A telenovela is a type of a limited-run television serial drama or
soap opera A soap opera is a radio or television serial dealing especially with domestic situations and frequently characterized by melodrama, ensemble casts, and sentimentality. The term "soap opera" originated from radio dramas originally being sponsored by ...
produced primarily in Latin America. The word combines ''tele'' (for "television") and ''novela'' (meaning "novel"). Similar genres around the world include
teleserye#REDIRECT Philippine television drama Teleserye ...
téléroman A téléroman ("telenovel") is a genre of French-language drama television series in Canada, similar to a soap opera or a Spanish language telenovela. In France, the ''téléroman'' genre is known as feuilleton télévisé (similar to a serial). ''T ...
(Canada, specifically
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), or simply dramas (rest of Asia including West Asia/the Middle East). Japan also has Renzoku Terebi Shōsetsu (連続テレビ小説, literally "serial TV novel") which is similar in naming but has some distinct features. Commonly described using the American colloquialism Spanish soap opera, many telenovelas share some stylistic and thematic similarities to the soap opera familiar to the English-speaking world. The significant difference is their series run length; telenovelas tell one self-contained story, typically within the span of a year or less whereas soap operas tend to have intertwined storylines told during indefinite, continuing runs. This makes them shorter than most other
television series upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set which can be broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, - excluding breaking news, advertise ...
, but still much longer than a
miniseries A miniseries (or mini-series) is a television show that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes. The term "serial" and/or "series" is used in the United Kingdom and in other Commonwealth nations, though its meaning does not n ...
. This planned run results in a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to a typical soap opera. Episodes of telenovelas usually last between 30 and 45 minutes, and rarely more than an hour, except for final episodes. The telenovela combines drama with the 19th-century ''
feuilleton A feuilleton (; a diminutive of french: feuillet, the leaf of a book) was originally a kind of supplement attached to the political portion of French newspapers, consisting chiefly of non-political news and gossip, literature and art criticism, a c ...
'', and naturally evolved from the Latin American
radionovela A radionovela (also known as serial radiofónico or simply serial) is a type of radio drama first broadcast in Latin America in the early 20th century. Radionovelas are typically melodramas or soap operas which are issued in chapters, in contrast to ...
, according to
Blanca de Lizaur Maria Blanca de Lizaur Guerra (born 1966), commonly known as Blanca de Lizaur, is a writer and researcher specialized in cultural studies, communications and literature. She was born in Mexico City, Mexico, to Spanish parents. She has a doctorate ...
. The medium has been used frequently by authorities in various countries to transmit sociocultural messages by incorporating them into storylines. By the 1950s, Brazil becomes one of the first countries to produce novelas with high budgets and aimed both to the national and international markets. Mexico follows right after and by the 1970s and 1980s, the country starts to engage more profusely in using telenovelas to shape behavior, particularly successful in introducing the idea of family planning. Mexico and Brazil as pioneer markets for novela production, in the 1990s played a key role in the international export of telenovelas, thus the so-called 'Telenovela Craze' that spread in many regions in the world until today. By 2018 some signs of fading popularity had emerged.


Brazil is considered the pioneer of the telenovela genre. In 1951 Brazil produced ''
Sua vida me pertence#REDIRECT Sua Vida Me Pertence {{R from other capitalisation ...
'' ("Your Life Belongs to Me"), the first telenovela in the world. In 1952 Cuba released ''
Senderos de amor Philippe Sylvain Senderos (born 14 February 1985) is a Swiss retired professional footballer who played as a defender. Senderos began his career at Servette, before moving to England as a teenager with Arsenal. He made 116 appearances over seven ...
'' ("Paths of Love") and Mexico released ''Ángeles de la calle'' ("Angels of the Street"), shown once a week. Between 1957 and 1958 Mexico produced its first drama serial in the modern telenovela format of Monday to Friday slots, ''Senda prohibida'' ("Forbidden Path"), written by Fernanda Villeli. The first global telenovela was ''Los ricos también lloran'' ("The Rich Also Cry", Mexico, 1979), which was exported to Russia, China, the United States and other countries.


Telenovelas tend to fall within these seven categories: *Working-class melodrama, which is the most popular to date, easy to understand and contains less explicit content. This is heavily reliant of the common rags-to-riches plot, typically featuring a poor woman who falls in love with a rich man whose family spurns her, such as the ''Las Tres Marias'' ("Maria Trilogy", 1992, 1994 and 1995). *Historical romance is set in the past, such as the colonial period (''Martín Garatuza'', 1986), the restoration of the Republic (''El carruaje'' "The Carriage", 1972), the late 19th Century (''El vuelo del águila'' "The Flight of The Eagle", 1994) the Mexican Revolution (''Bodas de odio'' "Weddings of Hate", 1982), and the 20th-century military dictatorships (such as ''Anos Rebeldes'' "Rebellious Years", 1992) *Teen drama, which portrays the lives of high school teenagers and their issues with sex, drugs and other coming-of-age topics. This genre started with ''Quinceañera'' in 1987. *Mystery/thriller is a category of telenovela that is more cold-hearted than the other subgenres. It may portray a mysterious death or disappearance, which may tear couples, even families apart, such as ''Cuna de Lobos'' ("Wolves Crib"), ''La Casa al Final de la Calle'' ("The House at the Street End"), ''La Mujer de Judas'' ("The Woman of Judas"), ''¿Dónde está Elisa?'' ("Where's Elisa?"), ''El Rostro de la Venganza'' ("The Face of Revenge") or ''La Casa de al Lado'' ("The House Next Door"). Chile has produced this genre. *Horror is a subgenre of telenovelas that is rarer than the rest, it can deal with anything of the Horror fiction, horror genre, but the majority of these telenovelas deal with the themes of the supernatural like demons, witchcraft, ghosts, and the occult, they're one of the only subgenres that uses special effects. It always portrays the main protagonist trying to find out the truth while at the sametime confronting frightening events and the main antagonist which is always a witch or warlock, demon, evil or vengeful ghost, or the devil itself such as El maleficio, El Extraño Retorno de Diana Salazar, and La chacala. *Romantic comedy, which portrays love stories with some or much comedy such as ''Las tontas no van al cielo'' "Fools Don't Go to Heaven" or ''Yo soy Betty, la fea'' (the most successful telenovela in history). *Pop band story portrays the lives of aspiring popstars such as in ''Alcanzar una estrella'' ("Reaching a Star", 1990) and its sequel ''Alcanzar una estrella II'' (1991), as well as ''Rebelde (Mexican telenovela), Rebelde'' (2004), which spawned a multi-platinum pop group, RBD. Some, though not all, of these type of telenovelas are geared towards a teenage and/or pre-teen audience. *Narcotraffic Recently narcotrafficer telenovelas have become frequently presented. Besides these, another category of serial that has become popular in recent years is the youth telenovela, which borrow some elements of the teen drama format but are usually more family-oriented in structure, contain comedic elements and sometimes maintain a high concept or supernatural plotline (such as ''11:11: En mi cuadra, nada cuadra'' and ''Chica vampiro''). Telenovelas have geographically diverged into two major groups – the Latinovelas, and the Asianovelas, portmanteaus of Latin and Asian with ''novelas''. Telenovelas, in particular, are the most popular non-English-speaking scripted forms of entertainment in the world to date. The Latinovelas, made in Spain, Portugal, and the Americas, are widely popular in Latin America and other Iberian-speaking countries including Brazil, Spain, Portugal, the Philippines, and East Timor, and in Hispanic and Latino American, Hispanic Spanish-speaking communities in the United States. They also have a huge following in Europe's Mediterranean and eastern borders, as well as in Asia and Oceania. Latinovelas are primarily responsible for the telenovela trend in regions outside of Latin America, which is known as the biggest producer of telenovelas up until the early 2000s. The Asianovelas, made in South Korea, Turkey/West Asia and the Philippines, are currently dominating television programming through most of Africa and Eurasia, and have recently made inroads in the Latinovelas-dominated television in the Americas. In the Arab world, telenovelas are very popular with families taking breaks during the day from midday onward to watch these shows, whose content often reflects many of the moral and social issues faced in cultures like Morocco, Algeria and Egypt. The medium has been used repeatedly to transmit sociocultural messages by incorporating them into storylines.

Millennial telenovela

In the 2010s, the terms "millennial telenovela" and "modern telenovela" have been coined to describe an emerging genre related to the telenovela. Based in the same culture, the target audience is much younger (the millennials); the typical storylines and melodrama were recreated to better appeal to this demographic. Commenters have written that a millennial telenovela will contain many of the following themes: it fits into contemporary politics and culture; has positive representations of LGBT+ people when present; features themes of female empowerment and the sexualization of the male body; involves use of social media; presents characters of moral ambiguity rather than in black and white, and with more complexity; contains intentionally comedic moments; and is centered on an unconventional family. Though the term "millennial telenovela" was first used in 2016 when BuzzFeed and Telemundo co-produced a short series to cater for the emerging Latin American millennial market, it became more widely used in 2018 after the success of the Netflix black comedy The House of Flowers (TV series), ''The House of Flowers''. The development of the genre may be a response to a controversial market practice of importing telenovelas to US channels, with a Univision and Televisa deal having to be renegotiated when traditional telenovelas fell in popularity around 2016; at this point, the majority of Hispanic people in the US were millennials, and "drawn to edgier and more fast-paced programs than traditional telenovelas." Though Univision did not start making its own hybrid shows, they began investing in online and multimedia programming, and bought into Netflix's original Mexican programming. ;Series described as millennial telenovelas * ''Jane the Virgin'' * ''Much Ado About Nada'' * The House of Flowers (TV series), ''The House of Flowers'' * ''Luis Miguel: The Series''

Major producers of telenovelas

Some of the world's major producers of telenovelas include the following: *North America **United States ***Telemundo, Univision **Canada ***Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, CBC (Ici Radio-Canada Télé), TVA (Canadian TV network), TVA, Noovo, TFO *Latin America **Argentina ***Telefe, Artear, Ideas del Sur, Pol-Ka **Brazil ***Rede Globo, Globo, RecordTV, Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão, SBT, Rede Bandeirantes, Band, Rede Manchete, Manchete (defunct), Rede Tupi, Tupi (defunct) and Rede Excelsior, Excelsior (defunct) **Chile ***Televisión Nacional de Chile, TVN, Canal 13 (Chilean TV channel), Canal 13, Mega (Chilean TV channel), Mega, Chilevisión **Colombia ***Caracol Televisión, Caracol, RTI Producciones, RTI, RCN Televisión, RCN **Ecuador ***Ecuavisa, TC Televisión **Mexico ***Televisa, TV Azteca, Argos Comunicación **Peru ***América Televisión, Andina de Televisión, ATV, Inka Visión **Puerto Rico ***WAPA-TV, WKAQ-TV **Venezuela ***Venevisión, RCTV, Marte TV, Venezolana de Televisión, VTV, Televen *Europe **Spain ***Telecinco, Antena 3 (Spanish TV channel), Antena 3, EITB (in Basque language, Basque), TV3 (Catalonia), TV3 (in Catalan Language, Catalan) **Portugal ***Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, RTP, Televisão Independente, TVI, Sociedade Independente de Comunicação, SIC **Germany ***ARD (broadcaster), ARD (Das Erste), ZDF, ProSieben, Sat.1, RTL (German TV channel), RTL **Croatia ***Hrvatska radiotelevizija, HRT, RTL (Croatian TV channel), RTL, Nova TV (Croatia), Nova TV **Serbia ***Radio Television of Serbia, RTS, RTV BK Telecom, BK TV, Prva Srpska Televizija, Prva, Pink (Serbia), Pink **Russia ***Channel One Russia, STS (TV channel), STS, NTV (Russia), NTV, VGTRK, Peretz (Russian TV channel), Peretz, TNT (Russian TV channel), TNT, REN TV, TV-3 (Russia), TV-3 *Asia **Philippines ***ABS-CBN, GMA Network, GMA, TV5 (Philippine TV network), TV5 **East Timor ***Radio-Televisão Timor Leste, RTTL **Turkey ***Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, TRT, Kanal D, ATV (Turkish TV channel), Star TV, ATV (Turkey), ATV, Show TV, Kanal 7, TV8 (Turkish TV channel), TV8, Samanyolu TV (defunct) **South Korea ***Korean Broadcasting System, KBS, Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation, MBC, Seoul Broadcasting System, SBS, TVN (South Korean TV channel), tvN, OCN (TV channel), OCN, JTBC, Channel A (TV channel), Channel A, Maeil Broadcasting Network, MBN, TV Chosun **Thailand ***Channel 3 (Thailand), Channel 3, Channel 7 (Thai TV channel), Channel 7, Channel 8 (Thai TV channel), Channel 8, One 31, GMM 25 **Pakistan ***Hum TV, Geo TV, Geo Entertainment, Pakistan Television Corporation, PTV **India ***Zee TV, &TV, Zee Bangla, Zee Punjabi, Zee Telugu, Zee Kannada, Zee Tamil, ZEE5, Zindagi (TV channel), Zindagi Sony Entertainment Television, Sony SAB, Colors TV, Colors Bangla, Colors Marathi, Colors Tamil, DD Metro, DD National, StarPlus, Hotstar, Life OK, Star One (Indian TV channel), Star One, Star Vijay, Star Bharat, Star Jalsha, Sun TV (India), Sun TV, Sahara One, Gemini TV, Imagine TV, ALTBalaji, Asianet (TV channel), Asianet

Telenovelas by country


Argentina's telenovelas generally focus on melodramatic twists of traditional middle class life, with touches of comedy. Many telenovelas are broadcast by the main television networks, Canal 13 (Argentina), Canal 13 and Telefe. Many popular "youth telenovelas", aimed primarily at children and teenagers, are produced in Argentina. Several youth telenovelas have become hits in other countries, where they have been Remake#Television, remade or rebroadcast. Some well known youth telenovelas include ''Chiquititas'' ("Tiny Angels"), ''Rebelde Way'', ''Floricienta'', Muñeca Brava ("Wild Angel"), Violetta (telenovela), Violetta and ''Patito Feo'' ("Ugly Duckling").


:''See Red ATB, Bolivisión, Unitel Bolivia, Safipro and TeleArte.'' In Bolivia, themes of drama, romance, music, natural landscapes, remote situations and adventure are common. Some are based on novels, historical and factual events. Such melodramas produced in Bolivia include ''Las Tres Perfectas Solteras (TV series), Las Tres Perfectas Solteras'', ''Indira (TV series), Indira'', ''Tierra Adentro (TV series), Tierra Adentro'', ''La Virgen de las Siete Calles (TV series), La Virgen de las 7 calles'', ''Luna de Locos (TV series), Luna de Locos'' and ''Tres de Nosotras''. The country has made over 15 telenovelas so far, and most of the productions take place in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. The majority of telenovelas shown on domestic television networks are international productions (imported from Brazil, Colombia, Argentina and Mexico). A lot of Bolivian telenovelas are produced by independent producers, since many producers are more dedicated to the country's film industry.


:''See Rede Globo, RecordTV, Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão, Rede Bandeirantes, Rede Manchete and Rede Tupi'' Brazilian telenovelas (more often "novelas") are both more realistic and apt to broach controversial subjects. These programs tend to showcase realistic depictions of middle class, working class and upper class individuals in society. Brazilian productions are the highest-budget telenovelas in South America. ''Escrava Isaura (1976 TV series), Escrava Isaura'' (1976) was a major hit in South America, the Eastern Bloc, Africa and China. ''Novelas'' usually last six to eight months at most in Brazil. One of the longest-running telenovelas in the country, however, is the teen-oriented ''Malhação'' (''Young Hearts''), which has aired since 1995; as such, it is commonly classified as an Western-format
soap opera A soap opera is a radio or television serial dealing especially with domestic situations and frequently characterized by melodrama, ensemble casts, and sentimentality. The term "soap opera" originated from radio dramas originally being sponsored by ...
instead. Brazilian telenovelas often have convoluted subplots involving three or four different settings. Usually, there is a rich setting, a poor setting and one or more settings in which the characters of both settings can interact. There is no clear-cut line between "good" and "evil" characters, with protagonists often displaying weaknesses such as promiscuity, drinking, Substance abuse, drug abuse, stupidity and excessive ambition, among others. Antagonists equally show positive features or motivations, including abuses suffered in the past, family problems and poverty. It is not uncommon for a villain to attract the sympathy of the public, or even to have their storylines conclude with a satisfactory ending. For instance, in the novela ''Belíssima'' ("Most Beautiful") in 2006, villainess Bia Falcão (played by Fernanda Montenegro) escaped a police siege and fled to France, where she settled with a boyfriend, living using Swiss bank#Banking privacy, a secret bank account in Switzerland that she had maintained prior. As well as this, it is not uncommon for a hero to be relegated to a secondary role due to an actor's lack of charisma. Besides the convoluted plots, Brazilian telenovelas also approach sensitive social issues and try to present some of the country's actual culture, occasionally in an idealized way. Another important characteristic of Brazilian telenovelas is that they rely less on individual stars than other South American works. A Brazilian telenovela may have a permanent cast of more than 40 actors, of which some seven or eight are considered "central" to the show. The chief reason for this is that telenovelas are not shot in advance (instead chapters are shot around two weeks before their airdate) so that they can respond to public reaction. Under this scheme, the occasional death or poor performance of the actor playing the main character may turn the production into a flop, which happened with the 1982 telenovela ''Sol de Verão'' ("Summer Sun") after the death of main star Jardel Filho and in 2016, in ''Velho Chico'' ("Old Frank", nickname for São Francisco River), after the death of lead-actor Domingos Montagner.


:''See Culture of Quebec, Television of Quebec and Television in Canada'' In Canada, telenovelas are known as ''téléromans'' in French and are a part of the Culture of Quebec, culture of the Francophone province of Quebec. Nearly all television stations in the country that broadcast in the French language carry téléromans. The first téléroman was ''La famille Plouffe'' ("The Plouffe Family"), which was broadcast on Ici Radio-Canada Télé, Radio-Canada in the 1950s. The téléroman was created during the earliest days of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's CBC Television, television network, when CBC was the only television network in Canada (as per the 1949 Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences, Massey Commission). Whereas theoretically, CBC's main English-language television network could broadcast English-language shows from American stations (and also was forced to compete with U.S. television networks), CBC's Radio-Canada network had to develop its own programmes for French-Canadian viewers. As a consequence, Francophone television in Canada developed differently from Anglophone television. In 2003, Ontario's provincial French-language Public broadcasting, public television service, TFO, began broadcasting the first Franco-Ontarian téléroman, ''Francoeur''. Beginning with its Degrassi (season 10), tenth season in 2010, ''Degrassi: The Next Generation'' was produced and broadcast in a style similar to the telenovelas format. This lasted until episode 21 of the twelfth season in 2012. ''Degrassi: Next Class'' also adapts this format for its broadcast on Family Channel (Canadian TV network), Family Channel.


Chilean telenovelas typically focus on both traditional drama and middle-class life, with some touches of comedy. Often, these programs show life outside of Santiago, the capital, like with the TVN novela ''Iorana'' (which took place on Easter Island). Telenovelas in the country are usually produced and broadcast by Canal 13 (Chile), Canal 13, and the public broadcaster Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN), which debut their main telenovelas in March each year with a few days between their premiere dates, which have led marketing to a "telenovela war" of sorts. Lately, other Chilean television networks such as Red Televisiva Megavisión, Mega and Chilevisión are joining the so-called "telenovela war". Many of the most successful telenovelas in Chile are set in a historical era such as ''Pampa Ilusión'' (1935), ''El Señor de la Querencia'' (1920), ''Los Pincheira'' (1918), ''Secretos en el jardín'' (1981) or ''Perdona Nuestros pecados'' (1953–1961).


:''See Caracol TV, RTI Colombia, and RCN TV'' Colombian telenovelas such as ''Betty la fea'' ("Betty, the ugly one") often focus on comedic storylines. However, some are of a more realistic vein or are adaptations of novels. The first Colombian telenovela was ''El 0597 está ocupado'', produced in 1959 by the ''programadora'' Producciones PUNCH. From then until the late 1990s arrival of private television in the country, a variety of ''programadoras'' produced and aired their own telenovelas, such as those from Colombiana de Televisión, TeVecine, Cenpro Televisión (the producer of ''Perro amor (Colombian TV series), Perro amor'', which was popular in the late 1990s). Telenovelas produced by RTI Colombia and Telemundo are usually shown and produced on Caracol, while Televideo and Fox Telecolombia produce some of RCN's telenovelas. Caracol and RCN also produce and broadcast their own shows. Currently, four or five Colombian telenovelas are usually broadcast from 6:00 to around 11:00 p.m. on those networks. It is notable that many novelas designed and written by Colombians sell outside the country well, as a prime export. Other countries then localize them by creating novelas based on the same story, barely changing names, settings and, more often than not, mixing the cast with Colombian actors to respect ownership/property agreements and copyright laws. One fine example is ''Betty, la fea'' (adapted by American Broadcasting Company, ABC in the United States as ''Ugly Betty'') in which the franchise for the storyline was translated and adapted by over 30 networks around the world. Over the years, a new style of novelas/series have been produced by Caracol and RCN dubbed "narco-novelas" or "narco-series", including ''El Cartel'', ''El Capo'' and ''Sin senos no hay paraíso'', which have been greatly successful in the American market and have achieved high ratings. These tend to focus on drug trafficking and situations related to it such as violence, mafiosos living luxurious hedonistic lives and women selling themselves to them in order to escape poverty. These stories have often been made in the format of television series even making seasons of these shows like ''El Cartel'' which consists of 2 seasons.


The first Croatian telenovela was Villa Maria (TV series), Villa Maria, made 2004 by AVA Production. After Villa Maria, AVA made Ljubav u zaleđu (2005–2006), Obični ljudi (2006–2007), Ponos Ratkajevih (2007–2008) and Zakon ljubavi (2008). Telenovelas made by AVA were aired in more than 25 countries. With Serbian FOX Televizija, RTL Televizija made Serbo-Croatian version of Yo soy Betty, la fea called Ne daj se, Nina (2007). After that RTL made Ruža vjetrova (2011–2013), Tajne (2013–2014), Vatre ivanjske (2014-2015) and Prava žena (2016–2017). Ring Multimedia production made Sve će biti dobro (2008–2009), Dolina sunca (2009–2010) and Pod sretnom zvijezdom (2011) for Nova TV (Croatia), Nova TV. Nova TV (Croatia), Nova TV itself made some telenovelas too: Najbolje godine (2009–2011), Larin izbor (2011–2013), Zora dubrovačka (2013–2014), Kud puklo da puklo (2014–2016), Zlatni dvori (2016–2017) and Čista ljubav (2017–2018). Croatian telenovelas by AVA Production are very popular in Serbia too, so AVA created a branch office, AVA Film, in Serbia. AVA Film's first project is a Serbian telenovela called Zaustavi vreme.

Dominican Republic

Television networks in the Dominican Republic have started to produce their own novelas through Venevision International, Iguana Productions and Antena Latina Productions. The first Dominican telenovela, ''María José, oficios del hogar'' ("María José, Housewife"), was produced by Venevision and television station Color Visión, which formed the first Dominican telenovela company (now inactive) in 1986. Comedy-drama series such as ''Catalino el Dichoso'' and sequel ''En La Boca de los Tiburones'' were also considered telenovelas during the early 1990s. The telenovela ''Tropico (telenovela), Tropico'' was produced by Venevision International, Iguana Productions, and Antena Latina Productions, in 2007 with mostly Dominican actors and a few from Venezuela and Peru. It aired domestically on Antena Latina 7 and in United States on Univision. There are currently plans for more telenovelas to be filmed and produced in the Dominican Republic.


:''See Bavaria Film Studios, Studio Hamburg Serienwerft and Grundy UFA'' In 2004, Germany began producing its own telenovelas. All German telenovelas are formatted as melodramatic love stories. With the exception of ''Storm of Love'' ("Sturm der Liebe"), which is produced by Bavaria Film Studios, and ''Rote Rosen'' which is produced by Studio Hamburg Serienwerft, every German telenovela is produced by Grundy UFA. The most successful ones, ''Bianca – Wege zum Glück'' ("Bianca: Paths to Happiness"), ''Wege zum Glück'' ("Paths to Happiness"), ''Verliebt in Berlin'' ("In Love in Berlin"/"In Love with Berlin"), ''Storm of Love'' and ''Rote Rosen'', were also syndicated in Italy, France and other European countries; ''Verliebt in Berlin'' was also syndicated in Canada. German television channels ARD (broadcaster), ARD, ZDF, Sat. 1 and ProSieben all include telenovelas on their programme schedules.



In Indonesia, a similar format exists called the ''sinetron'' (a portmanteau of ''sine'', short for cinema and ''tron'', from "elec''tron''ic"), which are essentially soap operas in a
miniseries A miniseries (or mini-series) is a television show that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes. The term "serial" and/or "series" is used in the United Kingdom and in other Commonwealth nations, though its meaning does not n ...
-style format. While most English-language soap operas can continue indefinitely, almost all Sinetrons have a predetermined duration, usually running for only five-, six- or seven days a week and in total for more than five months. Sinetrons are usually made by production companies such as SinemArt and MD Entertainment. These programmes are usually broadcast on national television networks during the country's designated primetime period (6.00 to 11.00 pm), often a priority since these programme earn significant ratings, attracting advertisers.


In Malaysia, the equivalent of telenovela for a local language drama is '. The drama may last for 13 episodes for a weekly drama and more than 15 episodes if broadcast by a daily basis, usually three to five days a week. However, since almost all television broadcasters that air domestically produced dramas also air foreign dramas, Malaysian television dramas are less prolific compared to Indonesian, Philippine, South Korean or Turkish dramas.


Mexico was one of the first countries in the world to become known for producing telenovelas aimed at shaping social behavior – one issue of which is family planning during the 1970s. The Mexican model of telenovelas – quick to be replicated by other telenovela-producing countries in Latin America and Asia for most of the 1990s – usually involves a romantic couple that encounters many problems throughout the show's run including a villain. One common ending archetype consists of a wedding and the villain dying, going to jail, becoming permanently injured or disabled, or Insanity, losing their mind. The use of sexually themed episodes starring the leading couple of the story has been a common element through most Mexican (and Latin American) telenovelas. Televisa and TV Azteca are the largest producers and exporters of Mexican telenovelas. Their main competitor is independent company Argos Comunicación. Telenovelas produced by U.S.-based network Telemundo tend to follow the Mexican model. Previously, telenovelas were often thought to be used as a government tool to distract citizens from national issues, a reason cited for temporary decrease in their credibility and popular appeal. Nowadays, Mexican television has managed to counteract government influence in its telenovelas. In particular, around 1990, Televisa found an enormous market for its telenovelas in regions such as Brazil and parts of Latin America, post-Cold War Eastern Europe and Asia. This precipitated the so-called 'Telenovela Craze'. Credited by media experts to Televisa's move in the early 1990s of exporting its telenovelas, it rivalled the wave of Television in the United States, American sitcoms that were broadcast worldwide in the same period. During the peak of the global success of Latin American telenovelas in the 1990s and 2000s, several prominent Mexican actors and actresses gained huge following for the telenovelas that they starred in. For example, Verónica Castro's international fame grew when the novela she had starred in many years earlier, ''Los Ricos Tambien Lloran'' in 1979, became a major hit in Russia. In the same period, Thalía earned the title as the "Queen of Soap Operas" after starring in the so-called ''Las Tres Marias'' or the "Maria Trilogy" telenovelas – ''María Mercedes (telenovela), Maria Mercedes'', ''Marimar (Mexican telenovela), Marimar'' and ''Maria la del Barrio'' – and ''Rosalinda (telenovela), Rosalinda'', converting her into one of the world's foremost television icons, as her telenovelas were broadcast in Mexico and more than 180 other countries to almost 2 billion viewers worldwide, earning the all-time highest television ratings both in Mexico and other regions. Due to the international success of the telenovelas broadcast in and out of Mexico, by the late 1990s, it was claimed that telenovelas were Mexico's leading export product. Many consider the period from 1958 to 2004 to be Televisa's Golden Age (metaphor), Golden Age of telenovelas. At the same time the Mexican government loosened its control over television. Telenovelas, primarily those produced by Argos Comunicación, consequently addressed new themes, including poverty, political corruption, immigration and Illegal drug trade, drug smuggling. However, with American drama and comedy series becoming increasingly popular among Mexican audiences through cable or satellite television and unlicensed copying, the television companies opted to adapt stories from Argentina, Colombia and Brazil. These used veteran actors in order to decrease expenses. Currently, the most successful telenovelas are being created by Argos and Telemundo and are rebroadcast (or adapted) by the main companies. The most successful one, ''La Reina del Sur (telenovela), La Reina del Sur'', based on the book by Arturo Perez Reverte, is based on the true story of a female drug trafficker in Sinaloa. Though it was Censorship, censored somewhat due to the Drug war in Mexico, Drug War and was broadcast on a low-rated channel, it achieved higher viewership than other programs in the same timeframe.



Peruvian telenovelas, like other telenovelas, revolve around the character's personal lives. There are usually slight touches of comedy, drama and suspense. Al Fondo Hay Sitio has become one of the most famous telenovelas of Peru and has been shown around South America in Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay.


Domestically produced telenovelas first appeared on Television in the Philippines, Philippine television in the 1960s, beginning with the ABS-CBN Corporation, ABS-CBN program ''Hiwaga sa Bahay na Bato''. The format of Philippine telenovelas is almost the same as Spanish and Mexican telenovelas, as they have borrowed many elements including many clichés. However, Philippine telenovelas, which portray the reality of Filipino (as well as much of other Asian) societies, have evolved through decades and feature specific characteristics distinct from most of the world's telenovelas. The late 1980s and 1990s coincided with the end of Martial law in the Philippines, martial law and the resulting expansion of commercial television networks as the Philippine government loosened controls over the press and media. With the help of satellite television, simultaneous nationwide programming across the Philippines and the advent of the "telenovela craze" precipitated by Mexican telenovelas broadcast worldwide, previously dominant Filipino sitcoms had been largely replaced by domestically produced drama series airing on primetime television to encourage more competition among networks and reach out to more audiences across the nation. Examples of such classic telenovelas include ''Flordeluna'', ''Villa Quintana'', ''Mara Clara'', ''Esperanza (Philippine TV series), Esperanza'', ''Valiente (1992), Valiente'', ''Kung Mawawala Ka'', ''Mula Sa Puso'' and ''Sa Dulo Ng Walang Hanggan''. Modern Philippine television dramas are usually termed ''teleserye'', a portmanteau of the Filipino words "''telebisyon''" ("television") and "''serye''" ("series"), and are sometimes called ''P-drama'' overseas. The term "teleserye" originated in the 2000s from the ABS-CBN-produced ''Pangako Sa 'Yo'', dubbed by the Philippine media as the first true teleserye as well as the most widely exported and most watched single Philippine television series abroad. In the 21st century, teleseryes may belong to one or several genres such as suspense, comedy, politics or fantasy, but featured several new variations from the previous Philippine telenovelas of the preceding century.


The first Portuguese telenovela was ''Vila Faia'', in 1982. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, almost all Portuguese telenovelas were broadcast by Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, RTP. However, since the start of the 21st century, Televisão Independente, TVI has emerged as the most prolific broadcaster of Portuguese telenovelas. ''Morangos com Açúcar'', one of its most successful telenovelas, lasted for nine seasons. Sociedade Independente de Comunicação, SIC, which usually imported telenovelas from Brazil's Rede Globo, has also started to produce its own telenovelas. Portuguese telenovelas have since exceeded telenovelas from neighboring Spain in terms of international popularity by the 2010s. In 2010, Portugal won the first Emmy for a Telenovela, with ''Meu Amor'' ("My Love"). In 2011, Portugal won its second consecutive International Emmy for a Telenovela with ''Laços de Sangue'' ("Blood Ties"). Portugal also sells telenovelas to Eastern Europe and America.

Puerto Rico

The telenovela genre was historically popular in the U.S. territory and there still is some interest to this day. The serials in days past were usually broadcast on domestic television stations three days a week at 6:30pm, with hour-long telenovelas airing at 7:00 and 9:00 p.m. during prime time. Production of telenovelas in Puerto Rico began in the 1950s with "Ante la ley" in 1955. Successful novelas to have come out of Puerto Rico have included La Mujer de aquella Noche, El Hijo de Angela Maria, El Cuarto Mandamiento, ''Tomiko'', Cristina Bazan, El Idolo, ''Yo Se Que Mentia'', ''Vivir Para Ti'', ''Tanairi'', ''Tres Destinos'' and many others.


Telenovelas were first introduced to Soviet viewers in 1988, when a stripped-down version of ''Escrava Isaura'' (running only 15 episodes) was shown on central television channel. The adaptation of that series was very popular with the Soviet viewers. An even bigger success was ''Los Ricos También Lloran'', shown shortly afterwards. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russian TV channels commenced broadcasting telenovelas (usually those imported from Brazil) on a regular basis. Today, Latin American telenovelas are usually replaced by Russian-made alternatives.


The first Serbian telenovela was made in 2004 by RTV BK Telecom, BK TV and its name is Jelena (TV series), Jelena. After that RTV Pink made Ljubav i mržnja (2007–2008). AVA Film (branch office of Croatian AVA Production) made Zaustavi vreme 2008, but it wasn't aired. A Serbian version of Graduados, Istine i laži, was made by Prva Srpska Televizija and Smart Media Production. It currently airs on Prva Srpska Televizija.

South Africa

The first telenovela in South Africa was iNkaba, which was aired on Mzansi Magic. Inkaba was canceled after it flopped to lure in viewers. Isibaya was the first ever successful telenovela on the channel of Mzansi Magic. The most successful South African telenovela is Uzalo. ''Uzalo'' has over 10.25 million viewers in South Africa. ''Uzalo'' tells the story of two families in the township of Kwa-Mashu: the Mdletshe family which plays a significant role in the management of the Kwamashu Kingdom Church and the Xulu family which runs a car theft syndicate. The connection between the families is that their eldest sons were switched at birth during the period when Nelson Mandela was released from prison. Uzalo details the relationships and conflict between members of the two families as part of a complex story. Following the trend, other telenovelas started to flood in, with Mzansi Magic holding the monopoly of the genre with shows like Isithembiso, The Queen (South African TV series), The Queen and The River (South African TV series), The River among others. Other channels, such as e.tv and SABC, launched productions such as Keeping Score, Giyani: Land of Blood, High Rollers, Ashes to Ashes (South African TV series), Ashes To Ashes, Gold Diggers and Broken Vows.

South Korea

Korean telenovelas are often similar to a soap opera but without a neverending plot and frank sexual content. These dramas typically involve conflicts around dating and marital relationships, money problems, relationships between family members and in-laws (usually between the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law), and often complicated love triangles. The heroine usually falls in love with Protagonist, the main character who may treat her badly for a while unlike the person who always cares for her. Korean telenovelas tend to run for 100+ episodes (rarely exceeding 200) and air from Monday to Friday. The main broadcasters and producers are Korean Broadcasting System, KBS, Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation, MBC and Seoul Broadcasting System, SBS. South Korea became one of the world's largest Asian-based television drama producers at the start of the 21st century. Korean dramas have been exported globally and have contributed to the Korean Wave phenomenon known as ''Hallyu''.


Spanish telenovelas are known in the nation as ''culebrones'' (Spanish of "long snakes") because of their convoluted plots. Broadcasters of telenovelas in the country are Telecinco, Antena 3 (Spain), Antena3, and La 1 (Spain), La 1; there are regional telenovelas produced in Basque language, Basque and Catalan languages. They are produced by EITB (in Basque) and TV3 (Catalonia), TV3 (in Catalan). However, Spain is not a producer of telenovelas so much as it is an importer of these programs. Telenovelas have also aided in the formation of a transnational 'Hispanic' identity, as the Venezuelan scholar Daniel Mato has suggested. The appeal of the genre lies in the melodramatic and often simplistic narrative which can be understood and enjoyed by audiences in a wide variety of cultural contexts. Bielby and Harrington have argued that this reverse flow has influenced soap operas in the United States, leading to "genre transformation," especially with daytime soaps.


Thailand began producing its own telenovelas, also known in Thai television, Thai as ''Lakorn'', in the 1990s at the same time as the Philippines, Turkey and South Korea began exporting their own television dramas as well in parts of Asia. The first Thai soap opera is ''Dao Pra Sook'' internationally in Cambodia, followed by Singapore with ''Nang Tard'' and ''Love Destiny (TV series), Love Destiny'' and the Philippines with ''You're My Destiny (2017 TV series), You're My Destiny''. Likewise, Thai content have also gained considerable following in the Philippines, with numerous Thai series such as ''2gether: The Series (Thai TV series), 2gether: The Series'' and ''The Gifted (Thai TV series), The Gifted'' regularly topping Twitter trends in the country.


Turkey began producing its own telenovelas, also known in Turkish language, Turkish as ''televizyon dizileri'', in the late 1990s at the same time that as the Philippines and South Korea began exporting their own television dramas as well in parts of the world. The storylines of Turkish dramas are usually based from the country's classic novels as well as historical settings (mostly during the Ottoman Empire period), and are known to have episodes lasting at least two hours each, much longer than an ordinary telenovela episode. These drama shows, in general, are of miniseries type, typically lasting for less than half a year, and are broadcast either as canned series or simultaneous telecasts in Turkey's key television markets with subtitles in multiple languages depending on the country outside Turkey where it has been aired. Turkish telenovelas have gained wide popularity and appeal among viewers especially in the Arab World as well as the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central and South Asia due in part to the picturesque cinematography. This exportation of dramas has been cited as one of Turkey's foremost strategies in boosting their popularity in these regions by promoting Turkish culture and tourism. As a result, these make up one of its most economically and culturally important international exports. International media experts have cited the 2010s as the biggest turning point of Turkish television production, which shifted to a balance of export of religious shows that were often widely viewed in these predominantly Islamic countries (with Ramadan known to be the most lucrative month of every Arab television drama, television season in most Islamic countries for imported Turkish television shows) and secular shows tackling national issues of Turkey and even of the rest of the Islamic world. Some of the most internationally prominent Turkish television dramas include ''Muhteşem Yüzyıl'', ''Fatmagül'ün Suçu Ne?'', ''Aşk-ı Memnu (2008 TV series), Aşk-ı Memnu'' and ''Binbir Gece''. The rise of Turkish television drama on the international market attracted worldwide attention during this decade when it began gaining more viewers in Latin America, which is cited as a difficult market for foreign shows to be broadcast as its own produced telenovelas dominate programming there since the 1990s. Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic conservatives in many Arab countries, however, condemn these Turkish shows as "vulgar" and "heretical" to Islam, as most of the prominent secular Turkish television series often have political undertones as well as a noticeable trend on emphasis of women's empowerment, female empowerment, which contrasts the patriarchy, patriarchal nature of Islam. Nonetheless, Turkish television drama invokes wide impact too much of its 1 billion viewers from approximately 100 countries in the world, helping it surpass Latin America by the 2010s as the second largest exporter of television series worldwide after the United States.

United States

:''See English language producers Fox Broadcasting Company and The CW'' :''See Spanish language producers Univision and Telemundo'' :''See MyNetworkTV telenovelas'' In the United States, the telenovela concept has been adapted into the English language. The first American telenovela was the soap opera ''Port Charles'', which, although starting off as a traditional soap when it debuted in 1997, adopted a 13-week telenovela-style storyline format beginning in 2000 which continued in use until the show's cancellation in 2003. MyNetworkTV, an upstart network launched by News Corporation (1980–2013), News Corporation (now owned by 21st Century Fox), launched on September 5, 2006, with two nightly serials. The inaugural series ''Desire (TV series), Desire'' and ''Fashion House'' were moderately successful, however, ratings began to decline. The second pair of telenovelas, ''Wicked Wicked Games'' and ''Watch Over Me'' had decent ratings but were not as successful as its two predecessors. By the time the third batch of serials, ''American Heiress'' and ''Saints & Sinners (2007 TV series), Saints and Sinners'' debuted, ratings had declined significantly to where the network scaled back and eventually dropped the novela format in favor of reality-based series and specials by the fall of 2007. In contrast, ABC's adaptation of ''Betty la Fea'', ''Ugly Betty'', proved to be successful; however, the network opted to develop the show as a standard weekly series with elements of the comedic telenovela. An adaptation of the Venezuelan comedic telenovela ''Juana la virgen'', ''Jane the Virgin'', aired to success on The CW beginning in 2014, airing in a weekly format similar to other American series. NBC developed an adaptation of the racy Colombian telenovela ''Sin tetas no hay paraíso'' called ''Without Breasts There Is No Paradise'', however, it was never picked up to series. In 2001, after it was purchased by NBC (which later merged with Vivendi Universal to form NBCUniversal in 2003), Telemundo decided to stop importing Latin American telenovelas and produce its own. The network collaborated with RTI Colombia and Argos Comunicación to co-produce its telenovelas, which follow the Telenovela#Mexico, Mexican model, though Telemundo is a Puerto Rican firm. In order for its telenovelas to be recognized by the U.S. and Latin American audiences and even Spanish audiences, Telemundo chose to hire established telenovela actors from Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, and other Latin American countries; the network's novelas have since also hired Hispanic and Latino Americans, American-born Hispanic actors. Telemundo's first telenovela co-productions were ''Amantes del Desierto'' (with RTI) and ''Cara o Cruz'' (with Argos) in 2001. The network also co-produced the 2002 novela ''Vale Todo'' in conjunction with Rede Globo, that series did not fare well in the ratings. In 2003, Telemundo began producing its novelas stateside in Miami, beginning with the RTI co-production ''Amor Descarado''. Telemundo has experienced increasing success with its telenovelas, which have also been syndicated to Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, and Chile. Argos ended its co-production deal with Telemundo on December 31, 2006, with the last such co-production being ''Marina (Telemundo TV series), Marina''. Telemundo continues to co-produce telenovelas with RTI but has also started to produce these serials on its own. In 2005, the network opened Telemundo Television Studios in Miami, as a production studio for its telenovelas; ''Dame Chocolate'' also became the first telenovela to be fully produced by Telemundo. In 2006, Telemundo broadcast two telenovelas not created by the network or its partners, ''Amor mío (Mexican telenovela), Amor Mío'' (co-produced by Televisa and Telefe) and ''A Escrava Isaura (2004 TV series), La Esclava Isaura'' (produced by Rede Record). Cisneros Media Distribution (formerly Venevisión International) has also produced American-based telenovelas, which follow the Telenovela#Venezuela, Venezuelan story pattern and aired on Telemundo competitor Univision in the U.S. (in addition to being carried by main Venevisión network in Venezuela); its telenovelas portray the lives of Venezuelan Americans in the United States. Although a Venezuelan-owned company, Cisneros Media not only hired established telenovela actors from Venezuela, but also from other Latin American countries like Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Puerto Rico, etc. like in Telemundo, in order for its telenovelas to be recognized by the U.S., Latin American, and Spanish audiences. In recent years, Univision has also begun producing its own telenovelas for its primetime schedule. Some Spanish-language telenovelas are now translated into English. Univision and Telemundo provide closed captioning in English in order to attract English-speaking American viewers (primarily American-born Mexicans who are not fluent in Spanish), carried as the second or third caption channel depending on the station. Xenon Pictures also includes English subtitles on its DVD releases of Mexican serials. The sudden interest in English telenovelas can be attributed to the appeal and successful ratings of the genre. Producers also see this as a way to attract the fast-growing Mexican population, most notably the female sector of this demographic. In addition, telenovelas break the traditional production format in the United States, in which a television program runs for 20–25 episodes a season, on a once-weekly basis. Since 2010, Nickelodeon and its sibling networks have aired several programs produced in the style of telenovelas. These shows are usually broadcast in a daily-strip format over a one-month period. ''House of Anubis'', based on a drama produced by its Dutch counterpart, was the first show produced for the network to adopt this format. Nickelodeon has since produced adaptions of some of its Latin American counterpart's telenovelas, including ''Every Witch Way'' (based on ''Grachi'', ''Talia in the Kitchen'' (based on ''Toni la chef'', and ''I Am Frankie'' (based on ''Yo soy Franky''. The popular Canadian drama series, ''Degrassi'', periodically used this format and aired daily during summer runs on TeenNick, Teennick.


:''See RCTV, Venevisión and Televen'' Telenovelas in Venezuela are mainly produced by RCTV, Venevisión and Televen. Like Televisa in Mexico, Venevision controls a large portion of the entertainment industry in that country. Some of Venevision's telenovelas were also broadcast on Univision in the United States until the late 2000s. Some major telenovelas produced in Venevision include ''Amor Comprado'', ''Dulce Enemiga'', ''Cara Sucia (telenovela), Cara Sucia'', ''Bellisima'' and ''Pecado de Amor''. Venezuela is one of the largest producers of telenovelas in the world, with up to 279 serials of this style have aired to date. Many of the major productions have been syndicated to Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, Spain, Italy, Japan, and the United States, among other countries. In the beginning, Venezuelan telenovelas followed the ''telenovela rosa'' format of a poor Cinderella who falls in love with Prince charming. Later in the 1980s, writers began writing realistic telenovelas that reflected everyday life of the common citizens where the audience could relate with the characters with telenovelas such as ''El sol sale para todos'', ''Natalia de 8 a 9'' and ''La señora de Cárdenas''. The most famous of such telenovelas was ''Por estás calles'' which ran from 1992 to 1994. Another popular telenovela genre was the mystery telenovela which involved a serial killer with telenovelas such as ''Angélica Pecado'', ''La Mujer de Judas'' and ''La viuda joven'' which became successful during their original run and were sold to several countries around the world. In recent years, telenovela production has declined in the country especially after the closure of RCTV which was a major telenovela producer and exporter. Channels such as Venevisión end up producing only one national production per year. Government sanctions and regulations on media content has led to self-censorship of telenovela writers, also leading to reduced telenovela production.


The most important Telenovela award shows are the Mexican TVyNovelas Award, hosted by the Televisa-owned ''TVyNovelas'' magazine, and the award presented by ''Contigo (magazine), Contigo'' in Brazil. ''TVyNovelas'' also has editions in Colombia, Chile, Puerto Rico, and the United States, while ''Contigo'' has an edition in Chile. In 2008, International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (IATAS) created a new International Emmy Award category for telenovelas produced and initially aired outside of the United States.

Comparison with soap operas

The standard American, British or Australian soap opera is of indefinite length, sometimes running for decades, with an ever-rotating Cast member, cast of players and fictional character, characters. However, most Latin American telenovelas have an average run of six months up to a year. The show's duration is pre-planned at the show's inception, with the overall story arc and conclusion also known by the show's creators and producers at its inception. ''Mundo de Juguete'' is one exception to the rule, with a total of 605 episodes (1974–1977), and a few cast changes during the course of the serial. Some earlier Argentine telenovelas (most of them written by Alberto Migré) had also run for a few years. Telenovelas also have a different type of story from English language, English-language soaps, the typical telenovela story being focused on a rivalry between two or more people or families in romance or business. Many of them use stock themes like a Cinderella (who is a rival of the male protagonist's evil girlfriend), two brothers after one woman (or two sisters after one man) or mistaken/unknown parentage. Typically, the hero gets shot (or some form of fate equivalent to that).phorum – Amarte Así (Frijolito) forum
. Foro.telenovela-world.com. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
Telenovelas comprise the great majority of the dramas, dramatic productions by South American television networks, whereas in the United States, other formats like sitcoms or drama series are more popular on English language networks.

See also

* Arab television drama * Fantaserye and telefantasya, Fantaserye – a genre of teleserye * Fotonovela – the magazine equivalent, a sort of photo-comic book usually with a romantic theme. * Hong Kong television drama * List of telenovelas *Limited-run series * MyNetworkTV telenovelas * Serial (radio and television) – for a general discussion of the serial format, including soap operas and telenovelas * Taiwanese Drama * Teleserye * Korean drama * Indian soap opera *Japanese television drama * Téléroman – the French-Canadian equivalent * Thai television soap opera *Turkish television drama * Webnovela – movement on the Internet, which is equivalent to the simulation of telenovelas.



Further reading

*Castellot de Ballin, Laura (1993). ''Historia de la televisión en México. Narrada por sus protagonistas''. México: Alpe. *Covarrubias, Karla; Angélica, Bautista y Ana B. Uribe (1994). ''Cuéntame en qué se quedó. La telenovela como fenómeno social''. México: Trillas. *Blanca de Lizaur, de Lizaur Guerra, María Blanca (2002). ''La telenovela en México 1958–2002: Forma y contenido de un formato narrativo de ficción de alcance mayoritario''. Master's degree dissertation in Mexican Literature. Univ. Nal. Autónoma de México.» *Roura, Assumpta (1993). ''Telenovelas, pasiones de mujer. El sexo en el culebrón''. España: Gedisa. *Trejo Silva, Marcia (2011). ''La telenovela mexicana. Orígenes, características, análisis y perspectivas''. México: Trillas. *Uribe, Ana B. (2009). ''Mi México Imaginado: telenovelas, televisión y migrantes''. México: Porrúa *Varios autores (2007). ''El gran libro de las telenovelas. 50 años de historia''. México: Editorial Televisa. *Eliseo Verón, Verón, Eliseo y Lucrecia Escudero Chauvel (comp.) (1997). ''Telenovela, ficción popular y mutaciones culturales''. España: Gedisa. *Villanueva Solorio, Mario (1997). ''Para una tipología de villanos telenoveleros en México''. Tesis profesional. México: ENEP (FES) Acatlán. Mención Honorífica. {{Authority control Telenovelas, * Television genres Soap operas by genre