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(Serer religion[3][4])

Government Monarchy

King

 •  1030s War Jabi

Historical era Middle Ages

 •  Established 800s

 •  Islam 1030s

 •  Conquered by Mali Empire 1285

Preceded by Succeeded by

Serer people

Fula people

Toucouleur people

Kaniaga

Mali Empire

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Takrur, Tekrur or Tekrour (c. 800 – c. 1285) was an ancient state of West Africa, which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire.

Contents

1 Origin 2 Centre of trade 3 Adoption of Islam 4 Ghana Empire 5 Downfall 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links

Origin[edit] Takrur
Takrur
was the name of the capital of the state which flourished on the lower Senegal
Senegal
River. Takruri was a term, like Bilad-ul-Sudan, that was used to refer to all people of West African ancestry.[5][6] The formation of the state may have taken place as an influx of Fulani from the east settled in the Senegal
Senegal
valley.[7][8] John Donnelly Fage suggests that Takrur
Takrur
was formed through the interaction of Berbers from the Sahara
Sahara
and "Negro agricultural peoples" who were "essentially Serer".[9] Centre of trade[edit] Located in the Senegal
Senegal
valley, along the border of present-day Senegal and Mauritania, it was a trading centre, where gold from the Bambuk region,[10] salt from the Awlil and Sahel
Sahel
grain were exchanged. It was rival of the Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
and the two states clashed from time to time with the Soninké usually winning. Despite these clashes, Takrur prospered throughout the 9th and 10th centuries. According to Levtzion, "It is significant that the cotton tree and the manufacture of cloth were first reported from Takrur."[10]:179 Adoption of Islam[edit] The kings of Takrur
Takrur
eventually adopted Islam. Sometime in the 1030s during the reign of king War Jabi, the court converted to Islam, the first regent to officially pronounce orthodoxy in the Sahel, establishing the faith in the region for centuries to come. In 1035 that War Jabi introduced Sharia
Sharia
law in the kingdom. This adoption of Islam
Islam
greatly benefited the state economically and created greater political ties that would also affect them in the coming conflicts between the traditionalist state of Ghana and its northern neighbours.[11][page needed] Ghana Empire[edit] The Fulani
Fulani
of Tarkur became independent after Ghanaian power faded.[citation needed] Takrur
Takrur
in turn set out to conquer the Kingdom of Diara, which was a Ghanaian province before. Then in 1203, Takrur leader Sumanguru took control of Kumbi Saleh, the capital of Ghana. Thus, Takrur
Takrur
became the sole power in the region.[12] Downfall[edit]

Among these were the Susu who carved out the sizeable though short-lived Kaniaga. Waalo, the first Wolof state, emerged out its south. By the time Mandinka tribes united to form the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
in 1235, Takrur
Takrur
was in a steep decline. The state was finally conquered by the usurper emperor Sabakoura of Mali in the 1280s. Takrur
Takrur
was later conquered by Mali; it was also conquered by Jolof in the 15th century.[13] However, Koli (a Fula rebel) did finally manage to regain Takrur, and named it Fouta Toro
Fouta Toro
in the 15th century, thereby setting up the first Fula dynasty (Denanke). This dynasty also did not last and in 1776 during the Fouta Revolution, led by Muslim clerics, the kingdom was entered and the house of Denanke
Denanke
was brought down.[14] See also[edit]

Serer people Fula people Toucouleur people

Senegal
Senegal
portal Gambia portal Serer portal

Notes[edit]

^ Charles Becker et Victor Martin, « Rites de sépultures préislamiques au Sénégal et vestiges protohistoriques », Archives Suisses d'Anthropologie Générale, Imprimerie du Journal de Genève, Genève, 1982, tome 46, no 2, p. 261-293 ^ Trimingham, John Spencer, "A history of Islam
Islam
in West Africa", pp 174, 176 & 234, Oxford University Press, USA (1970) ^ Becker ^ Gravrand, "Pangool", pp 9, 20-77 ^ 'Umar Al-Naqar (1969). " Takrur
Takrur
the History of a Name". The Journal of African History. 10 (3): 365–374. doi:10.1017/s002185370003632x. JSTOR 179671.  ^ Ibn Khalikan, op. cit. vi, 14. ^ Hrbek, I. (1992). General History of Africa volume 3: Africa from the 7th to the 11th Century: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century v. 3 (Unesco General History of Africa (abridged)). James Carey. p. 67. ISBN 978-0852550939.  ^ Creevey, Lucy (August 1996). "Islam, Women and the Role of the State in Senegal". Journal of Religion in Africa. 26 (3): 268–307. doi:10.1163/157006696x00299. JSTOR 1581646.  ^ Fage, John Donnelly (1997). "Upper and Lower Guinea". In Roland Oliver. The Cambridge
Cambridge
History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521209816.  ^ a b Levtzion, Nehemia (1973). Ancient Ghana
Ancient Ghana
and Mali. New York: Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 44. ISBN 0841904316.  ^ Robinson, David (12 January 2004). Muslim Societies in African History. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53366-9. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ Davidson, Basil (1965). A History of West Africa
West Africa
(PDF). University of Lagos, Nigeria: Longman. ISBN 0684826674.  ^ Leyti, Oumar Ndiaye. Le Djoloff et ses Bourba. Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN 2-7236-0817-4 ^ Ogot, Bethwell A. General history of Africa: Africa from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0-520-06700-2, p 146 [1]

Sources[edit]

J. F. Ade Ajayi, Michael Crowder (eds.). History of West Africa. Columbia University (1972) ISBN 0-231-03628-0 J. Hunwick. "Takrur", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden 2000, X, 142-3. Mary Antin, Nehemia Levtzion. Medieval West Africa
West Africa
Before 1400: Ghana, Takrur, Gao (Songhay) and Mali. Translated by Nehemia Levtzion. J. F. Hopkins: Contributor. Markus Wiener Publishing, New Jersey (1998). ISBN 1-55876-165-9 J. D. Fage (ed.). The Cambridge
Cambridge
History of Africa, vol. II, Cambridge University Press (1978), 675-7. H. T. Norris. "The Wind of Change in the Western Sahara". The Geographical Journal, Vol. 130, No. 1 (Mar., 1964), pp. 1–14 D.W. Phillipson. African Archaeology, Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press (Revised Edition 2005). ISBN 978-0-521-83236-6 Leyti, Oumar Ndiaye. Le Djoloff et ses Bourba. Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN 2-7236-0817-4 Ogot, Bethwell A. General history of Africa: Africa from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0-520-06700-2, p 146. Oliver, Roland. The Cambridge
Cambridge
history of Africa: From c. 1600 to c. 1790. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-521-20981-1, p484

Further reading[edit]

McIntosh, Roderick J.; McIntosh, Susan Keech; Bocoum, Hamady (2016). The Search for Takrur: Archaeological Excavations and Reconnaissance Along the Middle Senegal
Senegal
Valley. The Yale Peabody Museum. 

External links[edit]

African Kingdoms About – Takrur
Takrur
Empire Takrur — webPulaaku.

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