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TI Media (formerly International Publishing Company, IPC Magazines Ltd, IPC Media and Time Inc. UK) was a consumer
magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content (media) ...

magazine
and digital publisher in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
, with a portfolio selling over 350 million copies each year. Most of its titles now belong to
Future plc Future plc is a British media company founded in 1985. It publishes more than 50 magazines in fields such as video games, technology, films, music, photography, home, and knowledge. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent ...
.


History


Origins

The British magazine publishing industry in the mid-1950s was dominated by a handful of companies, principally the
Associated Newspapers DMG Media (stylised in lowercase) is an intermediate holding company for Associated Newspapers, Northcliffe Media, Harmsworth Printing and other subsidiaries of Daily Mail and General Trust Daily Mail and General Trust plc (DMGT) is a Briti ...

Associated Newspapers
(founded by
Lord Harmsworth
Lord Harmsworth
in 1890), Odhams Press Ltd,
Newnes Newnes, an abandoned oil shale Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of Rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic partic ...
/ Pearson, and the
Hulton Press Sir Edward George Warris Hulton (29 November 1906 – 8 October 1988) was a British magazine publisher and writer. Early life Hulton was born to Sir Edward Hulton, 1st Baronet, a newspaper publisher and racehorse owner originally from Manchester ...
, which fought each other for market share in a highly competitive marketplace.


Fleetway

In 1958
Cecil Harmsworth King Cecil Harmsworth King (20 February 1901 – 17 April 1987) was Chairman of Daily Mirror Newspapers, Sunday Pictorial Newspapers and the International Publishing Corporation (1963–68), and a director at the Bank of England The Bank of Englan ...
, chairman of the newspaper group, The Daily Mirror Newspapers Limited which included the ''
Daily Mirror The ''Daily Mirror'' is a British national daily tabloid-sized newspaper that is considered to be engaged in tabloid-style journalism. Founded in 1903, it is owned by parent company Reach plc Reach plc (known as Trinity Mirror between 1999 ...
'' and the '' Sunday Pictorial'' (now the ''
Sunday Mirror The ''Sunday Mirror'' is the Sunday sister paper of the ''Daily Mirror''. It began life in 1915 as the ''Sunday Pictorial'' and was renamed the ''Sunday Mirror'' in 1963. In 2016 it had an average weekly circulation of 620,861, dropping markedl ...

Sunday Mirror
''), together with provincial chain West of England Newspapers, made an offer for
Amalgamated Press The Amalgamated Press (AP) was a British newspaper and magazine publishing company founded by journalist and entrepreneur Alfred Harmsworth in 1901, gathering his many publishing ventures together under one banner. At one point the largest publishi ...
. The offer was accepted, and in January 1959 he was appointed its chairman. Within a few months he changed its name to Fleetway Publications, Ltd. after the name of its headquarters, Fleetway House in London's Farringdon Street. Shortly thereafter,
Odhams Press Odhams Press was a British publishing company, operating from 1920 to 1968. Originally a magazine publisher, Odhams later expanded into book publishing and then children's comics. The company was acquired by Fleetway Publications in 1961 and then ...
absorbed both George Newnes and the Hulton Press. King saw an opportunity in this to rationalise the overcrowded women's magazine market, in which Fleetway and Newnes were the major competitors, and made a bid for Odhams on behalf of Fleetway that was too attractive to ignore. Fleetway took over Odhams in the month of March 1961.


International Publishing Company

In consequence, King controlled publishing interests which included two national daily and two national Sunday newspapers (the newspaper interests being informally tagged The Mirror Group), along with almost one hundred consumer magazines, more than two hundred trade and technical periodicals, and interests in book publishing. This included the combined business interests of Fleetway, Odhams, and Newnes. All of the companies involved had been acquired without any significant change in management, save for the appointment of Mirror Group directors as chairmen. In 1963 all the companies were combined by the creation of a parent (or "holding") company called the International Publishing Company (known informally as IPC). All of the existing companies would continue to exist, but as IPC subsidiaries.Birch, Paul
"Speaking Frankly,"
''Birmingham Mail'' (14 December 2008).


Reorganisation

IPC then set up a management development department in 1965, to rationalise its holdings, so that its various subsidiaries would no longer be in competition with each other for the same markets. This led to a reorganisation of the Group, in 1968, into six divisions: * IPC Newspapers – including ''
The People The ''Sunday People'' is a British tabloid Sunday newspaper. It was founded as ''The People'' on 16 October 1881. At one point owened by Odhams Press, The ''People'' was acquired along with Odhams by the Mirror Group Reach plc (known as ...
'' and '' The Sun'' (soon sold), as well as the ''Daily Mirror'' and ''Sunday Pictorial'' * IPC Magazines – consumer magazines and comics * IPC Trade and Technical – specialist magazines (later known as IPC Business Press Ltd.) * IPC Books – all book publishing (headed by
Paul Hamlyn Paul Hamlyn, Baron Hamlyn, (12 February 1926 – 31 August 2001) was a German-born British publisher and philanthropist, who established the Paul Hamlyn Foundation Paul Hamlyn Foundation is a registered charity, and a company limited by guarante ...
, whose own company had been acquired by IPC). * IPC Printing – all non-newspaper printing operations (headed by Arnold Quick, whose own company had also been acquired by IPC). * IPC New Products – launching pad for products which used new technology (headed by Alistair McIntosh). All the divisions were headed by chairmen who originated in Mirror Group, except for Hamlyn, Quick and McIntosh. Also in 1968, a boardroom coup replaced Cecil King with his deputy chairman,
Hugh Cudlipp Hubert "Hugh" Kinsman Cudlipp, Baron Cudlipp, OBE (28 August 1913 – 17 May 1998), was a Welsh journalist and newspaper editor noted for his work on the '' Daily Mirror'' in the 1950s and 1960s. Life and career Hugh Cudlipp was born, the ...
, a former newspaper editor.


Reed International takeover

Cudlipp had no interest in management, and was uneasy both with his new role and with IPC's diversification into computerised publication and other new technology. (IPC Magazines had also taken over another UK publisher,
City Magazines City Magazines was a British publisher of weekly comics and men's magazines that operated from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s. The company's most notable publications were comics magazines based on licensed television properties, including ''TV Cent ...
, around this time.) In 1969, Cudlipp proposed to former Mirror Group director Don Ryder — who was then chairman of the Reed Group, in which IPC had a 30% shareholding — to mount a reverse takeover of IPC by Reed. IPC-Mirror Group was thus itself taken over in 1970, by the paper-making company Albert Edwin Reed, Albert E Reed, which then renamed itself Reed International. In 1974, part of the publishing interests of Reed International were separated into ''IPC Magazines Ltd'' (comprising the magazine and comics holdings) and Mirror Group Newspapers (comprising the newspaper holdings). The latter was sold to Pergamon Holdings Ltd, a private company owned by Robert Maxwell, in 1984. In 1988, IPC acquired ''Family Circle (UK magazine), Family Circle'' from the International Thomson Organization. In 1989, IPC acquired ''TVTimes''. In the early 1990s IPC launched ''Loaded (magazine), Loaded'', which began a wave of "Lad mag, lad's mags". In 1992, following a merger with Dutch science publisher Elsevier, Elsevier NV, Reed International underwent a further name change, becoming Reed Elsevier (now RELX Group).


Sale of Fleetway

In 1987, part of the British comics, comics holdings of IPC Magazines Ltd (comprising those comics and characters created after 1 January 1970, plus 26 specified characters from ''Buster (comics), Buster'', which was then still being published) were placed in a separate company, Fleetway, Fleetway Publications, which was sold to Pergamon Holdings. In 1991, Egmont (media group), Egmont UK purchased Fleetway from Pergamon, merging it with their own comics publishing operation, London Editions, to form Fleetway Editions. The latter was absorbed into the main Egmont brand by 2000, having sold off the continuing titles (such as ''2000 AD (comics), 2000 AD''), and continued with only reprint and licensed titles (e.g. ''Sonic The Comic''). IPC had retained the other comics characters and titles, i.e. those created before 1970 (except the 26 characters from ''Buster''), including Sexton Blake, Steel Claw, The Steel Claw, and Battler Britton. One character, Dan Dare, was sold separately and is currently owned by the Dan Dare Corporation. In 2016 and 2018, Egmont sold its remaining library of IPC/Fleetway to Rebellion Developments, who had previously acquired ''2000 AD'' in 2000.


Time Inc. takeover

In 1998, IPC Magazines Ltd was subject to a management buyout financed by Cinven, a venture capital group, and the company was renamed IPC Media. Cinven then sold the company to Time Inc., then the magazine publishing subsidiary of Time Warner, in 2001. In January 2009, Evelyn Webster became the company's chief executive, replacing Sylvia Auton who had run it since 2001 IPC Media formally became Time Inc. UK in September 2014, creating a single Time Inc. brand in both the US and UK.


Professional Publishers Association Award

In April 2012, IPC Media won an award for Best Production Team of the Year at the Professional Publishers Association Production and Environment Awards 2012.


2018 sale to Epiris

On 26 February 2018, Meredith Corporation, who had completed its purchase of Time Inc. almost a month earlier, announced it was selling Time Inc. UK to a fund associated with British private equity firm Epiris. The transaction closed on 19 March of that year. In June 2018, the company was renamed TI Media. In September 2018, TI Media sold its library of pre-1970 IPC Comics titles to Rebellion Developments. In 2019, TI Media sold its music magazines to BandLab Technologies.


2020 acquisition by Future

TI Media was acquired by
Future plc Future plc is a British media company founded in 1985. It publishes more than 50 magazines in fields such as video games, technology, films, music, photography, home, and knowledge. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent ...
on 21 April 2020 following shareholder and Competition and Markets Authority approval. Future subsequently divested ''Amateur Photographer'', Trusted Reviews, and ''World Soccer (magazine), World Soccer'' and absorbed the rest of TI Media into Future Publishing.


Publishing divisions

TI Media divisions up until Future plc acquisition including: * ''25 Beautiful Homes'' * ''Amateur Gardening (magazine), Amateur Gardening'' * ''Angler's Mail'' * ''Chat (magazine), Chat'' * ''Country Homes & Interiors'' * ''Country Life (magazine), Country Life'' * ''Cycling Weekly'' * ''Decanter (magazine), Decanter'' * ''The Field (magazine), The Field'' * ''Golf Monthly'' * ''Goodtoknow.co.uk, Goodtoknow'' * ''Homes & Gardens'' * ''Horse & Hound'' * ''Ideal Home'' * ''Livingetc'' * ''Marie Claire (magazine), Marie Claire U'' * ''Motor Boat & Yachting'' * ''Mountain Bike Rider (MBR)'' * ''Pick Me Up (magazine), Pick Me Up'' * ''Practical Boat Owner'' * ''Rugby World'' * ''Shooting Gazette'' * ''Shooting Times'' * ''ShootingUK'' * ''Sporting Gun'' * ''Style at Home'' * ''Trusted Reviews'' * ''TV & Satellite Week'' * ''TVTimes'' * ''Wallpaper (magazine), Wallpaper'' * ''What's on TV'' * ''Woman (UK magazine), Woman'' * ''Woman & Home'' * ''Woman's Own'' * ''Woman's Weekly (UK magazine), Woman's Weekly'' * ''Yachting Monthly'' * ''Yachting World'' * YBW.com


See also

* List of AP, Fleetway and IPC Comics publications


References


Further reading

* Howard Cox and Simon Mowatt, "Monopoly, Power and Politics in Fleet Street: The Controversial Birth of IPC Magazines, 1958–63 "
''Business and economic history online'' (2014) #12


External links

* {{TI Media Fleetway and IPC Comics Magazine publishing companies of the United Kingdom Comic book publishing companies of the United Kingdom 1963 establishments in England 2020 disestablishments in England British companies established in 1963 British companies disestablished in 2020 Publishing companies established in 1963 Publishing companies disestablished in 2020 Publishing companies based in London Former WarnerMedia subsidiaries 1998 mergers and acquisitions 2001 mergers and acquisitions 2018 mergers and acquisitions 2020 mergers and acquisitions