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Coordinates: 39°N 83°E / 39°N 83°E / 39; 83

Tarim Basin

  Dzungaria   Tarim Basin

Chinese name

Chinese 塔里木盆地

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Tǎlǐmù Péndì

Wade–Giles T'a3-li3-mu4 P'en2-ti4

IPA [tʰàlìmû pʰə̌ntî]

Nanjiang

Chinese 南疆

Literal meaning Southern Xinjiang

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Nánjiāng

Wade–Giles Nan2-chiang1

IPA [nǎntɕjáŋ]

Uyghur name

Uyghur

تارىم ئويمانلىقى

Transcriptions

Latin Yëziqi Tarim Oymanliqi

Yengi Yeziⱪ Tarim Oymanliⱪi

Siril Yëziqi Тарим ойманлиқи

The Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
is an endorheic basin in northwest China
China
occupying an area of about 1,020,000 km2 (390,000 sq mi).[1] Located in China's Xinjiang
Xinjiang
region, it is sometimes used synonymously to refer the southern half of the province, or Nanjiang (Chinese: 南疆; pinyin: Nánjiāng; literally: "Southern Xinjiang"), as opposed to the northern half of the province known as Dzungaria
Dzungaria
or Beijiang. Its northern boundary is the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountain range and its southern boundary is the Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
on the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
dominates much of the basin. The historical Uyghur name for the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
is Altishahr
Altishahr
(六域), which means "six cities" in Uyghur.

Contents

1 Geography and relation to Xinjiang

1.1 Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
locations

2 Geology 3 History

3.1 Early periods 3.2 Han dynasty 3.3 Sui–Tang dynasties 3.4 Kingdom of Khotan 3.5 Turkic influx 3.6 Islamisation of the Tarim Basin

3.6.1 Turkic-Islamic Kara-Khanid conquest of Iranic Saka Buddhist Khotan 3.6.2 Conversion of the Buddhist Uyghurs

3.7 Qing dynasty

4 People of Tarim Basin 5 Archaeology 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Geography and relation to Xinjiang[edit]

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The Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
is the oval desert to the west of China

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
consists of two main geographically, historically, and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(Altishahr), before Qing China
China
unified them into one political entity called Xinjiang
Xinjiang
province in 1884. At the time of the Qing conquest in 1759, Dzungaria
Dzungaria
was inhabited by steppe dwelling, nomadic Tibetan Buddhist Dzungar people, while the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) was inhabited by sedentary, oasis dwelling, Turkic speaking Muslim
Muslim
farmers, now known as the Uyghur people. They were governed separately until 1884. Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
locations[edit]

Kashgar

Bachu

Uchturpan

Aksu

Kucha

Luntai

Korla

Karashar

Turfan

Hami

Anxi

Yangihissar

Yarkand

Karghalik

Karakash

Khotan

Keriya

Niya

Charkilik

Qiemo

Loulan

Dunhuang

Jade Gate

Urumchi

Kulja

Dzungarian Gate

Karamay

Tacheng

Places in and near the Tarim Basin. The map represents an area about 1800 km wide.

Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria
Dzungaria
and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains

North side: The Chinese called this the Tien Shan Nan Lu or Tien Shan South Road, as opposed to the Bei Lu north of the mountains. Along it runs the modern highway and railroad while the middle Tarim River
Tarim River
is about 100 km south. Kashgar
Kashgar
was where the caravans met before crossing the mountains. Bachu or Miralbachi; Uchturpan north of the main road; Aksu on the large Aksu River; Kucha
Kucha
was once an important kingdom; Luntai; Korla, now a large town; Karashar
Karashar
near Bosten Lake; Turpan
Turpan
north of the Turpan
Turpan
Depression and south of the Bogda Shan; Hami; then southeast to Anxi and the Gansu
Gansu
Corridor. Center: Most of the basin is occupied by the Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
which is too dry for permanent habitation. The Yarkand, Kashgar
Kashgar
and Aksu Rivers join to form the Tarim River
Tarim River
which runs along the north side of the basin. Formerly it continued to Loulan, but some time after 330AD it turned southeast near Korla
Korla
toward Charkilik and Loulan
Loulan
was abandoned. The Tarim ended at the now-dry Lop Nur
Lop Nur
which occupied a changing position east of Loulan. Eastward is the fabled Jade Gate which the Chinese considered the gateway to the Western Regions. Beyond that is Dunhuang
Dunhuang
with its ancient manuscripts and then Anxi at the west end of the Gansu
Gansu
Corridor. South side: Kashgar; Yangi Hissar, famous for its knives; Yarkand, once larger than Kashgar; Karghalik (Yecheng), with a route to India; Karakash; Khotan, the main source of Chinese jade; eastward the land becomes more desolate; Keriya (Yutian); Niya (Minfeng); Qiemo (Cherchen); Charkilik (Ruoqiang). The modern road continues east to Tibet. There is no current road east across the Kumtag Desert
Kumtag Desert
to Dunhuang, but caravans somehow made the crossing through the Yangguan pass south of the Jade Gate.

Tarim basin ancient boats; they were used for burials

Roads and passes, rivers and caravan routes: The Southern Xinjiang Railway branches from the Lanxin Railway
Lanxin Railway
near Turpan, follows the north side of the basin to Kashgar
Kashgar
and curves southeast to Khotan. Roads:The main road from eastern China
China
reaches Urumchi
Urumchi
and continues as highway 314 along the north side to Kashgar. Highway 315 follows the south side from Kashgar
Kashgar
to Charkilik and continues east to Tibet. There are currently four north-south roads across the desert. 218 runs from Charkilik to Korla
Korla
along the former course of the Tarim forming an oval whose other end is Kashgar. The Tarim Desert Highway, a major engineering achievement, crosses the center from Niya to Luntai. The new Highway 217 follows the Khotan
Khotan
River from Khotan
Khotan
to near Aksu. A road follows the Yarkand River from Yarkand to Baqu. East of the Korla-Charkilik road travel continues to be very difficult. Rivers coming south from the Tien Shan join the Tarim, the largest being the Aksu. Rivers flowing north from the Kunlun are usually named for the town or oasis they pass through. Most dry up in the desert, only the Hotan River
Hotan River
reaching the Tarim in good years. An exception is the Qiemo River which flowed northeast into Lop Nor. Ruins in the desert imply that these rivers were once larger. Caravans and passes: The original caravan route seems to have followed the south side. At the time of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
conquest it shifted to the center (Jade Gate-Loulan-Korla). When the Tarim changed course about 330AD it shifted north to Hami. A minor route went north of the Tian Shan. When there was war on the Gansu Corridor
Gansu Corridor
trade entered the basin near Charkilik from the Qaidam Basin. The original route to India
India
seems to have started near Yarkand and Kargilik, but it is now replaced by the Karakoram Highway
Karakoram Highway
south from Kashgar. To the west of Kashgar
Kashgar
via the Irkeshtam
Irkeshtam
border crossing is the Alay Valley
Alay Valley
which was once the route to Persia. Northeast of Kashgar
Kashgar
the Torugart
Torugart
pass leads to the Ferghana Valley. Near Uchturpan the Bedel Pass
Bedel Pass
leads to Lake Issyk-Kul and the steppes. Somewhere near Aksu the difficult Muzart Pass led north to the Ili River
Ili River
basin (Kulja). Near Korla
Korla
was the Iron Gate Pass and now the highway and railway north to Urumchi. From Turfan
Turfan
the easy Dabancheng
Dabancheng
pass leads to Urumchi. The route from Charkilik to the Qaidam Plateau was of some importance when Tibet was an empire. North of the Mountains is Dzungaria
Dzungaria
with its central Gurbantünggüt Desert, Urumchi
Urumchi
the capital and the Karamay
Karamay
oil fields. The Kulja territory is the upper basin of the Ili River
Ili River
and opens out onto the Kazakh steppe with several roads eastward. The Dzungarian Gate
Dzungarian Gate
was once a migration route and is now a road and rail crossing. Tacheng
Tacheng
or Tarbaghatay is a road crossing and former trading post. Geology[edit]

NASA landsat photo of the Tarim Basin

The Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
is the result of an amalgamation between an ancient microcontinent and the growing Eurasian continent during the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
to Permian
Permian
periods. At present, deformation around the margins of the basin is resulting in the microcontinental crust being pushed under Tian Shan
Tian Shan
to the north, and Kunlun Shan
Kunlun Shan
to the south. A thick succession of Paleozoic, Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and Cenozoic
Cenozoic
sedimentary rocks occupy the central parts of the basin, locally exceeding thicknesses of 15 km (9 mi). The source rocks of oil and gas tend to be mostly Permian
Permian
mudstones and, less often, Ordovician
Ordovician
strata which experienced an intense and widespread early Hercynian kartstification. The effect of this event are e.g. paleokarst reservoirs in the Tahe oil field.[2] Below the level enriched with gas and oil is a complex Precambrian basement believed to be made up of the remnants of the original Tarim microplate, which accrued to the growing Eurasian continent in Carboniferous
Carboniferous
time. The snow on K2, the second highest mountain in the world, flows into glaciers which move down the valleys to melt. The melted water forms rivers which flow down the mountains and into the Tarim Basin, never reaching the sea. Surrounded by desert, some rivers feed the oases where the water is used for irrigation while others flow to salt lakes and marshes.

The Tarim Basin, 2008

Lop Nur
Lop Nur
is a marshy, saline depression at the east end of the Tarim Basin. The Tarim River
Tarim River
ends in Lop Nur. The Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
is believed to contain large potential reserves of petroleum and natural gas.[3]:493 Methane
Methane
comprises over 70 percent of the natural gas reserve, with variable contents of ethane (<1% ~18%) and propane (<0.5% ~9%).[4] China
China
National Petroleum Corporation's comprehensive exploration of the Tarim basin between 1989 and 1995 led to the identification of 26 oil- and gas-bearing structures. These occur at deeper depths and in scattered deposits. Beijing aims to develop Xinjiang
Xinjiang
into China's new energy base for the long run, supplying one-fifth of the country's total oil supply by 2010, with an annual output of 35 million tonnes.[5] On June 10, 2010 Baker Hughes
Baker Hughes
announced an agreement to work with Petro China
China
Tarim Oilfield Co. to supply oilfield services, including both directional and vertical drilling systems, formation evaluation services, completion systems and artificial lift technology for wells drilled into foothills formations greater than 7,500 meters (24,600 feet) deep with pressures greater than 20,000 psi (1379 bar) and bottomhole temperatures of approximately 160 °C (320 °F). Electrical submersible pumping (ESP) systems will be employed to dewater gas and condensate wells. Petro China
China
will fund any joint development.[6] In 2015, Chinese researchers published the finding of a vast, carbon-rich underground sea beneath the basin.[7] History[edit]

Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the 3rd century

It is speculated that the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
may be one of the last places in Asia to have become inhabited: It is surrounded by mountains and irrigation technologies might have been necessary.[8] The Northern Silk Road
Northern Silk Road
on one route bypassed the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
north of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains and traversed it on three oases-dependent routes: one north of the Taklamakan Desert, one south, and a middle one connecting both through the Lop Nor region.

The northern Tarim route ran from Kashgar
Kashgar
over Aksu, Kucha, Korla, through the Iron Gate Pass, over Karasahr, Jiaohe, Turpan, Gaochang and Kumul to Anxi. The southern Tarim route ran from Kashgar
Kashgar
over Yarkant, Karghalik, Pishan, Khotan, Keriya, Niya, Qarqan, Qarkilik, Miran and Dunhuang
Dunhuang
to Anxi. The middle Tarim route, allowing the shortest possible itinerary of all four routes, connected Korla
Korla
on the northern Tarim route over Loulan
Loulan
across the Lop Nor region with Dunhuang
Dunhuang
on the southern Tarim route. The Lop Nor region became uninhabitable in the 4th century and the middle route has been deserted since the 6th century.

Early periods[edit]

"Tocharian donors", with red hair, 6th-century AD fresco, Kizil Caves, Tarim Basin.

The earliest inhabitants of the Tarim Barin may be the Tocharians whose languages are the easternmost group of Indo-European languages. Caucasoid mummies have been found in various locations in the Tarim Basin such as Loulan, the Xiaohe Tomb complex, and Qäwrighul. These mummies have been suggested to be of Tocharian origin, and these people may have inhabited the region since at least 1800 BCE. They may be related to the "Yuezhi" (Chinese 月氏; Wade–Giles: Yüeh-Chih) mentioned in Chinese texts. Protected by the Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
from steppe nomads, elements of Tocharian culture survived until the 7th century, at the dawning of the 800s with the arriving Turkic immigrants from the collapsing Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
of modern-day Mongolia began to absorb the Tocharians
Tocharians
to form the modern-day Uyghur ethnic group.[9]

Lefthand image: The Sampul tapestry, a woolen wall hanging from Lop County, Xinjiang, China, showing a possibly Greek soldier from the Greco-Bactrian kingdom
Greco-Bactrian kingdom
(250–125 BC), with blue eyes, wielding a spear, and wearing what appears to be a diadem headband; depicted above him is a centaur, from Greek mythology, a common motif in Hellenistic art Righthand image: Two Buddhist monks on a mural of the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves near Turpan, Xinjiang, China, 9th century AD; although Albert von Le Coq
Albert von Le Coq
(1913) assumed the blue-eyed, red-haired monk was a Tocharian,[10] modern scholarship has identified similar Caucasian figures of the same cave temple (No. 9) as ethnic Sogdians,[11] an Eastern Iranian people
Eastern Iranian people
who inhabited Turfan
Turfan
as an ethnic minority community during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th-8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th-13th century).[12]

Another people in the region besides Tocharian are the Indo-Iranian Saka people who spoke various Eastern Iranian Khotanese Scythian or Saka dialects. In the Achaemenid-era Old Persian
Old Persian
inscriptions found at Persepolis, dated to the reign of Darius I (r. 522-486 BC), the Saka are said to have lived just beyond the borders of Sogdiana.[13] Likewise an inscription dated to the reign of Xerxes I
Xerxes I
(r. 486-465 BC) has them coupled with the Dahae
Dahae
people of Central Asia.[13] The contemporary Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
noted that the Achaemenid Persians called all of the Indo-Iranian Scythian peoples as the Saka.[13] They were known as the Sai (塞, sāi, sək in archaic Chinese) in ancient Chinese records.[14] These records indicate that they originally inhabited Ili and Chu River
Chu River
valleys of modern Kazakhstan. In the Chinese Book of Han, the area was called the "land of the Sai", i.e. the Saka.[15] Presence of a people believed to be Saka has also been found in various location in the Tarim Basin, for example in the Keriya region at Yumulak Kum (Djoumboulak Koum, Yuansha) around 200 km east of Khotan, with a tomb dated to as early as the 7th century BC.[16][17] According to the Sima Qian's Shiji, the nomadic Indo-European Yuezhi originally lived between Tengri Tagh (Tian Shan) and Dunhuang
Dunhuang
of Gansu, China.[18]> However, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
were assaulted and forced to flee from the Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
of Gansu
Gansu
by the Mongolic forces of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
ruler Modu Chanyu, who conquered the area in 177-176 BC (decades before the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
conquest and colonization of Gansu
Gansu
or the establishment of the Protectorate of the Western Regions).[19][20][21][22] In turn the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
were responsible for attacking and pushing the Sai (i.e. Saka) west into Sogdiana, where in the mid 2nd century BC the latter crossed the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
into Bactria, but also into the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
where they settled in Dayuan, southwards towards northern India, and eastward as well where they settled in some of the oasis city-states of the Tarim Basin.[23] Whereas the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
continued westward and conquered Daxia
Daxia
around 177-176 BC, the Sai (i.e. Saka), including some allied Tocharian peoples, fled south to the Pamirs before heading back east to settle in Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
sites like Yanqi (焉耆, Karasahr) and Qiuci (龜茲, Kucha).[24] The Saka are recorded as inhabiting Khotan
Khotan
by at least the 3rd century and also settled in nearby Shache (莎車), a town named after the Saka inhabitants (i.e. saγlâ).[25] Although the ancient Chinese had called Khotan
Khotan
Yutian (于闐), it's more native Iranian names during the Han period were Jusadanna (瞿薩旦那), derived from Indo-Iranian Gostan and Gostana, the names of the town and region around it, respectively.[26] Han dynasty[edit] Around 200 BCE, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
were overrun by the Xiongnu. The Xiongnu tried to invade the western region of China, but ultimately failed and lost control of the region to the Chinese. The Han Chinese
Han Chinese
wrested control of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
from the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
at the end of the 1st century under the leadership of General Ban Chao
Ban Chao
(32–102 CE), during the Han- Xiongnu
Xiongnu
War.[27] The Chinese administered the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
as the Protectorate of the Western Regions. The Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
was later under many foreign rulers, but ruled primary by Turkic, Han, Tibetan, and Mongolic peoples. The powerful Kushans
Kushans
expanded back into the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the 1st–2nd centuries CE, where they established a kingdom in Kashgar and competed for control of the area with nomads and Chinese forces. They introduced the Brahmi script, the Indian Prakrit
Prakrit
language for administration, and Buddhism, playing a central role in the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
to Eastern Asia. Sui–Tang dynasties[edit]

Fragmentary painting on silk of a woman playing the go boardgame, from the Astana Cemetery, Gaochang, c. 744 AD, during the late period of Tang Chinese rule (just before the An Lushan Rebellion)

After the Han dynasty, the Kingdoms of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
began to have strong cultural influences on China
China
as a conduit between the cultures of India
India
and Central Asia
Central Asia
to China. Indian Buddhists had previously travelled to China
China
during the Han dynasty, but the Buddhist monk Kumārajīva
Kumārajīva
from Kucha
Kucha
who visited China
China
during the Six dynasties
Six dynasties
was particularly renowned. The music and dances from Kucha
Kucha
were also popular in the Sui and Tang periods.[28] During the Tang Dynasty, a series of military expeditions were conducted against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, then vassals of the Western Turkic Khaganate.[29] The campaigns against the oasis states began under Emperor Taizong with the annexation of Gaochang
Gaochang
in 640.[30] The nearby kingdom of Karasahr
Karasahr
was captured by the Tang in 644 and the kingdom of Kucha
Kucha
was conquered in 649.[31]

Map of Taizong's campaigns against the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
oasis states, allies of the Western Turks.

The expansion into Central Asia
Central Asia
continued under Taizong's successor, Emperor Gaozong, who dispatched an army in 657 led by Su Dingfang against the Western Turk qaghan Ashina Helu.[31] Ashina was defeated and the khaganate was absorbed into the Tang empire.[32] The Tarim Basin was administered through the Anxi Protectorate
Anxi Protectorate
and the Four Garrisons of Anxi. Tang hegemony beyond the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
in modern Tajikistan and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
ended with revolts by the Turks, but the Tang retained a military presence in Xinjiang. These holdings were later invaded by the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
to the south in 670. For the remainder of the Tang Dynasty, the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
alternated between Tang and Tibetan rule as they competed for control of Central Asia.[33] Kingdom of Khotan[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Khotan Further information: Shule Kingdom, Western Regions, Protectorate of the Western Regions, Protectorate General to Pacify the West, Tang campaigns against Karasahr, Tang campaign against the oasis states, and Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang As a consequence of the Han– Xiongnu
Xiongnu
War spanning from 133 BC to 89 AD, the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
region of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
in Northwest China, including the Saka-founded oasis city-state of Khotan
Khotan
and Kashgar, fell under Han Chinese
Han Chinese
influence, beginning with the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141-87 BC) of the Han Dynasty.[34][35] Much like the neighboring people of the Kingdom of Khotan, people of Kashgar, the capital of the Shule Kingdom, spoke Saka, one of the Eastern Iranian languages.[36] As noted by the Greek historian Herodotus, the contemporary Persians labelled all Scythians as the Saka.[13] Indeed, modern scholarly consensus is that the Saka language, ancestor to the Pamir languages in northern India
India
and Khotanese in Xinjiang, China
China
belongs to the Scythian languages.[37] During China's Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618-907 AD), the region once again came under Chinese suzerainty with the campaigns of conquest by Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649).[38] From the late 8th to 9th centuries, the region changed hands between the Chinese Tang Empire and the rival Tibetan Empire.[39][40] By the early 11th century the region fell to the Muslim
Muslim
Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, which led to both the Turkification
Turkification
of the region as well as its conversion from Buddhism
Buddhism
to Islam.[41][42]

A document from Khotan
Khotan
written in Khotanese Saka, part of the Eastern Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages, listing the animals of the Chinese zodiac
Chinese zodiac
in the cycle of predictions for people born in that year; ink on paper, early 9th century

Suggestive evidence of Khotan's early link to India
India
are minted coins from Khotan
Khotan
dated to the 3rd century bearing dual inscriptions in Chinese and Gandhari Prakrit
Prakrit
in the Kharosthi
Kharosthi
script.[43] Although Prakrit
Prakrit
was the administrative language of nearby Shanshan, 3rd-century documents from that kingdom record the title hinajha (i.e. "generalissimo") for the king of Khotan, Vij'ida-simha, a distinctively Iranian-based word equivalent to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
title senapati, yet nearly identical to the Khotanese Saka hīnāysa attested in contemporary documents.[43] This along with the fact that the king's recorded regnal periods were given in Khotanese as kṣuṇa, "implies an established connection between the Iranian inhabitants and the royal power," according to the late Professor of Iranian Studies Ronald E. Emmerick (d. 2001).[43] He contended that Khotanese-Saka-language royal rescripts of Khotan
Khotan
dated to the 10th century "makes it likely that the ruler of Khotan
Khotan
was a speaker of Iranian."[43] Furthermore, he elaborated on the early name of Khotan:

The name of Khotan
Khotan
is attested in a number of spellings, of which the oldest form is hvatana, in texts of approximately the 7th to the 10th century AD written in an Iranian language itself called hvatana by the writers. The same name is attested also in two closely related Iranian dialects, Sogdian and Tumshuq...Attempts have accordingly been made to explain it as Iranian, and this is of some importance historically. My own preference is for an explanation connecting it semantically with the name Saka, for the Iranian inhabitants of Khotan...[44]

Coin of Gurgamoya, king of Khotan. Khotan, 1st century CE. Obv: Kharosthi
Kharosthi
legend, "Of the great king of kings, king of Khotan, Gurgamoya. Rev: Chinese legend: "Twenty-four grain copper coin". British Museum

In Northwest China, Khotanese-Saka-language documents, ranging from medical texts to Buddhist literature, have been found primarily in Khotan
Khotan
and Tumshuq (northeast of Kashgar).[45] They largely predate the arrival of Islam
Islam
to the region under the Turkic Kara-Khanids.[45] Similar documents in the Khotanese- Saka language
Saka language
were found in Dunhuang
Dunhuang
dating mostly to the 10th century.[46] Turkic influx[edit] The collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
in 840 AD led to the movement of the Uyghurs
Uyghurs
south to Turpan
Turpan
and Gansu, and some absorbed by the Karluks. The Uyghurs
Uyghurs
of Turfan
Turfan
(or Qocho) became Buddhists. In the tenth century, the Karluks, Yagmas, Chigils and other Turkic tribes founded the Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
in Semirechye, Western Tian Shan, and Kashgaria.[47] Islamisation of the Tarim Basin[edit] Main article: Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang The Karakhanids became the first Islamic Turkic dynasty in the tenth century when Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan
Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan
converted to Islam
Islam
in 966 and controlled Kashgar.[47] Satuq Bughra Khan and his son directed endeavors to preach Islam
Islam
among the Turks and engage in conquests.[48] Satok Bughra Khan's nephew or grandson Ali Arslan was slain by the Buddhists during the war. Buddhism
Buddhism
lost territory to the Turkic Karakhanid Satok Bughra Khan during the Karakhanid reign around the Kashgar
Kashgar
area.[49] The Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
became Islamicized over the next few centuries. Turkic-Islamic Kara-Khanid conquest of Iranic Saka Buddhist Khotan[edit]

Uyghur princes from the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves
Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves
near Turpan, Kingdom of Qocho, 8th-9th centuries

In the tenth century, the Buddhist Iranic Saka Kingdom of Khotan
Khotan
was the only city-state that was not conquered yet by the Turkic Uyghur (Buddhist) and the Turkic Qarakhanid (Muslim) states. The Buddhist entitites of Dunhuang
Dunhuang
and Khotan
Khotan
had a tight-knit partnership, with intermarriage between Dunhuang
Dunhuang
and Khotan's rulers and Dunhuang's Mogao grottos and Buddhist temples being funded and sponsored by the Khotan
Khotan
royals, whose likenesses were drawn in the Mogao grottoes.[50] Halfway in the 10th century Khotan
Khotan
came under attack by the Qarakhanid ruler Musa, a long war ensued between the Turkic Karakhanid and Buddhist Khotan
Khotan
which eventually ended in the conquest of Khotan
Khotan
by Kashgar
Kashgar
by the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan around 1006.[50][51]

An Islamic cemetery outside the Afaq Khoja Mausoleum
Afaq Khoja Mausoleum
in Kashgar

Accounts of the Muslim
Muslim
Karakhanid war against the Khotanese Buddhists are given in Taẕkirah of the Four Sacrificed Imams written sometime in the period from 1700-1849 which told the story of four imams from Mada'in city (possibly in modern-day Iraq) who travelled to help the Islamic conquest of Khotan, Yarkand, and Kashgar
Kashgar
by Yusuf Qadir Khan, the Qarakhanid leader.[52] The "infidels" were defeated and driven towards Khotan
Khotan
by Yusuf Qadir Khan and the four Imams, but the Imams were assassinated by the Buddhists prior to the last Muslim
Muslim
victory. After Yusuf Qadir Khan's conquest of new land in Altishahr
Altishahr
towards the east, he adopted the title "King of the East and China".[53] In 1006, the Muslim
Muslim
Kara-Khanid ruler Yusuf Kadir (Qadir) Khan of Kashgar
Kashgar
conquered Khotan, ending Khotan's existence as an independent state. The Islamic conquest of Khotan
Khotan
led to alarm in the east and Dunhuang's Cave 17, which contained Khotanese literary works, was closed shut possibly after its caretakers heard that Khotan's Buddhist buildings were razed by the Muslims, the Buddhist religion had suddenly ceased to exist in Khotan.[48] The Karakhanid Turkic Muslim writer Mahmud al-Kashgari
Mahmud al-Kashgari
recorded a short Turkic language poem about the conquest:

English translation:[54][55][48][56][56]

We came down on them like a flood, We went out among their cities, We tore down the idol-temples, We shat on the Buddha's head!

In Turkic:[57][56]

kälginläyü aqtïmïz kändlär üzä čïqtïmïz furxan ävin yïqtïmïz burxan üzä sïčtïmïz

Conversion of the Buddhist Uyghurs[edit]

Subashi Buddhist temple ruins

The Buddhist Uyghurs
Uyghurs
of the Kingdom of Qocho
Kingdom of Qocho
and Turfan
Turfan
embraced Islam after conversion at the hands of the Muslim
Muslim
Chagatai Khizr Khwaja.[50] Kara Del
Kara Del
was a Mongolian ruled and Uighur populated Buddhist Kingdom. The Muslim
Muslim
Chagatai Khan Mansur invaded and used the sword to make the population convert to Islam.[58] After being converted to Islam, the descendants of the previously Buddhist Uyghurs
Uyghurs
in Turfan
Turfan
believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) were the ones who built Buddhist monuments in their area, in opposition to the current academic theory that it was their own ancestral legacy.[59] Qing dynasty[edit]

Northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Dzungar Basin) (yellow), Eastern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- Turpan Depression ( Turpan
Turpan
Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (red), and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(blue)

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
did not exist as one unit until 1884 under Qing rule. It consisted of the two separate political entities of Dzungaria
Dzungaria
and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(Eastern Turkestan).[60][61][62][63] Dzungharia or Ili was called Zhunbu 準部 (Dzungar region) Tianshan Beilu 天山北路 (Northern March), "Xinjiang" 新疆 (New Frontier),[64] or "Kalmykia" (La Kalmouquie in French).[65][66] It was formerly the area of the Dzungar (or Zunghar) Khanate 準噶爾汗國, the land of the Dzungar people. The Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
was known as "Tianshan Nanlu 天山南路 (southern March), Huibu 回部 ( Muslim
Muslim
region), Huijiang 回疆 ( Muslim
Muslim
frontier), Chinese Turkestan, Kashgaria, Little Bukharia, East Turkestan", and the traditional Uyghur name for it was Altishahr (Uyghur: التى شهر, Алтә-шәһәр‎, ULY: Altä-shähär).[67] It was formerly the area of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate 東察合台汗國, land of the Uyghur people
Uyghur people
before being conquered by the Dzungars. People of Tarim Basin[edit]

Uyghurs
Uyghurs
in Khotan

According to census figures, the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
is dominated by the Uyghurs.[68] They form the majority population in cities such as Kashgar, Artush, and Hotan. There are however large pockets of Han Chinese in the region, such as Aksu and Korla. There are also smaller numbers of Hui and other ethnic groups, for example, the Tajiks
Tajiks
who are concentrated at Tashkurgan in the Kashgar
Kashgar
Prefecture, the Kyrgyz in Kizilsu, and the Mongols
Mongols
in Bayingolin.[69] The discovery of the Tarim mummies
Tarim mummies
showed that the early people of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
were Caucasians.[70] According to Sinologist Victor H. Mair: "From around 1800BC, the earliest mummies in the Tarim Basin were exclusively Caucasoid, or Europoid." He also said that East Asian migrants arriving in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
around 3,000 years ago, and the Uyghur peoples "arrived after the collapse of the Orkon Uighur Kingdom, based in modern-day Mongolia, around the year 842." He also noted that the people of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
are a mixture: "Modern DNA and ancient DNA show that Uighurs, Kazaks, Kyrgyzs, the peoples of central Asia are all mixed Caucasian and East Asian. The modern and ancient DNA tell the same story."[9] Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs
Uyghurs
as physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at Temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants.[71] The modern Uyghurs
Uyghurs
are now a mixed hybrid of East Asian and Caucasian.[72][73][74] Archaeology[edit]

Fresco
Fresco
from a stupa shrine, Miran

Although archaeological findings are of interest in the Tarim Basin, the prime impetus for exploration was petroleum and natural gas. Recent research with help of GIS
GIS
database have provided a fine-grained analysis of the ancient oasis of Niya on the Silk Road. This research led to significant findings; remains of hamlets with wattle and daub structures as well as farm land, orchards, vineyards, irrigation pools and bridges. The oasis at Niya preserves the ancient landscape. Here also have been found hundreds of 3rd and 4th century wooden accounting tablets at several settlements across the oasis. These texts are in the Kharosthi
Kharosthi
script native to today's Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan. The texts are legal documents such as tax lists, and contracts containing detailed information pertaining to the administration of daily affairs.[75]

Painting of a man from a Nestorian Christian Church, Khocho (Gaochang), early period of Chinese Tang rule, 602–654 AD

Additional excavations have unearthed tombs with mummies,[76] tools, ceramic works, painted pottery and other artistic artifacts. Such diversity was encouraged by the cultural contacts resulting from this area's position on the Silk Road.[77] Early Buddhist sculptures and murals excavated at Miran show artistic similarities to the traditions of Central Asia
Central Asia
and North India[78] and stylistic aspects of paintings found there suggest that Miran had a direct connection with the West, specifically Rome
Rome
and its provinces.[79] See also[edit]

Tocharians Geography of China Silk Road
Silk Road
transmission of Buddhism Kara-Khanid Khanate Kunlun Mountains Flaming Mountains Taklamakan Desert Tarim mummies Turpan
Turpan
water system

Notes[edit]

^ Chen, Yaning, et al. "Regional climate change and its effects on river runoff in the Tarim Basin, China." Hydrological Processes 20.10 (2006): 2207-2216. (online Archived 2016-05-01 at the Wayback Machine. 426 KB) ^ Tian, Fei; Lu, Xinbian; Zheng, Songqing; Zhang, Hongfang; Rong, Yuanshuai; Yang, Debin; Liu, Naigui (2017-06-26). "Structure and Filling Characteristics of Paleokarst Reservoirs in the Northern Tarim Basin, Revealed by Outcrop, Core and Borehole Images". Open Geosciences. 9 (1): 266–280. doi:10.1515/geo-2017-0022. ISSN 2391-5447.  ^ Boliang, H., 1992, Petroleum
Petroleum
Geology and Prospects of Tarim (Talimu) Basin, China, In Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1978-1988, AAPG Memoir 54, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum
Petroleum
Geologists, ISBN 0891813330 ^ Tongwei Zhang, Quanyou Liu, Jinxing Dai, and Yongchun Tang, "Natural Gas Geochemistry in the Tarim Basin, China
China
and Its Indication to Gas Filling History" (August 20, 2007) ^ Karen Teo, "Doubts over Sinopec oil find in Tarim", The Standard (January 4, 2005) ^ " Baker Hughes
Baker Hughes
Signs Strategic Framework Agreement with PetroChina Tarim Oilfield Co." (June 10, 2010) ^ Li, Yan; Wang, Yu-Gang; Houghton, R. A.; Tang, Li-Song (2015). "Hidden carbon sink beneath desert". Geophysical Research Letters. 42 (14): 5880–5887. doi:10.1002/2015GL064222 . ISSN 1944-8007. Lay summary – Inhabitat (2015-09-16).  ^ Wong, Edward (2009-07-12). "Rumbles on the Rim of China's Empire - NYTimes.com". www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ a b "The mystery of China's celtic mummies". The Independent. London. August 28, 2006. Retrieved 2008-06-28.  ^ von Le Coq, Albert. (1913). Chotscho: Facsimile-Wiedergaben der Wichtigeren Funde der Ersten Königlich Preussischen Expedition nach Turfan
Turfan
in Ost-Turkistan. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen), im Auftrage der Gernalverwaltung der Königlichen Museen aus Mitteln des Baessler-Institutes, Tafel 19. (Accessed 3 September 2016). ^ Gasparini, Mariachiara. "A Mathematic Expression of Art: Sino-Iranian and Uighur Textile Interactions and the Turfan
Turfan
Textile Collection in Berlin," in Rudolf G. Wagner and Monica Juneja (eds), Transcultural Studies, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, No 1 (2014), pp 134-163. ISSN 2191-6411. See also endnote #32. (Accessed 3 September 2016.) ^ Hansen, Valerie (2012), The Silk Road: A New History, Oxford University Press, p. 98, ISBN 978-0-19-993921-3. ^ a b c d Bailey, H.W. (1996) "Khotanese Saka Literature", in Ehsan Yarshater (ed), The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol III: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, Part 2 (reprint edition), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 1230. ^ Zhang Guang-da. History of Civilizations of Central Asia
Central Asia
Volume III: The crossroads of civilizations: AD 250 to 750. UNESCO. p. 283. ISBN 978-8120815407.  ^ Yu Taishan (June 2010), "The Earliest Tocharians
Tocharians
in China" in Victor H. Mair (ed), Sino-Platonic Papers, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, p. 13. ^ C. Debaine-Francfort, A. Idriss (2001). Keriya, mémoires d'un fleuve. Archéologie et civilations des oasis du Taklamakan. Electricite de France. ISBN 978-2868050946. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ J. P. mallory. "Bronze Age Languages of the Tarim Basin" (PDF). Penn Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-09.  ^ Mallory, J. P. & Mair, Victor H. (2000). The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China
China
and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. Thames & Hudson. London. p. 58. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.  ^ Torday, Laszlo. (1997). Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham: The Durham Academic Press, pp 80-81, ISBN 978-1-900838-03-0. ^ Yü, Ying-shih. (1986). "Han Foreign Relations," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 377-462. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 377-388, 391, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8. ^ Chang, Chun-shu. (2007). The Rise of the Chinese Empire: Volume II; Frontier, Immigration, & Empire in Han China, 130 B.C. – A.D. 157. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp 5-8 ISBN 978-0-472-11534-1. ^ Di Cosmo, Nicola. (2002). Ancient China
China
and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 174-189, 196-198, 241-242 ISBN 978-0-521-77064-4. ^ Yu Taishan (June 2010), "The Earliest Tocharians
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in China" in Victor H. Mair (ed), Sino-Platonic Papers, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, pp 13-14. ^ Yu Taishan (June 2010), "The Earliest Tocharians
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in China" in Victor H. Mair (ed), Sino-Platonic Papers, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, pp 21-22. ^ Ulrich Theobald. (26 November 2011). "Chinese History - Sai 塞 The Saka People or Soghdians." ChinaKnowledge.These records state that theyde. Accessed 2 September 2016. ^ Ulrich Theobald. (16 October 2011). "City-states Along the Silk Road." ChinaKnowledge.de. Accessed 2 September 2016. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 37, 41–42. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ Jeong Su-il (17 July 2016). " Kucha
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Part I. Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-521-21446-9.  ^ a b Skaff, Jonathan Karem (2009). Nicola Di Cosmo, ed. Military Culture in Imperial China. Harvard University Press. pp. 183–185. ISBN 978-0-674-03109-8.  ^ Skaff, Jonathan Karam (2012). Sui-Tang China
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Buddhism
in Serindia: Buddhism
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Tibetan Empire
in Central Asia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp 36, 146. ISBN 0-691-05494-0. ^ Wechsler, Howard J.; Twitchett, Dennis C. (1979). Denis C. Twitchett; John K. Fairbank, eds. The Cambridge History of China, Volume 3: Sui and T'ang China, 589–906, Part I. Cambridge University Press. pp. 225–227. ISBN 978-0-521-21446-9. ^ Scott Cameron Levi; Ron Sela (2010). Islamic Central Asia: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Indiana University Press. pp. 72–. ISBN 0-253-35385-8. ^ Ahmad Hasan Dani; B. A. Litvinsky; Unesco (1 January 1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. pp. 283–. ISBN 978-92-3-103211-0. ^ a b c d Emmerick, R. E. (2003) "Iranian Settlement East of the Pamirs", in Ehsan Yarshater (ed), The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol III: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, Part 1 (reprint edition) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 265. ^ Emmerick, R. E. (2003) "Iranian Settlement East of the Pamirs", in Ehsan Yarshater (ed), The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol III: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, Part 1 (reprint edition) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 265-266. ^ a b Bailey, H.W. (1996) "Khotanese Saka Literature", in Ehsan Yarshater (ed), The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol III: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, Part 2 (reprint edition), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 1231-1235. ^ Hansen, Valerie (2005). "The Tribute Trade with Khotan
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References[edit]

Baumer, Christoph. 2000. Southern Silk Road: In the Footsteps of Sir Aurel Stein and Sven Hedin. White Orchid Books. Bangkok. Bellér-Hann, Ildikó (2008). Community Matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur. Brill. ISBN 9004166750.  Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [1] Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate
Jade Gate
to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Mallory, J.P. and Mair, Victor H. 2000. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China
China
and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. Thames & Hudson. London. ISBN 0-500-05101-1 Edme Mentelle; Malte Conrad Brun (dit Conrad) Malte-Brun; Pierre-Etienne Herbin de Halle (1804). Géographie mathématique, physique & politique de toutes les parties du monde, Volume 12. H. Tardieu. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804729336. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Stein, Aurel M. 1907. Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan, 2 vols. Clarendon Press. Oxford. [2] Stein, Aurel M. 1921. Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia
Central Asia
and westernmost China, 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. [3] Stein Aurel M. 1928. Innermost Asia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia, Kan-su and Eastern Iran, 5 vols. Clarendon Press. Reprint: New Delhi. Cosmo Publications. 1981.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tarim Basin.

Downloadable article: "Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
as early as the early Bronze Age" Li et al. BMC Biology 2010, 8:15. [4] Silk Road
Silk Road
Seattle - University of Washington (The Silk Road
Silk Road
Seattle website contains many useful resources including a number of full-text historical works) The International Dunhuang
Dunhuang
Project Along the ancient silk routes: Central Asian art from the West Berlin State Museums, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material from the Tarim Basin

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Palearctic temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

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China
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(Italy) Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests (France, Spain, Andorra) Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests (China) Rodope montane mixed forests
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deciduous forests and steppe (China) Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests (Russia) West Siberian broadleaf and mixed forests (Russia) Western European broadleaf forests
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Zagros Mountains
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v t e

Basins of China

Juyan Lake Basin Nanyang Basin Qaidam Basin Sichuan Basin Tarim Basin

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Xinjiang
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topics

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(capital)

History

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Protectorate of the Western Regions

Kingdom of Khotan Sixteen Kingdoms Gaochang Turkic Khaganate
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(Western) Tang dynasty

Protectorate General to Pacify the West Four Garrisons of Anxi

Tibetan Empire Uyghur Khaganate Kingdom of Qocho Kara-Khanid Khanate

Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang

Qara Khitai Mongol Empire Yuan dynasty Chagatai Khanate Moghulistan Kara Del Yarkent Khanate Dzungar Khanate

Dzungar conquest of Altishahr Dzungar–Qing War Dzungar genocide

Kumul Khanate Qing dynasty

Qing rule General of Ili Reconquest of Xinjiang

Republic of China

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Wars Ili Rebellion

People's Republic of China

PRC incorporation

Geography

Cities Tian Shan Dzungarian Basin Tarim Basin Gurbantünggüt Desert Kumtag Desert Taklimakan Desert Turpan
Turpan
Depression Karakoram
Karakoram
Mountains Altai Mountains Kunlun Shan Pamir Mountains Torugart
Torugart
Pass Irkeshtam
Irkeshtam
Pass Karakoram
Karakoram
Pass Lanzhou– Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Railway

Education

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
University Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Agricultural University Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Medical University

Culture

Doppa Festival Music Meshrep gathering Muqam

Cuisine

Dapanji Sangza Samsa Youtazi Pamirdin Xurpa Tohax Tunurkawab Chinese Islamic cuisine

Visitor attractions

Apak Khoja and Xiang Fei Tomb Flaming Mountains Jiaohe Ruins Gaochang Grand Bazaar, Ürümqi Id Kah Mosque Karakul Lake Kizil Caves Ruins of Niya

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
conflict

1989 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
unrest Baren Township riot 1992 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bombings Ghulja incident 1992 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bombings 1997 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bus bombings Xinjiang
Xinjiang
raid 2008 Uyghur unrest 2008 Kashgar
Kashgar
attack Shaoguan incident July 2009 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
riots September 2009 Xinjiang
Xinjiang
unrest 2010 Aksu bombing 2011 Hotan
Hotan
attack 2011 Kashgar
Kashgar
attacks Pishan hostage crisis 2012 Yecheng attack Tianjin Airlines Flight 7554 April 2013 Bachu unrest June 2013 Shanshan
Shanshan
riots 2013 Tiananmen Square attack 2014 Kunming attack 2014 China–Vietnam border shootout April 2014 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
attack May 2014 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
attack Assassination of Juma Tayir

People

Amursana Mingrui Jahangir Khoja Yaqub Beg Zuo Zongtang Yang Zengxin Jin Shuren Sheng Shicai Ehmetjan Qasim Wang Zhen Saifuddin Azizi Rebiya Kadeer Nur Bekri Li Zhi Wang Lequan Zhang Chunxian Ilham Tohti

Related

Uyghur people Migration to Xinjiang East Turkestan

Independence movement

World Uyghur Congress China– Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
relations China–Kyrgyzstan relations China– Pakistan
Pakistan
relations China–Turkey relations

Category Commons

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235913

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