal Croce di Cristo
^ Martin, pp. 140–142.
^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Order of the Knights of
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
^ Matthew Anthony Fitzsimons; Jean Bécarud (1969). The Catholic
Church today: Western Europe. University of Notre Dame Press.
^ Helen J. Nicholson (1 January 2004). The Crusades. Greenwood
Publishing Group. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-313-32685-1.
^ "Note of Clarification from the Secretariat of State". news.va.
Pontifical Council for Social Communication. 16 October 2012.
Retrieved 27 November 2012. Vatican City,(VIS)-
^ Noonan, Jr., James-Charles (1996). The Church Visible: The
Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman
Catholic Church. Viking.
p. 196. ISBN 0-670-86745-4.
^ Robert Ferguson (26 August 2011). The
Knights Templar and Scotland.
History Press Limited. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7524-6977-5.
^ Jochen Burgtorf; Paul F. Crawford; Helen J. Nicholson (28 June
2013). The Debate on the Trial of the Templars (1307–1314). Ashgate
Publishing, Ltd. p. 298. ISBN 978-1-4094-8102-7.
^ "Long-lost text lifts cloud from Knights Templar". msn.com. 12
October 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
^ Charles d' Aigrefeuille, Histoire de la ville de Montpellier, Volume
2, page 193 (Montpellier: J. Martel, 1737–1739).
^ Sophia Menache, Clement V, page 218, 2002 paperback edition
ISBN 0-521-59219-4 (Cambridge University Press, originally
published in 1998).
^ Germain-François Poullain de Saint-Foix, Oeuvres complettes de M.
de Saint-Foix, Historiographe des Ordres du Roi, page 287, Volume 3
(Maestricht: Jean-Edme Dupour & Philippe Roux,
Imprimeurs-Libraires, associés, 1778).
^ Étienne Baluze, Vitae Paparum Avenionensis, 3 Volumes (Paris,
^ Pierre Dupuy, Histoire de l'Ordre Militaire des Templiers (Foppens,
Knights Templar secrets revealed". CNN. 12 October 2007. Archived
from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
^ Frale, Barbara (2004). "The Chinon chart—Papal absolution to the
last Templar, Master Jacques de Molay". Journal of Medieval History.
30 (2): 109–134. doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2004.03.004. Retrieved 1
^ Burman, p. 28.
^ Barber, Trial, 1978, p. 10.
^ International, American. "The
Knights Templar and Knights
Hospitaller". www.medievalwarfare.info. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
^ Selwood, Dominic. "The
Knights Templar 1: The Knights". Retrieved 12
^ The Rule of the Templars. p. article 17.
^ Barber, New Knighthood, p. 190.
^ Martin, p. 54.
^ Selwood, Dominic. "The Knights Templars 2: Sergeants, Women,
Chaplains, Affiliates". Retrieved 12 April 2013.
^ Read, p. 137.
Knights Templar [...] carried white shields with red crosses
but [their] sacred banner, Beauséant, was white with a black chief"
"Flags and standards", Colum Hourihane (ed.), The Grove Encyclopedia
of Medieval Art and Architecture, Volume 1 (2012), p. 514.
^ Burman, p. 43.
^ Burman, pp. 30–33.
^ Martin, p. 32.
^ Barber, New Knighthood, p. 191.
^ a b Burman, p. 44.
^ Barber, The New Knighthood, page 66: "According to William of Tyre
it was under Eugenius III that the Templars received the right to wear
the characteristic red cross upon their tunics, symbolising their
willingness to suffer martyrdom in the defence of the Holy Land." (WT,
12.7, p. 554. James of Vitry, 'Historia Hierosolimatana', ed. J. ars,
Gesta Dei per Francos, vol I(ii), Hanover, 1611, p. 1083, interprets
this as a sign of martyrdom.)
^ Martin, The Knights Templar, page 43: "The Pope conferred on the
Templars the right to wear a red cross on their white mantles, which
symbolised their willingness to suffer martyrdom in defending the Holy
Land against the infidel."
^ Read, The Templars, page 121: "Pope Eugenius gave them the right to
wear a scarlet cross over their hearts, so that the sign would serve
triumphantly as a shield and they would never turn away in the face of
the infidels': the red blood of the martyr was superimposed on the
white of the chaste." (Melville, La Vie des Templiers, p. 92.)
^ Burman, p. 46.
^ Nicholson, p. 141.
^ Barber, New Knighthood, p. 193.
^ Harris, Oliver D. (2013). "Beards: true and false". Church
Monuments. 28: 124–32 (124–5).
^ Nicholson 2001, pp. 48, 124–27.
^ Martin, p. 52.
^ Newman, Sharan (2007). The Real History Behind the Templars.
Berkeley Publishing. pp. 304–312.
^ Barber, Trial, 1978, p. 4.
^ Martin, p. 58.
^ Ruggeri, Amanda. "The hidden world of the Knights Templar".
^ Barber, New Knighthood (1994), pp. 194–195
^ Finlo Rohrer (19 October 2007). "What are the
Knights Templar up to
now?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
^ The Mythology Of The Secret Societies (London: Secker and Warburg,
1972). ISBN 0-436-42030-9
^ Peter Partner, The Murdered Magicians: The Templars And Their Myth
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982). ISBN 0-19-215847-3
^ John Walliss, Apocalyptic Trajectories: Millenarianism and Violence
In The Contemporary World, page 130 (Bern: Peter Lang AG, European
Academic Publishers, 2004). ISBN 3-03910-290-7
^ Michael Haag, Templars: History and Myth: From
Solomon's Temple To
The Freemasons (Profile Books Ltd, 2009). ISBN 978-1-84668-153-0
^ a b Nicholson, Helen (2014). A Brief History of the Knights Templar.
Little, Brown. p. 151. ISBN 9781472117878.
Knights Templar FAQ, accessed 10 January 2007.
Freemasonry Today periodical (Issue January 2002)". Grand Lodge
Publications Ltd. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011.
^ Miller, Duane (2017). 'Knights Templar' in War and Religion, Vol 2.
Santa Barbara, California: ABC–CLIO. p. 464. Retrieved 28 May
^ Magy Seif El-Nasr; Maha Al-Saati; Simon Niedenthal; David Milam.
"Assassin's Creed: A Multi-Cultural Read" (PDF). pp. 6–7.
Retrieved 2009-10-01. we interviewed Jade Raymond ... Jade says ...
Templar Treasure was ripe for exploring. What did the Templars
find CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Louis Charpentier, Les Mystères de la Cathédrale de Chartres
(Paris: Robert Laffont, 1966), translated The Mysteries of Chartres
Cathedral (London: Research Into Lost Knowledge Organization, 1972).
^ Sanello, Frank (2003). The Knights Templars: God's Warriors, the
Devil's Bankers. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 207–208.
^ Martin, p. 133. Helmut Brackert, Stephan Fuchs (eds.), Titurel,
Walter de Gruyter, 2002, p. 189. There is no evidence of any actual
connection of the historical Templars with the Grail, nor any claim on
the part of any Templar to have discovered such a relig. See Karen
Knights Templar Encyclopedia: The Essential Guide to the
People, Places, Events and Symbols of the Order of the Temple, page
156 (The Career Press, Inc., 2007). ISBN 978-1-56414-926-8
Isle of Avalon, Lundy. "The Rule of the
Knights Templar A Powerful
Champion" The Knights Templar. Mystic Realms, 2010. Web. 30 May 2010.
Barber, Malcolm (1994). The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of
the Temple. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barber, Malcolm (1993). The Trial of the Templars (1 ed.). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45727-0.
Barber, Malcolm (2006). The Trial of the Templars (2 ed.). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67236-8.
Barber, Malcolm (1992). "Supplying the Crusader States: The Role of
the Templars". In Benjamin Z. Kedar. The Horns of Hattin. Jerusalem
and London. pp. 314–326.
Barrett, Jim (1996). "Science and the Shroud: Microbiology meets
archaeology in a renewed quest for answers". The Mission. University
of Texas Health Science Center (Spring). Retrieved 2008-12-25.
Burman, Edward (1990). The Templars: Knights of God. Rochester:
Destiny Books. ISBN 0-89281-221-4.
Mario Dal Bello, Gli Ultimi Giorni dei Templari, Città Nuova, 2013,
Frale, Barbara (2004). "The Chinon chart – Papal absolution to
the last Templar, Master Jacques de Molay". Journal of Medieval
History. 30 (2): 109. doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2004.03.004.
Hietala, Heikki (1996). "The Knights Templar: Serving
God with the
Sword". Renaissance Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 October
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Marcy Marzuni (2005). Decoding the Past: The Templar Code (Video
documentary). The History Channel.
Stuart Elliott (2006). Lost Worlds:
Knights Templar (Video
documentary). The History Channel.
Martin, Sean (2005). The Knights Templar: The History & Myths of
the Legendary Military Order. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press.
Moeller, Charles (1912). "Knights Templars". In Herbermann,
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Berkley Trade. ISBN 978-0-425-21533-3.
Nicholson, Helen (2001). The Knights Templar: A New History. Stroud:
Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-2517-5.
Picknett, Lynn; Clive Prince (1998). The Templar Revelation. New York:
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Read, Piers (2001). The Templars. New York: Da Capo Press.
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Sinner. and a Possible Chronology' in Autour de la Première
Croisade,. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne.
Selwood, Dominic. “The
Knights Templar 1: The Knights (2013)
Selwood, Dominic. “The
Knights Templar 2: Sergeants, Women,
Chaplains, Affiliates (2013)
Selwood, Dominic. “The
Knights Templar 3: Birth of the Order (2013)
Selwood, Dominic. “The
Knights Templar 4: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
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Knights Templar at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
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