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(i) (i)

( Serer religion
Serer religion
)

GOVERNMENT Monarchy
Monarchy

KING

• 1030s War Jabi

HISTORICAL ERA Middle Ages
Middle Ages

• Established 800s

Islam
Islam
1030s

• Conquered by Mali Empire 1285

PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY

Serer people

Fula people
Fula people

Toucouleur people
Toucouleur people

Kaniaga

Mali Empire

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

History of the Gambia

CHRONOLOGICAL

* Senegambian stone circles
Senegambian stone circles
* Takrur * Mali Empire * Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
* Couronian colonization * Albreda * Gambia Colony and Protectorate * Gambia Independence Act 1964 * Senegambia Confederation * 1994 Gambian coup d\'état * 2014 Gambian coup d\'état attempt

Gambia portal

* v * t * e

TAKRUR, TEKRUR or TEKROUR (c. 800 – c. 1285) was an ancient state of West Africa
West Africa
, which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire .

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin * 2 Centre of trade * 3 Adoption of Islam
Islam
* 4 Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
* 5 Downfall * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 Sources * 9 External links

ORIGIN

Takrur
Takrur
was the name of the capital of the state which flourished on the lower Senegal River . Takruri was a term, like Bilad-ul-Sudan, that was used to refer to all people of West African ancestry.

The formation of the state may have taken place as an influx of Fulani from the east settled in the Senegal
Senegal
valley. John Donnelly Fage suggests that Takrur
Takrur
was formed through the interaction of Berbers
Berbers
from the Sahara
Sahara
and "Negro agricultural peoples" who were "essentially Serer ".

CENTRE OF TRADE

Located in the Senegal
Senegal
valley, along the border of present-day Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania
Mauritania
, it was a trading centre, where gold from the Bambuk region, salt from the Awlil and Sahel
Sahel
grain were exchanged. It was rival of the Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
and the two states clashed from time to time with the Soninké usually winning. Despite these clashes, Takrur prospered throughout the 9th and 10th centuries.

According to Levtzion, "It is significant that the cotton tree and the manufacture of cloth were first reported from Takrur." :179

ADOPTION OF ISLAM

The kings of Takrur
Takrur
eventually adopted Islam
Islam
. Sometime in the 1030s during the reign of king War Jabi , the court converted to Islam, the first regent to officially pronounce orthodoxy in the Sahel
Sahel
, establishing the faith in the region for centuries to come. In 1035 that War Jabi introduced Sharia
Sharia
law in the kingdom. This adoption of Islam
Islam
greatly benefited the state economically and created greater political ties that would also affect them in the coming conflicts between the traditionalist state of Ghana and its northern neighbours.

GHANA EMPIRE

The Fulani of Tarkur became independent after Ghanaian power faded. Takrur
Takrur
in turn set out to conquer the Kingdom of Diara, which was a Ghanaian province before. Then in 1203, Takrur
Takrur
leader Sumanguru took control of Kumbi Saleh , the capital of Ghana. Thus, Takrur
Takrur
became the sole power in the region.

DOWNFALL

Among these were the Susu who carved out the sizeable though short-lived Kaniaga . Waalo , the first Wolof state, emerged out its south. By the time Mandinka tribes united to form the Mali Empire in 1235, Takrur
Takrur
was in a steep decline. The state was finally conquered by the usurper emperor Sabakoura of Mali in the 1280s.

Takrur
Takrur
was later conquered by Mali ; it was also conquered by Jolof in the 15th century. However, Koli (a Fula rebel) did finally manage to regain Takrur, and named it Fouta Toro in the 15th century, thereby setting up the first Fula dynasty ( Denanke ). This dynasty also did not last and in 1776 during the Fouta Revolution, led by Muslim clerics , the kingdom was entered and the house of Denanke was brought down.

SEE ALSO

* Serer people * Fula people
Fula people
* Toucouleur people
Toucouleur people

* Senegal
Senegal
portal * Gambia portal * Serer portal

NOTES

* ^ Charles Becker et Victor Martin, « Rites de sépultures préislamiques au Sénégal et vestiges protohistoriques », Archives Suisses d'Anthropologie Générale, Imprimerie du Journal de Genève, Genève, 1982, tome 46, no 2, p. 261-293 * ^ Trimingham, John Spencer, "A history of Islam
Islam
in West Africa", pp 174, 176 & 234, Oxford University Press, USA (1970) * ^ Becker * ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", pp 9, 20-77 * ^ 'Umar Al-Naqar (1969). " Takrur
Takrur
the History of a Name". The Journal of African History. 10 (3): 365–374. JSTOR
JSTOR
179671 . doi :10.1017/s002185370003632x . * ^ Ibn Khalikan, op. cit. vi, 14. * ^ Hrbek, I. (1992). General History of Africa volume 3: Africa from the 7th to the 11th Century: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century v. 3 (Unesco General History of Africa (abridged)). James Carey. p. 67. ISBN 978-0852550939 . * ^ Creevey, Lucy (August 1996). "Islam, Women and the Role of the State in Senegal". Journal of Religion in Africa. 26 (3): 268–307. JSTOR
JSTOR
1581646 . doi :10.1163/157006696x00299 . * ^ Fage, John Donnelly (1997). "Upper and Lower Guinea". In Roland Oliver. The Cambridge
Cambridge
History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521209816 . * ^ A B Levtzion, Nehemia (1973). Ancient Ghana and Mali. New York: Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 44. ISBN 0841904316 . * ^ Robinson, David (12 January 2004). Muslim Societies in African History. Cambridge
Cambridge
: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press . ISBN 978-0-521-53366-9 . Retrieved 14 October 2015. * ^ Davidson, Basil (1965). A History of West Africa
West Africa
(PDF). University of Lagos, Nigeria: Longman. ISBN 0684826674 . * ^ Leyti, Oumar Ndiaye. Le Djoloff et ses Bourba. Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN 2-7236-0817-4 * ^ Ogot, Bethwell A. General history of Africa: Africa from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0-520-06700-2 , p 146

SOURCES

* J. F. Ade Ajayi, Michael Crowder (eds.). History of West Africa. Columbia University (1972) ISBN 0-231-03628-0 * J. Hunwick. "Takrur", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden 2000, X, 142-3. * Mary Antin, Nehemia Levtzion. Medieval West Africa
West Africa
Before 1400: Ghana, Takrur, Gao (Songhay) and Mali. Translated by Nehemia Levtzion. J. F. Hopkins: Contributor. Markus Wiener Publishing, New Jersey (1998). ISBN 1-55876-165-9 * J. D. Fage (ed.). The Cambridge
Cambridge
History of Africa, vol. II, Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press (1978), 675-7. * H. T. Norris. "The Wind of Change in the Western Sahara". The Geographical Journal, Vol. 130, No. 1 (Mar., 1964), pp. 1–14 * D.W. Phillipson. African Archaeology, Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press (Revised Edition 2005). ISBN 978-0-521-83236-6 * Leyti, Oumar Ndiaye. Le Djoloff et ses Bourba. Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN 2-7236-0817-4 * Ogot, Bethwell A. General history of Africa: Africa from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0-520-06700-2 , p 146. * Oliver, Roland. The Cambridge
Cambridge
history of Africa: From c. 1600 to c. 1790. Cambridge