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SUSSEX (/ˈsʌsɪks/ ), from the Old English
Old English
Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons ), is a historic county in South East England
South East England
corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex . It is bounded to the west by Hampshire , north by Surrey
Surrey
, northeast by Kent
Kent
, south by the English Channel
English Channel
, and divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex and East Sussex
East Sussex
. Brighton and Hove , though part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, and as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
was granted City status in 2000. Until then, Chichester
Chichester
was Sussex's only city.

Sussex
Sussex
has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented approximately east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain . North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs
South Downs
, beyond which is the well-wooded Sussex Weald .

The name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex , which was founded, according to legend, by Ælle of Sussex in AD 477. Around 827, it was absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex
Wessex
and subsequently into the kingdom of England. It was the home of some of Europe's earliest hominids , whose remains have been found at Boxgrove , and was invaded by the Romans and is the site of the Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
.

In 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex
Sussex
was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex
Sussex
continues to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region . It has had a single police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media. In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate the county's rich culture and history . Based on the traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets , the flag of Sussex
Sussex
was recognised by the Flag Institute
Flag Institute
in 2011. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex.

CONTENTS

* 1 Toponymy * 2 Symbols

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Landscape * 3.2 Climate * 3.3 Conurbations

* 4 Population

* 5 History

* 5.1 Beginnings * 5.2 Roman Canton * 5.3 Saxon Kingdom * 5.4 Norman Sussex
Sussex
* 5.5 Sussex
Sussex
under the Plantagenets * 5.6 Early modern Sussex
Sussex
* 5.7 Late modern and contemporary Sussex
Sussex

* 6 Governance

* 6.1 Politics * 6.2 Law

* 6.3 Administrative divisions

* 6.3.1 Historic sub-divisions * 6.3.2 Modern local authority areas

* 6.4 Monarchy and peerage

* 7 Economy * 8 Education * 9 Healthcare

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Architecture * 10.2 Dialect * 10.3 Literature * 10.4 Music * 10.5 Religion * 10.6 Science * 10.7 Sport * 10.8 Cuisine * 10.9 Visual arts

* 11 See also * 12 Footnotes

TOPONYMY

The name "Sussex" is derived from the Middle English
Middle English
Suth-sæxe, which is in turn derived from the Old English
Old English
Suth-Seaxe which means (land or people) of the South Saxons (cf. Essex
Essex
, Middlesex
Middlesex
and Wessex
Wessex
). The South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain
North German Plain
during the 5th and 6th centuries.

The earliest known usage of the term South Saxons (Latin: Australes Saxones) is in a royal charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm , although the term may well have been in use for some time before that. The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong; recent scholars have suggested he might have been a quarter of a century too late.

The New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex
Sussex
by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map.

Three United States
United States
counties (in Delaware , New Jersey , and Virginia ), and a former county/land division of Western Australia , are named after Sussex.

SYMBOLS

Main article: Symbols of Sussex
Symbols of Sussex
The traditional Sussex
Sussex
emblem first known recording in 1611 by John Speed: Azure, six martlets or

The flag of Sussex
Sussex
consists of six gold martlets , or heraldic swallows , on a blue background, blazoned as Azure, six martlets or. Officially recognised by the Flag Institute
Flag Institute
on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the heraldic shield of Sussex
Sussex
. The first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons . However it seems that Speed was repeating an earlier association between the emblem and the county, rather than being the inventor of the association. It is now firmly regarded that the county emblem originated and derived from the coat of arms of the 14th century Knight of the Shire , Sir John de Radynden. Sussex’s six martlets are today held to symbolise the traditional six sub-divisions of the county known as rapes . The round-headed rampion , or Pride of Sussex, is Sussex's county flower

Sussex by the Sea is regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex; it was composed by William Ward-Higgs in 1907, perhaps originally from the lyrics of Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
's poem entitled Sussex. Adopted by the Royal Sussex Regiment and popularised in World War I
World War I
, it is sung at celebrations across the county, including those at Lewes
Lewes
Bonfire , and at sports matches, including those of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
Albion Football Club and Sussex County Cricket Club
Sussex County Cricket Club
.

The county day, called Sussex Day , is celebrated on 16 June, the same day as the feast day of St Richard of Chichester
Chichester
, Sussex's patron saint , whose shrine at Chichester
Chichester
Cathedral was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
.

Sussex's motto, We wunt be druv , is a Sussex dialect
Sussex dialect
expression meaning "we will not be pushed around" and reflects the traditionally independent nature of Sussex
Sussex
men and women. The round-headed rampion , also known as the "Pride of Sussex", was adopted as Sussex's county flower in 2002.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Sussex See also: Geology of East Sussex
East Sussex

LANDSCAPE

The South Downs
South Downs
meets the sea at the Seven Sisters

The physical geography of Sussex
Sussex
relies heavily on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden
Wealden
anticline , the major features of which are the high lands that cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself and the South Downs
South Downs
. Natural England has identified the following seven national character areas in Sussex:

* South Coast Plain * South Downs
South Downs
* Wealden
Wealden
Greensand * Low Weald * High Weald * Pevensey Levels * Romney Marshes

At 280m, Blackdown is the highest point in Sussex, or county top . Ditchling Beacon (248m) is the highest point in East Sussex. At 113 kilometres (70 miles) long, the River Medway is the longest river flowing through Sussex. The longest river entirely in Sussex
Sussex
is the River Arun, which is 60 kilometres (37 miles) long. Sussex's largest lakes are man-made reservoirs. The largest is Bewl Water on the Kent border, while the largest wholly within Sussex
Sussex
is Ardingly Reservoir.

CLIMATE

The coastal resorts of Sussex
Sussex
and neighbouring Hampshire are the sunniest places in the United Kingdom. The coast has consistently more sunshine than the inland areas: sea breezes, blowing off the sea, tend to clear any cloud from the coast. Most of Sussex
Sussex
lies in Hardiness zone 8; the exception is the coastal plain west of Brighton, which lies in the milder zone 9.

Rainfall is below average with the heaviest precipitation on the South Downs
South Downs
with 950 mm (37 in) of rainfall per year. The close proximity of Sussex
Sussex
to the Continent of Europe, results in cold spells in winter and hot, humid weather in summer.

The climate of the coastal districts is strongly influenced by the sea, which, because of its tendency to warm up slower than land, can result in cooler temperatures than inland in the summer. In the autumn months, the coast sometimes has higher temperatures. Rainfall during the summer months is mainly from thunderstorms and thundery showers; from January to March the heavier rainfall is due to prevailing south-westerly frontal systems.

In winter, the east winds can be as cold as further inland. Selsey is known as a tornado hotspot, with small tornadoes hitting the town in 1986, 1998 and 2000, with the 1998 tornado causing an estimated £10 million of damage to 1,000 buildings.

The sunshine average is approximately 1900 hours a year, this is much higher than the UK average of 1340 hours a year.

CONURBATIONS

Most of Sussex's population is distributed in an east-west line along the English Channel
English Channel
coast or on the east-west line of the A272 . The exception to this pattern is the 20th century north-south development on the A23 -Brighton line corridor , Sussex's main link to London. Sussex's population is dominated by the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation that, with a population of over 470,000, is home to almost 1 in 3 of Sussex's population. According to the ONS urban area populations for continuous built-up areas, these are the 5 largest conurbations (population figures from the 2001 census):

RANK URBAN AREA Population

(2001 Census) POPULATION (2011 CENSUS) LOCALITIES COMMENTS

1 Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton 461,181 474,485 10 Sometimes referred to as two Primary Urban Areas - Brighton Urban Area and Worthing Urban Area

2 Crawley
Crawley
180,177 180,508 6 Includes approx. 30,000 people living in Surrey
Surrey

In the 2001 census this urban area included Reigate and Redhill in Surrey
Surrey
but in the 2011 census it did not. East Grinstead
East Grinstead
was part of this urban area for the 2011 census but it was not for previous censuses.

3 Hastings
Hastings
/Bexhill 126,386 133,422 2

4 Eastbourne
Eastbourne
106,562 118,219 1

5 Bognor Regis 62,141 63,885 1

POPULATION

The combined population of Sussex
Sussex
is about 1.6 million. In 2011, Sussex
Sussex
had a population density of 425 per km2, higher than the average for England of 407 per km2.

The earliest statement as to the population of Sussex
Sussex
is made by Bede, who describes the county as containing in 681 land of 7,000 families; allowing ten to a family (a reasonable estimate at that date), the total population would be 70,000.

In 1693 the county is stated to have contained 21,537 houses. The 1801 census found that the population was 159,311. The decline of the Sussex
Sussex
ironworks probably accounts for the small increase of population during several centuries, although after the massacre of St Bartholomew upwards of 1,500 Huguenots
Huguenots
landed at Rye, and in 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
, many more refugees were added to the county.

The area of the ancient county is 933,887 acres (377,931 ha) with a population in 1891 of 550,446 and in 1901 of 605,202.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Sussex and Timeline of Sussex history

BEGINNINGS

Reconstruction of Homo heidelbergensis
Homo heidelbergensis

Finds at Eartham Pit in Boxgrove show that the area has some of the earliest hominid remains in Europe, dating back some 500,000 years and known as Boxgrove Man or Homo heidelbergensis
Homo heidelbergensis
. At a site near Pulborough called The Beedings, tools have been found that date from around 35,000 years ago and that are thought to be from either the last Neanderthals in northern Europe or pioneer populations of modern humans. The thriving population lived by hunting game such as horses, bison, mammoth and woolly rhinos . Around 6000BC the ice sheet over the North Sea melted, sea levels rose and the meltwaters burst south and westwards, creating the English Channel
English Channel
and cutting the people of Sussex
Sussex
off from their Mesolithic kinsmen to the south. Later in the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, the area of the South Downs
South Downs
above Worthing was one of Britain's largest and most important flint -mining centres. The flints were used to help fell trees for agriculture. The oldest of these mines, at Church Hill in Findon, has been carbon-dated to 4500BC to 3750BC, making it one of the earliest known mines in Britain. Flint tools from Cissbury have been found as far away as the eastern Mediterranean.

Sussex
Sussex
is rich in remains from the Bronze and Iron Ages , in particular the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
barrows known as the Devil\'s Jumps and Cissbury Ring , one of Britain's largest hillforts. Towards the end of the Iron Age
Iron Age
in 75BC people from the Atrebates , one of the tribes of the Belgae , a mix of Celtic and German stock, started invading and occupying southern Britain. This was followed by an invasion by the Roman army under Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
that temporarily occupied the south-east in 55BC. Soon after the first Roman invasion had ended, the Celtic Regnenses tribe under their leader Commius occupied the Manhood Peninsula . Tincomarus and then Cogidubnus followed Commius as rulers of the Regnenses.

ROMAN CANTON

Museum model of how Fishbourne Roman Palace may have appeared

At the time of the Roman conquest in AD43, there was an oppidum in the southern part of their territory, probably in the Selsey
Selsey
region. A number of archaeologists now think there is a strong possibility that the Roman invasion of Britain in AD43 started around Fishbourne and Chichester
Chichester
Harbour rather than the traditional landing place of Richborough in Kent. According to this theory, the Romans were called to restore the refugee Verica , king of the Atrebates, who had been driven out by the Catuvellauni , a tribe based around modern Hertfordshire.

Sussex
Sussex
was home to the magnificent Roman Palace at Fishbourne , by far the largest Roman residence known north of the Alps. Much of Sussex
Sussex
was a Roman canton of the Regnenses or Regni, with its capital at Noviomagus Reginorum , modern-day Chichester. The Romans built villas, especially on the coastal plain and around Chichester, one of the best preserved being that at Bignor
Bignor
. Christianity
Christianity
first came to Sussex
Sussex
at this time, but faded away when the Romans left in the 5th century. The nationally important Patching hoard of Roman coins that was found in 1997 is the latest find of Roman coins found in Britain , probably deposited after 475 AD, well after the Roman departure from Britain around 410 AD.

SAXON KINGDOM

Main article: Kingdom of Sussex

The foundation legend of Sussex
Sussex
is provided by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which states that in the year AD 477 Ælle landed with his three sons. Having fought on the banks of the Mearcredesburna , it seems Aelle secured the area between the Ouse and Cuckmere in a treaty. After Aelle’s forces seized the Saxon Shore
Saxon Shore
fort of Anderida , the South Saxons were able to gradually colonise free of Romano-British control and extend their territory westwards to link with the Saxon settlement at Highdown Hill . Aelle was recognised as the first ' Bretwalda ' or overlord of southern Britain. He was probably the most senior of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kings and led the ill-fated campaign against King Arthur
King Arthur
at Mount Badon . Engraving showing Cædwalla confirming the granting of land to Wilfrid to build his monastery in Selsey.

By the end of the 7th century, the region around Selsey
Selsey
and Chichester
Chichester
had become the political centre of the kingdom. In the 660s-670s, King Aethelwealh of Sussex
Sussex
formed an alliance with the Mercian king Wulfhere and together they took the Isle of Wight from the West Saxons, probably at the battle of Biedanheafele. As Mercia's first Christian king, Wulfhere insisted that Æthelwealh also convert to Christianity. Æthelwealh was baptised in Mercia, with Wulfhere as his sponsor . Wulfhere gave the Isle of Wight and Meon Valley to Aethelwealh, with Wulfhere acting as overlord . The alliance with Mercia was sealed with Æthelwealh taking the hand of Eabe, a Mercian princess in marriage.

Wilfrid , the exiled bishop of York, came to Sussex
Sussex
in 681 and with King Æthelwealh's approval set up a mission to convert the people of Sussex
Sussex
to Christianity
Christianity
. Æthelwealh gave Wilfrid land on the Manhood peninsula, close to his own royal estate and Wilfrid founded Selsey Abbey . The mission was jeopardised when King Æthelwealh was killed by Cædwalla , a prince of Wessex. Cædwalla confirmed Æthelwealh's grant of land and Wilfrid built his Selsey
Selsey
Abbey. Cædwalla was driven out by the South Saxon nobles Berthun and Andhun .

The South Saxons fought off the West Saxons in 722 and again in 725. At the end of the 8th century, Ealdwulf was perhaps the last independent king of Sussex, after which Sussex
Sussex
and other southern kingdoms came increasingly under Mercian rule. Mercia's grip was shattered in 825 at the battle of Ellendun , after which Sussex
Sussex
and the other southern kingdoms came under the control of Wessex, which later grew into the kingdom of England.

NORMAN SUSSEX

Battle Abbey was founded to commemorate William's victory in the Battle of Hastings. The high altar was placed to mark the spot where King Harold died.

Sussex
Sussex
was the venue for the momentous Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
, the decisive victory in the Norman conquest of England . In September 1066, William of Normandy landed with his forces at Pevensey and erected a wooden castle at Hastings
Hastings
, from which they raided the surrounding area. The battle was fought between Duke William of Normandy and the English king, Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
, who had strong connections with Sussex
Sussex
and whose chief seat was probably in Bosham . After having marched his exhausted army all the way from Yorkshire, Harold fought the Normans at the Battle of Hastings, where England's army was defeated and Harold was killed. It is likely that all the fighting men of Sussex
Sussex
were at the battle, as the county's thegns were decimated and any that survived had their lands confiscated. William built Battle Abbey at the site of the battle, with the exact spot where Harold fell marked by the high altar.

Sussex
Sussex
experienced some of the greatest changes of any English county under the Normans, for it was the heartland of King Harold and was potentially vulnerable to further invasion. The county was of great importance to the Normans; Hastings
Hastings
and Pevensey being on the most direct route for Normandy. The county's existing sub-divisions, known as rapes, were made into castleries and each territory was given to one of William's most trusted barons. Castles were built to defend the territories including at Arundel, Bramber, Lewes, Pevensey and Hastings. Sussex's bishop, Æthelric II , was deposed and imprisoned and replaced with and William the Conqueror's personal chaplain, Stigand . The Normans also built Chichester
Chichester
Cathedral and moved the seat of Sussex's bishopric from Selsey
Selsey
to Chichester. The Normans also founded new towns in Sussex, including New Shoreham (the centre of modern Shoreham-by-Sea), Battle, Arundel, Uckfield and Winchelsea.

In 1264, the Sussex
Sussex
Downs were the location of the Battle of Lewes
Lewes
, in which Simon de Montfort and his fellow barons captured Prince Edward (later Edward I ), the son and heir of Henry III . The subsequent treaty, known as the Mise of Lewes
Lewes
, led to Montfort summoning the first parliament in English history without any prior royal authorisation. A provisional administration was set up, consisting of Montfort, the Bishop of Chichester
Chichester
and the Earl of Gloucester . These three were to elect a council of nine, to govern until a permanent settlement could be reached.

SUSSEX UNDER THE PLANTAGENETS

During the Hundred Years\' War , Sussex
Sussex
found itself on the frontline, convenient both for intended invasions and retaliatory expeditions by licensed French pirates. Hastings, Rye
Rye
and Winchelsea were all burnt during this period and all three towns became part of the Cinque Ports
Cinque Ports
, a loose federation for supplying ships for the country's security. Also at this time, Amberley and Bodiam castles were built to defend the upper reaches of navigable rivers.

EARLY MODERN SUSSEX

Like the rest of the country, the Church of England's split with Rome during the reign of Henry VIII was felt in Sussex. In 1538 there was a royal order for the demolition of the shrine of Saint Richard
Saint Richard
, in Chichester
Chichester
Cathedral, with Thomas Cromwell saying that there was "a certain kind of idolatry about the shrine". In the reign of Queen Mary , 41 people in Sussex
Sussex
were burnt at the stake for their Protestant beliefs. Elizabeth re-established the break with Rome when she passed the 1559 Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity . Under Elizabeth I , religious intolerance continued albeit on a lesser scale, with several people being executed for their Catholic beliefs.

Sussex
Sussex
escaped the worst ravages of the English Civil War
English Civil War
, although in 1642 there were sieges at Arundel and Chichester, and a skirmish at Haywards Heath when Royalists
Royalists
marching towards Lewes
Lewes
were intercepted by local Parliamentarians . The Royalists
Royalists
were routed with around 200 killed or taken prisoner. Despite its being under Parliamentarian control, Charles II was able to journey through the county after the Battle of Worcester in 1651 to make his escape to France from the port of Shoreham.

LATE MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY SUSSEX

The Sussex
Sussex
coast was greatly modified by the social movement of sea bathing for health which became fashionable among the wealthy in the second half of the 18th century. Resorts developed all along the coast, including at Brighton, Hastings, Worthing, and Bognor. At the beginning of the 19th century agricultural labourers' conditions took a turn for the worse with an increasing amount of them becoming unemployed, those in work faced their wages being forced down. Conditions became so bad that it was even reported to the House of Lords in 1830 that four harvest labourers (seasonal workers) had been found dead of starvation. The deteriorating conditions of work for the agricultural labourer eventually triggered riots, first in neighbouring Kent, and then in Sussex, where they lasted for several weeks, although the unrest continued until 1832 and became known as the Swing Riots .

Railways spread across Sussex
Sussex
in the 19th century and county councils were created for Sussex's eastern and western divisions in 1889.

During World War I
World War I
, on the eve of the Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme
on 30 June 1916, the Royal Sussex Regiment took part in the Battle of the Boar\'s Head at Richebourg-l\'Avoué . The day subsequently became known as THE DAY SUSSEX DIED. Over a period of less than five hours the 17 officers and 349 men were killed, including 12 sets of brothers, including three from one family. A further 1,000 men were wounded or taken prisoner.

With the declaration of the World War II
World War II
, Sussex
Sussex
found itself part of the country's frontline with its airfields playing a key role in the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
and with its towns being some of the most frequently bombed. As the Sussex
Sussex
regiments served overseas, the defence of the county was undertaken by units of the Home Guard with help from the First Canadian Army
First Canadian Army
. During the lead up to the D-Day landings, the people of Sussex
Sussex
were witness to the buildup of military personnel and materials, including the assembly of landing crafts and construction of Mulberry harbours off the county's coast.

In the post-war era, the New Towns Act 1946 designated Crawley
Crawley
as the site of a new town . As part of the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
, the eastern and western divisions of Sussex
Sussex
were made into the ceremonial counties of East and West Sussex in 1974. Boundaries were changed and a large part of the rape of Lewes
Lewes
was transferred from the eastern division into West Sussex, along with Gatwick Airport, which was historically part of the county of Surrey.

GOVERNANCE

See also: History of local government in Sussex
History of local government in Sussex

POLITICS

Main articles: Sussex (UK Parliament constituency) , High Sheriff of Sussex
Sussex
, Lord
Lord
Lieutenant of Sussex
Sussex
, and Custos Rotulorum of Sussex

From 1290, Sussex
Sussex
returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of England
Parliament of England
. Each county returned two MPs and each borough designated by Royal charter also returned two MPs. After the union with Scotland two members represented the county in the House of Commons of Great Britain
Great Britain
from 1707 to 1800 and of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
from 1801 to 1832. After the Reform Act 1832 some of the larger industrial towns of northern England were enfranchised for the first time and smaller English boroughs (known as Rotten Boroughs) were disenfranchised, including Bramber, East Grinstead, Seaford, Steyning and Winchelsea in Sussex. The Reform Act of 1832 divided what had been a single county constituency into eastern and western divisions, with two representatives elected for each division. The reforms of the 19th century made the electoral system more representative, but it was not until 1928 that there was universal suffrage.

LAW

Headquartered in Lewes, Home Office
Home Office
policing in Sussex
Sussex
has been provided by Sussex Police
Sussex Police
since 1968. Lewes
Lewes
Crown Court is the first-tier Crown Court for Sussex
Sussex

The first-tier Crown Court for all of Sussex
Sussex
is Lewes
Lewes
Crown Court , which has courts in Lewes, Brighton and Hove. Like other first-tier Crown Courts it has its own resident High Court Judge . There is also a third-tier Crown Court at Chichester. The local prison in Sussex
Sussex
for men is Lewes
Lewes
Prison and there is also a Category
Category
D prison at Ford .

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Historic Sub-divisions

Main article: Rape (county subdivision) Map of Sussex
Sussex
in 1851 showing the six Rapes

A rape was a traditional sub-division of the county of Sussex. Their origin is unknown, but they appear to predate the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
. Each rape was split into several hundreds .

At the time of the Norman Conquest, there were four rapes: Arundel, Lewes, Pevensey and Hastings. The rape of Bramber was created later in the 11th century and the rape of Chichester
Chichester
was created in the 13th century.

Modern Local Authority Areas

Sussex
Sussex
is divided into two administrative counties and one unitary authority, Brighton and Hove. The divisions of east Sussex
Sussex
and west Sussex
Sussex
have their roots in the church's division of the county at the river Adur into east and west parts (divided from at least the 11th century into the archdeaconry of Chichester
Chichester
and the archdeaconry of Lewes
Lewes
). With Sussex's cathedral located at Chichester
Chichester
in the far west of the county, 9 miles from the western boundary and 90 miles from the eastern boundary, it became practical to divide the county into two sections. The three eastern rapes of Sussex
Sussex
became east Sussex
Sussex
and the three western rapes became west Sussex.

An act of Henry VII dating from 1504 directed that, for convenience, the two halves of the county should have separate administrations ( Quarter Sessions ). This situation was recognised by the County of Sussex
Sussex
Act 1865. Under the Local Government Act 1888 , the two divisions became two administrative counties (along with three county boroughs : Brighton, Hastings
Hastings
and, from 1911, Eastbourne
Eastbourne
).

ADMINISTRATIVE AREA ADMINISTRATIVE SEAT POPULATION AREA (SQ MI) DISTRICTS

EAST SUSSEX Lewes
Lewes
527,200 660 Eastbourne
Eastbourne
, Hastings
Hastings
, Lewes
Lewes
, Rother , Wealden
Wealden

WEST SUSSEX Chichester
Chichester
808,900 769 Adur , Arun
Arun
, Chichester
Chichester
, Crawley
Crawley
, Horsham , Mid Sussex , Worthing

BRIGHTON AND HOVE Hove 273,400 34 N/A

TOTAL

1,609,500 1,463 12 DISTRICTS

MONARCHY AND PEERAGE

Main articles: Kings of Sussex , Duke of Sussex , and Earl of Sussex
Earl of Sussex

Created in the fifth century, the kingdom of Sussex
Sussex
continued until its absorption into the kingdom of Wessex
Wessex
and later England in 825. In charters, Sussex's monarchs were sometimes referred to as ealdormen , or Dux in Latin, which is sometimes translated as 'duke'. The early Earls of Arundel, up to 1243, were often also called Earls of Sussex . In 1801 the title of Duke of Sussex was created and conferred on The Prince Augustus Frederick , the sixth son of George III . Since he had no legitimate issue, the title became extinct on his death in 1843. Although there was speculation that the dukedom would pass to Prince Andrew or Prince William
Prince William
the title is currently one of six inactive British royal titles.

ECONOMY

Much of the Sussex Weald consists of wet sticky clays or drought-prone acid sands and is often broken up into small irregular fields and woods by the topography, making it unsuitable for intensive arable farming. In these areas pastoral or mixed farming has always been the pattern, with field boundaries often little changed since the medieval period. Sussex
Sussex
cattle are the descendants of the draught oxen, which continued to be used in the Weald longer than in other parts of England. The chalk downlands were traditionally grazed by large numbers of small Southdown sheep, suited to the low fertility of the pasture, until the coming of artificial fertiliser made cereal growing worthwhile. There are still fishing fleets, notably at Rye
Rye
and Hastings, but the number of boats is much reduced. There are working harbours at Rye, Hastings, Newhaven and Shoreham; whilst Pagham and Chichester
Chichester
harbours cater for leisure craft, as does Brighton Marina. Sussex
Sussex
had an iron working industry since the Roman period. The large supply of wood in the county made it a favourable centre for the industry, all smelting being done with charcoal till the middle of the 18th century. The glass making industry started on the Sussex/Surrey border in the early 13th century and flourished till the 17th century. The Mid Sussex area had a thriving clay industry in the first quarter of the 20th century.

Sussex
Sussex
has considerable variation in wealth and deprivation. Gross Value Added , a measure of output , was £27,464 million for Sussex
Sussex
in 2009. GVA per head in 2009 for Sussex
Sussex
was £17,590, higher than neighbouring Kent
Kent
but around 86 per cent of the UK average of £20,341. GVA per capita varies significantly between Sussex's three upper tier local authority areas: in 2009 Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
had the highest GVA per head in Sussex
Sussex
with an average of £20,611 (101 per cent of the UK average). The local authority area of East Sussex
East Sussex
has the lowest with a GVA per head of £13,521, 66 per cent of the UK average. There is also serious deprivation in Sussex
Sussex
comparable to the most deprived UK inner city areas. Some areas of Sussex
Sussex
are in the top 5 per cent most deprived in the UK and, in some areas, two-thirds of children are living in poverty. In 2011, two Local Enterprise Partnerships were formed to improve the economy in Sussex. These were the Coast to Capital LEP, covering West Sussex, Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
and the Lewes
Lewes
district in the west of East Sussex, as well as parts of Surrey
Surrey
and South London; and the South East LEP, which covers the local authority area of East Sussex, as well as Kent
Kent
and Essex. In the most populous part of Sussex, around the Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
Built-up area , the Greater Brighton City Deal was formed to enable the area to fulfil its economic potential, into one of the highest performing urban economies in the UK.

Tourism in Sussex
Sussex
is well-established, and includes seaside resorts and the South Downs
South Downs
National Park . Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
has a high density of businesses involved in media, particularly digital or "new media "; since the 1990s Brighton has been referred to as "Silicon Beach". The Greater Brighton City Deal seeks to develop Brighton’s creative-tech cluster under the name Tech City South. The University of Sussex
Sussex
and the University of Brighton provide employment for many more. A large part of the county, centred on Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport
has been recognised as a key economic growth area for South East England
South East England
whilst reasonable rail connections allow many people to work in London . Several large companies are based in Sussex
Sussex
including American Express (Brighton), The Body Shop (Littlehampton), Bowers "> University of Sussex
University of Sussex
Campus

The oldest university in Sussex
Sussex
is the research intensive University of Sussex
Sussex
, founded in 1961 at Falmer in Brighton, the first new university in England since World War Two. The University consistently ranks among the top 20 universities in the UK. It is home to the renowned Institute of Development Studies and the Science Policy Research Unit , alongside over 40 other established research centres.

In 1992 it was joined by the University of Brighton and in 2005 by the University of Chichester
Chichester
. Higher Education
Higher Education
is also provided at University Centre Hastings
Hastings
and Northbrook College , whose West Durrington campus is referred to as University Centre Worthing.

The Prebendal School in Chichester
Chichester
is the oldest known school in Sussex
Sussex
and probably dates to when the Normans moved the Sussex bishopric from Selsey
Selsey
to Chichester
Chichester
Cathedral in the 11th century. Primary and secondary education in the state sector in Sussex
Sussex
is provided by its three local education authorities of East and West Sussex
Sussex
County Councils and Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
City Council . Sussex also has some of the best-known independent schools in England including Christ\'s Hospital School , Brighton College , Lancing College and Roedean School .

HEALTHCARE

The main building of the Royal Sussex County Hospital

The Sussex
Sussex
County Hospital (now the Royal Sussex County Hospital ) was founded in 1828 at Brighton whilst the Sussex
Sussex
County Mental Asylum (later 'St. Francis Hospital' and now the Princess Royal Hospital ) was founded in 1859 in the centre of county at Haywards Heath. Sussex's first medical school , the Brighton and Sussex Medical School , was set up in 2002. In 2011 the four Sussex
Sussex
NHS primary care trusts (PCTs) joined forces to become NHS Sussex. The Major Trauma Centre at the Royal Sussex County Hospital is the Major Trauma Centre for Sussex
Sussex
with the Sussex's other hospitals acting as trauma units. It is one of only five major trauma centres across the NHS's South of England area. The hospital also houses the Sussex Cancer Centre which serves most of Sussex.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Sussex

Sussex
Sussex
has a centuries-old reputation for being separate and culturally distinct from the rest of England. The people of Sussex have a reputation for independence of thought and have an aversion to being pushed around, as expressed through the Sussex
Sussex
motto, We wunt be druv . Sussex
Sussex
is known for its strong tradition of bonfire celebrations and its proud musical heritage. The county is home to England's largest arts festival, the Brighton Festival and Brighton Pride , one of the UK's largest and oldest gay pride parades . Chichester
Chichester
is home to the Chichester
Chichester
Festival Theatre and Pallant House Gallery .

ARCHITECTURE

Sussex's building materials reflect its geology, being made of flint on and near the South Downs
South Downs
and sandstone in the Weald. Brick
Brick
is used across the county. The Royal Pavilion, Brighton

Typically conservative and moderate, the architecture of Sussex
Sussex
also has elaborate and eccentric buildings rarely matched elsewhere in England including the Saxon Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, Sompting , Castle Goring
Castle Goring
, which has a front and rear of entirely different styles and Brighton's Indo-Saracenic Royal Pavilion .

DIALECT

See also: Sussex dialect
Sussex dialect

Historically, Sussex
Sussex
has had its own dialect with regional differences reflecting its cultural history. It has been divided into variants for the three western rapes of West Sussex, the two eastern rapes of Lewes
Lewes
and Pevensey and an area approximate to the easternmost rape of Hastings. The Sussex dialect
Sussex dialect
is also notable in having an unusually large number of words for mud, in a way similar to the popular belief which exists that the Inuit have an unusually large number of words for snow .

LITERATURE

Writers born in Sussex
Sussex
include the Renaissance
Renaissance
poet Thomas May and playwights Thomas Otway, and John Fletcher . One of the most prolific playwrights of his day, Fletcher is thought to have collaborated with Shakespeare
Shakespeare
. Notable Sussex
Sussex
poets include William Hayley , William Collins , Percy Bysshe Shelley , Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Richard Realf , while poet and writer Hilaire Belloc spent most of his life in Sussex. Percy Bysshe Shelley is one of Sussex's best-known poets

Sheila Kaye-Smith is known for her many novels in the British regional literature genre, which are set in the borderlands of Sussex and Kent
Kent
. Other writers from Sussex
Sussex
include Maureen Duffy and Hammond Innes .

In addition there are writers, who while they were not born in Sussex had a strong connection. This includes William Blake
William Blake
and Alfred Tennyson . Sussex
Sussex
has been home to four winners of the Nobel Prize in Literature : Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
spent much of his life in Sussex, living in Rottingdean and later at Burwash. Irishman W.B. Yeats spent three winters living with American poet Ezra Pound at Colemans Hatch in the Ashdown Forest and towards the end of his life spent much time at Steyning and Withyham; John Galsworthy
John Galsworthy
spent much of his life in Bury in the Sussex
Sussex
Downs; and Harold Pinter lived in Worthing in the 1960s.

H.G. Wells was brought up at Uppark
Uppark
, South Harting
South Harting
, near Petersfield , where his mother was housekeeper. He also went to school and taught in Midhurst . While the novelist John Cowper Powys is particularly associated with Dorset
Dorset
and Wales, he lived in Sussex
Sussex
from the mid-1890s until 1910. Another modernist Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) and her husband Leonard , had a country retreat at Monk\'s House in Rodmell near in Lewes
Lewes
from 1919. They received there many important visitors connected to the Bloomsbury Group , including T. S. Eliot , E. M. Forster , Roger Fry
Roger Fry
and Lytton Strachey . Scottish writer Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) spent the last thirty years of his life in Crowborough . In 1897 Henry James (1843-1916) leased Lamb House in Rye
Rye
, and purchasing it two years later, spent most of his last 18 years there, where he wrote several major works. Lamb House was subsequently home to both E.F. Benson and Rumer Godden
Rumer Godden
.

AA Milne lived in Ashdown Forest for much of his life and set his Winnie-the-Pooh stories in the forest.

MUSIC

See also: Music of Sussex
Music of Sussex

Sussex's rich musical heritage encompasses folk, classical and popular genres amongst others. Composed by William Ward-Higgs, Sussex by the Sea is the county's unofficial anthem . Passed on through oral tradition , many of Sussex's traditional songs may not have changed significantly for centuries, with their origins perhaps dating as far back as the time of the South Saxons . William Henry Hudson compared the singing of the Sussexians with that of the Basques
Basques
and the Tehuelche people of Patagonia
Patagonia
, both peoples with ancient cultures. The songs sung by the Copper Family , Henry Burstow , Samuel Willett, Peter and Harriett Verrall, David Penfold and others were collected by John Broadwood and his niece Lucy Broadwood , Kate Lee and composers Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams
and George Butterworth . Sussex
Sussex
also played a major part in the folk music revival of the 1960s and 1970s with various singers including George 'Pop' Maynard, Scan Tester , Tony Wales and the sisters Dolly and Shirley Collins . The Cure performing live in Singapore

Sussex
Sussex
has also been home to many composers of classical music including Thomas Weelkes , John Ireland , Edward Elgar
Edward Elgar
, Frank Bridge , Sir Hubert Parry
Sir Hubert Parry
and Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams
, who played a major part in recording Sussex's traditional music. While Glyndebourne is one of the world's best known opera houses, the county is home to professional orchestras the Brighton Philharmonic Orchestra and the Worthing Symphony Orchestra .

In popular music , Sussex
Sussex
has produced artists including Leo Sayer
Leo Sayer
, The Cure , The Levellers , Brett Anderson , Keane , The Kooks , The Feeling , Rizzle Kicks , Conor Maynard , Tom Odell , Royal Blood and Rag\'n\'Bone Man . In the 1970s, Sussex
Sussex
was home to Phun City , the UK's first large-scale free music festival and hosted the 1974 Eurovision Song Contest which propelled ABBA
ABBA
to worldwide fame. Major festivals include The Great Escape Festival and Glyndebourne Festival Opera .

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Sussex
Religion in Sussex
See also: History of Christianity in Sussex
Sussex

Sussex
Sussex
is connected with several saints, including St Lewina ; St Wilfrid , sometimes known as the 'Apostle of Sussex'; St Cuthman of Steyning ; St Richard of Chichester
Chichester
, Sussex's patron saint; St Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel ; and James Hannington . In folklore, Mayfield and Devil\'s Dyke are linked with St Dunstan
St Dunstan
while West Tarring has links with St Thomas a Becket . The historic county has been a single diocese after St Wilfrid converted the kingdom of Sussex
Sussex
in the seventh century. The seat of the Sussex
Sussex
bishopric was originally located at Selsey
Selsey
Abbey before the Normans moved it to Chichester Cathedral in 1075. Since 1965 Arundel Cathedral
Arundel Cathedral
has been the seat of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Bishops of Arundel and Brighton , which covers Sussex
Sussex
and Surrey. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
cathedral at Arundel . Arundel has been a stronghold of the Catholic faith since the Reformation

.

Historically, the west of the county has had a tendency towards Catholicism while the east of the county has had a tendency towards non-conformism. The county has been home to several pilgrimage sites, including the shrine (at Chichester
Chichester
Cathedral) to St Richard of Chichester
Chichester
which was destroyed during the Reformation, and the more recent Catholic shrine at West Grinstead . During the Marian persecutions , several Sussex
Sussex
men were martyred for their Protestant faith, including 17 men at Lewes. The Society of Dependents (nicknamed the Cokelers) were a non-conformist sect formed in Loxwood. The Quaker and founding father of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, William Penn
William Penn
worshipped near Thakeham ; his UK home from 1677 to 1702 was at nearby Warminghurst. The UK's only Carthusian
Carthusian
monastery is situated at St. Hugh\'s Charterhouse, Parkminster near Cowfold. The UK headquarters of the Church of Scientology
Church of Scientology
is situated at Saint Hill Manor , near East Grinstead.

SCIENCE

Pell\'s equation and the Pell number are both named after 17th century mathematician John Pell . Pell is sometimes credited with inventing the division sign, which has also been attributed to Swiss mathematician Johann Heinrich Rahn , one of his students. In the 19th century, geologist and palaeontologist Gideon Mantell began the scientific study of dinosaurs. In 1822 he was responsible for the discovery and eventual identification of the first fossil teeth, and later much of the skeleton of Iguanodon . Braxton Hicks contractions are named after John Braxton Hicks , the Sussex
Sussex
doctor who in 1872 first described the uterine contractions not resulting in childbirth. JM Keynes lived at Tilton near Firle from 1925 to 1946

In the 20th century, Frederick Soddy won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes . Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1929 with Christiaan Eijkman , for discovering the growth-stimulating vitamins . Martin Ryle shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974 with Cornishman Antony Hewish , the first Nobel prize awarded in recognition of astronomical research. While working at the University of Sussex, Harold Kroto won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Richard Smalley and Robert Curl from Rice University
Rice University
in the USA for the discovery of fullerenes . David Mumford
David Mumford
is a mathematician known for distinguished work in algebraic geometry and then for research into vision and pattern theory. He won the International Mathematical Union 's Fields Medal in 1974 and in 2010 was awarded the United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
.

In the social sciences , Sussex
Sussex
was home to economist John Maynard Keynes from 1925 to 1946. The founding father of Keynesian economics , he is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern macroeconomics and the most influential economist of the 20th century. David Pilbeam won the 1986 International Prize from the Fyssen Foundation .

In the early 20th century, Sussex
Sussex
was at the centre of one of what has been described as 'British archaeology's greatest hoax'. Bone fragments said to have been collected in 1912 were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human, referred to as Piltdown Man . In 1953 the bone fragments were exposed as a forgery, consisting of the lower jawbone of an orangutan deliberately combined with the skull of a fully developed modern human. From 1967 to 1979, Sussex
Sussex
was home to the Isaac Newton Telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Herstmonceux Castle
Herstmonceux Castle
.

SPORT

Main article: Sport in Sussex
Sport in Sussex

Sussex
Sussex
has a centuries-long tradition of sport. Sussex
Sussex
has played a key role in the early development of both cricket and stoolball . Cricket
Cricket
is recognised as having been formed in the Weald and Sussex CCC is England's oldest county cricket club. Slindon Cricket
Cricket
Club dominated the sport for a while in the 18th century. The cricket ground at Arundel Castle traditionally plays host to a Duchess of Norfolk
Norfolk
's XI which plays the national test sides touring England. The sport of stoolball is also associated with Sussex, which has a claim to be where the sport originated and certainly where its revival took place in the early 20th century. Sussex
Sussex
is represented in the Football League by Brighton "> Sliced Sussex Pond Pudding

The historic county is known for its "seven good things of Sussex". These seven things are Pulborough eel, Selsey
Selsey
cockle, Chichester lobster, Rye
Rye
herring, Arundel mullet, Amberley trout and Bourne wheatear . Sussex
Sussex
is also known for Ashdown Partridge Pudding, Chiddingly Hot pot , Sussex
Sussex
Bacon Pudding, Sussex
Sussex
Hogs' Pudding, Huffed Chicken, Sussex
Sussex
Churdles, Sussex
Sussex
Shepherds Pie, Sussex
Sussex
Pond Pudding , Sussex
Sussex
Blanket Pudding, Sussex
Sussex
Well Pudding, and Chichester Pudding. Sussex
Sussex
is also known for its cakes and biscuits known as Sussex
Sussex
Plum Heavies and Sussex
Sussex
Lardy Johns, while banoffee pie was first created in 1972 in Jevington
Jevington
.

The county has vineyards and a long history of brewing of beer . It is home to the 18th century beer brewers, Harveys of Lewes
Lewes
as well as many more recently established breweries. In recent decades Sussex wines have gained international acclaim winning awards including the 2006 Best Sparkling Wine in the World at the Decanter World Wine Awards . Many vineyards make wines using traditional Champagne varieties and methods, and there are similarities between the topography and chalk and clay soils of Sussex
Sussex
downland and that of the Champagne
Champagne
region which lies on a latitude 100 miles (161 km) to the south.

VISUAL ARTS

The Long Man of Wilmington
Long Man of Wilmington
is Europe's largest representation of the human form

Some of the earliest known art in Sussex
Sussex
is the carvings in the galleries of the Neolithic
Neolithic
flint mines at Cissbury on the South Downs near Worthing. From the Roman period, the palace at Fishbourne has the largest in situ collection of mosaics in the UK, while the villa at Bignor
Bignor
contains some of the best preserved Roman mosaics in England.

Dating from around the 12th century, the ' Lewes
Lewes
Group' of wall paintings can be found in several churches across the centre of Sussex, some of which are celebrated for their age, extent and quality. Of uncertain origin, the Long Man of Wilmington
Long Man of Wilmington
is Europe’s largest representation of the human form.

In the late 18th century three men commissioned important works of the county which ensured that its landscapes and daily life were captured onto canvas. William Burrell of Knepp Castle
Knepp Castle
commissioned Swiss-born watercolourist Samuel Hieronymus Grimm to tour Sussex, producing 900 watercolours of the county's buildings. George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont of Petworth House
Petworth House
was a patron of painters such as JMW Turner
JMW Turner
and John Constable
John Constable
. John \'Mad Jack\' Fuller also commissioned Turner to make a series of paintings which resulted in thirteen finished watercolours of Fuller's house at Brightling and the area around it. Chichester
Chichester
Canal by JMW Turner
JMW Turner

In the 19th century landscape watercolourist Copley Fielding lived in Sussex
Sussex
and illustrator Aubrey Beardsley
Aubrey Beardsley
and painter and sculptor Eric Gill were born in Brighton. Gill went on to found an art colony in Ditchling known as The Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic , which survived until 1989. The 1920s and 1930s saw the creation of some of the best-known works by Edward Burra who was known for his work of Sussex, Paris and Harlem and Eric Ravilious who is known for his paintings of the South Downs.

In the early 20th century Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant , both members of the Bloomsbury Group , lived and worked at Charleston Farmhouse near Firle . Sussex
Sussex
also became a major centre for surrealism in the early 20th century. At West Dean , Edward James was patron to artists including Salvador Dalí and René Magritte while at Farley Farm House near Chiddingly the home of Roland Penrose and Lee Miller was frequented by artists such as Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
, Man Ray , Henry Moore
Henry Moore
, Eileen Agar , Jean Dubuffet , Dorothea Tanning and Max Ernst . Both collections form one of the most important bodies of Surrealist art in Europe.

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Europe portal * European Union portal * Commonwealth realms portal * United Kingdom portal * England portal * Sussex
Sussex
portal * East Sussex
East Sussex
portal * West Sussex portal * Brighton portal

* Flag of Sussex
Flag of Sussex
* Coat of arms of Sussex * List of Lord
Lord
Lieutenants of Sussex
Sussex
* List of High Sheriffs of Sussex
Sussex
* Custos Rotulorum of Sussex - Keepers of the Rolls * Sussex (UK Parliament constituency) - Historical list of MPs for Sussex
Sussex
constituency * East Sussex
East Sussex
* Geology of East Sussex
East Sussex
* West Sussex * Kingdom of Sussex * Sussex by the Sea * Recreational walks in East Sussex
East Sussex
* Sussex County Cricket Club
Sussex County Cricket Club
* Twitten
Twitten
* Bluebell Railway (Steam Heritage railway
Heritage railway
) * Royal Sussex Regiment * Sussex Police
Sussex Police
* Sussex Police
Sussex Police
and Crime Commissioner * Stoolball

FOOTNOTES

Find more aboutSUSSEXat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Wikimedia Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Notes

* ^ Combined population of local authority areas of Brighton and Hove (273,400), East Sussex, (527,200) and West Sussex (808,900) * ^ Combined GVA of local authority areas of Brighton and Hove (£5,283m), East Sussex, (£6,924m) and West Sussex (£15,257m) * ^ GVA per head for Sussex
Sussex
based on combined GVA of local authority areas of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
(£5,283m), East Sussex, (£6,924m) and West Sussex (£15,257m) and the estimated population in 2009 of the local authority areas of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
(256,319), East Sussex
Sussex
(512,092) and West Sussex (792,942)

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This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sussex". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

* v * t * e

Sussex
Sussex

Portal: Sussex
Sussex

CEREMONIAL COUNTIES

* East Sussex
East Sussex
* West Sussex

HISTORIC DIVISIONS

* Rape of Arundel * Rape of Bramber
Rape of Bramber
* Rape of Chichester
Chichester
* Rape of Hastings
Hastings
* Rape of Lewes
Lewes
* Rape of Pevensey

GEOGRAPHY

* South Coast Plain * South Downs
South Downs
* The Weald

HISTORY

* Timeline * Regnenses * Britannia * Kingdom of Sussex * Haestingas
Haestingas

* Local government

CULTURE AND HERITAGE

* Beer * Dialect * Flag * Music * St Richard of Chichester
Chichester
* " Sussex by the Sea " * Sussex Day * Sussex trug
Sussex trug
* Sussex wine
Sussex wine
* Symbols * We wunt be druv

RELIGION

* Diocese of Chichester
Chichester
* Diocese of Arundel and Brighton * History of Christianity
Christianity
in Sussex
Sussex

SPORT

* Stoolball * Sussex CCC * Sussex FA * Sussex County League * Sussex
Sussex
RFU

OTHER

* Sussex Police
Sussex Police
* Sussex Police
Sussex Police
and Crime Commissioner

* v * t * e

before 1889 ← Counties of England
Counties of England
(1889–1974) → 1974–1996

* Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
* Berkshire
Berkshire
* Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
* Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(including Isle of Ely
Isle of Ely
) * Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Isle of Ely
Isle of Ely
* Cheshire
Cheshire
* Cornwall
Cornwall
* Cumberland
Cumberland
* Derbyshire
Derbyshire
* Devon
Devon
* Dorset
Dorset
* Durham * Essex
Essex
* Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
* Hampshire * Herefordshire
Herefordshire
* Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
* Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire
* Huntingdon and Peterborough * Kent
Kent
* Lancashire
Lancashire
* Leicestershire * Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
(including Parts of Holland , Parts of Kesteven and Parts of Lindsey ) * London
London
(including City of London
London
) * Middlesex
Middlesex
* Norfolk
Norfolk
* Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
(including Soke of Peterborough
Soke of Peterborough
) * Northumberland
Northumberland
* Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
* Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
* Rutland
Rutland
* Shropshire
Shropshire
* Somerset
Somerset
* Staffordshire
Staffordshire
* Suffolk
Suffolk
(including East Suffolk
Suffolk
and West Suffolk
Suffolk
) * Surrey
Surrey
* Sussex
Sussex
(including East Sussex
East Sussex
and West Sussex ) * Warwickshire * Westmorland * Wiltshire
Wiltshire
* Worcestershire
Worcestershire
* Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(including East Riding , North Riding and Wes

.