HOME
The Info List - Sunni



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Others

* _ Zahiri _ * _Awza\'i _ * _ Thawri
Thawri
_ * _ Laythi _ * _ Jariri _

Sunni schools of theology

* Ash\'ari * Maturidi * Traditionalist

Others:

* Mu\'tazila * Murji\'ah

Contemporary movements

* Ahl-i Hadith * Al-Ahbash * Barelvi
Barelvi
* Deobandi * Islamic Modernism * Salafi movement * Wahhabism

Holy sites

* Jerusalem * Mecca
Mecca
* Medina
Medina
* Mount Sinai

Lists

* Literature

* _ Kutub al-Sittah _

Islam
Islam
portal

* v * t * e

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .

SUNNI ISLAM (/ˈsuːni/ or /ˈsʊni/ ) is the largest denomination of Islam
Islam
. Its name comes from the word Sunnah , referring to the exemplary behavior of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the choice of Muhammad's successor and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.

According to Sunni tradition, Muhammad
Muhammad
did not clearly designate a successor and the Muslim
Muslim
community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph . This contrasts with the Shi\'a view, which holds that Muhammad
Muhammad
intended his son-in-law and cousin Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib to succeed him. Unlike the first three ( Rashidun ) caliphs, Ali
Ali
was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim , and Shia Muslims consider him legitimate by favour of his blood ties to Muhammad. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism .

As of 2009 , Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam
Islam
is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism . Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as _ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah_ ("the people of the sunnah and the community") or _ahl as-sunnah_ for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called _Sunnism_, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam
Islam
is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there's no such thing as "orthodox Islam".

The Quran
Quran
, together with hadith (especially those collected in Kutub al-Sittah ) and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia
Sharia
rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning , consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion , using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools .

In matters of creed , the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of _iman _ (faith) and comprises the Ash\'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology .

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 Adherents * 4 Organizational structure

* 5 Jurisprudence

* 5.1 Schools of law * 5.2 Differences in the schools

* 6 Pillars of _iman_

* 7 Theological traditions

* 7.1 Ash\'ari * 7.2 Maturidi * 7.3 Traditionalist

* 8 Sunni view of _hadith_

* 8.1 _Kutub al-Sittah_

* 9 Sunni mysticism

* 9.1 Salafi reaction to mysticism

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

TERMINOLOGY

Sunni Mosque
Mosque
in Mananthavady
Mananthavady
, India
India

Sunnī ( Classical Arabic : سُنِّي /ˈsunniː/), also commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from _sunnah_ (سُنَّة /ˈsunna/, plural سُنَن _sunan_ /ˈsunan/) meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition". The Muslim
Muslim
use of this term refers to the sayings and living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam
Islam
is referred to as _ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah_ (Arabic : أهل السنة والجماعة‎‎), "the people of the sunnah and the community", which is commonly shortened to _ahl as-sunnah_ (Arabic أهل السنة).

HISTORY

One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam
Islam
represents a normative Islam
Islam
that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, and that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam. This perception is partly due to the reliance on highly ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, and also because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own identities and doctrines.

The first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar
Umar
who established the Islamic calendar as the second, Uthman
Uthman
as the third, and Ali
Ali
as the fourth. The sequence of events of the 20th century has led to resentment in some quarters of the Sunni community due to the loss of pre-eminence in several previously Sunni-dominated regions such as the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Balkans and the Caucasus.

ADHERENTS

Countries with more than 5% Muslim
Muslim
population. SUNNI Shia Ibadi

Sunnis believe that the companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
were the best of Muslims. This belief is based upon prophetic traditions such as one narrated by Abdullah, son of Masud , in which Muhammad
Muhammad
said: "The best of the people are my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them." Support for this view is also found in the Quran
Quran
, according to Sunnis. Sunnis also believe that the companions were true believers since it was the companions who were given the task of compiling the Quran
Quran
. Furthermore, narrations that were narrated by the companions (ahadith) are considered by Sunnis to be a second source of knowledge of the Muslim
Muslim
faith. A study conducted by the _ Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
_ in 2010 and released January 2011 found that there are 1.62 billion Muslims around the world, and it is estimated over 75–90% are Sunni.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

Islam
Islam
does not have a formal hierarchy. Leaders are informal, and gain influence through study to become a scholar of Islamic law, called _sharia _. According to the Islamic Center of Columbia , South Carolina , anyone with the intelligence and the will can become an Islamic scholar. During Midday Mosque
Mosque
services on Fridays, the congregation will choose a well-educated person to lead the service, known as a Khateeb (one who speaks).

JURISPRUDENCE

SCHOOLS OF LAW

There are many intellectual traditions within the field of Islamic law , often referred to as legal schools . These varied traditions reflect differing viewpoints on some laws and obligations within Islamic law. While one school may see a certain act as a religious obligation, another may see the same act as optional. These schools aren't regarded as sects; rather, they represent differing viewpoints on issues that are not considered the core of Islamic belief.

Historians have differed regarding the exact delineation of the schools based on the underlying principles they follow. Many traditional scholars saw Sunni Islam
Islam
in two groups: Ahl al-Ra'i, or "people of reason," due to their emphasis on scholarly judgment and discourse; and Ahl al- Hadith , or "people of traditions," due to their emphasis on restricting juristic thought to only what is found in scripture. Ibn Khaldun defined the Sunni schools as three: the Hanafi school representing reason, the Ẓāhirīte school representing tradition, and a broader, middle school encompassing the Shafi\'ite , Malikite and Hanbalite schools.

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt delineated the acceptable Sunni schools as only Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali, excluding the Ẓāhirī school. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
later reaffirmed the official status of four schools as a reaction to the Shiite character of their ideological and political archrival, the Persian Safavids , though former Prime Minister of Sudan Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi , as well as the Amman Message issued by King Abdullah II of Jordan
Abdullah II of Jordan
, recognize the Ẓāhirī and keep the number of Sunni schools at five.

DIFFERENCES IN THE SCHOOLS

The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque
Mosque
of Uqba) was, in particular during the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries, an important center of Islamic learning with an emphasis on the Maliki Madh'hab. It is located in the city of Kairouan
Kairouan
in Tunisia
Tunisia

Interpreting Islamic law by deriving specific rulings – such as how to pray – is commonly known as Islamic jurisprudence . The schools of law all have their own particular tradition of interpreting this jurisprudence. As these schools represent clearly spelled out methodologies for interpreting Islamic law, there has been little change in the methodology with regard to each school. While conflict between the schools was often violent in the past, today the schools recognize one another as viable legal methods rather than sources of error or heresy in contrast to one another. Each school has its evidences, and differences of opinion are generally respected.

PILLARS OF _IMAN_

_ This section POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (February 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

Main articles: Iman (concept) and Islamic theology

All the branches of Sunni Islam
Islam
testify to six principal articles of faith known as the six pillars of _iman_ (Arabic for "faith"), which are believed to be essential for salvation. These are:

* Belief in the One God
God
(see Tawhid ) * Belief in the existence of angels * Belief in the existence of prophets * Belief in God's revelations, including the Torah
Torah
(revealed to Moses
Moses
), the Psalms (revealed to David
David
), the Gospel
Gospel
(revealed to Jesus
Jesus
), and the Quran
Quran
(revealed to Muhammad) * Belief in the Day of Judgment * Belief in God's predestination

These six articles are what _all_ present-day Sunnis agree on, from those who adhere to traditional Sunnism to those who adhere to latter-day movements. Additionally, classical Sunni Islam
Islam
also outlined numerous other cardinal doctrines from the eighth-century onwards in the form of organized creeds such as the Creed
Creed
of Tahawi , in order to codify what constituted "Sunni orthodoxy." While none of these creeds gained the importance attributed to the Nicene Creed
Creed
in Christianity
Christianity
, primarily because ecumenical councils never happened in Islam, the beliefs outlined in these creeds became the "orthodox" doctrine by ijma , or binding consensus. But while most of the tenets outlined in the classical creeds are accepted by all Sunnis, some of these doctrines have been rejected by the aforementioned movements as lacking strictly scriptural precedent. Traditionally, these other important Sunni articles of faith have included the following (those that are controversial today because of their rejection by such groups shall be denoted by an asterisk):

* Belief in the six principal articles of faith being essential for salvation for Muslims * Belief in God
God
having created creation with His wisdom * Belief in Muhammad
Muhammad
having been the Seal of the Prophets or the last prophet sent to mankind * Belief in the Quran
Quran
being the eternal, uncreated Word of God
God
* Belief in the beatific vision being a reality in the afterlife, even if it will not be all-encompassing and the "manner" of it remains unknown * Belief in the Night Journey of Muhammad
Muhammad
having happened in a bodily form, while he was "awake" * Belief in the intercession of Muhammad
Muhammad
being a reality on the Last Day * Belief in God's covenant with Adam
Adam
and his offspring having been "true" * Belief in Abraham
Abraham
having been God's "intimate friend" * Belief in Moses
Moses
having conversed directly with God
God
without a mediator * Belief in the idea that wrong works in themselves does not make a Muslim
Muslim
an "unbeliever " and that it is forbidden to declare takfir on those who know that what they are doing is wrong * Belief in it being wrong to "make a distinction" between the various prophets of God
God
* Belief in believing in that which "all the prophets" brought from God
God
* Belief in avoiding "deviations, divisions, and differences" in the fold of Islam
Islam
* Belief in venerating all the Companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
* Belief in the existence of saints , and in venerating them and accepting the traditional narratives of their lives and miracles (*) * Belief that saints, while exalted in their own right, occupy an infinitely lesser rank than the prophets and that "one of the prophets is greater than all the saints put together" (*) * Belief in the Signs of the Apocalypse
Apocalypse
* Belief that Jesus
Jesus
is the Promised Messiah
Messiah
of God
God
and that all Muslims await his Second Coming

THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS

Part of a series on Islam
Islam
Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

* Shahada * Salah * Sawm * Zakat * Hajj
Hajj

Sunni Islam
Islam
1 SIX ARTICLES OF BELIEF

* God
God
* Prophets * Holy books * Angels
Angels
* The Last Judgement * Predestination

SUNNI THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS

* Ilm al- Kalam
Kalam

* Ash\'ari * Maturidi

* Traditionalist

Shi\'a 2 TWELVER

* PRINCIPLES

* Tawhid * Adalah
Adalah
* Prophecy * Imamah * Qiyamah

* PRACTICES

* Salah * Sawm * Zakat * Hajj
Hajj
* Khums * Jihad
Jihad
* Commanding what is just * Forbidding what is evil * Tawalla * Tabarra

SEVEN PILLARS OF ISMAILISM

* Walayah * Tawhid * Salah * Zakat * Sawm * Hajj
Hajj
* Jihad
Jihad

OTHER SHIA CONCEPTS OF AQIDAH

* Imamate * Batin * Sixth Pillar of Islam
Islam

Other schools of theology

* Ibadi * Jahmi * Khawarij 3 * Murji\'ah * Muʿtazila * Qadariyah * Sufism 4

Including: 1 Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
, Qutbism top: 0.2em;">2 Alawites , Assassins , Druzes top: 0.2em;">3 Azariqa , Ajardi, Haruriyyah , Najdat top: 0.2em;">4 Alevism
Alevism
, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;">

* v * t * e

Part of a series on

ISLAM

Beliefs

* Oneness of God
God

* Prophets * Revealed books

* Angels
Angels
* Predestination

* Day of Resurrection

Practices

* Profession of faith * Prayer
Prayer

* Fasting * Alms-giving * Pilgrimage

Texts and laws

* Quran
Quran
_ * _ Sunnah _ * _ Hadith _

* _Sharia_ (law) * _Fiqh_ (jurisprudence)

* _Kalam_ (dialectic)

History

* Timeline * Muhammad
Muhammad

* _ Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
_ * _ Sahabah _

* _ Rashidun _ * Imamah ( Shia doctrine)

* Caliphate
Caliphate
* Spread of Islam
Islam

Denominations

* Sunni * Shia * Ibadi

* Sufism * Alevism
Alevism
* Quranism

* Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya

* Black Muslim
Muslim
movements

* Nondenominational

Culture and society

* Calendar * Festivals * Academics * Art * Moral teachings * Children * Feminism * Women * Madrasa * Mosque
Mosque
* Philosophy
Philosophy
* Politics * Proselytizing * Animals * LGBT * Science * Demographics * Economics * Finance * Social welfare

Related topics

* Criticism of Islam
Islam
* Islam
Islam
and other religions

* Islamism * Islamophobia

* Glossary

* Islam
Islam
portal

* v * t * e

Some Islamic scholars faced questions that they felt were not explicitly answered in the _Quran_ and the _Sunnah_, especially questions with regard to philosophical conundra such as the nature of God
God
, the existence of human free will , or the eternal existence of the _Quran._ Various schools of theology and philosophy developed to answer these questions, each claiming to be true to the _Quran_ and the Muslim
Muslim
tradition (_sunnah_). Among Sunni Muslims, various schools of thought in theology began to be born out of the sciences of kalam in opposition to the textualists who stood by affirming texts without delving into philosophical speculation as they saw it as an innovation in Islam. The following were the three dominant schools of theology that grew. All three of these are accepted by Muslims around the globe, and are considered within "Islamic orthodoxy". The key beliefs of classical Sunni Islam
Islam
are all agreed upon (being the six pillars of Iman) and codified in the treatise on Aqeedah by Imam Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Tahawi in his Aqeedat Tahawiyyah .

ASH\'ARI

Main article: Ash\'ari

Founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash\'ari (873–935). This theological school of Aqeedah was embraced by many Muslim
Muslim
scholars and developed in parts of the Islamic world throughout history; the Imam al-Ghazali wrote on the creed discussing it and agreeing upon some of its principles.

Ash'ari theology stresses divine revelation over human reason. Contrary to the Mu'tazilites, they say that ethics cannot be derived from human reason, but that God's commands, as revealed in the _Quran_ and the _Sunnah_ (the practices of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions as recorded in the traditions, or hadith ), are the sole source of all morality and ethics.

Regarding the nature of God
God
and the divine attributes, the Ash'ari rejected the Mu\'tazili position that all Quranic references to God
God
as having real attributes were metaphorical. The Ash'aris insisted that these attributes were as they "best befit His Majesty". The Arabic language is a wide language in which one word can have 15 different meanings, so the Ash'aris endeavor to find the meaning that best befits God
God
and is not contradicted by the Quran. Therefore, when God states in the Quran, "He who does not resemble any of His creation," this clearly means that God
God
cannot be attributed with body parts because He created body parts. Ash'aris tend to stress divine omnipotence over human free will and they believe that the Quran
Quran
is eternal and uncreated.

MATURIDI

Main article: Maturidi

Founded by Abu Mansur al- Maturidi (died 944). Maturidiyyah was a minority tradition until it was accepted by the Turkish tribes of Central Asia (previously they had been Ash'ari and followers of the Shafi\'i school, it was only later on migration into Anatolia
Anatolia
that they became Hanafi and followers of the Maturidi creed.) One of the tribes, the Seljuk Turks , migrated to Turkey
Turkey
, where later the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was established. Their preferred school of law achieved a new prominence throughout their whole empire although it continued to be followed almost exclusively by followers of the Hanafi school while followers of the Shafi and Maliki schools within the empire followed the Ash'ari and Athari schools of thought. Thus, wherever can be found Hanafi followers, there can be found the Maturidi creed.

TRADITIONALIST

Main article: Traditionalist Theology (Islam)

Traditionalist theology is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam ) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran
Quran
and sunnah . The name derives from "tradition" in its technical sense as translation of the Arabic word _hadith _. It is also sometimes referred to by several other names .

Adherents of traditionalist theology believe that the _zahir _ (literal, apparent) meaning of the Qur'an and the hadith have sole authority in matters of belief and law; and that the use of rational disputation is forbidden even if it verifies the truth. They engage in a literal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in _ta\'wil _ (metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, and believe that their realities should be consigned to God
God
alone (_tafwid _). In essence, the text of the Qur'an and Hadith is accepted without asking "how" or " Bi-la kaifa ".

Traditionalist theology emerged among scholars of hadith who eventually coalesced into a movement called _ahl al-hadith _ under the leadership of Ahmad ibn Hanbal . In matters of faith, they were pitted against Mu\'tazilites and other theological currents, condemning many points of their doctrine as well as the rationalistic methods they used in defending them. In the tenth century al-Ash\'ari and al- Maturidi found a middle ground between Mu'tazilite rationalism and Hanbalite literalism, using the rationalistic methods championed by Mu'tazilites to defend most tenets of the traditionalist doctrine. Although the mainly Hanbali scholars who rejected this synthesis were in the minority, their emotive, narrative-based approach to faith remained influential among the urban masses in some areas, particularly in Abbasid Baghdad
Baghdad
.

While Ash\'arism and Maturidism are often called the Sunni "orthodoxy", traditionalist theology has thrived alongside it, laying rival claims to be the orthodox Sunni faith. In the modern era it has had a disproportionate impact on Islamic theology, having been appropriated by Wahhabi
Wahhabi
and other traditionalist Salafi currents and spread well beyond the confines of the Hanbali school of law.

SUNNI VIEW OF _HADITH_

The Quran
Quran
as it exists today in book form was compiled by Muhammad's companions (_ Sahabah _) within a handful of months of his death, and is accepted by all sects of Islam. However, there were many matters of belief and daily life that were not directly prescribed in the Quran, but were actions that were observed by Muhammad
Muhammad
and the early Muslim community. Later generations sought out oral traditions regarding the early history of Islam, and the practices of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his first followers, and wrote them down so that they might be preserved. These recorded oral traditions are called hadith. Muslim
Muslim
scholars have through the ages sifted through the hadith and evaluated the chain of narrations of each tradition, scrutinizing the trustworthiness of the narrators and judging the strength of each hadith accordingly.

_KUTUB AL-SITTAH_

_Kutub al-Sittah_ are six books containing collections of hadiths. Sunni Muslims accept the hadith collections of Bukhari and Muslim
Muslim
as the most authentic (_sahih _, or correct), and while accepting all hadiths verified as authentic, grant a slightly lesser status to the collections of other recorders. There are, however, four other collections of hadith that are also held in particular reverence by Sunni Muslims, making a total of six:

* Sahih al-Bukhari of Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari * Sahih Muslim
Muslim
of Muslim
Muslim
ibn al-Hajjaj * Sunan al-Sughra of Al-Nasa\'i * Sunan Abu Dawud of Abu Dawood * Jami\' at-Tirmidhi of Al-Tirmidhi * Sunan Ibn Majah of Ibn Majah

There are also other collections of hadith which also contain many authentic hadith and are frequently used by scholars and specialists. Examples of these collections include:

* Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq of ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani * Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal * Mustadrak of Al Haakim * Muwatta of Imam Malik * Sahih Ibn Hibbaan * Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah of Ibn Khuzaymah * Sunan al-Darimi of Al-Darimi

SUNNI MYSTICISM

There has also been a rich tradition of mysticism within Sunni Islam, which has most prominently manifested itself in the principal orders of Sunni Sufism . Historically, Sufism became "an incredibly important part of Islam" and "one of the most widespread and omnipresent aspects of Muslim
Muslim
life" in Islamic civilization from the early medieval period onwards, when it began to permeate nearly all major aspects of Sunni Islamic life in regions stretching from India
India
and Iraq
Iraq
to the Balkans and Senegal
Senegal
. Sufism continued to remain a crucial part of daily Islamic life until the twentieth century , when its historical influence upon Islamic civilization began to be combated by the rise of Salafism and Wahhabism . Islamic scholar Timothy Winter has remarked: " classical, mainstream, medieval Sunni Islam
Islam
... 'orthodox Islam' would not ... without Sufism," and that the classical belief in Sufism being an essential component of Islam
Islam
has only weakened in some quarters of the Islamic world "a generation or two ago" with the rise of Salafism . In the modern world, the classical interpretation of Sunni orthodoxy, which sees in Sufism an essential dimension of Islam
Islam
alongside the disciplines of jurisprudence and theology , is represented by institutions such as Al-Azhar University and Zaytuna College , with Al-Azhar's current Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb
Ahmed el-Tayeb
defining "Sunni orthodoxy" as being a follower "of any of the four schools of thought ( Hanafi , Shafi’i , Maliki or Hanbali ) and ... of the Sufism of Imam Junayd of Baghdad
Baghdad
in doctrines, manners and purification."

In the eleventh-century, Sufism, which had previously been a less "codified" trend in Islamic piety, began to be "ordered and crystallized" into orders which have continued until the present day. All these orders were founded by a major Sunni Islamic saint , and some of the largest and most widespread included the Qadiriyya (after Abdul-Qadir Gilani ), the Rifa\'iyya (after Ahmed al-Rifa\'i ), the Chishtiyya (after Moinuddin Chishti ), the Shadiliyya (after Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili ), and the Naqshbandiyya (after Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari ). Contrary to popular perception in the West, however, neither the founders of these orders nor their followers ever considered themselves to be anything other than orthodox Sunni Muslims, and in fact all of these orders were attached to one of the four orthodox legal schools of Sunni Islam. Thus, the Qadiriyya order was Hanbali , with its founder, Abdul-Qadir Gilani , being a renowned Hanbali jurist; the Chishtiyya was Hanafi ; the Shadiliyya order was Maliki ; and the Naqshbandiyya order was Hanafi . Thus, "many of the most eminent defenders of Islamic orthodoxy, such as Abdul-Qadir Gilani , Ghazali , and the Sultan Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn ( Saladin
Saladin
) were connected with Sufism."

SALAFI REACTION TO MYSTICISM

The contemporary Salafi and Wahhabi
Wahhabi
strands of Sunnism reject the traditional stance on mystical practice.

SEE ALSO

* Islamic schools and branches

REFERENCES

* ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Sunni Islam". _The Oxford Dictionary of Islam_. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tayeb El-Hibri, Maysam J. al Faruqi (2004). "Sunni Islam". In Philip Mattar. _The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa_ (Second ed.). MacMillan Reference USA. * ^ Harney, John (January 3, 2016). "How Do Sunni and Shia Islam Differ?". _ New York Times
New York Times
_. Retrieved January 4, 2016. * ^ Almukhtar, Sarah; Peçanha, Sergio; Wallace, Tim (January 5, 2016). "Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites". _ New York Times
New York Times
_. Retrieved January 6, 2016. * ^ Triana, María (2017-03-31). _Managing Diversity in Organizations: A Global Perspective_. Taylor & Francis. p. 159. ISBN 9781317423683 . * ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population". Retrieved 10 December 2014. * ^ Connie R. Green, Sandra Brenneman Oldendorf, _Religious Diversity and Children's Literature: Strategies and Resources_, Information Age Publishing, 2011, p. 156. Quote: "Catholicism is the second largest religious body after Sunni Muslims" * ^ "Sunnism". _-Ologies & -Isms_. The Gale Group. Retrieved Oct 5, 2016. * ^ John Richard Thackrah (5 Sep 2013). _Dictionary of Terrorism_ (2, revised ed.). Routledge. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-135-16595-6 . * ^ Nasir, Jamal J., ed. (2009). _The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation_ (revised ed.). BRILL. p. 11. ISBN 9789004172739 . * ^ George W. Braswell (2000). _What You Need to Know about Islam
Islam
& Muslims_ (illustrated ed.). B&H Publishing Group. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8054-1829-3 . * ^ An Introduction to the Hadith. John Burton. Published by Edinburgh University Press. 1996. p. 201. Cite: "Sunni: Of or pertaining _sunna_, especially the _Sunna_ of the Prophet. Used in conscious opposition to Shi'a, Shi'í. There being no ecclesia or centralized magisterium, the translation 'orthodox' is inappropriate. To the Muslim
Muslim
'unorthodox' implies heretical, _mubtadi_, from _bid'a_, the contrary of _sunna_, and so 'innovation'." * ^ Sunnah, Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement * ^ Hughes, Aaron. _ Muslim
Muslim
Identities: An Introduction to Islam_. p. 115. It is a mistake to assume, as is frequently done, that Sunni Islam
Islam
emerged as normative from the chaotic period following Muhammad's death and that the other two movements simply developed out of it. This assumption is based in... the taking of later and often highly ideological sources as accurate historical portrayals - and in part on the fact that the overwhelming majority of Muslims throughout the world follows now what emerged as Sunni Islam
Islam
in the early period.

* ^ Hughes, Aaron. _ Muslim
Muslim
Identities: An Introduction to Islam_. p. 116. Each of these sectarian movements... used the other to define itself more clearly and in the process to articulate its doctrinal contents and rituals. * ^ Tore Kjeilen. "Lexic Orient.com". Lexic Orient.com. Retrieved 2011-06-05. * ^ Minahan, James (2002). _Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations_. p. 547. * ^ Source for distribution is the CIA World Factbook, Shiite/Sunnite distribution collected from other sources. Shiites may be underrepresented in some countries where they do not appear in official statistics. * ^ Quran
Quran
, 9:100 * ^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". _The Future of the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population – Executive Summary_. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 April 2013.

* ^ See:

* Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia "some 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni" * "Religions". _The World Factbook_. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 8 December 2011. Sunni Islam
Islam
accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population * Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population" * Iran, Israel and the United States "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population" * A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni" * "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World\'s Muslim
Muslim
Population". _Pew Research Center _. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24. Of the total Muslim population, 10-13% are Shia Muslims and 87-90% are Sunni Muslims. * "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 2011-12-06. Retrieved December 18, 2011. The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis – estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%. * "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today . 2007-09-24. Retrieved December 18, 2011. Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni and about 15% are Shiite. * Sunni Islam: Oxford
Oxford
Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam
Islam
is the dominant division of the global Muslim
Muslim
community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."

* ^ Masjid al-Muslimiin. "Organizational Structure Of Islam," The Islamic Center of Columbia (South Carolina). Accessed 07 December 2013. * ^ Murtada Mutahhari, The Role of Ijtihad in Legislation, Al- Tawhid volume IV, No.2, Publisher: Islamic Thought Foundation * ^ Meinhaj Hussain, A New Medina, The Legal System, Grande Strategy, January 5th, 2012 * ^ Ignác Goldziher , _The Zahiris_, pg. 5. Trns. Wolfgang Behn, intro. Camilla Adang .Volume three of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden : Brill Publishers , 2008. ISBN 9789004162419 * ^ "Law, Islamic". _ Encyclopedia.com _. Retrieved 13 March 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Chibli Mallat, _Introduction to Middle Eastern Law_, pg. 116. Oxford
Oxford
: Oxford
Oxford
University Press , 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-923049-5 * ^ Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from _The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought_, pg. 172. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell , 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7848-8 * ^ "AmmanMessage.com – The Official Site". * ^ Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Riad Nourallah, _The future of Islam_, Routledge, 2002, page 199 * ^ "Sunni Islam
Islam
Afterlife and Salvation". * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ LXVI * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XVIII * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XXIX * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XXXIII * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XXXV * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XXXIX * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XLI * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XLII * ^ _A_ _B_ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ LII * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ LVII * ^ _A_ _B_ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ LXVII * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ LXXIII * ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XCIII * ^ _A_ _B_ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ XCVIII-IX * ^ _A_ _B_ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, _Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya_ C * ^ J. B. Schlubach. "Fethullah Gülen and Al-Ghazzali on Tolerance". Retrieved 2010-01-07. * ^ "Maturidiyyah". _Philtar_. Retrieved 2006-04-01. * ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). _ Theology and Creed
Creed
in Sunni Islam: The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Ash\'arism, and Political Sunnism_. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 36. ISBN 9781137473578 . The Atharis can thus be described as a school or movement led by a contingent of scholars (_ulama_), typically Hanbalite or even Shafi\'ite , which retained influence, or at the very least a shared sentiment and conception of piety, well beyond the limited range of Hanbalite communities. This body of scholars continued to reject theology in favor of strict textualism well after Ash'arism had infiltrated the Sunni schools of law. It is for these reasons that we must delineate the existence of a distinctly traditionalist, anti-theological movement, which defies strict identtification with any particular _madhhab_, and therefore cannot be described as Hanbalite. * ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). _ Theology and Creed
Creed
in Sunni Islam: The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism_. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 36. ISBN 9781137473578 . * ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). _ Theology and Creed
Creed
in Sunni Islam: The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism_. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 36–37. ISBN 9781137473578 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). _A History of Islamic Societies_. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 130. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9 . * ^ Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). _A History of Islamic Societies_. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9 . * ^ Blankinship, Khalid (2008). Tim Winter, ed. _The early creed_. The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 53. * ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). _ Theology and Creed
Creed
in Sunni Islam: The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism_. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 35. ISBN 9781137473578 . * ^ Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2009). _Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World_. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). p. 180. The Ash‘ari school of theology is often called the Sunni 'orthodoxy.' But the original ahl al-hadith, early Sunni creed from which Ash‘arism evolved has continued to thrive alongside it as a rival Sunni 'orthodoxy' as well. * ^ Hoover, Jon (2014). "Ḥanbalī Theology". In Sabine Schmidtke. _The Oxford
Oxford
Handbook of Islamic Theology_. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 625. (Subscription required (help)). * ^ "Is orthodox Islam
Islam
possible without Sufism? - Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad (Dr. Timothy Winter)". youtube.com. 13 May 2015. * ^ "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown - What is Sufism?". youtube.com. 27 Decemeber 2015. Check date values in: date= (help ) * ^ "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown - What is Sufism?". youtube.com. 13 May 2015. * ^ "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown - What is Sufism?". youtube.com. 13 May 2015. * ^ Jonathan A.C. Brown, Misquoting Muhammad
Muhammad
(London: Oneworld Publications, 2015), p. 254 * ^ "Is orthodox Islam
Islam
possible without Sufism? - Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad (Dr. Timothy Winter)". youtube.com. 13 May 2015. * ^ "Is orthodox Islam
Islam
possible without Sufism? - Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad (Dr. Timothy Winter)". youtube.com. 13 May 2015. * ^ "Profile of Sheikh Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Tayyeb on_The Muslim 500_". _The Muslim
Muslim
500: The World's Most Influential Muslims_. * ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, _The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr_, ed. William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), p. 76 * ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, _The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr_, ed. William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), p. 76 * ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, _The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr_, ed. William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), p. 76 * ^ Martin Lings, _What is Sufism?_ (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.16 * ^ Martin Lings, _What is Sufism?_ (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.16 * ^ "Is orthodox Islam
Islam
possible without Sufism? - Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad (Dr. Timothy Winter)". youtube.com. 13 May 2015. * ^ "Profile of Sheikh Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Tayyeb on_The Muslim 500_". _The Muslim
Muslim
500: The World's Most Influential Muslims_. * ^ Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W.C., Jong, F. de., Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: _Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition_, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs; _q.v._ "Hanafi," "Hanbali," and "Maliki," and under "mysticism in..." for each. * ^ Titus Burckhardt, _Introduction to Sufi Doctrine_ (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2008, p. 4, note 2 * ^ Jeffrey Halverson, _ Theology and Creed
Creed
in Sunni Islam_, 2010, p. 48

FURTHER READING

* Branon Wheeler, Applying the Canon in