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Tartu
Tartu
(Estonian pronunciation: [ˈtɑrtˑu], South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn. Tartu
Tartu
is often considered the intellectual centre of the country,[2][3][4] especially since it is home to the nation's oldest and most renowned university, the University of Tartu. The city also houses the Supreme Court of Estonia, the Ministry of Education and Research, and the new building of the Estonian National Museum, opened to the public in October of 2016. It is also the birthplace of Estonian Song Festivals. Situated 186 kilometres (116 miles) southeast of Tallinn
Tallinn
and 245 kilometres (152 miles) northeast of Riga, Tartu
Tartu
lies on the Emajõgi ("Mother river"), which connects the two largest lakes of Estonia. The city is served by Tartu
Tartu
Airport.

Contents

1 Names and etymology 2 History

2.1 Beginnings 2.2 Medieval bishopric 2.3 Swedish and Polish rule 2.4 Imperial Russia 2.5 First independence period 2.6 Soviet period 2.7 Modern era

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Government 5 Economy 6 Population 7 Neighbourhoods 8 Education and culture 9 Science 10 Main sights 11 Sports 12 Notable people 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

14 Gallery 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

Names and etymology[edit] See also: Names of Tartu
Tartu
in different languages Since 1918, the Estonian name Tartu
Tartu
has been used, but as the town has come under control of various rulers throughout its history, there have been various names for it in different languages. Most of them derive ultimately from the earliest attested form, the Estonian Tarbatu. In German, Swedish and Polish the town has been known and is sometimes still referred to as  Dorpat (help·info), a variant of Tarbatu. In Russian, the city has been known as Юрьев (Yur′yev, after Yuri, the baptismal name of Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise) and as Дерпт (Derpt, from the Low German
Low German
variant of Dorpat). Similarly, the city has been known as Tērbata in Latvian, while Finnish-speakers use the toponym Tartto. History[edit] Beginnings[edit]

Historical affiliations

Ugandi County
Ugandi County
pre-1030 Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
1030–1061 Ugandi County
Ugandi County
1061–1134 Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
1134 Ugandi County
Ugandi County
1134–1191/1192 Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
1191/1192 Ugandi County
Ugandi County
1191/1192–1220 Livonian Brothers of the Sword
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
1220–1223 Ugandi County
Ugandi County
1223 Novgorod Republic
Novgorod Republic
1223–1224 Bishopric of Dorpat
Bishopric of Dorpat
1224–1558 Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
1558–1582 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1582–1600 Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
1600–1603 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1603–1625 Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
1625–1656 Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
1656–1661 Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
1661–1704 > Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
1704–1721 > Russian Empire
Russian Empire
1721–1917 Russian Republic
Russian Republic
1917 Russian Soviet Republic
Russian Soviet Republic
1917–1918 Republic of Estonia
Estonia
1918 Ober Ost
Ober Ost
1918 United Baltic Duchy
United Baltic Duchy
1918 Republic of Estonia
Estonia
1918 Commune of the Working People of Estonia
Estonia
1918–1919 Republic of Estonia
Estonia
1919–1940  Republic of Estonia
Estonia
(Soviet occupation) 1940 Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
1940 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
1940–1941 German Military Administration 1941 Reichskommissariat Ostland
Reichskommissariat Ostland
1941–1944 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
1944–1990 Republic of Estonia
Estonia
(in transition) 1990–1991 Republic of Estonia
Estonia
1991–onwards

Archaeological evidence of the first permanent settlement on the site of modern Tartu
Tartu
dates to as early as the 5th century AD.[5][6] By the 7th century, local inhabitants had built a wooden fortification on the east side of Toome Hill (Toomemägi).[6] The first documented record of the area was made in 1030 by chroniclers of Kievan Rus. Yaroslav I the Wise, Prince of Kiev, invaded the region that year, built his own fort there, and named it Yuryev[6][7] (literally "Yury's" – Yury
Yury
(a Russified form of George) being Yaroslav's Christian name). Kievan rulers then collected tribute from the surrounding ancient Estonian county of Ugaunia,[citation needed] possibly until 1061, when, according to chronicles, Yuryev was burned down by Estonian tribe called Sosols.[8] Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
again controlled Tartu
Tartu
from 1133 for an unknown period, possibly up to 1176/1177.[9] In the 12th century Tartu
Tartu
was the most notable Slavic settlement in Chud territory.[10] Estonian amateur historian Enn Haabsaar speculates that the "Yuryev" mentioned in this context is actually Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, a town that was also founded by Yaroslav I the Wise
Yaroslav I the Wise
as Yuriev about the same time, 1032.[11] His views have been criticized by historian Ain Mäesalu.[6] Medieval bishopric[edit]

The city of Tartu
Tartu
in 1533

Tartu Cathedral
Tartu Cathedral
ruins

During the period of Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
in the beginning of the 13th century the fort of Tarbatu (or Tharbata, Tartu) was captured by the crusading Livonian Knights
Livonian Knights
— also known as the Brothers of the Sword (German: Schwertbrüder) — and recaptured by Estonians
Estonians
on several occasions. In 1224, after Ugaunia
Ugaunia
had recognized the supremacy of Novgorod and Pskov
Pskov
princes who sent additional troops led by prince Vyachko of Kukenois to the fort, it was besieged and conquered for one last time by the German crusaders.[12] Subsequently, known as Dorpat (Latin: Tarbatum), Tartu
Tartu
became a commercial centre of considerable importance during the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the capital of the semi-independent Bishopric of Dorpat. In 1262 the army of Prince Dmitri of Pereslavl, son of Alexander Nevsky launched an assault on Dorpat, capturing and destroying the town. His troops did not manage to capture the bishop's fortress on Toome Hill. The event was recorded both in German and Old East Slavic chronicles, which also provided the first record of a settlement of German merchants and artisans which had arisen alongside the bishop's fortress. In medieval times, after the Livonian Order was subsumed into the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in 1236, the town became an important trading city. In the 1280s Dorpat joined the Hanseatic League. As in all of Estonia and Latvia, the largely German-speaking nobility, but in Tartu/Dorpat (as in Tallinn) even more so, the Baltic German bourgeoisie, the literati, dominated culture, religion, architecture, education, and politics until the late 19th century. For example, the town hall of Dorpat was designed by an architect from Rostock
Rostock
in Mecklenburg, while the university buildings were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, another German. Many, if not most, of the students, and more than 90 percent of the faculty members were of German descent, and numerous statues of notable scholars with German names can still be found in Tartu
Tartu
today. Most Germans
Germans
left during the first half of the 20th century, in particular as part of the Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich
program of the Nazis, following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
in 1939. Swedish and Polish rule[edit]

University of Tartu
University of Tartu
main building.

In 1558, tsar Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
invaded Tartu
Tartu
beginning the Livonian War. Dorpat was captured without a fight and the local bishop was imprisoned in Moscow, which effectively ended the period of local self-government. In the effect of the Truce of Jam Zapolski
Truce of Jam Zapolski
of 1582 the city along with southern regions of Livonian Confederation
Livonian Confederation
became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1598 it became the capital of the Dorpat Voivodeship
Dorpat Voivodeship
of the Duchy of Livonia. A Jesuit grammar school "Gymnasium Dorpatense" was established in 1583. In addition, a translators' seminary was organized in Tartu
Tartu
and the city received its red and white flag from the Polish king Stephen Báthory. The activities of both the grammar school and the seminary were stopped by the Polish–Swedish War. Already in late 1600 the forces of Charles IX of Sweden
Charles IX of Sweden
besieged the city defended by three banners of reiters and the city's burghers. Despite repeated assaults, the Swedes could not enter the city. Finally in 1601 Capt. Hermann Wrangel switched sides, assaulted the castellan and opened the gates for the Swedish forces. The town was retaken by Poland on 13 April 1603 following a brief siege led by hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz; roughly 1000 Swedish soldiers surrendered and were escorted to Tallinn. In the effect of yet another Polish-Swedish War, in 1625 Tartu
Tartu
was once again captured by Sweden, this time for good. In the effect of the 1629 Truce of Altmark
Truce of Altmark
the city became part of the Dominions of Sweden, which led to the foundation of the University of Tartu
University of Tartu
in 1632 by king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Imperial Russia[edit]

The Stone Bridge and the Old Town in 1860

With the Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad
in 1721, the city became part of the Russian Empire and was known as Derpt. Fires in the 18th century destroyed much of the medieval architecture, the Great Fire of Tartu
Great Fire of Tartu
in 1775 removed most of the buildings in the centre. The city was rebuilt along Late Baroque and Neoclassical lines including the Tartu
Tartu
Town Hall which was built between 1782 and 1789.[13] During the second half of the 19th century, Tartu
Tartu
was the cultural centre for Estonians
Estonians
in the era of Romantic nationalism. The city hosted Estonia's first song festival in 1869. Vanemuine, the first national theatre, was established in 1870. Tartu
Tartu
was also the setting for the foundation of the Society of Estonian Writers in 1872.

Tartu
Tartu
Town Hall

Tartu railway station
Tartu railway station
was opened in 1876 when Tapa– Tartu
Tartu
route was built. The station building was opened in 1877. In 1893, the city was officially retitled to the ancient Russian name Yuryev. The university was subsequently russified from 1895 on with the introduction of compulsory Russian in teaching. Much of the university property was relocated to Voronezh
Voronezh
in 1918 and during the German occupation the University worked under the name Landesuniversität Dorpat. During the Estonian War of Independence university of Tartu
Tartu
was re-opened as an Estonian language
Estonian language
university on 1 December 1919. First independence period[edit] With Estonian independence after World War I, the city officially became known by the Estonian name Tartu. At the end of Estonian War of Independence following World War I, a peace treaty between the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and Estonia
Estonia
was signed on 2 February 1920 in Tartu
Tartu
(Treaty of Tartu). The treaty meant that Soviet Russia
Russia
renounced territorial claims to Estonia
Estonia
"for all time". However, as a result of the Nazi-Soviet Pact
Nazi-Soviet Pact
of 1939, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
occupied Estonia
Estonia
and Tartu in 1940. Peace treaty between Soviet Russia
Russia
and Finland
Finland
was also signed in Tartu
Tartu
in 1920. During the interwar period Tähtvere
Tähtvere
neighbourhood was built, former Raadi Manor
Raadi Manor
buildings started to house Estonian National Museum (destroyed during Tartu Offensive
Tartu Offensive
in 1944) and art school Pallas was opened. Soviet period[edit] During World War II, a large part of the city as well as the historical Kivisild (Stone Bridge) (built by Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II of Russia
in 1776–1778) over the Emajõgi
Emajõgi
river were destroyed by the German Army, partly in 1941 and almost completely in 1944. Already heavily damaged Tartu
Tartu
was bombed by Soviet forces on 27 January 1943, 26 February 1944, 7–8 March 1944, and 25–26 March 1944. After the war ended, much of the historical downtown area was left in ruins. Even the less damaged buildings in entire city blocks were torn down by the order of the occupational authorities and large swaths of land turned into public parks. After the war, Tartu
Tartu
was declared a "closed town" to foreigners, as an air base for bombers was constructed on Raadi Airfield, in the northeast outskirts of the city. It was one of the biggest military air bases in Eastern Europe and housed intercontinental fighters, that carried nuclear bombs. The location itself was where the Estonian 2nd Air Division was situated prior to the Soviet occupation. The asphalt runway there now houses a large used cars market, and is sometimes used for automotive racing. Tartu Airport
Tartu Airport
was opened in south of city in 1946. Besides the airport Estonian Aviation Academy
Estonian Aviation Academy
was established in 1993 and Estonian Aviation Museum was opened to the public in 2002. During Soviet times the population of Tartu
Tartu
almost doubled from 57,000 to 100,000, partly due to mass immigration from other areas of the Soviet Union.

AHHAA
AHHAA
Science Centre

Modern era[edit] Since Estonia
Estonia
regained its independence in 1991, the old town centre is being renovated. Notably, St. John's Church, in ruins since World War II, has been restored. Many new commercial and business buildings have been erected (Tartu Shopping Center, Tasku, Emajõe Commercial Center, Lõunakeskus, Kvartal etc.). Highest residential building and local landmark Tigutorn was opened in 2008. Science center AHHAA
AHHAA
relocated to a new building in 2011 and Estonian National Museum, the new main building was opened in 2016.

Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Tartu
Tartu
lies within the temperate humid continental climate zone. The climate is rather mild considering the high latitude, largely due to the proximity of the Baltic Sea and warm airflows from the Atlantic. Nevertheless, continental influence can be felt on hot summer days and cold spells in winter, when temperature can occasionally (but rarely) drop below −30 °C (−22 °F). Generally, summers are cool to warm and winters are cold.

Climate data for Tartu
Tartu
(Tõravere) 1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 9.7 (49.5) 10.4 (50.7) 18.4 (65.1) 27.3 (81.1) 30.1 (86.2) 31.1 (88) 34.2 (93.6) 35.1 (95.2) 30.2 (86.4) 21.5 (70.7) 13.6 (56.5) 12.5 (54.5) 35.1 (95.2)

Average high °C (°F) −2.1 (28.2) −2.2 (28) 2.7 (36.9) 10.6 (51.1) 17.0 (62.6) 20.1 (68.2) 22.7 (72.9) 21.2 (70.2) 15.4 (59.7) 9.2 (48.6) 2.5 (36.5) −1 (30) 9.7 (49.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) −4.6 (23.7) −5.3 (22.5) −1.0 (30.2) 5.5 (41.9) 11.5 (52.7) 15.0 (59) 17.6 (63.7) 16.2 (61.2) 11.0 (51.8) 6.1 (43) 0.3 (32.5) −3.3 (26.1) 5.8 (42.4)

Average low °C (°F) −7.1 (19.2) −8.2 (17.2) −4.3 (24.3) 1.1 (34) 6.0 (42.8) 9.7 (49.5) 12.5 (54.5) 11.7 (53.1) 7.4 (45.3) 3.5 (38.3) −1.5 (29.3) −5.6 (21.9) 2.1 (35.8)

Record low °C (°F) −35.4 (−31.7) −35.8 (−32.4) −25.9 (−14.6) −11.4 (11.5) −5.9 (21.4) 0.1 (32.2) 3.1 (37.6) 2.0 (35.6) −4.3 (24.3) −13.8 (7.2) −20.8 (−5.4) −32.2 (−26) −35.8 (−32.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 48 (1.89) 35 (1.38) 28 (1.1) 30 (1.18) 55 (2.17) 84 (3.31) 72 (2.83) 86 (3.39) 61 (2.4) 69 (2.72) 53 (2.09) 49 (1.93) 680 (26.77)

Average relative humidity (%) 88 85 79 69 66 72 74 78 83 86 89 89 80

Mean monthly sunshine hours 31.5 63.6 127.3 183.3 257.0 251.1 268.6 219.9 135.8 81.5 31.3 24.3 1,675.8

Source: Estonian Weather Service[14][15][16][17]

Government[edit] There are 49 members on the town council, elected by residents every four years using a proportional system of representation.[18] The executive branch of the town government consists of a mayor and five deputy mayors.[19] The current mayor is Urmas Klaas. Andrus Ansip, Prime Minister of Estonia
Estonia
from 2005 to 2014, was mayor of Tartu from 1998 to 2004. The position was later served by other politicians who eventually became ministers of government, Laine Jänes and Urmas Kruuse. All of them are members of the Estonian Reform Party, which has dominated in Tartu
Tartu
since 1998. Economy[edit] Mostly known as a university town, Tartu
Tartu
is also a site of heavy industry. The food industry has traditionally been important for the town's economy and some bigger companies in the field include A. Le Coq, Tartu Mill
Tartu Mill
and Salvest. Kroonpress is the leading printing press company the Baltic States. In the beginning of the 21st century, many ICT enterprises and other high-tech companies have taken a foothold in Tartu. Notable examples include Playtech
Playtech
Estonia, Nortal
Nortal
(formerly Webmedia Group), ZeroTurnaround, Tarkon, Regio and Raintree Estonia. Skype
Skype
has an office in Tartu. The university is one of the largest employers, which explains the large proportion of highly skilled professionals – researchers, professors, doctors, and Tartu University Clinic
Tartu University Clinic
has been considered the largest employer of Tartu.[citation needed] Population[edit]

Ethnic group Statistics 2017[1]

Number %

Estonians 74,396 79.9%

Russians 13,543 14.5%

Ukrainians 957 1.0%

Finns 856 0.9%

Belarusians 335 0.4%

Germans 280 0.3%

Latvians 198 0.2%

Poles 109 0.1%

Lithuanians 109 0.1%

Other/Unknown 2,341 2.6%

Total 93,124 100%

Year 1881 1897 1922 1934 1959 1970 1979 1989 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

Population 29,974 42,308 50,342 58,876 74,263 90,459 104,381 113,320 104,874 101,241 101,483 103,284 97,332 93,687

Tartu's historic population is presented in the following table, based on data from official censuses since 1881[20] and Estonian Statistical Office.[21] Note that the data up to 2011 is not directly comparable to the most recent numbers, as the methodology of compiling population statistics has changed.[22] Neighbourhoods[edit] Tartu
Tartu
is officially divided into 17 neighbourhoods, which carry no administrative purposes. Their names and borders are defined.

Kesklinn Annelinn Karlova Ihaste Ropka tööstusrajoon Jaamamõisa Raadi- Kruusamäe Ülejõe Supilinn Tähtvere Ropka Veeriku Variku Tammelinn Ränilinn Maarja- Mõisa Vaksali

Neighborhood Area (ha) Residents 2001 Residents 2006 Residents 2012

Annelinn 541 30000 28200 27480

Ihaste 424 1000 1800 2322

Jaamamõisa 149 3000 3000 3202

Karlova 230 9500 9000 9073

Kesklinn 180 7500 6700 6575

Maarjamõisa 113 800 500 377

Raadi-Kruusamäe 283 5000 4800 4626

Ropka 146 5500 5300 5120

Ropka
Ropka
industrial district 354 2700 2700 2511

Ränilinn 122 2500 1800 1732

Supilinn 48 2100 1800 1790

Tammelinn 311 8000 8100 8195

Tähtvere 250 4500 3500 3023

Vaksali 75 2900 3100 3206

Variku 77 2000 1900 1840

Veeriku 281 5500 5300 5561

Ülejõe 302 8200 7700 7876

A memorial to Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde
and Eduard Vilde

The fountain "Kissing Students" (Estonian: Suudlevad Tudengid) reminds visitors that the University of Tartu
University of Tartu
and its students have a profound effect on life in Tartu.

Education and culture[edit] The city is best known for being home to the University of Tartu, founded under King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
in 1632. Mainly for this reason, Tartu
Tartu
is also – tongue-in-cheek – known as " Athens
Athens
of the Emajõgi" or as "Heidelberg of the North". Tartu
Tartu
is also the seat of the Estonian University of Life Sciences, the Baltic Defence College, Estonian Aviation Academy
Estonian Aviation Academy
(formerly known as Tartu
Tartu
Aviation College), and the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research. Other notable institutions include the Supreme Court of Estonia
Estonia
(re-established in Tartu
Tartu
in autumn 1993), the Estonian Historical Archives, Estonian National Museum, Estonian Sports Museum as well as the oldest and renowned theatre in the country, Vanemuine, where they have a well-respected ballet company as well as theatre, opera and musical productions. In music, there exists the Tartu
Tartu
school of composition. Most of the sculptures in Tartu
Tartu
are dedicated to historical figures. Among them the most famous are the Barclay de Tolly
Barclay de Tolly
monument on the Barclay Square
Barclay Square
in downtown, the Kissing students monument on the town hall square and Gustav II Adolf´s monument on the Kuningaplats. Science[edit] Tartu
Tartu
has been an intellectual centre of both Estonia
Estonia
and Baltic countries for several centuries. Scholars hailing from Tartu
Tartu
include the pioneer of embryology Karl Ernst von Baer, a pioneer of animal behaviour studies Jakob von Uexküll, and a cultural theorist and semiotician Juri Lotman. Tartu School is one of the leading scientific schools in the field of semiotics. Main sights[edit]

St. John's Church

Interior

The architecture and city planning of historical Tartu
Tartu
mainly go back to the pre-independence period, with Germans
Germans
forming the upper and middle classes of society, and therefore contributing many architects, professors and local politicians. Most notable are the old Lutheran
Lutheran
St. John's Church (Estonian: Jaani Kirik, German: Johanneskirche), the 18th-century town hall, the university building, ruins of the 13th-century cathedral, the botanical gardens, the main shopping street, many buildings around the town hall square and Barclay Square. The historical slum area called Supilinn
Supilinn
(Soup Town) is located on the bank of river Emajõgi, near the town centre and is regarded as one of the few surviving "poor" neighbourhoods of 19th-century Europe. At the moment Supilinn
Supilinn
is being rapidly renovated, undergoing a slow transformation from the historic slum into a prestigious high-class neighborhood. The active community embodied by the Supilinn
Supilinn
Society is committed to preserving the heritage. The Second World War destroyed large parts of the city centre and during the Soviet occupation many new buildings were erected – notably the new Vanemuine
Vanemuine
Theater. The effects of the war are still witnessed by the relative abundance of parks and greenery in the historic centre. Typical Soviet-style neighbourhoods of blocks of high-rise flats were built between World War II and the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991, the largest such district being Annelinn. Presently, Tartu
Tartu
is also known for several modern buildings of the "steel, concrete and glass" variation, but has managed to retain a mix of old and new buildings in the centre of town. Notable examples include the Tigutorn Tower and the Emajõe Centre, both built during the current period of independence; Tartu's tallest and second tallest towers, respectively. Tartu's large student population means that it has a comparatively thriving nightlife, with many nightclubs, bars, and restaurants, including the world's highest-ceiling pub, in the historic Gunpowder Cellar of Tartu. Annually, in the summer, Tartu
Tartu
hosts the Hanseatic Days festival (Estonian: Hansapäevad) to celebrate its Hanseatic heritage. The festival includes events such as handicraft markets, historic workshops and jousting tournaments. Sports[edit] Tartu
Tartu
is the home for basketball club Tartu
Tartu
Ülikool/Rock, which is participating in the Korvpalli Meistriliiga, the Baltic Basketball League and the EuroChallenge. Football club JK Tammeka Tartu, one of the Meistriliiga
Meistriliiga
clubs, is located in Tartu. Their home stadium is the Tamme Staadion, which has a capacity of 1 600 people. The city is also home to the Tartu
Tartu
JK Welco and FC Santos Tartu
FC Santos Tartu
clubs, which play in the Esiliiga, the second division. There is a professional handball team, the Tartu
Tartu
Ülikool/Glassdrive, which plays in the second division of Estonian handball. Tartu
Tartu
is the hometown of the BIGBANK Tartu
Tartu
volleyball club. Tartu
Tartu
is also the hometown of Clement "Puppey" Ivanov, captain of Team Secret, a professional Dota 2
Dota 2
team. He won the first International, and was runner-up two years in a row with Natus Vincere.[23] The 2017 World Orienteering Championships were held in Tartu.[24] The annual running event Tartu
Tartu
Sügisjooks takes place in Tartu. Notable people[edit]

Lauri Aus
Lauri Aus
(1970–2003), professional road cyclist Elisabeth Erm
Elisabeth Erm
(1993), fashion model George Hackenschmidt
George Hackenschmidt
(1877–1968), strongman, professional wrestler, writer and philosopher. Leonid Kulik
Leonid Kulik
(1883–1942), Russian mineralogist Karl Linnas (1919–1987), Nazi concentration camp commandant Rein Taaramäe
Rein Taaramäe
(1987), professional road cyclist

International relations[edit] Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Estonia Tartu
Tartu
is twinned with:[25]

Bærum, Norway Deventer, Netherlands Ferrara, Italy Frederiksberg, Denmark[26] (now ) Gyumri, Armenia
Armenia
(signed in Soviet times)[27] Hafnarfjörður, Iceland

Hämeenlinna, Finland Kaunas, Lithuania Lüneburg, Germany Pskov, Russia Riga, Latvia Salisbury, United States

Tampere, Finland Turku, Finland Uppsala, Sweden Veszprém, Hungary Zutphen, Netherlands

Gallery[edit]

University of Tartu
University of Tartu
main building

University of Tartu
University of Tartu
Botanical Gardens

Botanical Garden

Cathedral ruins and University of Tartu
University of Tartu
museum

Angel's Bridge at dusk in winter

Teller chapel in Tartu, Estonia. Built in 1794

Monument to Barclay de Tolly

Hanseatic Days celebration

Sailing barge Jõmmu on Tartu Town Hall
Tartu Town Hall
Square

Song Festival Museum

"Little House" of the Vanemuine
Vanemuine
theater

See also[edit]

Estonia University of Tartu

Tartu
Tartu
University Library

Immaculate Conception Church, Tartu

References[edit]

^ a b "Eesti elanike arv KOV" (PDF).  ^ Tartu
Tartu
– the intellectual centre of Estonia
Estonia
estlandia.de ^ Jonathan Bousfield The Rough Guide to Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
& Lithuania. Rough Guides UK. Page 126 ^ Sergey Chernov. Tartu: Estonia's Intellectual and Theater Capital The Moscow Times, Dec. 24 2012 ^ "Tartu". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 January 2013.  ^ a b c d Mäesalu, Ain (12 October 2001). "Vene kroonikate Jurjev oli tõenäoliselt siiski Tartu" (in Estonian). Sirp. Retrieved 26 January 2013.  ^ Tvauri, Andres (2012). The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia. pp. 33, 59, 60. Retrieved 27 December 2016.  ^ Mäesalu, Ain (2012). "Could Kedipiv in East-Slavonic Chronicles be Keava hill fort?" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Archaeology. 1: 199. Retrieved 27 December 2016.  ^ Freymuth, Otto (1927). " Tartu
Tartu
orduajal" (in Estonian). Retrieved 26 January 2013.  ^ Юрьев уездный город Лифляндской губернии (in Russian). Dic.academic.ru. 14 March 1957. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ Haabsaar, E. Kas Vene kroonikate Jurjev oli tõepoolest Tartu? Sirp, 21.09.2001. ^ Anti Selart, Ivar Leimus, Linda Kaljundi, Heiki Valk. Ristiretked ja vallutussõjad 13. sajandi Liivimaal, in "Eesti ajalugu II. Eesti keskaeg." Editor Anti Selart. Tartu
Tartu
2012. Pp. 52—53 ^ The Town Hall of Tartu, tartu.ee, retrieved 27 December 2013 ^ "Climate normals-Temperature". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ "Climate normals-Precipitation". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ "Climate normals-Humidity". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ "Climate normals-Sunshine". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ " Tartu
Tartu
Linnavolikogu liikmete nimekiri". Tartu.ee. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2010.  ^ "Linnavalitsuse koosseis". Tartu.ee. 15 June 2010. Retrieved 21 November 2010.  ^ "General data for 1881, 1897, 1922, 1934, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989 censuses - Statistics Estonia". www.stat.ee.  ^ "Population by sex, age group and county, 1 January". Statistics Estonia. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2014.  ^ "Definitions and Methodology". pub.stat.ee.  ^ "International Teams". Valve Corporation. Retrieved 20 Jul 2014.  ^ "Nokian Tyres World Orienteering Championships 2017". www.woc2017.ee.  ^ " Tartu
Tartu
sõpruslinnad" (in Estonian). Tartu. Retrieved 1 May 2012.  ^ " Frederiksberg Municipality
Frederiksberg Municipality
– Twin Towns" (in Danish). [[copyright]]2007 -2009 Frederiksberg Municipality. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2009.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ " Tartu
Tartu
arendab suhteid Armeenia linna Gümriga" (in Estonian). Äripäev. 16 November 2004. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tartu.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tartu.

Official website Tourism website University of Tartu Maps of Tartu
Tartu
(in Estonian) Interactive map of modern architecture in Tartu
Tartu
(in Estonian) Live webcameras overlooking Town Hall Square Weather in Tartu Educational portal of Tartu
Tartu
in Russian

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Cities and towns (Linnad) of Estonia

Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Kärdla Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Lihula Loksa Maardu Mõisaküla Mustvee Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Pärnu Põltsamaa Põlva Püssi Rakvere Räpina Rapla Saue Sillamäe Sindi Suure-Jaani Tallinn Tamsalu Tapa Tartu Tõrva Türi Valga Viljandi Võhma Võru

Jaanilinn (Ivangorod) and Petseri (Pechory) were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and are currently part of Russia.

v t e

Municipalities of Tartu
Tartu
County

Urban municipalities

Tartu

Rural municipalities

Elva Kambja Kastre Luunja Nõo Peipsiääre Tartu

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

Tartu
Tartu
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Emajõe Business Centre University main building Kivisild Raadi Manor St. John's Church St. Paul's Church Supreme Court of Estonia Tartu
Tartu
Cathedral Tartu
Tartu
Old Observatory Town Hall Tigutorn Uppsala
Uppsala
House Von Bock House

Precincts

City Centre Supilinn Karlova Tammelinn

Nature and parks

Toomemägi Botanical Gardens Emajõgi Anne Canal Raadi cemetery

Cultural institutions

Vanemuine Estonian National Museum Estonian Literary Museum Estonian Sports Museum Tartu
Tartu
Toy Museum

Science and education

University of Tartu

Estonian Biocentre Tartu
Tartu
Observatory

Baltic Defence College Estonian Aviation Academy Estonian University of Life Sciences
Estonian University of Life Sciences
(Estonian Institute of Zoology and Botany) Estonian National Defence College Tartu
Tartu
Art College

Sports

Tamme Stadium

Transportation

Tartu
Tartu
Airport Railway station Bus

Entertainment

AHHAA

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130651701 GND: 401280

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