Coordinates: 6°07′26″S 106°48′31″E / 6.123871°S
106.80861°E / -6.123871; 106.80861
Sunda Kelapa (Sundanese:
ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮜᮕ, Sunda Kalapa) is the old port of Jakarta
located on the estuarine of Ciliwung River. "Sunda Kalapa" (Sundanese:
"Coconut of Sunda") is the original name, and it was the main port of
Sunda Kingdom of Pajajaran. The port is situated in Penjaringan
sub-district, of North Jakarta, Indonesia. Today the old port only
accommodate pinisi, a traditional two masted wooden sailing ship
serving inter-island freight service in the archipelago. Although it
is now only a minor port,
Jakarta has its origins in
Sunda Kelapa and
it played a significant role in the city's development.
2 See also
5 External links
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar commemorating a treaty
between the kingdoms of
Portugal and Sunda in Indonesian National
The Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1200, Chou Ju-kua
identified the two most powerful and richest kingdoms in the
Indonesian archipelago as
Sriwijaya and Java (Kediri). According to
this source, in the early 13th Century,
Sriwijaya still ruled Sumatra,
the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda). The source identifies
the port as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the
best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses
were built on wooden poles (rumah panggung). However, robbers and
thieves plagued the country. However it was uncertain which port of
Sunda was referred to by Chou Ju-kua, it probably referred to the port
of Banten, and not Kalapa.
From the 13th to 16th century
Sunda Kelapa was the main port of Sunda
Kingdom. The port served the capital, Pakuan Pajajaran, located about
60 km inland south, along the Ciliwung river hinterland, now the
site of modern Bogor. The port thrived on international spice trade
especially pepper, the main spice produce of the Sunda kingdom. Sunda
Kelapa, together with Aceh and Makassar, were one of the few
Indonesian ports that maintained ties with Europe.
By 1511, the Portuguese had conquered Malacca and established the
earliest European colony in Southeast Asia. According to Suma
Oriental, written in 1512–1515, Tomé Pires, a Portuguese explorer
reported about the importance of the port of Calapa which corresponds
to the port of Sunda Kalapa.
"The port of Calapa is a magnificent port. It is the most important
and best of all. This is where the trade is greatest and whither they
all sail from Sumatra, and Palembang, Laue, Tamjompura, Malacca,
Macassar, Java and Madura and many other places. … This port is two
days’ journey from the city of Dayo where the king is always in
residence, so that this is the one to be considered the most
In 1522, the Portuguese secured a politics and economic agreement with
the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda, the authority of the port. In exchange for
military assistance against the threat of the rising Islamic Javan
Sultanate of Demak, Prabu Surawisesa, king of Sunda at that time,
granted them free access to the pepper trade. Portuguese who were in
the service of the sovereign, made their homes in Sunda Kelapa.
However, in 1527, Fatahillah, on behalf of the Demak attacked the
Sunda Kelapa and succeeded in conquering the harbour on
June 22, 1527, after which
Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta.
Later, the port became a part of the Banten Sultanate.
In 1619, Jan Pieterszoon Coen, an official working for the Dutch East
India Company, seized the port of Jayakarta from the Sultanate of
Banten and raized the city. From the ashes of Jayakarta, the Dutch
built a new city, Batavia. The old port served as the main port of
Batavia until the late 19th century, when the Netherlands East Indies
government decided to build a new
Tanjung Priok port to accommodate
the increasing traffic as a result of the opening of the Suez
Canal. The new port is located 9 kilometers to the east from the
old port. After the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, the
Batavia old port was renamed back to its original name, Sunda Kelapa,
as a tribute to the long history of the port as the cradle of Jakarta.
Old warehouses near
Sunda Kelapa port, now the (Maritime Museum).
Jakarta Old Town
^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan
2nd ed. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 60.
^ Pires, Tome (1990) [1512–1515]. "The
Suma Oriental of Tome Pires:
An Account of the East, from Red Sea to China". Armando Cortesão. New
Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 166.
ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
^ "History of Jakarta". BeritaJakarta.
^ Cobban, James L. 1985. The ephemeral historic district in Jakarta.
Geographical Review 75(3):300-318.
Jan Gonda, 1951, Sanskrit in Indonesia. (in English)
Adolf Heuken SJ dan Grace Pamungkas, 2000, Galangan Kapal Batavia
selama tiga ratus tahun. Jakarta:Cipta Loka Caraka/Sunda Kelapa
Lestari (in Indonesian)
Supratikno Rahardjo et al., 1996,
Sunda Kelapa sebagai Bandar di Jalur
Sutra. Laporan Penelitian. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan
Kebudayaan RI (in Indonesian)
Thomas B. Ataladjar dan Sudiyono, 1991, 'Sunda Kelapa' di Ensiklopedi
Nasional Indonesia. Jakarta: Cipta Adi Pustaka (in Indonesian)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sunda Kelapa.
Menyusuri Kota Tua Jakarta, Pikiran Rakyat (in Indonesian)
Sunda Kelapa yang Terabaik