Sussex (/ˈsʌsɪks/), from the
Old English Sūþsēaxe (South
Saxons), is a historic county in
South East England
South East England corresponding
roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded to the
west by Hampshire, north by Surrey, northeast by Kent, south by the
English Channel, and divided for many purposes into the ceremonial
West Sussex and East Sussex. Brighton and Hove, though
part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, and as
such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex.
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove was granted City status in 2000. Until then,
Chichester was Sussex's only city.
Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented
approximately east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and
densely populated coastal plain. North of this are the rolling chalk
hills of the South Downs, beyond which is the well-wooded Sussex
The name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, which was founded,
according to legend, by
Ælle of Sussex in AD 477. Around 827, it was
absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex and subsequently into the
kingdom of England. It was the home of some of Europe's earliest
hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove, and was invaded
by the Romans and is the site of the Battle of Hastings.
In 1974, the
Sussex was replaced with one each for
East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties.
Sussex continues to be recognised as a geographical territory and
cultural region. It has had a single police force since 1968 and its
name is in common use in the media. In 2007,
Sussex Day was created
to celebrate the county's rich culture and history. Based on the
traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets,
the flag of
Sussex was recognised by the
Flag Institute in 2011. In
Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government
Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric
Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence
of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex.
5.2 Roman Canton
5.3 Saxon Kingdom
5.4 Norman Sussex
Sussex under the Plantagenets
5.6 Early modern Sussex
5.7 Late modern and contemporary Sussex
6.3 Administrative divisions
6.3.1 Historic sub-divisions
6.3.2 Modern local authority areas
6.4 Monarchy and peerage
10.9 Visual arts
11 See also
The name "Sussex" is derived from the
Middle English Suth-sæxe, which
is in turn derived from the
Old English Suth-Seaxe which means (land
or people) of the South Saxons (cf. Essex,
Middlesex and Wessex).
South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from
North German Plain
North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries.
The earliest known usage of the term
South Saxons (Latin: Australes
Saxones) is in a royal charter of 689 which names them and their king,
Noðhelm, although the term may well have been in use for some time
before that. The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry
classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong; recent
scholars have suggested he might have been a quarter of a century too
New Latin word Suthsexia was used for
Sussex by Dutch cartographer
Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map.
United States counties (in Delaware, New Jersey, and Virginia),
and a former county/land division of Western Australia, are named
Main article: Symbols of Sussex
Sussex emblem first known recording in 1611 by John
Speed: Azure, six martlets or
The flag of
Sussex consists of six gold martlets, or heraldic
swallows, on a blue background, blazoned as Azure, six martlets or.
Officially recognised by the
Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design
is based on the heraldic shield of Sussex. The first known recording
of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when
John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the
South Saxons. However it seems that Speed was repeating an earlier
association between the emblem and the county, rather than being the
inventor of the association. It is now firmly regarded that the county
emblem originated and derived from the coat of arms of the 14th
century Knight of the Shire, Sir John de Radynden. Sussex’s six
martlets are today held to symbolise the traditional six sub-divisions
of the county known as rapes.
The round-headed rampion, or Pride of Sussex, is Sussex's county
Sussex by the Sea is regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex; it
was composed by
William Ward-Higgs in 1907, perhaps originally from
the lyrics of Rudyard Kipling's poem entitled Sussex. Adopted by the
Royal Sussex Regiment
Royal Sussex Regiment and popularised in World War I, it is sung at
celebrations across the county, including those at
Lewes Bonfire, and
at sports matches, including those of
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove Albion
Football Club and
The county day, called
Sussex Day, is celebrated on 16 June, the same
day as the feast day of St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron
saint, whose shrine at
Chichester Cathedral was an important place of
pilgrimage in the Middle Ages.
Sussex's motto, We wunt be druv, is a
Sussex dialect expression
meaning "we will not be pushed around" and reflects the traditionally
independent nature of
Sussex men and women. The round-headed rampion,
also known as the "Pride of Sussex", was adopted as Sussex's county
flower in 2002.
Main article: Geography of Sussex
See also: Geology of East Sussex
South Downs meets the sea at the Seven Sisters
The physical geography of
Sussex relies heavily on its lying on the
southern part of the
Wealden anticline, the major features of which
are the high lands that cross the county in a west to east direction:
Weald itself and the South Downs.
Natural England has identified
the following seven national character areas in Sussex:
South Coast Plain
At 280m, Blackdown is the highest point in Sussex, or county top.
Ditchling Beacon (248m) is the highest point in East Sussex. At 113
kilometres (70 miles) long, the River Medway is the longest river
flowing through Sussex. The longest river entirely in
Sussex is the
River Arun, which is 60 kilometres (37 miles) long. Sussex's largest
lakes are man-made reservoirs. The largest is Bewl Water on the Kent
border, while the largest wholly within
Sussex is Ardingly Reservoir.
The coastal resorts of
Sussex and neighbouring
Hampshire are the
sunniest places in the United Kingdom. The coast has consistently
more sunshine than the inland areas: sea breezes, blowing off the sea,
tend to clear any cloud from the coast. Most of
Sussex lies in
Hardiness zone 8; the exception is the coastal plain west of Brighton,
which lies in the milder zone 9.
Rainfall is below average with the heaviest precipitation on the South
Downs with 950 mm (37 in) of rainfall per year. The
close proximity of
Sussex to the Continent of Europe, results in cold
spells in winter and hot, humid weather in summer.
The climate of the coastal districts is strongly influenced by the
sea, which, because of its tendency to warm up slower than land, can
result in cooler temperatures than inland in the summer. In the autumn
months, the coast sometimes has higher temperatures. Rainfall
during the summer months is mainly from thunderstorms and thundery
showers; from January to March the heavier rainfall is due to
prevailing south-westerly frontal systems.
In winter, the east winds can be as cold as further inland. Selsey
is known as a tornado hotspot, with small tornadoes hitting the town
in 1986, 1998 and 2000, with the 1998 tornado causing an estimated
£10 million of damage to 1,000 buildings.
The sunshine average is approximately 1900 hours a year, this is much
higher than the UK average of 1340 hours a year.
Most of Sussex's population is distributed in an east-west line along
English Channel coast or on the east-west line of the A272. The
exception to this pattern is the 20th century north-south development
on the A23-Brighton line corridor, Sussex's main link to London.
Sussex's population is dominated by the
Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation that, with a population of
over 470,000, is home to almost 1 in 3 of Sussex's population.
According to the ONS urban area populations for continuous built-up
areas, these are the 5 largest conurbations (population figures from
the 2001 census):
Population (2011 Census)
Sometimes referred to as two Primary Urban Areas - Brighton Urban Area
Worthing Urban Area
Includes approx. 30,000 people living in Surrey
In the 2001 census this urban area included
Reigate and Redhill in
Surrey but in the 2011 census it did not.
East Grinstead was part of
this urban area for the 2011 census but it was not for previous
The combined population of
Sussex is about 1.6 million.[nb 1] In
Sussex had a population density of 425 per km2, higher than the
average for England of 407 per km2.
The earliest statement as to the population of
Sussex is made by Bede,
who describes the county as containing in 681 land of 7,000 families;
allowing ten to a family (a reasonable estimate at that date), the
total population would be 70,000.
In 1693 the county is stated to have contained 21,537 houses. The 1801
census found that the population was 159,311. The decline of the
Sussex ironworks probably accounts for the small increase of
population during several centuries, although after the massacre of St
Bartholomew upwards of 1,500
Huguenots landed at Rye, and in 1685,
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, many more refugees were
added to the county.
The area of the ancient county is 933,887 acres (377,931 ha) with
a population in 1891 of 550,446 and in 1901 of 605,202.
History of Sussex
History of Sussex and Timeline of
Reconstruction of Homo heidelbergensis
Finds at Eartham Pit in
Boxgrove show that the area has some of the
earliest hominid remains in Europe, dating back some 500,000 years and
Boxgrove Man or Homo heidelbergensis. At a site near
Pulborough called The Beedings, tools have been found that date from
around 35,000 years ago and that are thought to be from either the
Neanderthals in northern Europe or pioneer populations of modern
humans. The thriving population lived by hunting game such as
horses, bison, mammoth and woolly rhinos. Around 6000BC the ice
sheet over the North Sea melted, sea levels rose and the meltwaters
burst south and westwards, creating the
English Channel and cutting
the people of
Sussex off from their
Mesolithic kinsmen to the south.
Later in the
Neolithic period, the area of the
South Downs above
Worthing was one of Britain's largest and most important flint-mining
centres. The flints were used to help fell trees for agriculture.
The oldest of these mines, at Church Hill in Findon, has been
carbon-dated to 4500BC to 3750BC, making it one of the earliest known
mines in Britain.
Flint tools from
Cissbury have been found as far
away as the eastern Mediterranean.
Sussex is rich in remains from the Bronze and Iron Ages, in particular
Bronze Age barrows known as the Devil's Jumps and
one of Britain's largest hillforts. Towards the end of the
Iron Age in
75BC people from the Atrebates, one of the tribes of the Belgae, a mix
of Celtic and German stock, started invading and occupying southern
Britain. This was followed by an invasion by the Roman army under
Julius Caesar that temporarily occupied the south-east in 55BC.
Soon after the first Roman invasion had ended, the Celtic Regnenses
tribe under their leader
Commius occupied the Manhood Peninsula.
Tincomarus and then
Commius as rulers of the
Museum model of how
Fishbourne Roman Palace
Fishbourne Roman Palace may have appeared
At the time of the Roman conquest in AD43, there was an oppidum in the
southern part of their territory, probably in the
Selsey region. A
number of archaeologists now think there is a strong possibility that
Roman invasion of Britain
Roman invasion of Britain in AD43 started around Fishbourne and
Chichester Harbour rather than the traditional landing place of
Richborough in Kent. According to this theory, the Romans were called
to restore the refugee Verica, king of the Atrebates, who had been
driven out by the Catuvellauni, a tribe based around modern
Sussex was home to the magnificent Roman Palace at Fishbourne, by far
the largest Roman residence known north of the Alps. Much of Sussex
was a Roman canton of the
Regnenses or Regni, with its capital at
Noviomagus Reginorum, modern-day Chichester. The Romans built villas,
especially on the coastal plain and around Chichester, one of the best
preserved being that at Bignor.
Christianity first came to
this time, but faded away when the Romans left in the 5th century. The
nationally important Patching hoard of Roman coins that was found in
1997 is the latest find of Roman coins found in Britain, probably
deposited after 475 AD, well after the Roman departure from Britain
around 410 AD.
Main article: Kingdom of Sussex
The foundation legend of
Sussex is provided by the Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle, which states that in the year AD 477 Ælle landed with his
three sons. Having fought on the banks of the
Mearcredesburna, it seems Aelle secured the area between the Ouse
and Cuckmere in a treaty. After Aelle’s forces seized the Saxon
Shore fort of Anderida, the
South Saxons were able to gradually
colonise free of Romano-British control and extend their territory
westwards to link with the Saxon settlement at Highdown Hill.
Aelle was recognised as the first 'Bretwalda' or overlord of southern
Britain. He was probably the most senior of the
Anglo-Saxon kings and
led the ill-fated campaign against
King Arthur at Mount Badon.
Cædwalla confirming the granting of land to Wilfrid
to build his monastery in Selsey.
By the end of the 7th century, the region around
Selsey and Chichester
had become the political centre of the kingdom. In the 660s-670s, King
Sussex formed an alliance with the Mercian king
Wulfhere and together they took the Isle of Wight from the West
Saxons, probably at the battle of Biedanheafele. As Mercia's first
Wulfhere insisted that Æthelwealh also convert to
Christianity. Æthelwealh was baptised in Mercia, with
Wulfhere as his
Wulfhere gave the Isle of Wight and Meon Valley to
Wulfhere acting as overlord. The alliance with
Mercia was sealed with Æthelwealh taking the hand of Eabe, a Mercian
princess in marriage.
Wilfrid, the exiled bishop of York, came to
Sussex in 681 and with
King Æthelwealh's approval set up a mission to convert the people of
Sussex to Christianity. Æthelwealh gave
Wilfrid land on the Manhood
peninsula, close to his own royal estate and
Wilfrid founded Selsey
Abbey. The mission was jeopardised when King Æthelwealh was killed by
Cædwalla, a prince of Wessex.
Cædwalla confirmed Æthelwealh's grant
of land and
Wilfrid built his
Cædwalla was driven out
by the South Saxon nobles
Berthun and Andhun.
South Saxons fought off the West Saxons in 722 and again in 725.
At the end of the 8th century, Ealdwulf was perhaps the last
independent king of Sussex, after which
Sussex and other southern
kingdoms came increasingly under Mercian rule. Mercia's grip was
shattered in 825 at the battle of Ellendun, after which
Sussex and the
other southern kingdoms came under the control of Wessex, which later
grew into the kingdom of England.
Sussex in the High Middle Ages
Battle Abbey was founded to commemorate William's victory in the
Battle of Hastings. The high altar was placed to mark the spot where
King Harold died.
Sussex was the venue for the momentous Battle of Hastings, the
decisive victory in the Norman conquest of England. In September 1066,
William of Normandy
William of Normandy landed with his forces at
Pevensey and erected a
wooden castle at Hastings, from which they raided the surrounding
area. The battle was fought between Duke William of Normandy
and the English king, Harold Godwinson, who had strong connections
Sussex and whose chief seat was probably in Bosham. After
having marched his exhausted army all the way from Yorkshire, Harold
fought the Normans at the Battle of Hastings, where England's army was
defeated and Harold was killed. It is likely that all the fighting men
Sussex were at the battle, as the county's thegns were decimated
and any that survived had their lands confiscated. William built
Battle Abbey at the site of the battle, with the exact spot where
Harold fell marked by the high altar.
Sussex experienced some of the greatest changes of any English county
under the Normans, for it was the heartland of King Harold and was
potentially vulnerable to further invasion. The county was of
great importance to the Normans;
Pevensey being on the
most direct route for Normandy. The county's existing
sub-divisions, known as rapes, were made into castleries and each
territory was given to one of William's most trusted barons. Castles
were built to defend the territories including at Arundel, Bramber,
Pevensey and Hastings. Sussex's bishop, Æthelric II, was
deposed and imprisoned and replaced with and William the Conqueror's
personal chaplain, Stigand. The Normans also built Chichester
Cathedral and moved the seat of Sussex's bishopric from
Chichester. The Normans also founded new towns in Sussex, including
New Shoreham (the centre of modern Shoreham-by-Sea), Battle, Arundel,
Uckfield and Winchelsea.
In 1264, the
Sussex Downs were the location of the Battle of Lewes, in
which Simon de Montfort and his fellow barons captured Prince Edward
(later Edward I), the son and heir of Henry III. The subsequent
treaty, known as the Mise of Lewes, led to Montfort summoning the
first parliament in English history without any prior royal
authorisation. A provisional administration was set up, consisting of
Montfort, the Bishop of
Chichester and the Earl of Gloucester. These
three were to elect a council of nine, to govern until a permanent
settlement could be reached.
Sussex under the Plantagenets
During the Hundred Years' War,
Sussex found itself on the frontline,
convenient both for intended invasions and retaliatory expeditions by
licensed French pirates. Hastings,
Rye and Winchelsea were all
burnt during this period and all three towns became part of the
Cinque Ports, a loose federation for supplying ships for the country's
security. Also at this time, Amberley and Bodiam castles were built to
defend the upper reaches of navigable rivers.
Early modern Sussex
Like the rest of the country, the Church of England's split with Rome
during the reign of Henry VIII was felt in Sussex. In 1538 there
was a royal order for the demolition of the shrine of Saint Richard,
Chichester Cathedral, with Thomas Cromwell saying that there
was "a certain kind of idolatry about the shrine". In the reign of
Queen Mary, 41 people in
Sussex were burnt at the stake for their
Protestant beliefs. Elizabeth re-established the break with Rome
when she passed the 1559 Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity. Under
Elizabeth I, religious intolerance continued albeit on a lesser scale,
with several people being executed for their Catholic beliefs.
Sussex escaped the worst ravages of the English Civil War, although in
1642 there were sieges at Arundel and Chichester, and a skirmish at
Haywards Heath when
Royalists marching towards
Lewes were intercepted
by local Parliamentarians. The
Royalists were routed with around 200
killed or taken prisoner. Despite its being under Parliamentarian
control, Charles II was able to journey through the county after the
Battle of Worcester
Battle of Worcester in 1651 to make his escape to France from the port
Late modern and contemporary Sussex
Sussex coast was greatly modified by the social movement of sea
bathing for health which became fashionable among the wealthy in the
second half of the 18th century. Resorts developed all along the
coast, including at Brighton, Hastings, Worthing, and Bognor. At
the beginning of the 19th century agricultural labourers' conditions
took a turn for the worse with an increasing amount of them becoming
unemployed, those in work faced their wages being forced down.
Conditions became so bad that it was even reported to the House of
Lords in 1830 that four harvest labourers (seasonal workers) had been
found dead of starvation. The deteriorating conditions of work for
the agricultural labourer eventually triggered riots, first in
neighbouring Kent, and then in Sussex, where they lasted for several
weeks, although the unrest continued until 1832 and became known as
the Swing Riots.
Railways spread across
Sussex in the 19th century and county councils
were created for Sussex's eastern and western divisions in 1889.
During World War I, on the eve of the
Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme on 30 June
Royal Sussex Regiment
Royal Sussex Regiment took part in the Battle of the Boar's
Head at Richebourg-l'Avoué. The day subsequently became known as
Sussex Died. Over a period of less than five hours the 17
officers and 349 men were killed, including 12 sets of brothers,
including three from one family. A further 1,000 men were wounded
or taken prisoner.
With the declaration of the World War II,
Sussex found itself part of
the country's frontline with its airfields playing a key role in the
Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain and with its towns being some of the most frequently
bombed. As the
Sussex regiments served overseas, the defence of
the county was undertaken by units of the Home Guard with help from
the First Canadian Army. During the lead up to the D-Day
landings, the people of
Sussex were witness to the buildup of military
personnel and materials, including the assembly of landing crafts and
construction of Mulberry harbours off the county's coast.
In the post-war era, the
New Towns Act 1946 designated
Crawley as the
site of a new town. As part of the Local Government Act 1972, the
eastern and western divisions of
Sussex were made into the ceremonial
counties of East and
West Sussex in 1974. Boundaries were changed and
a large part of the rape of
Lewes was transferred from the eastern
division into West Sussex, along with Gatwick Airport, which was
historically part of the county of Surrey.
See also: History of local government in Sussex
Sussex (UK Parliament constituency), High Sheriff of
Lord Lieutenant of Sussex, and Custos Rotulorum of Sussex
Sussex returned two
Members of Parliament to the House of
Commons of the Parliament of England. Each county returned two MPs and
each borough designated by Royal charter also returned two MPs. After
the union with Scotland two members represented the county in the
House of Commons of
Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the House
of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. After the Reform
Act 1832 some of the larger industrial towns of northern England were
enfranchised for the first time and smaller English boroughs (known as
Rotten Boroughs) were disenfranchised, including Bramber, East
Grinstead, Seaford, Steyning and Winchelsea in Sussex. The Reform
Act of 1832 divided what had been a single county constituency into
eastern and western divisions, with two representatives elected for
each division. The reforms of the 19th century made the electoral
system more representative, but it was not until 1928 that there was
Headquartered in Lewes,
Home Office policing in
Sussex has been
Sussex Police since 1968.
Crown Court is the first-tier
Crown Court for Sussex
Crown Court for all of
Lewes Crown Court,
which has courts in Lewes, Brighton and Hove. Like other first-tier
Crown Courts it has its own resident High Court Judge. There is also a
Crown Court at Chichester. The local prison in
Lewes Prison and there is also a
Category D prison at Ford.
Main article: Rape (county subdivision)
Sussex in 1851 showing the six Rapes
A rape was a traditional sub-division of the county of Sussex. Their
origin is unknown, but they appear to predate the Norman Conquest.
Each rape was split into several hundreds.
At the time of the Norman Conquest, there were four rapes: Arundel,
Pevensey and Hastings. The rape of Bramber was created later in
the 11th century and the rape of
Chichester was created in the 13th
Modern local authority areas
Sussex is divided into two administrative counties and one unitary
authority, Brighton and Hove. The divisions of east
Sussex and west
Sussex have their roots in the church's division of the county at the
river Adur into east and west parts (divided from at least the 11th
century into the archdeaconry of
Chichester and the archdeaconry of
Lewes). With Sussex's cathedral located at
Chichester in the far west
of the county, 9 miles from the western boundary and 90 miles from the
eastern boundary, it became practical to divide the county into two
sections. The three eastern rapes of
Sussex became east
Sussex and the
three western rapes became west Sussex.
An act of Henry VII dating from 1504 directed that, for convenience,
the two halves of the county should have separate administrations
(Quarter Sessions). This situation was recognised by the County of
Sussex Act 1865. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two
divisions became two administrative counties (along with three county
Hastings and, from 1911, Eastbourne).
Area (sq mi)
Eastbourne, Hastings, Lewes, Rother, Wealden
Adur, Arun, Chichester, Crawley, Horsham, Mid Sussex, Worthing
Brighton and Hove
Monarchy and peerage
Main articles: Kings of Sussex, Duke of Sussex, and Earl of Sussex
Created in the fifth century, the kingdom of
Sussex continued until
its absorption into the kingdom of
Wessex and later England in 825. In
charters, Sussex's monarchs were sometimes referred to as ealdormen,
or Dux in Latin, which is sometimes translated as 'duke'. The early
Earls of Arundel, up to 1243, were often also called Earls of Sussex.
In 1801 the title of
Duke of Sussex
Duke of Sussex was created and conferred on The
Prince Augustus Frederick, the sixth son of George III. Since he had
no legitimate issue, the title became extinct on his death in
1843. Although there was speculation that the dukedom would pass
Prince Andrew or Prince William the title is currently one of
six inactive British royal titles.
Much of the
Sussex Weald consists of wet sticky clays or drought-prone
acid sands and is often broken up into small irregular fields and
woods by the topography, making it unsuitable for intensive arable
farming. In these areas pastoral or mixed farming has always been the
pattern, with field boundaries often little changed since the medieval
Sussex cattle are the descendants of the draught oxen, which
continued to be used in the
Weald longer than in other parts of
England. The chalk downlands were traditionally grazed by large
numbers of small Southdown sheep, suited to the low fertility of the
pasture, until the coming of artificial fertiliser made cereal growing
worthwhile. There are still fishing fleets, notably at
Hastings, but the number of boats is much reduced. There are working
harbours at Rye, Hastings, Newhaven and Shoreham; whilst Pagham and
Chichester harbours cater for leisure craft, as does Brighton Marina.
Sussex had an iron working industry since the Roman period. The large
supply of wood in the county made it a favourable centre for the
industry, all smelting being done with charcoal till the middle of the
18th century. The glass making industry started on the
Surrey border in the early 13th century and flourished till the
17th century. The
Mid Sussex area had a thriving clay industry in
the first quarter of the 20th century.
Sussex has considerable variation in wealth and deprivation. Gross
Value Added, a measure of output, was £27,464 million for
2009.[nb 2] GVA per head in 2009 for
Sussex was £17,590, higher
Kent but around 86 per cent of the UK average of
£20,341.[nb 3] GVA per capita varies significantly between
Sussex's three upper tier local authority areas: in 2009 Brighton and
Hove had the highest GVA per head in
Sussex with an average of
£20,611 (101 per cent of the UK average). The local authority
East Sussex has the lowest with a GVA per head of £13,521, 66
per cent of the UK average. There is also serious deprivation in
Sussex comparable to the most deprived UK inner city areas. Some areas
Sussex are in the top 5 per cent most deprived in the UK and, in
some areas, two-thirds of children are living in poverty. In 2011,
two Local Enterprise Partnerships were formed to improve the economy
in Sussex. These were the Coast to Capital LEP, covering West Sussex,
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove and the
Lewes district in the west of East Sussex,
as well as parts of
Surrey and South London; and the South East LEP,
which covers the local authority area of East Sussex, as well as Kent
and Essex. In the most populous part of Sussex, around the Brighton
Hove Built-up area, the Greater Brighton City Deal was formed to
enable the area to fulfil its economic potential, into one of the
highest performing urban economies in the UK.
Sussex is well-established, and includes seaside resorts
South Downs National Park.
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove has a high
density of businesses involved in media, particularly digital or "new
media"; since the 1990s Brighton has been referred to as "Silicon
Beach". The Greater Brighton City Deal seeks to develop
Brighton’s creative-tech cluster under the name Tech City South.
University of Sussex
University of Sussex and the
University of Brighton
University of Brighton provide
employment for many more. A large part of the county, centred on
Gatwick Airport has been recognised as a key economic growth area for
South East England whilst reasonable rail connections allow many
people to work in London. Several large companies are based in Sussex
American Express (Brighton), The Body Shop
(Littlehampton), Bowers & Wilkins (Worthing),
Ricardo plc (Shoreham-by-Sea), Rolls-Royce Motor Cars
Thales UK (Crawley),
Alfa Laval (Eastbourne) and Virgin
Atlantic Airways (Crawley).
University of Sussex
University of Sussex Campus
The oldest university in
Sussex is the research intensive University
of Sussex, founded in 1961 at Falmer in Brighton, the first new
university in England since World War Two. The University consistently
ranks among the top 20 universities in the UK. It is home to the
Institute of Development Studies
Institute of Development Studies and the Science Policy
Research Unit, alongside over 40 other established research
In 1992 it was joined by the
University of Brighton
University of Brighton and in 2005 by the
University of Chichester.
Higher Education is also provided at
Hastings and Northbrook College, whose West
Durrington campus is referred to as University Centre Worthing.
The Prebendal School
The Prebendal School in
Chichester is the oldest known school in
Sussex and probably dates to when the Normans moved the Sussex
Chichester Cathedral in the 11th century.
Primary and secondary education in the state sector in
provided by its three local education authorities of East and West
Sussex County Councils and
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove City Council.
has some of the best-known independent schools in England including
Christ's Hospital School, Brighton College,
Lancing College and
The main building of the Royal
Sussex County Hospital
Sussex County Hospital (now the Royal
Sussex County Hospital) was
founded in 1828 at Brighton whilst the
Sussex County Mental Asylum
(later 'St. Francis Hospital' and now the Princess Royal Hospital) was
founded in 1859 in the centre of county at Haywards Heath.
Sussex's first medical school, the Brighton and
Sussex Medical School,
was set up in 2002. In 2011 the four
Sussex NHS primary care trusts
(PCTs) joined forces to become NHS Sussex. The Major Trauma Centre
Royal Sussex County Hospital
Royal Sussex County Hospital is the Major Trauma Centre for
Sussex with the Sussex's other hospitals acting as trauma units. It is
one of only five major trauma centres across the NHS's South of
England area. The hospital also houses the
Sussex Cancer Centre
which serves most of Sussex.
Main article: Culture of Sussex
Sussex has a centuries-old reputation for being separate and
culturally distinct from the rest of England. The people of Sussex
have a reputation for independence of thought  and have an
aversion to being pushed around, as expressed through the Sussex
motto, We wunt be druv.
Sussex is known for its strong tradition of
bonfire celebrations and its proud musical heritage. The county is
home to England's largest arts festival, the
Brighton Festival and
Brighton Pride, one of the UK's largest and oldest gay pride parades.
Chichester is home to the
Chichester Festival Theatre and Pallant
Sussex's building materials reflect its geology, being made of flint
on and near the
South Downs and sandstone in the Weald.
used across the county.
The Royal Pavilion, Brighton
Typically conservative and moderate, the architecture of Sussex
also has elaborate and eccentric buildings rarely matched elsewhere in
England including the Saxon Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin,
Sompting, Castle Goring, which has a front and rear of entirely
different styles and Brighton's
Indo-Saracenic Royal Pavilion.
Sussex has had its own dialect with regional differences
reflecting its cultural history. It has been divided into variants for
the three western rapes of West Sussex, the two eastern rapes of Lewes
Pevensey and an area approximate to the easternmost rape of
Sussex dialect is also notable in having an
unusually large number of words for mud, in a way similar to the
popular belief which exists that the Inuit have an unusually large
number of words for snow.
Writers born in
Sussex include the
Thomas May and
playwights Thomas Otway, and John Fletcher. One of the most prolific
playwrights of his day, Fletcher is thought to have collaborated with
Sussex poets include William Hayley, William
Collins, Percy Bysshe Shelley,
Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and
Richard Realf, while poet and writer
Hilaire Belloc spent most of his
life in Sussex.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley is one of Sussex's best-known poets
Sheila Kaye-Smith is known for her many novels in the British regional
literature genre, which are set in the borderlands of
Sussex and Kent.
Other writers from
Maureen Duffy and Hammond Innes.
In addition there are writers, who while they were not born in Sussex
had a strong connection. This includes
William Blake and Alfred
Sussex has been home to four winners of the Nobel Prize in
Rudyard Kipling spent much of his life in Sussex, living
in Rottingdean and later at Burwash. Irishman
W.B. Yeats spent
three winters living with American poet
Ezra Pound at Colemans Hatch
in the Ashdown Forest and towards the end of his life spent much
time at Steyning and Withyham;
John Galsworthy spent much of his
life in Bury in the
Sussex Downs; and
Harold Pinter lived in
Worthing in the 1960s.
H.G. Wells was brought up at Uppark, South Harting, near Petersfield,
where his mother was housekeeper. He also went to school and taught in
Midhurst. While the novelist
John Cowper Powys
John Cowper Powys is particularly
Dorset and Wales, he lived in
Sussex from the
mid-1890s until 1910. Another modernist
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)
and her husband Leonard, had a country retreat at
Monk's House in
Lewes from 1919. They received there many important
visitors connected to the Bloomsbury Group, including T. S. Eliot, E.
Roger Fry and Lytton Strachey. Scottish writer Arthur
Conan Doyle (1859-1930) spent the last thirty years of his life in
Crowborough. In 1897
Henry James (1843-1916) leased
Lamb House in Rye,
and purchasing it two years later, spent most of his last 18 years
there, where he wrote several major works.
Lamb House was subsequently
home to both E.F. Benson and Rumer Godden.
AA Milne lived in Ashdown Forest for much of his life and set his
Winnie-the-Pooh stories in the forest.
See also: Music of Sussex
Sussex's rich musical heritage encompasses folk, classical and popular
genres amongst others. Composed by William Ward-Higgs,
Sussex by the
Sea is the county's unofficial anthem. Passed on through oral
tradition, many of Sussex's traditional songs may not have changed
significantly for centuries, with their origins perhaps dating as far
back as the time of the South Saxons. William Henry Hudson
compared the singing of the Sussexians with that of the
Tehuelche people of Patagonia, both peoples with ancient
cultures. The songs sung by the Copper Family, Henry Burstow,
Samuel Willett, Peter and Harriett Verrall, David Penfold and others
were collected by John Broadwood and his niece Lucy Broadwood, Kate
Lee and composers
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams and George
Sussex also played a major part in the folk music
revival of the 1960s and 1970s with various singers including George
'Pop' Maynard, Scan Tester, Tony Wales and the sisters Dolly and
The Cure performing live in Singapore
Sussex has also been home to many composers of classical music
including Thomas Weelkes, John Ireland, Edward Elgar, Frank Bridge,
Sir Hubert Parry
Sir Hubert Parry and Ralph Vaughan Williams, who played a major part
in recording Sussex's traditional music. While
Glyndebourne is one
of the world's best known opera houses, the county is home to
professional orchestras the Brighton Philharmonic Orchestra and
Worthing Symphony Orchestra.
In popular music,
Sussex has produced artists including Leo Sayer, The
Cure, The Levellers, Brett Anderson, Keane, The Kooks, The Feeling,
Rizzle Kicks, Conor Maynard, Tom Odell, Royal Blood and Rag'n'Bone
Man. In the 1970s,
Sussex was home to Phun City, the UK's first
large-scale free music festival and hosted the 1974 Eurovision Song
Contest which propelled
ABBA to worldwide fame. Major festivals
include The Great Escape Festival and
Glyndebourne Festival Opera.
Main article: Religion in Sussex
See also: History of
Christianity in Sussex
Sussex is connected with several saints, including St Lewina; St
Wilfrid, sometimes known as the 'Apostle of Sussex'; St Cuthman of
Steyning; St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron saint; St Philip
Howard, Earl of Arundel; and James Hannington. In folklore, Mayfield
and Devil's Dyke are linked with
St Dunstan while
West Tarring has
links with St Thomas a Becket. The historic county has been a single
diocese after St
Wilfrid converted the kingdom of
Sussex in the
seventh century. The seat of the
Sussex bishopric was originally
Selsey Abbey before the Normans moved it to Chichester
Cathedral in 1075. Since 1965
Arundel Cathedral has been the seat of
Roman Catholic Bishops of Arundel and Brighton, which covers
Sussex and Surrey.
Roman Catholic cathedral at Arundel. Arundel has been a stronghold
of the Catholic faith since the Reformation
Historically, the west of the county has had a tendency towards
Catholicism while the east of the county has had a tendency towards
non-conformism. The county has been home to several pilgrimage
sites, including the shrine (at
Chichester Cathedral) to St Richard of
Chichester which was destroyed during the Reformation, and the more
recent Catholic shrine at West Grinstead. During the Marian
Sussex men were martyred for their Protestant
faith, including 17 men at Lewes. The
Society of Dependents
Society of Dependents (nicknamed
the Cokelers) were a non-conformist sect formed in Loxwood. The Quaker
and founding father of Pennsylvania,
William Penn worshipped near
Thakeham; his UK home from 1677 to 1702 was at nearby
Warminghurst. The UK's only
Carthusian monastery is situated at
St. Hugh's Charterhouse, Parkminster
St. Hugh's Charterhouse, Parkminster near Cowfold. The UK headquarters
Church of Scientology
Church of Scientology is situated at Saint Hill Manor, near
Pell's equation and the
Pell number are both named after 17th century
mathematician John Pell. Pell is sometimes credited with inventing the
division sign, which has also been attributed to Swiss mathematician
Johann Heinrich Rahn, one of his students. In the 19th century,
geologist and palaeontologist
Gideon Mantell began the scientific
study of dinosaurs. In 1822 he was responsible for the discovery and
eventual identification of the first fossil teeth, and later much of
the skeleton of Iguanodon.
Braxton Hicks contractions are named after
John Braxton Hicks, the
Sussex doctor who in 1872 first described the
uterine contractions not resulting in childbirth.
JM Keynes lived at Tilton near
Firle from 1925 to 1946
In the 20th century,
Frederick Soddy won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
for his work on radioactive substances, and his investigations into
the origin and nature of isotopes. Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 with
Christiaan Eijkman, for discovering the growth-stimulating
Martin Ryle shared the
Nobel Prize for Physics
Nobel Prize for Physics in
1974 with Cornishman Antony Hewish, the first Nobel prize awarded
in recognition of astronomical research. While working at the
University of Sussex,
Harold Kroto won the 1996 Nobel Prize in
Richard Smalley and
Robert Curl from
Rice University in
the USA for the discovery of fullerenes.
David Mumford is a
mathematician known for distinguished work in algebraic geometry and
then for research into vision and pattern theory. He won the
International Mathematical Union's
Fields Medal in 1974 and in 2010
was awarded the
United States National Medal of Science.
In the social sciences,
Sussex was home to economist John Maynard
Keynes from 1925 to 1946. The founding father of Keynesian economics,
he is widely considered to be one of the founders of modern
macroeconomics and the most influential economist of the 20th
David Pilbeam won the 1986 International
Prize from the Fyssen Foundation.
In the early 20th century,
Sussex was at the centre of one of what has
been described as 'British archaeology's greatest hoax'. Bone
fragments said to have been collected in 1912 were presented as the
fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human, referred to as
Piltdown Man. In 1953 the bone fragments were exposed as a forgery,
consisting of the lower jawbone of an orangutan deliberately combined
with the skull of a fully developed modern human. From 1967 to 1979,
Sussex was home to the
Isaac Newton Telescope
Isaac Newton Telescope at the Royal Greenwich
Observatory in Herstmonceux Castle.
Main article: Sport in Sussex
Sussex has a centuries-long tradition of sport.
Sussex has played a
key role in the early development of both cricket and stoolball.
Cricket is recognised as having been formed in the
Weald and Sussex
CCC is England's oldest county cricket club. Slindon
dominated the sport for a while in the 18th century. The cricket
ground at Arundel Castle traditionally plays host to a Duchess of
Norfolk's XI which plays the national test sides touring
England. The sport of stoolball is also associated with
Sussex, which has a claim to be where the sport originated and
certainly where its revival took place in the early 20th century.
Sussex is represented in the
Football League by Brighton & Hove
Crawley Town. Brighton has been a League member since 1920,
Crawley was promoted to the League in 2011.
Sussex has had its
own football association, since 1882 and its own football league,
which has since expanded into Surrey, since 1920. In horse
Sussex is home to Goodwood, Fontwell Park, Brighton and
Plumpton. The All England Jumping Course show jumping facility at
Hickstead is situated 8 miles (13 km) north of Brighton and Hove.
In Arlington, near Eastbourne, the local stadium is home to the
Eastbourne Eagles speedway team, who race in the UK's top flight of
speedway, the Elite League. Stock Car racing is also held at the same
Beer in Sussex
Beer in Sussex and
Sussex Pond Pudding
The historic county is known for its "seven good things of
Sussex". These seven things are Pulborough eel, Selsey
Rye herring, Arundel mullet, Amberley
trout and Bourne wheatear.
Sussex is also known for Ashdown Partridge
Chiddingly Hot pot,
Sussex Bacon Pudding,
Pudding, Huffed Chicken,
Sussex Shepherds Pie, Sussex
Sussex Blanket Pudding,
Sussex Well Pudding, and
Sussex is also known for its cakes and biscuits
Sussex Plum Heavies  and
Sussex Lardy Johns, while
banoffee pie was first created in 1972 in Jevington.
The county has vineyards and a long history of brewing of beer. It is
home to the 18th century beer brewers, Harveys of
Lewes as well as
many more recently established breweries. In recent decades
Sussex wines have gained international acclaim winning awards
including the 2006 Best Sparkling Wine in the World at the Decanter
World Wine Awards. Many vineyards make wines using traditional
Champagne varieties and methods, and there are similarities
between the topography and chalk and clay soils of Sussex
downland and that of the
Champagne region which lies on a latitude 100
miles (161 km) to the south.
Long Man of Wilmington
Long Man of Wilmington is Europe's largest representation of the
Some of the earliest known art in
Sussex is the carvings in the
galleries of the
Neolithic flint mines at
Cissbury on the South Downs
near Worthing. From the Roman period, the palace at Fishbourne
has the largest in situ collection of mosaics in the UK, while
the villa at
Bignor contains some of the best preserved Roman mosaics
Dating from around the 12th century, the '
Lewes Group' of wall
paintings can be found in several churches across the centre of
Sussex, some of which are celebrated for their age, extent and
quality. Of uncertain origin, the
Long Man of Wilmington
Long Man of Wilmington is Europe’s
largest representation of the human form.
In the late 18th century three men commissioned important works of the
county which ensured that its landscapes and daily life were captured
onto canvas. William Burrell of
Knepp Castle commissioned Swiss-born
Samuel Hieronymus Grimm
Samuel Hieronymus Grimm to tour Sussex, producing 900
watercolours of the county's buildings. George Wyndham, 3rd Earl
of Egremont of
Petworth House was a patron of painters such as JMW
Turner and John Constable.
John 'Mad Jack' Fuller
John 'Mad Jack' Fuller also
commissioned Turner to make a series of paintings which resulted in
thirteen finished watercolours of Fuller's house at
Brightling and the
area around it.
Chichester Canal by JMW Turner
In the 19th century landscape watercolourist
Copley Fielding lived in
Sussex and illustrator
Aubrey Beardsley and painter and sculptor Eric
Gill were born in Brighton. Gill went on to found an art colony in
Ditchling known as The Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic, which
survived until 1989. The 1920s and 1930s saw the creation of some of
the best-known works by
Edward Burra who was known for his work of
Sussex, Paris and Harlem and
Eric Ravilious who is known for his
paintings of the South Downs.
In the early 20th century
Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant, both members
of the Bloomsbury Group, lived and worked at
Charleston Farmhouse near
Sussex also became a major centre for surrealism in the
early 20th century. At West Dean,
Edward James was patron to
Salvador Dalí and René Magritte while at
Farley Farm House
Farley Farm House near
Chiddingly the home of
Roland Penrose and Lee
Miller was frequented by artists such as Pablo Picasso, Man Ray, Henry
Moore, Eileen Agar, Jean Dubuffet,
Dorothea Tanning and Max
Ernst. Both collections form one of the most important
bodies of Surrealist art in Europe.
European Union portal
Commonwealth realms portal
United Kingdom portal
East Sussex portal
West Sussex portal
Flag of Sussex
Coat of arms of Sussex
Lord Lieutenants of Sussex
List of High Sheriffs of Sussex
Custos Rotulorum of Sussex - Keepers of the Rolls
Sussex (UK Parliament constituency) - Historical list of MPs for
Geology of East Sussex
Kingdom of Sussex
Sussex by the Sea
Recreational walks in East Sussex
Bluebell Railway (Steam Heritage railway)
Sussex Police and Crime Commissioner
Find more aboutSussexat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
^ Combined population of local authority areas of Brighton and Hove
(273,400), East Sussex, (527,200) and
West Sussex (808,900)
^ Combined GVA of local authority areas of Brighton and Hove
(£5,283m), East Sussex, (£6,924m) and
West Sussex (£15,257m)
^ GVA per head for
Sussex based on combined GVA of local authority
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove (£5,283m), East Sussex, (£6,924m) and
West Sussex (£15,257m) and the estimated population in 2009 of the
local authority areas of
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove (256,319), East Sussex
West Sussex (792,942)
^ a b c National Statistics - 200 Years of the Census in Sussex
^ a b Office for National Statistics. "Census 2011 result shows
increase in population of the South East". Retrieved 4 December
^ a b "Eric Pickles: celebrate St George and England's traditional
counties". Department for Communities and Local Government. 23 April
2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ a b Kelner, Simon (23 April 2013). "Eric Pickles's championing of
traditional English counties is something we can all get behind". The
Independent. London. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ a b Garber, Michael (23 April 2013). "Government 'formally
acknowledges' the Historic Counties to Celebrate St George's Day".
Association of British Counties. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ Edwards, Heather (2004). "Ecgberht [Egbert] (d. 839), king of the
West Saxons in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". Oxford
University Press. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
^ "BBC News - Sussex". BBC. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
^ "Sussex, Definition of
Sussex from Webster's New World College
Dictionary". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Archived from the
original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
^ a b c d e Lowerson, John (1980). A Short History of Sussex.
Folkestone: Dawson Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7129-0948-8.
^ "1645, Latin, Map edition: Suthsexia; vernacule Sussex". National
Library of Australia. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
Sussex County Flag". The
Sussex County Flag. December 2016.
Retrieved 8 December 2016.
Sussex Martlets". The
Sussex County Flag. December 2016. Retrieved
8 December 2016.
^ "South East and
London National Character Area map". Natural
England. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
^ a b c "Southern England: climate". Met Office. Retrieved 14 April
^ a b c d e f "Weather and Climate in Sussex". Visit Sussex. Retrieved
14 April 2012.
^ a b "Census 2001: Key Statistics for urban areas in the South East"
(PDF). Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
^ "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
^ KS01 Usual resident population Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban
areas Office for National Statistics. Hectares converted into km2
^ "Primary Urban Areas and Travel to Work Area Indicators: Updating
the evidence base on cities". Department for Communities and Local
Government. 20 April 2010. Archived from the original on 18 August
2010. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
^ McGourty, Christine (23 June 2008). "'Neanderthal tools' found at
dig". BBC News.
^ Highfield, Roger (23 June 2008). "Neanderthal tools reveal advanced
technology". The Daily Telegraph. London.
^ Kerridge & Standing 2000, p. 10.
^ "Prehistory: The Downs Above Steyning". Steyning Museum. Retrieved 3
^ a b c d Armstrong. A History of Sussex. Ch. 3.
Iron Age communities in Britain. p. 169.
^ Osprey Publishing - Military History Books - The Roman Invasion of
Britain Archived 22 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
^ White, Sally; et al. (1999). "A Mid-Fifth Century Hoard of Roman and
Pseudo-Roman Material from Patching, West Sussex" (PDF). Society for
the Promotion of Roman Studies: 88–93. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
Anglo-Saxon England p.9
^ ASC Parker MS. 477AD.
^ ASC 485 Parker MS: This year Ælle fought with the Welsh nigh
^ a b Welch. Early
Anglo-Saxon Sussex; pp. 24-25
^ Bates William the Conqueror pp. 79–89
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 198–199; Orderic, vol. 2, pp.
^ "Victoria County History A History of the County of Sussex: Volume
4, The Rape of Chichester".
^ a b Seward, Desmond (1995). Sussex. London: Random House.
pp. 5–7. ISBN 0-7126-5133-0.
^ a b c d Brandon, Peter (2009). The Shaping of the
Snake River Press.
^ Armstrong. A History of Sussex. pp. 48-58
^ Kelly, S.E (1998).
Anglo-Saxon Charters VI, Charters of Selsey. OUP
for the British Academy. ISBN 0-19-726175-2.
^ Powicke, F. M. (1962) , The Thirteenth Century: 1216-1307 (2nd
ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press
^ a b Peter Wilkinson. The Struggle for Protestant Reformation
1553-1564: in Kim Leslie's. An Historical Atlas of Sussex. pp. 52-53
^ a b Stephens Memorials of the See of Chichester. pp. 213-214
^ "1642: Civil War in the South East". Retrieved 29 November
^ a b c Harrison. The common people. pp. 249-253
^ Horspool. The English Rebel. pp. 339 -340
^ a b c d "The Day
Sussex Died". Archived from the original on 5 April
2012. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
^ a b Kim Leslie and Marlin Mace.
Sussex Defences in the Second World
War in Kim Leslie. An Historical Atlas of Sussex. pp. 118-119.
^ a b Brandon. Sussex. pp. 302-309.
^ "Select Committee on Transport, Local Government and the Regions:
Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence. Supplementary memorandum by
Crawley Borough Council (NT 15(a))". United Kingdom Parliament
Publications and Records website. The Information Policy Division,
Office of Public Sector Information. 2002. Retrieved 2 April
^ a b Richard Childs. Parliamentary Representation in Leslies, An
Historical Atlas of Sussex. pp. 72-73.
^ Horsfield. The History, Antiquities and Topography of the County of
Sussex. Volume II. Appendix pp. 23-75.
Sussex Police Force". Retrieved 7 August 2012. [dead link]
Crown Court & Prison". Retrieved 7 August 2012.
^ The origin was still reported as "contested" as late as 1942 (Helen
Maud Cam (preface dated 1942), Liberties & communities in medieval
England: Collected Studies in Local Administration and Topography,
^ CONNECTIONS 12 .pdf Archived 25 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1885). "Augustus Frederick". Dictionary
of National Biography. 2. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
^ "Kate Middleton will inherit a host of titles". Daily Mirror. 16
November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
Sussex Cavalcade. p. 46
^ Brandon. Sussex. pp. 175 -176.
^ "Table 3.1 Headline GVA at Current Basic Prices" (xls). Office for
National Statistics. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
^ a b c "Table 3.2 Headline GVA per Head at Current Basic Prices"
(xls). Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
^ "Report Shows 'Serious Deprivation' in Sussex".
Foundation. November 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
^ a b "Greater Brighton City Deal" (PDF) (PDF). Retrieved 26 May
^ Brighton's Silicon beach Tech Cluster Finally Breaks Shore
^ "Gatwick Diamond".
Mid Sussex District Council. Retrieved 8 August
^ "3000+ jobs safeguarded with
American Express decision". Brighton
Business. 6 September 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
University of Sussex
University of Sussex - About Us". University of Sussex. Retrieved
20 October 2012.
^ "Our History". University of Chichester. Retrieved 20 October
^ "How to find us".
Northbrook College Sussex. Retrieved 20 October
^ a b "History and Tradition". The Prebendal School. Archived from the
original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
Royal Sussex County Hospital
Royal Sussex County Hospital - History". Brighton and Sussex
University Hospitals NHS Trust. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
Sussex County Asylum, St Francis Hospital". The Time Chamber.
Retrieved 9 September 2012.
^ "Our role in the NHS". NHS Sussex. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
^ "Five major trauma centres named in south of England". BBC. 2 April
2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
Sussex Cancer Centre". Brighton and
Sussex University Hospitals NHS
Trust. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
Sussex Cancer Network - About Us".
Sussex Cancer Network. Retrieved
9 September 2012.
^ a b c Hare, Chris (1995). A History of the
Sussex People. Worthing:
Southern Heritage Books. ISBN 978-0-9527097-0-1.
^ "A Cultural Strategy for
East Sussex County Council" (PDF).
Retrieved 26 September 2012.
^ a b Nairn, Ian and Nikolaus Pevsner (1965). The Buildings of England
- Sussex. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 17.
^ Nairn, Ian and Nikolaus Pevsner (1965). The Buildings of England -
Sussex. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 56.
^ Roper, Jonathan (2007). "
Sussex glossarists and their illustrative
quotations" (PDF). Retrieved 26 September 2012.
^ Collins, Sophie (2007). A
Sussex Miscellany. Alfriston: Snake River
Press. ISBN 978-1-906022-08-2.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)". BBC. Retrieved 11 February
Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922)". Fitzwilliam Museum.
Retrieved 11 February 2012.
^ "Kipling.s Sussex: The Elms". Kipling.org.
^ Longenbach, James (10 January 1988). "The Odd Couple - Pound and
Yeats Together". New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
^ Ross, David A. (2009). Critical Companion to William Butler Yeats: A
Literary Reference to His Life. Infobase Publishing. pp. 27, 600.
^ "Other writers".
South Downs National Park Authority. Archived from
the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
^ Bensky, Larry (1966). "Interviews: Harold Pinter, The Art of Theater
No. 3". Paris Review. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
^ John Cowper Powys, Autobiography. New York: Simon & Schuster,
1934, chapters 6, 7, 8; Krissdottir, Descent of Memory: The Life of
John Cowper Powys. New York: Overlook Duckworth, 2007, pp.55-7, p.85;
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved
2 August 2012.
^ a b c d Weeks, Marcus (2008).
Sussex Music. Alfriston: Snake River
Press. ISBN 978-1-906022-10-5.
^ Hudson, W.H. (1900). Nature In Downland. London: Longmans, Green and
^ Merrick, W.P. (1953). Folk Songs from Sussex. English Folk Dance and
^ "Brighton Philharmonic Orchestra". Retrieved 13 December 2011.
Worthing Symphony Orchestra". Archived from the original on 19
October 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
Phun City Free Festival 1970". Retrieved 14 February 2010.
^ "Great Escape festival". The Guardian. London. 28 March 2012.
Retrieved 30 April 2012.
^ Brandon, Peter (2006),
Sussex Phillimore ISBN 978-0-7090-6998-0
^  Archived 10 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Englands Christian Heritage - Home
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929". Nobel. Retrieved
16 November 2012.
^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 14
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996". Nobel. Retrieved 16 November
^ Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw. "book extract from The
Commanding Heights" (PDF). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 13
^ "How to kick-start a faltering economy the Keynes way". BBC. 22
October 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
^ Cohn, Steven Mark (2006). Reintroducing Macroeconomics: A Critical
Approach. M.E. Sharpe. p. 111. ISBN 0-7656-1450-2.
^ Davis, William L, Bob Figgins, David Hedengren, and Daniel B. Klein.
"Economic Professors' Favorite Economic Thinkers, Journals, and
Blogs," Econ Journal Watch 8(2): 126–146, May 2011.
^ "International Prize". Fondation Fyssen. Retrieved 6 February
^ McKie, Robin (5 February 2012), Piltdown Man: British archaeology's
greatest hoax, London: The Observer, retrieved 16 November 2012
^ Arundel Castle UK Tourist Information Plan Your Visit or
Vacation at History-Tourist.com
^ Arundel Castle England
Cricket Grounds ESPN Cricinfo
^ Harvey, Adrian (2005). Football: The First Hundred Years: The Untold
Story. Abingdon: Routledge.
^ "About the
Sussex County Football League".
Sussex County Football
League. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
^ Food Legends of the United Kingdom, Pulborough Eels, Sussex
^ BBC Inside Out - The seven
Sussex things that make the South heaven
^ Shopping - Francis Frith Archived 6 November 2009 at the Wayback
Sussex Pond Pudding
Sussex Pond Pudding Recipe - Historical Foods Archived 24 June 2011
at the Wayback Machine.
Sussex Plum Heavies Recipe - Historical Foods Archived 24 June 2011
at the Wayback Machine.
Sussex creators of Banoffee Pie serve last slice as Eastbourne
restaurant closes". The Argus. 14 January 2012. Retrieved 6 October
^ "Top 10 Original Dishes and Drinks". National Geographic. Retrieved
6 October 2012.
West Sussex breweries Local
Sussex beers and ales
^ "Ridgeview Wine Estate". Visit Sussex. Retrieved 6 October
^ a b Kirby, Terry (3 June 2012). "Is English wine really as good as
anything France has to offer?". The Independent. London. Retrieved 5
Sussex Life Magazine. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 6
^ "Nyetimber Wines England". The
Champagne Company. Archived from the
original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Russell, Miles. "The
Flint Mines of Sussex: Britain's
Earliest Monuments". University of Bournemouth. Archived from the
original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
Fishbourne Roman Palace
Fishbourne Roman Palace & Gardens".
Sussex Past, Sussex
Archaeological Society. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
Bignor Roman Villa, West Sussex". The Heritage Trail. Retrieved 18
^ "The Long Man".
Sussex Past, The
Sussex Archaeological Society.
Retrieved 23 October 2012.
Sussex Depicted - Views and descriptions 1600-1800".
Society. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 26
^ "Private patronage".
South Downs National Park Authority. Archived
from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 26 September
^ "J.M.W. Turner, Vale of Ashburnham, a watercolour". British Museum.
Retrieved 24 October 2012.
^ Hughes, Kathryn (18 November 2011). "Edward Burra, transgressive
painter of English countryside and dockside bars". The Guardian.
London. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
^ "Two Exhibitions Celebrate the
Sussex Work of Artist Eric
Sussex Life Magazine. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
^ "Charleston - an Artists' Home and Garden". The Charleston Trust.
Retrieved 24 October 2012.
^ a b c "Surreal Friends". Pallant House Gallery. Retrieved 26
Edward James and Salvador Dalí". West Dean College. Retrieved 26
Farley Farm House
Farley Farm House - Introduction". Retrieved 26 September
Surrealism in Sussex" (PDF). Pallant House Gallery. Retrieved 26
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sussex".
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Rape of Arundel
Rape of Bramber
Rape of Chichester
Rape of Hastings
Rape of Lewes
Rape of Pevensey
South Coast Plain
Kingdom of Sussex
High Middle Ages
Culture and heritage
St Richard of Chichester
Sussex by the Sea"
We wunt be druv
Diocese of Chichester
Diocese of Arundel and Brighton
Christianity in Sussex
Sussex County League
Sussex Police and Crime Commissioner
before 1889 ←
Counties of England
Counties of England (1889–1974) → 1974–1996
Cambridgeshire (including Isle of Ely)
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Huntingdon and Peterborough
Lincolnshire (including Parts of Holland, Parts of
Kesteven and Parts
London (including City of London)
Northamptonshire (including Soke of Peterborough)
Suffolk (including East
Suffolk and West Suffolk)
East Sussex and West Sussex)
Yorkshire (including East Riding, North Ridin