HOME
The Info List - T-shirts


--- Advertisement ---



A T-shirt
T-shirt
(or t shirt, or tee) is a style of unisex fabric shirt named after the T shape of its body and sleeves. It normally has short sleeves and a round neckline, known as a crew neck, which lacks a collar. T-shirts are generally made of a light, inexpensive fabric and are easy to clean. Typically made of cotton textile in a stockinette or jersey knit, it has a distinctively pliable texture compared to shirts made of woven cloth. Most modern versions have a body made from a continuously woven tube, produced on a circular loom, such that the torso has no side seams. The manufacture of T-shirts has become highly automated and may include cutting fabric with a laser or a water jet. The T-shirt
T-shirt
evolved from undergarments used in the 19th century and, in the mid-20th century, transitioned from undergarment to general-use casual clothing. A V-neck T-shirt
T-shirt
has a V-shaped neckline, as opposed to the round neckline of the more common crew neck shirt (also called a U-neck). V-necks were introduced so that the neckline of the shirt does not show when worn beneath an outer shirt, as would that of a crew neck shirt.[1][2][3]

Contents

1 History 2 Trends 3 Decoration 4 Screen printing 5 Tie dye 6 Heat transfer vinyl 7 Other methods 8 Dye-sublimation
Dye-sublimation
printing 9 Expressive messages 10 World record 11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References

History[edit]

US Merchant Marine sailor in 1944

The T-shirt
T-shirt
evolved from undergarments used in the 19th century. First, the one-piece union suit underwear was cut into separate top and bottom garments, with the top long enough to tuck under the waistband of the bottoms. With and without buttons, they were adopted by miners and stevedores during the late 19th century as a convenient covering for hot environments. As slip-on garments without buttons, the earliest T-shirt
T-shirt
dates back to sometime between the 1898 Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
and 1913, when the U.S. Navy began issuing them as undergarments.[4] These were a crew-necked, short-sleeved, white cotton undershirt to be worn under a uniform. It became common for sailors and Marines in work parties, the early submarines, and tropical climates to remove their uniform jacket, wearing (and soiling) only the undershirt.[5] They soon became popular as a bottom layer of clothing for workers in various industries, including agriculture. The T-shirt
T-shirt
was easily fitted, easily cleaned, and inexpensive, and for those reasons it became the shirt of choice for young boys. Boys' shirts were made in various colors and patterns. The word T-shirt
T-shirt
became part of American English by the 1920s, and appeared in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.[4] By the Great Depression, the T-shirt
T-shirt
was often the default garment to be worn when doing farm or ranch chores, as well as other times when modesty called for a torso covering but conditions called for lightweight fabrics.[5] Following World War II, it was worn by Navy men as undergarments and slowly became common to see veterans wearing their uniform trousers with their T-shirts as casual clothing.[6] [1] The shirts became even more popular in the 1950s after Marlon Brando wore one in A Streetcar Named Desire, finally achieving status as fashionable, stand-alone, outerwear garments.[7] Often boys wore them while doing chores and playing outside, eventually opening up the idea of wearing them as general-purpose casual clothing. Printed T-shirts were in limited use by 1942 when an Air Corps Gunnery School T-shirt
T-shirt
appeared on the cover of Life magazine. In the 1960s, printed T-shirts gained popularity for self-expression as well for advertisements, protests, and souvenirs. Current versions are available in many different designs and fabrics, and styles include crew-neck and V-neck shirts. T-shirts are among the most worn garments of clothing used today. T-shirts are especially popular with branding for companies or merchandise, as they are inexpensive to make and purchase. Trends[edit]

T-shirts with bold slogans were popular in the UK in the 1980s.

T-shirts were originally worn as undershirts, but are now worn frequently as the only piece of clothing on the top half of the body, other than possibly a brassiere or, rarely, a waistcoat (vest). T-shirts have also become a medium for self-expression and advertising, with any imaginable combination of words, art and photographs on display.[8] A T-shirt
T-shirt
typically extends to the waist. Variants of the T-shirt, such as the V-neck, have been developed. Hip hop fashion
Hip hop fashion
calls for tall-T shirts which may extend down to the knees. A similar item is the T-shirt
T-shirt
dress or T-dress, a dress-length T-shirt
T-shirt
that can be worn without pants.[9] Long T-shirts are also sometimes worn by women as nightgowns. A 1990s trend in women's clothing involved tight-fitting cropped T-shirt
T-shirt
or crop tops short enough to reveal the midriff. Another less popular trend is wearing a short-sleeved T-shirt
T-shirt
of a contrasting color over a long-sleeved T-shirt, which is known as layering. T-shirts that are tight to the body are called fitted, tailored or baby doll T-shirts. The rise of online shopping in the early to mid-2000s caused a proliferation of new T-shirt
T-shirt
ideas and trends. While several brick-and-mortar chains included these items in their inventories, many of these shirts were pioneered by online start-ups. Innovations included the flip-up T-shirt, which the wearer can lift and stretch over their head to display an interior print, and all-over print clothing. With the rise of social media and video sharing sites also came numerous tutorials on DIY T-shirt
T-shirt
projects.[10] These videos typically provided instructions on how to modify an old shirt into a new, more fashionable form. Decoration[edit]

Comic book creator Valerie D'Orazio
Valerie D'Orazio
wearing a decorated Catwoman T-shirt
T-shirt
in 2008

In the early 1950s, several companies based in Miami, Florida, started to decorate T-shirts with different resort names and various characters. The first company was Tropix Togs, under founder Sam Kantor, in Miami. They were the original licensee for Walt Disney characters in 1976 including Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse
and Davy Crockett. Later, other companies expanded into the T-shirt
T-shirt
printing business, including Sherry Manufacturing Company, also based in Miami. Sherry, was founded in 1948 by its owner and founder Quentin H. Sandler as a screen printer of Souvenir
Souvenir
Scarf's to the souvenir resort market. Shortly, the company evolved into one of the largest screen printed resort and licensed apparel companies in the United States. The company now (2108) runs automatic Screen Print presses and produces up to 10,000 to 20,000 T Shirts each day. The CEO Scott Coltune is the 3rd Generation of the family business. The company was named Sherry Mfg. after Quentin's first Daughter Sherry Sandler. In the 1960s, the ringer T-shirt
T-shirt
appeared and became a staple fashion for youth and rock-n-rollers. The decade also saw the emergence of tie-dyeing and screen-printing on the basic T-shirt
T-shirt
and the T-shirt became a medium for wearable art, commercial advertising, souvenir messages, and protest art messages. Psychedelic art poster designer Warren Dayton pioneered several political, protest, and pop-culture art printed large and in color on T-shirts featuring images of Cesar Chavez, political cartoons, and other cultural icons in an article in the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
magazine in late 1969 (ironically, the clothing company quickly cancelled the experimental line, fearing there would not be a market). In the late 1960s, Richard Ellman, Robert Tree, Bill Kelly, and Stanley Mouse set up the Monster Company in Mill Valley, California, to produce fine art designs expressly for T-shirts. Monster T-shirts often feature emblems and motifs associated with the Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
and marijuana culture.[11] Additionally, one of the most popular symbols to emerge from the political turmoil of the 1960s were T-shirts bearing the face of Marxist
Marxist
revolutionary Che Guevara.[12] Today, many notable and memorable T-shirts produced in the 1970s have become ensconced in pop culture. Examples include the bright yellow happy face T-shirts, The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
tops with their "tongue and lips"[13] logo, and Milton Glaser's iconic "I ♥ N Y” design. In the mid-1980s, the white T-shirt
T-shirt
became fashionable after the actor Don Johnson
Don Johnson
wore it with an Armani
Armani
suit in Miami Vice.[5] Screen printing[edit] The most common form of commercial T-shirt
T-shirt
decoration is screen-printing. In screen-printing, a design is separated into individual colors. Plastisol
Plastisol
or water based inks are applied to the shirt through mesh screens which limits the areas where ink is deposited. In most commercial T-shirt
T-shirt
printing, the specific colors in the design are used. To achieve a wider color spectrum with a limited number of colors, process printing (using only cyan, magenta, yellow and black ink) or simulated process (using only white, black, red, green, blue, and gold ink) is effective. Process printing is best suited for light colored shirts.[14] Simulated process is best suited for dark colored shirts. In 1959, the invention of plastisol provided an ink more durable and stretchable than water-based ink, allowing much more variety in T-shirt
T-shirt
designs. Very few companies continue to use water-based inks on their shirts. The majority of companies that create shirts prefer plastisol due to the ability to print on varying colors without the need for color adjustment at the art level. Specialty inks trend in and out of fashion and include shimmer, puff, discharge, and chino based[15] inks. A metallic foil can be heat pressed and stamped onto any plastisol ink. When combined with shimmer ink, metallics give a mirror like effect wherever the previously screened plastisol ink was applied. Specialty inks are more expensive to purchase as well as screen and tend to appear on garments in boutiques. Other methods of decoration used on T-shirts include airbrush, applique, embroidery, impressing or embossing, and the ironing on of either flock lettering, heat transfers, or dye-sublimation transfers. Laser printers are capable of printing on plain paper using a special toner containing sublimation dyes which can then be permanently heat-transferred to T-shirts. In the 1980s, thermochromatic dyes were used to produce T-shirts that changed color when subjected to heat. The Global Hypercolour brand of these was a common sight on the streets of the UK for a few years, but has since mostly disappeared. These were also very popular in the United States
United States
among teenagers in the late 1980s. A downside of color-change garments is that the dyes can easily be damaged, especially by washing in warm water, or dye other clothes during washing. Tie dye[edit]

An example of a tie-dyed T-shirt

Tie dye originated in India, Japan, Jamaica, and Africa as early as the sixth century.[16] Some forms of tie dye are Bandhani
Bandhani
(the oldest known technique) used in Indian cultures, and Shibori
Shibori
primarily used in Japanese cultures. It was not until the 1960s that tie dye was introduced to America during the hippie movement, a time when the Vietnam War was being heavily protested.[16] Heat transfer vinyl[edit] Another form of T-shirt
T-shirt
decoration is heat transfer vinyls. These allow people to make short runs of printed shirts using plotter cut vinyl that they can then heat press onto the garment. They are made in a multitude of colors, patterns, and styles. Also as home crafting kits are now available, social media has allowed the creation of bespoke designs including phrases and images. Other methods[edit] Before the hippie movement Rit Dye was known as a hobby for older women. Other methods of decorating shirts include using paints, markers, fabric transfer crayons, dyes, spray paint, and many more. Some techniques that can be used include sponging, stenciling, daubing, stamping, screen printing, bleaching, and many more.[17] As technology advances, it offers more experimentations and possibilities for designers and artists to seek for innovative techniques with their T-shirts. Rumplo, a site cofounded by Sahadeva Hammari, a startup t-shirt site that used to designed and carried over 13,000 T-shirts. Their designs used multiple futuristic techniques, such as glow-in-the-dark inks, heat-sensitive fabrics, foil printing to all-over printing. Designers like Robert Geller, a German-born American fashion designer, came out a secondary collection, Seconds featuring oversized graphic t-shirts made from supersoft jersey. Alexander Wang, on the other hand, came out with variations of t-shirts from oversized scoop necks, tanks to striped, slouchy rayon jerseys.[18] Artist like Terence Koh, took a different approach, with t-shirts featuring an upside down portrait with a real bullet hole hand finished by him for the Soho store Opening Ceremony.[19] Dye-sublimation
Dye-sublimation
printing[edit] Dye-sublimation
Dye-sublimation
printing is a direct-to-garment digital printing technology using full color artwork to transfer images to polyester and polymer-coated substrate based T-shirts. Dye-sublimation
Dye-sublimation
(also commonly referred to as all-over printing) came into widespread use in the 21st century, enabling some designs previously impossible. Printing with unlimited colors using large CMYK
CMYK
printers with special paper and ink is possible, unlike screen printing which requires screens for each color of the design. All-over print T-shirts have solved the problem with color fading and the vibrancy is higher than most standard printing methods, but requires synthetic fabrics for the ink to take hold. The key feature of dye-sublimated clothing is that the design is not printed on top of the garment, but permanently dyed into the threads of the shirt, ensuring that it will never fade.[20] Dye-sublimation
Dye-sublimation
is economically viable for small-quantity printing; the unit cost is similar for short or long production runs. Screen printing has higher setup costs, requiring large numbers to be produced to be cost-effective, and the unit cost is higher.[citation needed] Solid ink is changed into a gas without passing through a liquid phase (sublimation), using heat and pressure. The design is first produced in a computer image file format such as jpg, gif, png, or any other. It is printed on a purpose-made computer printer (as of 2016[update] most commonly Epson or Ricoh brands) using large heat presses to vaporize the ink directly into the fabric. By mid-2012 this method had become widely used for T-shirts. Expressive messages[edit]

A Nike, Inc.
Nike, Inc.
T-shirt
T-shirt
with the description: I'm not a tomboy — I'm just better than you.

Since the 1980s, T-shirts have flourished as a form of personal expression.[8] Screen printed
Screen printed
T-shirts have been a standard form of marketing for major American consumer products, such as Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
and Mickey Mouse, since the 1970s. It has also been commonly used to commemorate an event, or to make a political or personal statement. Since the 1990s, it has become common practice for companies of all sizes to produce T-shirts with their corporate logos or messages as part of their overall advertising campaigns. Since the late 1980s and especially the 1990s, T-shirts with prominent designer-name logos have become popular, especially with teenagers and young adults. These garments allow consumers to flaunt their taste for designer brands in an inexpensive way, in addition to being decorative. Examples of designer T-shirt
T-shirt
branding include Calvin Klein, FUBU, Ralph Lauren, American Apparel, and The Gap. These examples also include representations of rock bands, among other obscure pop-culture references. Licensed T-shirts are also extremely popular. Movie and TV T-shirts can have images of the actors, logos, and funny quotations from the movie or TV show. Often, the most popular T-shirts are those that characters wore in the film itself (e.g., Bubba Gump from Forrest Gump and Vote For Pedro from Napoleon Dynamite). Designer Katharine Hamnett, in the early 1980s, pioneered outsize T-shirts with large-print slogans. The early first decade of the 21st century saw the renewed popularity of T-shirts with slogans and designs with a strong inclination to the humorous and/or ironic. The trend has only increased later in this decade, embraced by celebrities, such as Britney Spears
Britney Spears
and Paris Hilton, and reflected back on them, too ('Team Aniston'). The political and social statements that T-shirts often display have become, since the first decade of the 21st century, one of the reasons that they have so deeply permeated different levels of culture and society. The statements also may be found to be offensive, shocking, or pornographic to some. Examples of T- Shirt
Shirt
stores and designers known for using offensive and shocking messages include T- Shirt
Shirt
Hell and Apollo Braun. Many different organizations have caught on to the statement-making trend, including chain and independent stores, websites, and schools. A popular phrase on the front of T-shirts demonstrating the popularity of T-shirts among tourists is the humorous phrase "I did _____ and all I got was this lousy T-shirt." Examples include "My parents went to Las Vegas and all I got was this lousy T-shirt." T-shirt
T-shirt
exchange is an activity where people trade the T-shirts that they are wearing. Artists like Bill Beckley, Glen Baldridge and Peter Klashorst
Peter Klashorst
use T-shirts in their work. Models such as Victoria Beckham
Victoria Beckham
and Gisele Bundchen wore T-shirts through the 2000s. Paris Fashion
Fashion
Week 2014 featured a grunge style T-shirt.[21] Contemporary T-shirt
T-shirt
designers like Balmain and Street People Atelier produce new styles of T-shirts. World record[edit] The current holder of the Guinness world record for "Most T-Shirts Worn at Once" with 257 T-shirts is Sanath Bandara.[22] The record was set in Colombo, Sri Lanka, on December 22, 2011. The record was attempted on stage in front of a crowd of people in a public park in Colombo. Bandara surpassed previous record-holder Hwang Kwanghee
Hwang Kwanghee
from South Korea, who had held the record at 252 shirts. Gallery[edit]

A crew-neck T-shirt.

A modern-day woman wearing a brown t-shirt.

See also[edit]

Concert T-shirt Inkjet transfer Kit (association football) Polo shirt Printed T-shirt Raglan sleeve Wet T-shirt
T-shirt
contest Animal print T-shirt

References[edit]

^ "Crew neck". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 2 August 2010.  ^ "Sweaters Go Bulky". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 25 August 1957. p. 2. Retrieved 2 August 2010.  ^ Kirby, Michael B. (Spring 2008). "90th IDPG History of the T-shirt During WW2". 90th Infantry Division Preservation Group. Retrieved 2 August 2010.  ^ a b "History of the T-shirt". Tee Fetch.  ^ a b c Harris, Alice. The White T. HarperCollins, 1996. ^ "From Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
to Kendall Jenner, 27 of the Best Classic White T-Shirts Ever". Vogue. Retrieved 2017-05-23.  ^ "A Streetcar Named Desire – AMC filmsite". Filmsite.org. 1947-12-03. Retrieved 2010-10-26.  ^ a b Sally Larsen with Neeli Cherkovski, Japlish, Pomegranate Art Books, San Francisco, 1993, ISBN 1-56640-454-1 ^ Cumming, Valerie; C. W. Cunnington & P. E. Cunnington (2010). The Dictionary of Fashion
Fashion
History. Berg Publishers. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-84788-534-0.  ^ "31 T- Shirt
Shirt
DIYs That Are Perfect For Summer". Buzzfeed.com. Retrieved 1 July 2016.  ^ Monster T-shirt
T-shirt
ART, Monster Corporation catalog #3, Mill Valley 1974 ^ The Most Famous Statement T-shirts by SoJones Asmara, September 10, 2009 ^ File: The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
Tongue Logo.png ^ Steve Rhodes. " CMYK
CMYK
Printing". ImpressionzPrinting.com. CMYK
CMYK
is a widely used technique to replicate full-color images on light colored backgrounds. The full-color process originated to accurately reproduce artwork on white paper.  ^ Huston, Lance. "Subject: Re: chino ink??". ScreenPrinters.Net. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2018. Chino is a special Rutland INK BASE mixing system.… While on the surface it looks similar to a reduced base, it does have a unique print quality to it that offers a waterbase feel, without the hassles of waterbase inks.  ^ a b "Peace, Love and Tie-Dye". Iml.jou.ufl.edu. Retrieved 31 October 2017.  ^ Taylor, Carol. The Great T- Shirt
Shirt
Book!: Make Your Own Spectacular, One-of-a-kind Designs. New York: Sterling Pub., 1992. Print. ^ "T- Shirt
Shirt
by Darwin". NYMag.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.  ^ "Bullet Hole Tees: Terence Koh's Capsule T- Shirt
Shirt
Collection for Opening Ceremony". TrendHunter.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.  ^ "About Us and FAQs (read dis) – Shirtwascash". Shirtwascash. Retrieved 2015-11-08.  ^ Pieri, Kerry (2013-10-03). "Street style: Paris fashion week 2014". Archived from the original on 2014-05-30. Retrieved 2018-03-13.  ^ "Most T-shirts worn at once". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2012-05-01. 

Look up t-shirt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Media related to T-shirts at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Clothing

Historical clothing • Traditional and national clothing

Tops

Blouse Cache-cœur Cardigan Crop top Dress
Dress
shirt Guayabera Guernsey Halterneck Henley shirt Hoodie Jersey Polo shirt Shirt Sleeveless shirt Sweater Sweater
Sweater
vest T-shirt Tube top Turtleneck Twinset

Trousers

Bell-bottoms Bermuda shorts Bondage pants Capri pants Cargo pants Chaps Cycling shorts Dress
Dress
pants High water pants Hotpants Lowrise pants Jeans Jodhpurs Leggings Overall Palazzo pants Parachute pants Pedal pushers Phat pants Shorts Slim-fit pants Sweatpants Windpants Yoga pants

Skirts

A-line skirt Ballerina skirt Denim skirt Men's skirts Miniskirt Pencil skirt Prairie skirt Rah-rah skirt Sarong Skort Tutu Wrap

Dresses

Ball gown Bouffant gown Coatdress Cocktail dress Débutante dress Formal wear Frock Evening gown Gown House dress Jumper Little black dress Princess line Sheath dress Shirtdress Slip dress Strapless dress Sundress Wedding dress Wrap dress

Suits and uniforms

Academic dress Ball dress Black tie Boilersuit Cleanroom suit Clerical clothing Court dress Gymslip Hazmat suit Jumpsuit Kasaya Lab coat Military uniform Morning dress Onesie Pantsuit Red Sea rig Romper suit School uniform Scrubs Stroller Tuxedo Vestment White tie

Outerwear

Apron Blazer British Warm Cagoule Cape Chesterfield Coat Covert coat Cut-off Duffel coat Flight jacket Gilet Goggle jacket Guards coat Harrington jacket Hoodie Jacket Jerkin Leather jacket Mess jacket Opera coat Overcoat Parka Paletot Pea coat Poncho Raincoat Robe Safari jacket Shawl Shrug Ski suit Sleeved blanket Smoking jacket Sport coat Trench coat Ulster coat Waistcoat Windbreaker

Underwear (lingerie)

Top

Bra Camisole Undershirt

Bottom

Diaper Panties Plastic pants Slip Thong Underpants

Boxer briefs Boxer shorts Midway briefs Briefs

Full

Adult bodysuit Infant bodysuit Long underwear Playsuit Teddy

Footwear

Boot Court shoe Dress
Dress
shoe Flip-flops Hosiery Sandal Shoe Spats Slipper Sneakers Sock Stocking Tights

Headwear

Baseball cap Beret Cap Fedora Hat Helmet Hood Kerchief Knit cap Toque Turban Veil

Neckwear

Ascot tie Bow tie Cravat Neckerchief Necktie Scarf

Nightwear

Babydoll Blanket sleeper Negligee Nightgown Nightshirt Pajamas

Swimwear

Bikini Burkini Boardshorts Dry suit Monokini One-piece Rash guard Square leg suit Swim briefs Swim diaper Trunks Wetsuit

Accessories

Belt Coin purse Cufflink Cummerbund Gaiters Glasses Gloves Headband Handbag Jewellery Muff Pocket protector Pocket watch Sash Sunglasses Suspenders Umbrella Wallet Wristwatch

See also

Activewear Clothing
Clothing
fetish Clothing
Clothing
technology Clothing
Clothing
terminology Costume Cross-dressing Dress
Dress
code

Western

Fashion Haute couture History of clothing See-through clothing

v t e

Men's undergarments

Upper body

Male bra Sleeveless shirt
Sleeveless shirt
(A-shirt / singlet / tank top) T-shirt Henley shirt Undershirt Telnyashka

Lower body

Boxer briefs Midway briefs Boxer shorts Briefs
Briefs
(slip / Y-fronts) Fundoshi Jockstrap
Jockstrap
(athletic supporter) Compression shorts Pantyhose for men Tanga Thong (G-string) Trunks Willy warmer

Full body

Long underwear
Long underwear
(long johns) Union suit

Hosiery

Compression stockings Leggings Pantyhose Sock Stocking Tabi

Historical

Breechcloth Chausses Codpiece Doublet Garter Hose Loincloth Union suit

Brands

2(x)ist 2wink Abercrombie & Fitch American Eagle American Apparel Andrew Christian aussieBum Bonds BVD Calvin Klein Diesel S.p.A. DKNY Dolce & Gabbana Emporio Armani Fruit of the Loom Hanes Hugo Boss Jockey International Joe Boxer Mundo Unico Munsingwear Pringle John Smedley's Stanfield's Under Armour XTG Extreme Game

Authority control

GND: 43027

.