Serer religion )
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
History of the
Senegambian stone circles
Gambia Colony and Protectorate
Gambia Colony and Protectorate
Gambia Independence Act 1964
* 1994 Gambian coup d\'état
* 2014 Gambian coup d\'état attempt
TAKRUR, TEKRUR or TEKROUR (c. 800 – c. 1285) was an ancient state
West Africa , which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire
* 1 Origin
* 2 Centre of trade
* 3 Adoption of
* 5 Downfall
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 Sources
* 9 External links
Takrur was the name of the capital of the state which flourished on
Senegal River . Takruri was a term, like Bilad-ul-Sudan,
that was used to refer to all people of West African ancestry.
The formation of the state may have taken place as an influx of
Fulani from the east settled in the
Senegal valley. John Donnelly
Fage suggests that
Takrur was formed through the interaction of
Berbers from the
Sahara and "Negro agricultural peoples" who were
"essentially Serer ".
CENTRE OF TRADE
Located in the
Senegal valley, along the border of present-day
Mauritania , it was a trading centre, where gold from the
Bambuk region, salt from the Awlil and
Sahel grain were exchanged. It
was rival of the
Ghana Empire and the two states clashed from time to
time with the Soninké usually winning. Despite these clashes, Takrur
prospered throughout the 9th and 10th centuries.
According to Levtzion, "It is significant that the cotton tree and
the manufacture of cloth were first reported from Takrur." :179
ADOPTION OF ISLAM
The kings of
Takrur eventually adopted
Islam . Sometime in the 1030s
during the reign of king
War Jabi , the court converted to Islam, the
first regent to officially pronounce orthodoxy in the
establishing the faith in the region for centuries to come. In 1035
War Jabi introduced
Sharia law in the kingdom. This adoption of
Islam greatly benefited the state economically and created greater
political ties that would also affect them in the coming conflicts
between the traditionalist state of Ghana and its northern neighbours.
Fulani of Tarkur became independent after Ghanaian power faded.
Takrur in turn set out to conquer the Kingdom of Diara, which was a
Ghanaian province before. Then in 1203,
Takrur leader Sumanguru took
Kumbi Saleh , the capital of Ghana. Thus,
Takrur became the
sole power in the region.
Among these were the Susu who carved out the sizeable though
Waalo , the first Wolof state, emerged out its
south. By the time Mandinka tribes united to form the
Mali Empire in
Takrur was in a steep decline. The state was finally conquered
by the usurper emperor Sabakoura of Mali in the 1280s.
Takrur was later conquered by Mali ; it was also conquered by Jolof
in the 15th century. However, Koli (a Fula rebel) did finally manage
to regain Takrur, and named it
Fouta Toro in the 15th century, thereby
setting up the first Fula dynasty (
Denanke ). This dynasty also did
not last and in 1776 during the Fouta Revolution, led by Muslim
clerics , the kingdom was entered and the house of
Denanke was brought
* Gambia portal
* Serer portal
* ^ Charles Becker et Victor Martin, « Rites de sépultures
préislamiques au Sénégal et vestiges protohistoriques », Archives
Suisses d'Anthropologie Générale, Imprimerie du Journal de Genève,
Genève, 1982, tome 46, no 2, p. 261-293
* ^ Trimingham, John Spencer, "A history of
Islam in West Africa",
pp 174, 176 & 234, Oxford University Press, USA (1970)
* ^ Becker
* ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", pp 9, 20-77
* ^ 'Umar Al-Naqar (1969). "
Takrur the History of a Name". The
Journal of African History. 10 (3): 365–374.
JSTOR 179671 . doi
* ^ Ibn Khalikan, op. cit. vi, 14.
* ^ Hrbek, I. (1992). General History of Africa volume 3: Africa
from the 7th to the 11th Century: Africa from the Seventh to the
Eleventh Century v. 3 (Unesco General History of Africa (abridged)).
James Carey. p. 67. ISBN 978-0852550939 .
* ^ Creevey, Lucy (August 1996). "Islam, Women and the Role of the
State in Senegal". Journal of Religion in Africa. 26 (3): 268–307.
JSTOR 1581646 . doi :10.1163/157006696x00299 .
* ^ Fage, John Donnelly (1997). "Upper and Lower Guinea". In Roland
Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0521209816 .
* ^ A B Levtzion, Nehemia (1973).
Ancient Ghana and Mali. New York:
Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 44. ISBN 0841904316 .
* ^ Robinson, David (12 January 2004). Muslim Societies in African
Cambridge University Press . ISBN
978-0-521-53366-9 . Retrieved 14 October 2015.
* ^ Davidson, Basil (1965). A History of
West Africa (PDF).
University of Lagos, Nigeria: Longman. ISBN 0684826674 .
* ^ Leyti, Oumar Ndiaye. Le Djoloff et ses Bourba. Nouvelles
Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN 2-7236-0817-4
* ^ Ogot, Bethwell A. General history of Africa: Africa from the
sixteenth to the eighteenth century. University of California Press,
1999, ISBN 0-520-06700-2 , p 146
* J. F. Ade Ajayi,
Michael Crowder (eds.). History of West Africa.
Columbia University (1972) ISBN 0-231-03628-0
* J. Hunwick. "Takrur", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden 2000, X,
* Mary Antin, Nehemia Levtzion. Medieval
West Africa Before 1400:
Ghana, Takrur, Gao (Songhay) and Mali. Translated by Nehemia Levtzion.
J. F. Hopkins: Contributor. Markus Wiener Publishing, New Jersey
(1998). ISBN 1-55876-165-9
* J. D. Fage (ed.). The
Cambridge History of Africa, vol. II,
Cambridge University Press (1978), 675-7.
* H. T. Norris. "The Wind of Change in the Western Sahara". The
Geographical Journal, Vol. 130, No. 1 (Mar., 1964), pp. 1–14
* D.W. Phillipson. African Archaeology,
Cambridge University Press
(Revised Edition 2005). ISBN 978-0-521-83236-6
* Leyti, Oumar Ndiaye. Le Djoloff et ses Bourba. Nouvell