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Susa
Susa
(/ˈsuːsə/; Persian: شوش‬‎ Šuš; [ʃuʃ]; Hebrew: שׁוּשָׁן‬ Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα [ˈsuːsa]; Syriac: ܫܘܫ‎ Šuš; Old Persian
Old Persian
Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, and Parthian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
about 250 km (160 mi) east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. The modern Iranian town of Shush is located at the site of ancient Susa. Shush is the administrative capital of the Shush County
Shush County
of Iran's Khuzestan
Khuzestan
province. It had a population of 64,960 in 2005.[1]

Contents

1 Name 2 Literary references

2.1 Biblical texts

3 Excavation history 4 Early settlement 5 Susa
Susa
I period 6 Susa
Susa
II and Uruk
Uruk
influence 7 Susa
Susa
III period 8 Elamites

8.1 Kutik-Inshushinak 8.2 Middle Elamite period

9 Neo-Assyrians 10 After Persian conquest

10.1 Achaemenid
Achaemenid
period 10.2 Macedonian, Parthian and Sassanid periods 10.3 Post-Islamic period and degradation

11 Gallery 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

Name[edit] In Elamite, the name of the city was written variously Ŝuŝan, Ŝuŝun, etc. The origin of the word Susa
Susa
is from the local city deity Inshushinak. Literary references[edit]

Map showing the area of the Elamite kingdom (in orange) and the neighboring areas. The approximate Bronze Age
Bronze Age
extension of the Persian Gulf is shown.

Susa
Susa
was one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East. In historic literature, Susa
Susa
appears in the very earliest Sumerian records: for example, it is described as one of the places obedient to Inanna, patron deity of Uruk, in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. Biblical texts[edit] Susa
Susa
is also mentioned in the Ketuvim
Ketuvim
of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
by the name Shushan, mainly in Esther, but also once each in Nehemiah and Daniel. According to these texts, both Daniel and Nehemiah lived in Susa during the Babylonian captivity of the 6th century BCE, while Esther became queen there, married to King Ahasueurus, and saved the Jews from genocide. A tomb presumed to be that of Daniel is located in the area, known as Shush-Daniel. However, a large portion of the current structure is actually a much later construction dated to the late nineteenth century, ca. 1871.[2] Susa
Susa
is further mentioned in the Book of Jubilees (8:21 & 9:2) as one of the places within the inheritance of Shem
Shem
and his eldest son Elam; and in 8:1, "Susan" is also named as the son (or daughter, in some translations) of Elam. Excavation history[edit]

Site of Susa

Assyria. Ruins of Susa, Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

The site was examined in 1836 by Henry Rawlinson and then by A. H. Layard.[3] In 1851, some modest excavation was done by William Loftus, who identified it as Susa.[4] In 1885 and 1886 Marcel-Auguste Dieulafoy
Marcel-Auguste Dieulafoy
and Jane Dieulafoy
Jane Dieulafoy
began the first French excavations.[5] Jacques de Morgan
Jacques de Morgan
conducted major excavations from 1897 until 1911. These efforts continued under Roland De Mecquenem until 1914, at the beginning of World War I. French work at Susa
Susa
resumed after the war, led by De Mecquenem, continuing until World War II
World War II
in 1940.[6][7][8] Archaeological results from the later period were very thinly published and attempts are underway to remedy this situation.[9] Roman Ghirshman
Roman Ghirshman
took over direction of the French efforts in 1946, after the end of the war. Together with his wife Tania Ghirshman, he continued there until 1967. The Ghirshmans concentrated on excavating a single part of the site, the hectare sized Ville Royale, taking it all the way down to bare earth.[10] The pottery found at the various levels enabled a stratigraphy to be developed for Susa.[11][12] During the 1970s, excavations resumed under Jean Perrot.[13][14] Early settlement[edit] Archeologists have dated the first traces of an inhabited Neolithic village to c 7000 BCE. Evidence of a painted-pottery civilization has been dated to c 5000 BCE.[15] Painted ceramic vessels from Susa
Susa
in the earliest first style are a late, regional version of the Mesopotamian Ubaid ceramic tradition that spread across the Near East during the fifth millennium BC.[16] In urban history, Susa
Susa
is one of the oldest-known settlements of the region. Based on C14 dating, the foundation of a settlement there occurred as early as 4395 BCE (a calibrated radio-carbon date).[17] At this stage it was already very large for the time,[citation needed] about 15 hectares. The founding of Susa
Susa
corresponded with the abandonment of nearby villages. Potts suggests that the settlement may have been founded to try to reestablish the previously destroyed settlement at Chogha Mish.[18] Previously, Chogha Mish
Chogha Mish
was also a very large settlement, and it featured a similar massive platform that was later built at Susa. Another important settlement in the area is Chogha Bonut, that was discovered in 1976. Susa
Susa
I period[edit] Shortly after Susa
Susa
was first settled over 6000 years ago, its inhabitants erected a temple on a monumental platform that rose over the flat surrounding landscape.[citation needed] The exceptional nature of the site is still recognizable today in the artistry of the ceramic vessels that were placed as offerings in a thousand or more graves near the base of the temple platform. Susa's earliest settlement is known as Susa
Susa
I period (c. 4200–3900 BCE). Two settlements named by archeologists Acropolis (7 ha) and Apadana
Apadana
(6.3 ha), would later merge to form Susa
Susa
proper (18 ha).[18] The Apadana
Apadana
was enclosed by 6m thick walls of rammed earth (this particular place is named Apadana
Apadana
because it also contains a late Achaemenid
Achaemenid
structure of this type).

Goblet and cup, Iran, Susa
Susa
I style, 4th millennium BC – Ubaid period; goblet height c. 12 cm; Sèvres – Cité de la céramique, France

Nearly two thousand pots of Susa
Susa
I style were recovered from the cemetery, most of them now in the Louvre. The vessels found are eloquent testimony to the artistic and technical achievements of their makers, and they hold clues about the organization of the society that commissioned them.[16] Susa
Susa
I style was very much a product of the past and of influences from contemporary ceramic industries in the mountains of western Iran. The recurrence in close association of vessels of three types—a drinking goblet or beaker, a serving dish, and a small jar—implies the consumption of three types of food, apparently thought to be as necessary for life in the afterworld as it is in this one. Ceramics of these shapes, which were painted, constitute a large proportion of the vessels from the cemetery. Others are coarse cooking-type jars and bowls with simple bands painted on them and were probably the grave goods of the sites of humbler citizens as well as adolescents and, perhaps, children.[19] The pottery is carefully made by hand. Although a slow wheel may have been employed, the asymmetry of the vessels and the irregularity of the drawing of encircling lines and bands indicate that most of the work was done freehand. Copper metallurgy is also attested during this period, which was contemporary with metalwork at some highland Iranian sites such as Tepe Sialk. Susa
Susa
II and Uruk
Uruk
influence[edit]

Globular envelope with the accounting tokens. Clay, Uruk
Uruk
period (c. 3500 BCE). From the Tell of the Acropolis in Susa. The Louvre

Susa
Susa
came within the Uruk
Uruk
cultural sphere during the Uruk
Uruk
period. An imitation of the entire state apparatus of Uruk, proto-writing, cylinder seals with Sumerian motifs, and monumental architecture, is found at Susa. According to some scholars, Susa
Susa
may have been a colony of Uruk. There's some dispute about the comparative periodization of Susa
Susa
and Uruk
Uruk
at this time, as well as about the extent of Uruk
Uruk
influence in Susa. Recent research indicates that Early Uruk
Uruk
period corresponds to Susa
Susa
II period.[20] D. T. Potts, argue that the influence from the highland Iranian Khuzestan
Khuzestan
area in Susa
Susa
was more significant at the early period, and also continued later on. Thus, Susa
Susa
combined the influence of two cultures, from the highland area and from the alluvial plains. Also, Potts stresses the fact that the writing and numerical systems of Uruk were not simply borrowed in Susa
Susa
wholesale. Rather, only partial and selective borrowing took place, that was adapted to Susa's needs. Despite the fact that Uruk
Uruk
was far larger than Susa
Susa
at the time, Susa was not its colony, but still maintained some independence for a long time, according to Potts.[21] Some scholars believe that Susa
Susa
was part of the greater Uruk
Uruk
culture. Holly Pittman, an art historian at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia says, "they [Susanians] are participating entirely in an Uruk
Uruk
way of life. They are not culturally distinct; the material culture of Susa
Susa
is a regional variation of that on the Mesopotamian plain". Gilbert Stein, director of the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute, says that "An expansion once thought to have lasted less than 200 years now apparently went on for 700 years. It is hard to think of any colonial system lasting that long. The spread of Uruk
Uruk
material is not evidence of Uruk
Uruk
domination; it could be local choice".[22] Susa
Susa
III period[edit] Susa
Susa
III (3100–2700 BCE) is also known as the 'Proto-Elamite' period.[23] At this time, Banesh period pottery is predominant. This is also when the Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
tablets first appear in the record. Subsequently, Susa
Susa
became the centre of Elam
Elam
civilization. Ambiguous reference to Elam
Elam
(Cuneiform; 𒉏 NIM) appear also in this period in Sumerian records. Susa
Susa
enters history during the Early Dynastic period of Sumer. A battle between Kish and Susa
Susa
is recorded in 2700 BCE. Elamites[edit] In the Sumerian period, Susa
Susa
was the capital of a state called Susiana (Šušan), which occupied approximately the same territory of modern Khūzestān Province
Khūzestān Province
centered on the Karun
Karun
River. Control of Susiana shifted between Elam, Sumer, and Akkad. Susiana is sometimes mistaken as synonymous with Elam
Elam
but, according to F. Vallat, it was a distinct cultural and political entity.[24] Susiana was incorporated by Sargon the Great
Sargon the Great
into his Akkadian Empire in approximately 2330 BCE. Kutik-Inshushinak[edit]

Silver cup from Marvdasht, Iran, with a linear-Elamite inscription from the time of Kutik-Inshushinak. National Museum of Iran

Susa
Susa
was the capital of an Akkadian province until ca. 2100 BCE, when its governor, Kutik-Inshushinak, rebelled and made it an independent state and a literary center. Also, he was the last from the Awan dynasty
Awan dynasty
according to the Susa
Susa
kinglist.[25] He unified the neighbouring territories and became the king of Elam. He encouraged the use of the Linear Elamite
Linear Elamite
script, that remains undeciphered. The city was subsequently conquered by the neo-Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur and held until Ur finally collapsed at the hands of the Elamites under Kindattu in ca. 2004 BCE. At this time, Susa
Susa
became an Elamite capital under the Epartid dynasty. Middle Elamite period[edit] Around 1500 BCE, the Middle Elamite period began with the rise of the Anshanite dynasties. Their rule was characterized by an "Elamisation" of Susa, and the kings took the title "king of Anshan and Susa". While, previously, the Akkadian language was frequently used in inscriptions, the succeeding kings, such as the Igihalkid dynasty of c. 1400 BCE, tried to use Elamite. Thus, Elamite language
Elamite language
and culture grew in importance in Susiana.[24] This was also the period when the Elamite pantheon was being imposed in Susiana. This policy reached its height with the construction of the political and religious complex at Chogha Zanbil, 30 km (19 mi) south-east of Susa. In ca. 1175 BCE, the Elamites under Shutruk-Nahhunte
Shutruk-Nahhunte
plundered the original stele bearing the Code of Hammurabi, the world's first known written laws,[26] and took it to Susa. Archeologists found it in 1901. Nebuchadnezzar I
Nebuchadnezzar I
of the Babylonian empire plundered Susa
Susa
around fifty years later. Neo-Assyrians[edit] Main article: Battle of Susa

Ashurbanipal's brutal campaign against Susa
Susa
in 647 BCE is recorded in this relief. Flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils.

In 647 BCE, Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
king Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
leveled the city during a war in which the people of Susa
Susa
participated on the other side. A tablet unearthed in 1854 by Austen Henry Layard
Austen Henry Layard
in Nineveh reveals Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
as an "avenger", seeking retribution for the humiliations that the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries:

"Susa, the great holy city, abode of their gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed. . . .I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam
Elam
to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam
Elam
and, on their lands, I sowed salt."[27]

Assyrian rule of Susa
Susa
began in 647 BCE and lasted till Median capture of Susa
Susa
in 617 BCE. After Persian conquest[edit] Achaemenid
Achaemenid
period[edit] Susa
Susa
underwent a major political and ethnocultural transition when it became part of the Persian Achaemenid
Achaemenid
empire between 540 and 539 BCE when it was captured by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
during his conquest of Elam
Elam
(Susiana), of which Susa
Susa
was the capital.[28] The Nabonidus Chronicle
Nabonidus Chronicle
records that, prior to the battle(s), Nabonidus had ordered cult statues from outlying Babylonian cities to be brought into the capital, suggesting that the conflict over Susa
Susa
had begun possibly in the winter of 540 BCE.[29] It is probable that Cyrus negotiated with the Babylonian generals to obtain a compromise on their part and therefore avoid an armed confrontation.[30] Nabonidus was staying in the city at the time and soon fled to the capital, Babylon, which he had not visited in years.[31] Cyrus' conquest of Susa
Susa
and the rest of Babylonia
Babylonia
commenced a fundamental shift, bringing Susa
Susa
under Persian control for the first time. Under Cyrus' son Cambyses II, Susa
Susa
became a center of political power as one of 4 capitals of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Persian empire, while reducing the significance of Pasargadae
Pasargadae
as the capital of Persis. Following Cambyses' brief rule, Darius the Great
Darius the Great
began a major building program in Susa
Susa
and Persepolis. During this time he describes his new capital in the DSf inscription: "This palace which I built at Susa, from afar its ornamentation was brought. Downward the earth was dug, until I reached rock in the earth. When the excavation had been made, then rubble was packed down, some 40 cubits in depth, another part 20 cubits in depth. On that rubble the palace was constructed."[32] Susa
Susa
continued as a winter capital and residence for Achaemenid
Achaemenid
kings succeeding Darius the Great, Xerxes I, and their successors.[33] See also: Palace of Darius in Susa The city forms the setting of The Persians
The Persians
(472 BCE), an Athenian tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus
Aeschylus
that is the oldest surviving play in the history of theatre. Events mentioned in the Old Testament
Old Testament
book of Esther
Esther
are said to have occurred in Susa
Susa
during the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
period. Macedonian, Parthian and Sassanid periods[edit]

The marriages of Stateira II
Stateira II
to Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
of Macedon
Macedon
and her sister, Drypteis, to Hephaestion
Hephaestion
at Susa
Susa
in 324 BCE, as depicted in a late-19th-century engraving.

Susa
Susa
lost much of its importance when Alexander of Macedon
Macedon
(Alexander the Great) conquered it in 331 BCE and incorporated the first Persian Empire. The Susa weddings
Susa weddings
was arranged by Alexander in 324 BCE in Susa, where mass weddings took place between the Persians and the Macedonians. Approximately one century after Alexander, Susa
Susa
fell to the Seleucid Empire. After Seleucia, it was the biggest city under Seleucid control at the time.[citation needed] Susa
Susa
used Charax Spasinou as its port. It retained a considerable amount of independence and retained its Greek city-state organization well into the ensuing Parthian period and seems to have gained independence under a dynasty whose kings bore the name of Kamnaskires in the 1st century CE. [34] When the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
gained its independence from the Seleucid Empire, and took control of much of its eastern provinces, Susa
Susa
was made one of the two capitals (along with Ctesiphon) of the new state. Susa
Susa
became a frequent place of refuge for Parthian and later, the Persian Sassanid kings, as the Romans sacked Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
five different times between 116 and 297 AD ( Susa
Susa
was briefly captured only by Roman emperor Trajan
Trajan
in 116 CE and never again would the Roman Empire advance so far to the east).[35] Typically, the Parthian rulers wintered in Susa, and spent the summer in Ctesiphon. Post-Islamic period and degradation[edit] Susa
Susa
was destroyed at least three times in its history. The first was in 647 BCE, by Ashurbanipal. The second destruction took place in 638 CE, when the Muslim
Muslim
armies first conquered Persia. In 1218, the city was razed by invading Mongols. The city further degraded in the 15th century when the majority of its population moved to Dezful
Dezful
and it remains as a small settlement today.[36] Susa
Susa
had a significant Christian population during the first millennium, and was a diocese of the Church of the East
Church of the East
between the 5th and 13th centuries, in the metropolitan province of Beth Huzaye (Elam). Gallery[edit]

Letter in Greek of the Parthian king Artabanus III to the inhabitants of Susa
Susa
in the 1st century CE (the city retained Greek institutions since the time of the Seleucid empire). Louvre
Louvre
Museum.

Glazed clay cup: Cup with rose petals, 8th–9th centuries

Anthropoid sarcophagus

Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace

Marble head representing Seleucid King Antiochus III who was born near Susa
Susa
around 242 BC.[37]

Glazed clay vase: Vase with palmtrees, 8th–9th centuries

Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great
Darius the Great
at Susa.

Tomb of Daniel

Ninhursag
Ninhursag
with the spirit of the forests next to the seven-spiked cosmic tree of life. Relief from Susa.

19th-century engraving of Daniel's tomb in Susa, from Voyage en Perse Moderne, by Flandin and Coste.

Archers frieze from Darius' palace at Susa. Detail of the beginning of the frieze, left. Louvre
Louvre
Museum

Ribbed torc with lion heads, Achaemenid
Achaemenid
artwork, excavated by Jacques de Morgan, 1901

Shush Castle, 2011

Children in Susa

Herm pillar with Hermes, from the well of the "Dungeon" in Susa.

See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal

Abulites Achaemenid
Achaemenid
architecture Choqa Zanbil Cities of the Ancient Near East Elam History of Iran List of oldest continuously inhabited cities Monsieur Chouchani Short chronology timeline

Notes[edit]

^ "World city populations: Susa". Mongabay.com. 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2013-02-08.  ^ Kriwaczek, Paul. Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization, St. Martin's Press, 2010, p. 5 ^ George Rawlinson, A memoir of Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Nabu Press, 2010, ISBN 1-178-20631-9 ^ Google Books, William K. Loftus, Travels and Researches in Chaldaea and Susiana, Travels and Researches in Chaldaea and Susiana: With an Account of Excavations at Warka, the "Erech" of Nimrod, and Shush, "Shushan the Palace" of Esther, in 1849-52, Robert Carter & Brothers, 1857 ^ Jane Dieulafoy, Perzië, Chaldea en Susiane. (in Dutch) ^ Archive.org, Jacques de Morgan, Fouilles à Suse en 1897–1898 et 1898–1899, Mission archéologique en Iran, Mémoires I, 1990 ^ Archive.org, Jacques de Morgan, Fouilles à Suse en 1899–1902, Mission archéologique en Iran, Mémoires VII, 1905 ^ Robert H. Dyson, Early Work on the Acropolis at Susa. The Beginning of Prehistory in Iraq and Iran, Expedition, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 21-34, 1968 ^ Harvard.edu Shelby White - Leon Levy Program funded project to publish early Susa
Susa
archaeological results ^ Roman Ghirshman, Suse au tournant du III au II millenaire avant notre ere, Arts Asiatiques, vol. 17, pp. 3-44, 1968 ^ Hermann Gasche, Ville Royal de Suse: vol I : La poterie elamite du deuxieme millenaire a.C, Mission archéologique en Iran, Mémoires 47, 1973 ^ M. Steve and Hermann H. Gasche, L'Acropole de Suse: Nouvelles fouilles (rapport preliminaire), Memoires de la Delegation archeologique en Iran, vol. 46, Geuthner, 1971 ^ Jean Perrot, Les fouilles de Sus en 1975, Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran
Iran
4, pp. 224-231, 1975 ^ D. Canal, La haute terrase de l'Acropole de Suse, Paleorient, vol. 4, pp. 169-176, 1978 ^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 17. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.  ^ a b Aruz, Joan (1992). The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. New York: Abrams. p. 26.  ^ The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State - by D. T. Potts, Cambridge University Press, 29/07/1999 - page 46 - ISBN 0521563585 hardback ^ a b Potts, 1999 ^ Aruz, Joan (1992). The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. New York: Abrams. p. 29.  ^ D. T. Potts, The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge World Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, 2015 ISBN 1107094690 p58 ^ D. T. Potts, The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge World Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, 2015 ISBN 1107094690 pp 58-61 ^ Lawler, Andrew. 2003. Uruk: Spreading Fashion or Empire. Science. Volume 302, P. 977-978 ^ D. T. Potts, A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Volume 94 of Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. John Wiley & Sons, 2012 ISBN 1405189886 p743 ^ a b F. Vallat, The history of Elam, 1999 iranicaonline.org ^ Daniel T. Potts, The Archaeology of Elam. Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 122 ^ http://www.justlawlinks.com/REGS/codeham.htm ^ "Persians: Masters of Empire" ISBN 0-8094-9104-4 p. 7-8 ^ Tavernier, Jan. "Some Thoughts in Neo-Elamite Chronology" (PDF). p. 27.  ^ Kuhrt, Amélie. " Babylonia
Babylonia
from Cyrus to Xerxes", in The Cambridge Ancient History: Vol IV — Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, pp. 112–138. Ed. John Boardman. Cambridge University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-521-22804-2 ^ Tolini, Gauthier, Quelques éléments concernant la prise de Babylone par Cyrus, Paris. "Il est probable que des négociations s’engagèrent alors entre Cyrus et les chefs de l’armée babylonienne pour obtenir une reddition sans recourir à l’affrontement armé." p. 10 (PDF) ^ The Harran Stelae H2 - A, and the Nabonidus Chronicle
Nabonidus Chronicle
(Seventeenth year) show that Nabonidus had been in Babylon before 10 October 539, because he had already returned from Harran and had participated in the Akitu of Nissanu 1 [4 April], 539 BCE. ^ Lendering, 2010 ^ "Susa: Statue of Darius". Livius.org. 2009-04-01. Retrieved 2013-02-08.  ^ John E. Hill, Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE, BookSurge, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1 ^ Robert J. Wenke, Elymeans, Parthians, and the Evolution of Empires in Southwestern Iran, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 303-315, 1981 ^ M. Streck, Clifford Edmund Bosworth (1997). Encyclopaedia of Islam, San-Sze. IX. Leiden: Brill. pp. 898–899. ISBN 9789004104228.  ^ Jonsson, David J. (2005). The Clash of Ideologies. Xulon Press. p. 566. ISBN 978-1-59781-039-5. Antiochus III was born in 242 BC, the son of Seleucus II, near Susa, Iran. 

References[edit]

Jean Perrot, Le Palais de Darius à Suse. Une résidence royale sur la route de Persépolis à Babylone, Paris, Paris-sorbonne.fr, 2010 Lendering, Jona. "Susa, capital of Elam". The Iranian Chamber. Retrieved 2010.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Vallat, François (1999). "The History of Elam". The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS).  Potts, Daniel T. (1999). The archaeology of Elam: formation and transformation of an ancient Iranian state. Cambridge University Press, 1999. p. 490. ISBN 0-521-56496-4. World Archaeology Series. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Susa.

Susa Livius.org pictures of Susa Aerial views of Susa Susa
Susa
City Home Page Digital Images of Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Tablets from Susa
Susa
- CDLI Hamid-Reza Hosseini, Shush at the foot of Louvre
Louvre
(Shush dar dāman-e Louvre), in Persian, Jadid Online, 10 March 2009. Audio slideshow at Jadidonline.com (6 min 31 sec)  "Susa". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. 

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Bavi County

Mollasani Sheyban Veys

Behbahan
Behbahan
County

Behbahan Sardasht

Dasht-e Azadegan County

Susangerd Bostan

Dezful
Dezful
County

Dezful Dezab Mianrud Safiabad Saland

Gotvand
Gotvand
County

Gotvand Jannat Makan

Haftkel
Haftkel
County

Haftkel

Hendijan
Hendijan
County

Hendijan Zohreh

Hoveyzeh
Hoveyzeh
County

Hoveyzeh Rafi

Izeh
Izeh
County

Izeh Dehdez

Karun
Karun
County

Karun

Khorramshahr
Khorramshahr
County

Khorramshahr Minushahr Moqavemat

Lali County

Lali

Mahshahr County

Bandar-e Mahshahr Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni Chamran

Masjed Soleyman
Masjed Soleyman
County

Masjed Soleyman

Omidiyeh
Omidiyeh
County

Omidiyeh Jayezan

Ramhormoz
Ramhormoz
County

Ramhormoz

Ramshir
Ramshir
County

Ramshir

Shadegan
Shadegan
County

Shadegan

Shush County

Shush Alvan Horr

Shushtar
Shushtar
County

Shushtar

Sights

Abadan's museum Gundishapur Acropole of Shush Apadana
Apadana
in Susa Arjan castle, Behbahan Asak ancient city, Hendijan Chagadom tappe fire temple Chogha Mish
Chogha Mish
Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
site Chogha Zanbil Dav o Dokhtar castle, Ramhormoz Dez Dam Eshkaft-e Salman Gargar bridge, Shushtar Haft Tepe Hoor-al-azim lagoon Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Roudband, Dezful Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Sabz-e-ghaba, Dezful Karkheh dam Khorramshahr
Khorramshahr
mosque, Battle of Khorramshahr Kul-e Farah lake of Karkheh dam Lake of Karun Lali bridge Meyangaran lagoon Rangooni's mosque Salasel castle, Shushtar Shadegan
Shadegan
lagoon Shevi waterfall, Dezful Shush-Daniel Shushtar
Shushtar
Historical Hydraulic System Shushtar
Shushtar
Watermills Susa Shush Castle Taryana Tobiron valley, Dezful Tomb of Daniel, Shush White bridge, Ahvaz Ya'qub-i Laith's tomb, Dezful

populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Khuzestan
Khuzestan
Province

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Iran

List of World Heritage Sites in Iran

The Armenian Monastic Ensembles

St. Thaddeus Monastery St. Stepanos Monastery Chapel of Dzordzor Chapel of Chupan Church of the Holy Mother of God

Bam and its cultural landscape Behistun Chogha Zanbil Cultural landscape of Maymand Golestan Palace Gonbad-e Qabus Jameh Mosque
Mosque
of Isfahan Naqsh-e Jahan Square Pasargadae Persepolis The Persian gardens

Pasargadae Chehel Sotoun Fin Eram Shazdeh Dolatabad Abbasabad Akbarieh Pahlevanpour

Shahr-e Sukhteh Sheikh Safi's Tomb Dome of Soltaniyeh Shushtar
Shushtar
Historical Hydraulic System Susa Bazaar
Bazaar
of Tabriz Takht-e Soleymān The Persian qanats

Gonabad Baladeh Zarch Hassan Abad Moshir Goharriz Akbarabad Ghasemabad Moun Vazvan Mozdabad Ebrahimabad

Dasht-e Loot Historic city of Yazd

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 239041

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