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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls",[1] from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease. A symptom is subjective,[2] observed by the patient,[3] and cannot be measured directly,[4] whereas a sign is objectively observable by others. For example, paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), whereas erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual). Symptoms and signs are often nonspecific, but often combinations of them are at least suggestive of certain diagnoses, helping to narrow down what may be wrong. In other cases they are specific even to the point of being pathognomonic. The term is sometimes also applied to physiological states outside the context of disease, as for example when referring to "symptoms of pregnancy". Many people use the term sign and symptom interchangeably.[5]

Contents

1 Types

1.1 Non-specific symptoms 1.2 Positive and negative

2 Possible causes 3 Symptom
Symptom
versus sign 4 Symptomatology 5 See also 6 References

Types[edit] Symptoms may be briefly acute or a more prolonged but acute or chronic, relapsing or remitting. Asymptomatic
Asymptomatic
conditions also exist (e.g. subclinical infections and silent diseases like sometimes, high blood pressure). Constitutional or general symptoms are those related to the systemic effects of a disease (e.g., fever, malaise, anorexia, and weight loss). They affect the entire body rather than a specific organ or location. The terms "chief complaint", "presenting symptom", "iatrotropic symptom", or "presenting complaint" are used to describe the initial concern which brings a patient to a doctor. The symptom that ultimately leads to a diagnosis is called a "cardinal symptom". Non-specific symptoms[edit] Non-specific symptoms are self-reported symptoms that do not indicate a specific disease process or involve an isolated body system. For example, fatigue is a feature of many acute and chronic medical conditions, which may or may not be mental, and may be either a primary or secondary symptom. Fatigue is also a normal, healthy condition when experienced after exertion or at the end of a day. Positive and negative[edit] In describing mental disorders,[6][7] especially schizophrenia, symptoms can be divided into positive and negative symptoms.[8]

Positive symptoms are symptoms present in the disorder but not normally experienced by most individuals. It reflects an excess or distortion of normal functions (i.e., experiences and behaviors that have been added to a person’s normal way of functioning).[9] Examples are hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior.[6] Negative symptoms are functions that are normally found in healthy persons, but that are diminished or not present in affected persons. Thus, it is something that has disappeared from a person’s normal way of functioning.[9] Examples are social withdrawal, apathy, inability to experience pleasure and defects in attention control.[7]

Possible causes[edit] Some symptoms occur in a wide range of disease processes, whereas other symptoms are fairly specific for a narrow range of illnesses. For example, a sudden loss of sight in one eye has a significantly smaller number of possible causes than nausea does. Some symptoms can be misleading to the patient or the medical practitioner caring for them. For example, inflammation of the gallbladder often gives rise to pain in the right shoulder, which may understandably lead the patient to attribute the pain to a non-abdominal cause such as muscle strain. Symptom
Symptom
versus sign[edit] A sign has the potential to be objectively observed by someone other than the patient, whereas a symptom does not. There is a correlation between this difference and the difference between the medical history and the physical examination. Symptoms belong only to the history, whereas signs can often belong to both. Clinical signs such as rash and muscle tremors are objectively observable both by the patient and by anyone else. Some signs belong only to the physical examination, because it takes medical expertise to uncover them. (For example, laboratory signs such as hypocalcaemia or neutropenia require blood tests to find.) A sign observed by the patient last week but now gone (such as a resolved rash) was a sign, but it belongs to the medical history, not the physical examination, because the physician cannot independently verify it today. Symptomatology[edit] Symptomatology (also called semeiology) is a branch of medicine dealing with symptoms.[10] Also this study deals with the signs and indications of a disease.[11] See also[edit]

Category: Symptoms List of medical symptoms Pathogenesis Sinthome Symptomatic treatment Medical sign

References[edit]

^ "Sumptoma, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', at Pursues". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ Pathology – Glossary Archived January 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ eMedicine/Stedman Medical Dictionary Lookup![dead link] ^ Devroede G (1992). "Constipation—a sign of a disease to be treated surgically, or a symptom to be deciphered as nonverbal communication?". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 15 (3): 189–91. doi:10.1097/00004836-199210000-00003. PMID 1479160.  ^ "What Are Signs And Symptoms And Why Do They Matter?". Medical News Today. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ a b "Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: positive symptom". Minddisorders.com. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ a b http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Negative-symptoms.html Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: negative symptom ^ "Mental Health: a Report from the Surgeon General". Surgeongeneral.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ a b Understanding Psychosis, Mental Health Illness of Australia. ^ The British Medical Association (BMA) (2002). Illustrated Medical Dictionary. A Dorling Kindersley Book. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-75-133383-1.  ^ David A. Bedworth, Albert E. Bedworth (2010). The Dictionary of Health Education. Oxford University Press. p. 484. ISBN 978-0-19-534259-8. 

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Basic medical terms used to describe disease conditions

   

Medical sign Symptom Syndrome

Medical diagnosis Differential diagnosis Prognosis

Acute Chronic Cure/Remission

Disease Eponymous disease Acronym or abbreviation

Symptoms and signs

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Symptoms and signs relating to the cardiovascular system (R00–R03, 785)

Chest pain

Referred pain Angina Aerophagia

Auscultation

Heart sounds

Split S2 S3 S4 Gallop rhythm

Heart murmur

Systolic Diastolic Continuous

Pericardial friction rub Heart click Bruit

carotid

Pulse

Tachycardia Bradycardia Pulsus tardus et parvus Pulsus paradoxus doubled

Pulsus bisferiens Dicrotic pulse Pulsus bigeminus

Pulsus alternans Pulse
Pulse
deficit

Vascular disease

Gangrene

Other

Palpitations

Apex beat

Cœur en sabot Jugular venous pressure

Cannon A waves

Hyperaemia

Shock

Cardiogenic Hypovolemic Distributive

Septic Neurogenic

v t e

Symptoms and signs: cognition, perception, emotional state and behaviour (R40–R46, 780.0–780.5, 781.1)

Cognition

Alteration of consciousness

Confusion (Delirium) Somnolence Obtundation Stupor Unconsciousness

Syncope Coma Persistent vegetative state

Fainting/Syncope

Carotid sinus syncope Heat syncope Vasovagal episode

Other

Amnesia

Anterograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia

Dizziness

Vertigo Presyncope/Lightheadedness Disequilibrium

Convulsion

Emotional
Emotional
state

Anxiety Irritability Hostility Suicidal ideation

Behavior

Verbosity Russell's sign

Perception/ sensation disorder

Audition

Olfaction : Anosmia Hyposmia Dysosmia Parosmia Phantosmia Hyperosmia

Tactile perception

Taste: Ageusia Hypogeusia Dysgeusia Parageusia Hypergeusia

Visual perception

Hallucination: Auditory hallucination

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Symptoms and signs: digestive system and abdomen (R10–R19, 787,789)

Upper

Nausea Vomiting Heartburn Aerophagia Dysphagia

oropharyngeal esophageal

Odynophagia Halitosis Xerostomia Hypersalivation Burping

Wet burp

Defaecation

Flatulence Fecal incontinence

Encopresis

Blood: Fecal occult blood Rectal tenesmus Constipation Obstructed defecation Diarrhea Rectal discharge

Psoas sign Obturator sign Rovsing's sign Hamburger sign Heel tap sign Aure-Rozanova's sign Dunphy sign Alder's sign Lockwood's sign Rosenstein's sign

Abdomen

Abdominal pain

Acute abdomen Colic Baby colic Abdominal guarding Rebound tenderness

Abdominal distension

Bloating Ascites Tympanites Shifting dullness Bulging flanks Fluid wave test

Abdominal mass Hepatosplenomegaly

Hepatomegaly Splenomegaly

Jaundice Mallet-Guy sign Puddle sign

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Symptoms and signs: general / constitutional (R50–R61, 780.6–780.9)

Temperature

heat:

Fever

Fever
Fever
of unknown origin Drug-induced fever Postoperative fever

Hyperhidrosis

e.g., Sleep hyperhidrosis; "sweating"

Hyperpyrexia Hyperthermia

cold:

Chills Hypothermia

Aches/pains

Headache Chronic pain Cancer pain Myalgia

Malaise and fatigue

Atrophy

e.g., Muscular atrophy

Debility (or asthenia) Lassitude Lethargy Muscle tremors Tenderness

Miscellaneous

Flu-like symptoms

v t e

Symptoms and signs: nervous and musculoskeletal systems (R25–R29, 781.0, 781.2–9)

Primarily nervous system

Primarily CNS

Movement disorders

Dyskinesia: Athetosis Tremor

Gait abnormality

Scissor gait Cerebellar ataxia Festinating gait Marche a petit pas Propulsive gait Stomping gait Spastic gait Magnetic gait

Lack of coordination

Dyskinesia: Ataxia

Cerebellar ataxia/Dysmetria Sensory ataxia Dyssynergia

Dysdiadochokinesia Asterixis

Other

Abnormal posturing: Opisthotonus Sensory processing disorder: Hemispatial neglect Facial weakness Hyperreflexia Pronator drift

Primarily PNS

Gait abnormality

Steppage gait Antalgic gait

Primarily muscular

Movement disorders

Spasm

Trismus

Fasciculation Fibrillation Myokymia Cramp

Gait abnormality

Myopathic gait Trendelenburg gait Pigeon gait

Other

Tetany Meningism

Primarily skeletal

Rachitic rosary Clubbing

Primarily joint

Joint
Joint
locking

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Symptoms and signs relating to the respiratory system (R04–R07, 786)

Medical examination and history taking

Auscultation

Stethoscope Respiratory sounds

Stridor Wheeze Crackles Rhonchi Stertor Squawk Pleural friction rub Fremitus Bronchophony Terminal secretions

Elicited findings

Percussion Pectoriloquy Whispered pectoriloquy Egophony

Breathing

Rate

Apnea

Prematurity

Dyspnea Hyperventilation Hypoventilation Hyperpnea Tachypnea Hypopnea Bradypnea

Pattern

Agonal respiration Biot's respiration Cheyne–Stokes respiration Kussmaul breathing Ataxic respiration

Other

Respiratory distress Respiratory arrest Orthopnea/Platypnea Trepopnea Aerophagia Asphyxia Breath holding Mouth breathing Snoring

Other

Chest pain

In children Precordial catch syndrome Pleurisy

Nail clubbing Cyanosis Cough Sputum Hemoptysis Epistaxis Silhouette sign Post-nasal drip Hiccup COPD

Hoover's sign

asthma

Curschmann's spirals Charcot–Leyden crystals

chronic bronchitis

Reid index

sarcoidosis

Kveim test

pulmonary embolism

Hampton hump Westermark sign

pulmonary edema

Kerley lines

Hamman's sign Golden S sign

v t e

Symptoms and signs: skin and subcutaneous tissue (R20–R23, 782)

Disturbances of skin sensation

Hypoesthesia Paresthesia

Formication

Hyperesthesia

Hypoalgesia Hyperalgesia

Circulation

Cyanosis Pallor/Livedo

Livedo reticularis

Flushing Petechia

Edema

Peripheral edema Anasarca

Other

Rash Desquamation Induration Diaphoresis Mass

Neck mass

Skin

Asboe-Hansen sign Auspitz's sign Borsari's sign Braverman's sign Crowe sign Dennie–Morgan fold Darier's sign Fitzpatrick's sign Florid cutaneous papillomatosis

Gottron's sign Hutchinson's sign Janeway lesion Kerr's sign Koebner's phenomenon Koplik's spots Leser-Trelat sign Nikolsky's sign Pastia's sign Russell's sign Wickham striae Wolf's isotopic response

Nails

Aldrich-Mees' lines Beau's lines Muehrcke's lines Terry's nails

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Symptoms and signs: Speech
Speech
and voice / Symptoms involving head and neck (R47–R49, 784)

Aphasias

Acute Aphasias

Expressive aphasia Receptive aphasia Conduction aphasia Anomic aphasia Global aphasia Transcortical sensory aphasia Transcortical motor aphasia Mixed transcortical aphasia

Progressive Aphasias

Progressive nonfluent aphasia Semantic dementia Logopenic progressive aphasia

Speech
Speech
disturbances

Speech
Speech
disorder Developmental verbal dyspraxia/‎ Apraxia
Apraxia
of speech Auditory verbal agnosia Dysarthria Schizophasia Aprosodia/Dysprosody Specific language impairment Thought disorder Pressure of speech Derailment Clanging Circumstantiality

Communication disorders

Developmental dyslexia/Alexia Agnosia

Astereognosis Prosopagnosia Visual agnosia

Gerstmann syndrome Developmental coordination disorder/Apraxia

Ideomotor apraxia

Dyscalculia/Acalculia Agraphia

Voice disturbances

Dysphonia/Aphonia Bogart–Bacall syndrome

Nose

Post-nasal drip Epistaxis

Mouth

Orofacial pain

Toothache Galvanic pain Barodontalgia

Fremitus Tooth mobility Bruxism Trismus Ageusia Hypogeusia Dysgeusia Parageusia Hypergeusia Xerostomia Halitosis Drooling Hypersalivation

Neck

Neck mass

Cervical lymphadenopathy

Other

Headache Auditory processing disorder Otalgia Velopharyngeal inadequacy Velopharyngeal insufficiency Hypersensitive gag reflex Jaw claudication Hypomimia

v t e

Symptoms and signs relating to endocrine system, nutrition and development (R62–R64, 783)

Weight and appetite

decrease:

Anorexia Weight loss Cachexia Underweight

increase:

Polyphagia Polydipsia Orexigenia Weight gain

Growth

Delayed milestone Failure to thrive Short stature

Idiopathic

Thyroid disease

General

Goitre

Graves' disease

 Abadie's sign of exophthalmic goiter Boston's sign Dalrymple's sign Stellwag's sign lid lag

Von Graefe's sign Griffith's sign

Möbius sign

Hypothyroidism

Queen Anne's sign

Nutrition

Rickets

Harrison's groove

Benedict solution

Metabolic disorders

low calcium

Chvostek sign Trosseau's sign

low glucose

Whipple's triad

v t e

Symptoms and signs: urinary system (R30–R39, 788)

Pain

Renal colic Costovertebral angle tenderness Dysuria Vesical tenesmus

Control

Urinary incontinence

Enuresis Diurnal enuresis Giggling Nocturnal enuresis Post-void dribbling Stress Urge Overflow

Urinary retention

Volume

Oliguria Anuria Polyuria

Other

Lower urinary tract symptoms

Nocturia Urinary urgency Urinary frequency

Extravasation of urine Extrarenal uremia Urinoma

Eponymous

Addis count Brewer inf

.