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The SUI DYNASTY (Chinese : 隋朝; pinyin : _Suí cháo_) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China
China
of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese
Han Chinese
in the entirety of China
China
proper , along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (the Five Barbarians ) within its territory. It was succeeded by the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, which largely inherited its foundation.

Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
, the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
capital was Chang\'an (which was renamed Daxing, 581–605) and later Luoyang
Luoyang
(605–618). Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various centralized reforms, most notably the equal-field system , intended to reduce economic inequality and improve agricultural productivity ; the institution of the Three Departments and Six Ministriessystem; and the standardization and re-unification of the coinage. They also spread and encouraged Buddhism
Buddhism
throughout the empire. By the middle of the dynasty, the newly unified empire entered a golden age of prosperity with vast agricultural surplus that supported rapid population growth .

A lasting legacy of the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
was the Grand Canal . With the eastern capital Luoyang
Luoyang
at the center of the network, it linked the west-lying capital Chang\'an to the economic and agricultural centers of the east towards Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, and to the northern border near modern Beijing
Beijing
. While the pressing initial motives were for shipment of grains to the capital, and for transporting troops and military logistics , the reliable inland shipment links would facilitate domestic trades, flow of people and cultural exchange for centuries, Along with the extension of the Great Wall , and the construction of the eastern capital city of Luoyang
Luoyang
, these mega projects, led by an efficient centralized bureaucracy, would amass millions of conscripted workers from the large population base, at heavy cost of human lives.

After a series of costly and disastrous military campaigns against Goguryeo
Goguryeo
, one of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
of Korea , ended in defeat by 614, the dynasty disintegrated under a series of popular revolts culminating in the assassination of Emperor Yang by his ministers in 618. The dynasty, which lasted only thirty-seven years, was undermined by ambitious wars and construction projects, which overstretched its resources. Particularly, under Emperor Yang , heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties would eventually induce widespread revolts and brief civil war following the fall of the dynasty.

The dynasty is often compared to the earlier Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
for unifying China
China
after prolonged division. Wide-ranging reforms and construction projects were undertaken to consolidate the newly unified state, with long-lasting influences beyond their short dynastic reigns.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Emperor Wen and the founding of Sui * 1.2 Emperor Yang and the reconquest of Vietnam
Vietnam
* 1.3 Goguryeo-Sui wars * 1.4 Fall of the Sui Dynasty

* 2 Culture

* 2.1 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.2 Poetry

* 3 Rulers * 4 Family tree of the Sui emperors * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

HISTORY

EMPEROR WEN AND THE FOUNDING OF SUI

Sui's China, and Sui divisions under Yangdi (western regions not depicted).

Towards the late Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
, the Northern Zhou conquered the Northern Qi
Northern Qi
in 577 and reunified northern China, The century trend of gradual conquest of the southern dynasties of the Han Chinese from the northern dynasties, which were ruled of ethnic minority Xianbei
Xianbei
, would become inevitable. By this time, the later founder of Sui dynasty, Yang Jian , of ethnic Han Chinese, became the regent to the court of Northern Zhou, as his daughter was the Empress Dowager following her stepson being installed the emperor as a child. After crushing an army in the eastern provinces, Yang Jian usurped the throne to become Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
. While formerly the Duke of Sui (隨) when serving at the Zhou court, where the character "Sui (隨)" literally means "to follow" and implies loyalty, Emperor Wen created the unique character "Sui (隋)", morphed from the character of his former duke title, as the name of his newly founded dynasty. In a bloody purge, he had fifty-nine princes of the Zhou royal family eliminated, yet nevertheless became known as the "Cultured Emperor". Emperor Wen abolished the anti-Han policies of Zhou and reclaimed his Han surname of Yang. Having won the support of Confucian scholars who held power in previous Han dynasties (abandoning the nepotism and corruption of the nine-rank system ), Emperor Wen initiated a series of reforms aimed at strengthening his empire for the wars that would reunify China.

In his campaign for southern conquest, Emperor Wen assembled thousands of boats to confront the naval forces of the Chen dynasty
Chen dynasty
on the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
. The largest of these ships were very tall, having five layered decks and the capacity for 800 non-crew personnel. They were outfitted with six 50-foot-long booms that were used to swing and damage enemy ships, or to pin them down so that Sui marine troops could use act-and-board techniques. :89 Besides employing Xianbei
Xianbei
and other Chinese ethnic groups for the fight against Chen, Emperor Wen also employed the service of people from southeastern Sichuan
Sichuan
, which Sui had recently conquered. :89

In 588, the Sui had amassed 518,000 troops along the northern bank of the Yangtze River, stretching from Sichuan
Sichuan
to the East China
China
Sea . The Chen dynasty
Chen dynasty
could not withstand such an assault. By 589, Sui troops entered Jiankang ( Nanjing
Nanjing
) and the last emperor of Chen surrendered. The city was razed to the ground, while Sui troops escorted Chen nobles back north, where the northern aristocrats became fascinated with everything the south had to provide culturally and intellectually.

Although Emperor Wen was famous for bankrupting the state treasury with warfare and construction projects, he made many improvements to infrastructure during his early reign. He established granaries as sources of food and as a means to regulate market prices from the taxation of crops, much like the earlier Han dynasty
Han dynasty
. The large agricultural surplus supported rapid growth of population to historical peak, which was only surpassed at the zenith of Tang Dynasty more than a century later.

The state capital of Chang\'an (Daxing) , while situated in a military-secured heartland of Guanzhong, was remote from the economic centers to the east and south of the empire. Emperor Wen initiated the construction of the Grand Canal , with completion of the first (and the shortest) route that directly linked Chang'an
Chang'an
to the Yellow River (Huang He) . Later Emperor Yang would enormously enlarge the scale of the Grand Canal construction.

Externally, the emerging nomadic Turkic (Tujue) Khaganate in the north posed a major threat to the newly founded dynasty. With Emperor Wen's diplomatic maneuver, the Khaganate split into Eastern and Western halves. Later the Great Wall was consolidated to further secure the northern territory. At Emperor Wen's late years, the first war with the Korean Kingdom, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
, ended with defeat. Nevertheless, the celebrated "Reign of Kaihuang (era name of Emperor Wen)" was considered by historians as one of the apexes in the two millennium imperial period of Chinese history.

The Sui Emperors were from the northwest military aristocracy, and emphasized that their patrilineal ancestry was ethnic Han, claiming descent from the Han official Yang Zhen. and the New Book of Tang traced his patrilineal ancestry to the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
kings via the Dukes of Jin .

The Yang of Hongnong 弘農楊氏 were asserted as ancestors by the Sui Emperors like the Longxi Li's were asserted as ancestors of the Tang Emperors. The Li of Zhaojun and the Lu of Fanyang hailed from Shandong and were related to the Liu clan which was also linked to the Yang of Hongnong and other clans of Guanlong. The Dukes of Jin were claimed as the ancestors of the Hongnong Yang.

The Yang of Hongnong, Jia of Hedong, Xiang of Henei, and Wang of Taiyuan from the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
were claimed as ancestors by Song dynasty lineages.

Information about these major political events in China
China
were somehow filtered west and reached the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the east. From Turkic peoples of Central Asia the Eastern Romans derived a new name for China
China
after the older _ Sinae
Sinae
_ and _ Serica_: _Taugast _ (Old Turkic : _Tabghach _), during its Northern Wei
Northern Wei
(386–535) period. The 7th-century Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocattawrote a generally accurate depiction of the reunification of China
China
by Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
Dynasty, with the conquest of the rival Chen Dynasty in southern China. Simocatta correctly placed these events within the reign period of Byzantine ruler Maurice . Simocatta also provided cursory information about the geography of China
China
, its division by the Yangzi River
Yangzi River
and its capital _Khubdan_ (from Old Turkic _Khumdan_, i.e. Chang'an) along with its customs and culture , deeming its people "idolatrous " but wise in governance. He noted that the ruler was named "Taisson", which he claimed meant "Son of God", perhaps Chinese _Tianzi_ ( Son of Heaven) or even the name of the contemporary ruler Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang
.

EMPEROR YANG AND THE RECONQUEST OF VIETNAM

Main article: Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui
Further information: Third Chinese domination of Vietnam
Vietnam
A Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
pilgrim flask made of stoneware . A Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
stone statue of the Avalokitesvara Boddhisattva
Boddhisattva
( Guanyin
Guanyin
).

Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui
(569–618) ascended the throne after his father's death, possibly by murder. He further extended the empire, but unlike his father, did not seek to gain support from the nomads. Instead, he restored Confucian education and the Confucian examination system for bureaucrats. By supporting educational reforms, he lost the support of the nomads. He also started many expensive construction projects such as the Grand Canal of China
China
, and became embroiled in several costly wars. Between these policies, invasions into China
China
from Turkic nomads, and his growing life of decadent luxury at the expense of the peasantry, he lost public support and was eventually assassinated by his own ministers.

Both Emperors Wen and Yang sent military expeditions into Vietnam
Vietnam
as Annam in northern Vietnam
Vietnam
had been incorporated into the Chinese empire over 600 years earlier during the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(202 BC – 220 AD). However the Kingdom of Champa
Champa
in central Vietnam
Vietnam
became a major counterpart to Chinese invasions to its north. According to Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais, these invasions became known as the Linyi-Champa Campaign (602–605).

The Hanoi
Hanoi
area formerly held by the Han and Jin dynasties was easily recovered from the local ruler in 602. A few years later the Sui army pushed farther south and was attacked by troops on war elephants from Champa
Champa
in southern Vietnam. The Sui army feigned retreat and dug pits to trap the elephants, lured the Champan troops to attack then used crossbows against the elephants causing them to turn around and trample their own soldiers. Although Sui troops were victorious many succumbed to disease as northern soldiers did not have immunity to tropical diseases such as malaria . :90

GOGURYEO-SUI WARS

Main article: Goguryeo-Sui Wars

The Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
led a series of massive expeditions to invade Goguryeo
Goguryeo
, one of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
of Korea . Emperor Yang conscripted many soldiers for the campaign. This army was so enormous it recorded in historical texts that it took 30 days for all the armies to exit their last rallying point near Shanhaiguan before invading Goguryeo. In one instance the soldiers—both conscripted and paid—listed over 3000 warships, up to 1.15 million infantry, 50,000 cavalry, 5000 artillery, and more. The army stretched to 1000 _li _ or about 410 km (250 mi) across rivers and valleys, over mountains and hills. Each of the four military expeditions ended in failure, incurring a substantial financial and manpower deficit from which the Sui would never recover. Map of China
China
in Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty

FALL OF THE SUI DYNASTY

_ Chinese swords of the Sui dynasty, about 600, found near Luoyang
Luoyang
. The P-shaped furniture of the bottom sword's scabbard is similar to and may have been derived from sword scabbards of the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Sassanians
Sassanians
. Strolling About in Spring_, by Zhan Ziqian, Sui era artist.

One of the major work projects undertaken by the Sui was construction activities along the Great Wall of China
China
; but this, along with other large projects, strained the economy and angered the resentful workforce employed. During the last few years of the Sui dynasty, the rebellion that rose against it took many of China's able-bodied men from rural farms and other occupations, which in turn damaged the agricultural base and the economy further. Men would deliberately break their limbs in order to avoid military conscription , calling the practice "propitious paws" and "fortunate feet." Later, after the fall of Sui, in the year 642, Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang
made an effort to eradicate this practice by issuing a decree of a stiffer punishment for those who were found to deliberately injure and heal themselves.

Although the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
was relatively short (581-618), much was accomplished during its tenure. The Grand Canal was one of the main accomplishments. It was extended north from the Hangzhou
Hangzhou
region across the Yangzi to Yangzhou and then northwest to the region of Luoyang. Again, like the Great Wall works, the massive conscription of labor and allocation of resources for the Grand Canal project resulted in challenges for Sui dynastic continuity. The eventual fall of the Sui dynasty was also due to the many losses caused by the failed military campaigns against Goguryeo. It was after these defeats and losses that the country was left in ruins and rebels soon took control of the government. Emperor Yang was assassinated in 618. He had gone South after the capital being threatened by various rebel groups and was killed by his advisors (Yuwen Clan). Meanwhile, in the North, the aristocrat Li Yuan (李淵) held an uprising after which he ended up ascending the throne to become Emperor Gaozu of Tang
Emperor Gaozu of Tang
. This was the start of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, one of the most-noted dynasties in Chinese history.

There were Dukedoms for the offspring of the royal families of the Zhou dynasty, Sui dynasty, and Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
in the Later Jin (Five Dynasties) . This practice was referred to as 二王三恪.

CULTURE

Model of a Pipa
Pipa
Player, Sui Dynasty

Although the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
was relatively short-lived, in terms of culture, it represents a transition from the preceding ages, and many cultural developments which can be seen to be incipient during the Sui dynasty later were expanded and consolidated during the ensuing Tang dynasty , and later ages. This includes not only the major public works initiated, such as the Great Wall and the Great Canal, but also the political system developed by Sui, which was adopted by Tang with little initial change other than at the top of the political hierarchy. Other cultural developments of the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
included religion and literature, particular examples being Buddhism
Buddhism
and poetry.

Rituals and sacrifices were conducted by the Sui.

BUDDHISM

Buddhism
Buddhism
was popular during the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
and Northern and Southern dynasties period that preceded the Sui dynasty, spreading from India
India
through Kushan
Kushan
Afghanistan into China
China
during the Late Han period. Buddhism
Buddhism
gained prominence during the period when central political control was limited. Buddhism
Buddhism
created a unifying cultural force that uplifted the people out of war and into the Sui dynasty. In many ways, Buddhism
Buddhism
was responsible for the rebirth of culture in China
China
under the Sui dynasty.

While early Buddhist teachings were acquired from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
sutras from India, it was during the late Six dynasties and Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
that local Chinese schools of Buddhist thoughts started to flourish. Most notably, Zhiyi
Zhiyi
founded the Tiantai
Tiantai
school and completed the Great treatise on Concentration and Insight , within which he taught the principle of "Three Thousand Realms in a Single moment of Life " as the essence of Buddhist teaching outlined in the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
.

Emperor Wen and his empress had converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
to legitimize imperial authority over China
China
and the conquest of Chen. The emperor presented himself as a Cakravartinking, a Buddhist monarch who would use military force to defend the Buddhist faith. In the year 601 AD, Emperor Wen had relics of the Buddha distributed to temples throughout China, with edicts that expressed his goals, "all the people within the Four Seas
Four Seas
may, without exception, develop enlightenment and together cultivate fortunate karma, bringing it to pass that present existences will lead to happy future lives, that the sustained creation of good causation will carry us one and all up to wondrous enlightenment". :89 Ultimately, this act was an imitation of the ancient Mauryan
Mauryan
Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
of India
India
. :89

POETRY

Yang Guang depicted as Emperor of Sui. Further information: Six Dynasties poetry
Six Dynasties poetry
and Tang poetry
Tang poetry

Although poetry continued to be written, and certain poets rose in prominence while others disappeared from the landscape, the brief Sui dynasty, in terms of the development of Chinese poetry, lacks distinction, though it nonetheless represents a continuity between the Six Dynasties and the poetry of Tang. Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
poets include Yang Guang (580-618), who was the last Sui emperor (and a sort of poetry critic ); and also, the Lady Hou, one of his consorts.

RULERS

POSTHUMOUS NAME (SHI HAO 諡號) _Convention: "Sui" + name_ BIRTH NAME PERIOD OF REIGN ERA NAMES (NIAN HAO 年號) AND THEIR ACCORDING RANGE OF YEARS

Wéndì (文帝) Yáng Jiān (楊堅) 581-604 Kāihuáng (開皇) 581-600 Rénshòu (仁壽) 601-604

Yángdì (煬帝) or Míngdì (明帝) Yáng Guǎng (楊廣) 604-618 Dàyè (大業) 605-618

Gōngdì (恭帝) Yáng Yòu (楊侑) 617-618 Yìníng (義寧) 617-618

Gōngdì (恭帝) Yáng Tóng (楊侗) 618-619 Huángtài (皇泰) 618-619

FAMILY TREE OF THE SUI EMPERORS

EMPERORS FAMILY TREE

Dugu Xin 獨孤信

_SUI DYNASTY_

Yang Jian 楊坚 541–604 WENDI 文帝 581–604 Dugu Qieluo 獨孤伽羅 544–602 Empress Xian 獻皇后

Duchess Dugu

Li Bing 李昺 d. 572 Duke of Tang 唐國公

1

2

3

4

5

_TANG DYNASTY_

Yang Yong 楊勇 d. 604 Prince of Fangling 房陵王 Yang Guang 楊廣 569–618 YANGDI 煬帝 604–617 Yang Jun 楊俊 571–600 Prince of Qin 秦孝王 Yang Xiu 楊秀 573–618 Yang Liang 楊諒 575–605 Li Yuan 李淵 566–635 GAOZU 高祖 618–626

1

2

3

Yang Zhao楊昭 584–606 Cr.Prince Yuande 元德太子 Yang Jian 楊暕 585–618 Prince of Qi 齊王 Yang Gao 楊杲 607–618 Prince of Zhao 趙王 YANG HAO 楊浩 d. 618 Prince of Qin 秦王 618?

1

2

3

Yang Tan 楊倓 603–618 Prince of Yan 燕王 Yang Tong楊侗 605–619 GONGDI 恭帝 618–619 Yang You 楊侑 605–619 GONGDI 恭帝 617–618

SEE ALSO

* Chinese sovereign * Extreme weather events of 535–536 * Grand Canal of China
China
* History of China
China
* List of tributaries of Imperial China
China
* List of ancient Chinese * Anji Bridge

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ In 617, the rebel general Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang
Emperor Gaozu of Tang
) declared Emperor Yang's grandson Yang You emperor (as Emperor Gong ) and "honored" Emperor Yang as _Taishang Huang _ (retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing
Daxing
(Chang\'an ), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing
Daxing
and the eastern capital Luoyang
Luoyang
, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, but the Sui officials at Luoyang
Luoyang
declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong(later also known as Emperor Gong during the brief reign of Wang Shichongover the region as the emperor of a brief Zheng (鄭) state) emperor. Meanwhile, Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, declared Emperor Wen's grandson Yang Hao emperor but killed Yang Hao later in 618 and declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (許) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor of Sui, while Yang Tong's legitimacy is more recognized by historians but still disputed. * ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". _Social Science History_. 3 (3/4): 129. doi :10.2307/1170959 . Retrieved 16 September 2016. * ^ CIHoCn, p.114 : « dug between 605 and 609 by means of enormous levies of conscripted labour ». * ^ "Koguryo". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved October 15, 2013. * ^ Byeon, Tae-seop (1999) 韓國史通論 (Outline of Korean history), 4th ed, Unknown Publisher, ISBN 89-445-9101-6 . * ^ "Complex of Koguryo Tombs". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2013-10-24. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Ebrey, Patricia; Walthall, Ann; Palais, James (2009). _East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History_. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
. ISBN 978-0-547-00534-8 . * ^ _ Zizhi Tongjian
Zizhi Tongjian
_, vol. 176. * ^ ' Book of Sui_, vol. 1_ * ^ _ New Book of Tang_, zh:s:新唐書 * ^ Howard L. Goodman (2010). _Xun Xu and the Politics of Precision in Third-Century Ad China_. BRILL. pp. 81–. ISBN 90-04-18337-X . * ^ _Bulletin_. The Museum. 1992. p. 154. * ^ Jo-Shui Chen (2 November 2006). _Liu Tsung-yüan and Intellectual Change in T\'ang China, 773-819_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-0-521-03010-6 . * ^ Peter Bol (1 August 1994). _"This Culture of Ours": Intellectual Transitions in T?ang and Sung China_. Stanford University Press. pp. 505–. ISBN 978-0-8047-6575-6 . * ^ _Asia Major_. Institute of History and Philology of the Academia Sinica. 1995. p. 57. * ^ R. W. L. Guisso (December 1978). _Wu Tse-T\'len and the politics of legitimation in T\'ang China_. Western Washington. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-914584-90-2 . * ^ Jo-Shui Chen (2 November 2006). _Liu Tsung-yüan and Intellectual Change in T\'ang China, 773-819_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-0-521-03010-6 . * ^ 《氏族志》 * ^ Peter Bol (1 August 1994). _"This Culture of Ours": Intellectual Transitions in T?ang and Sung China_. Stanford University Press. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-0-8047-6575-6 . * ^ Luttwak, Edward N. (2009). _The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire_. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03519-5 , p. 168. * ^ _A_ _B_ Yule, Henry (1915). Henri Cordier (ed.), _Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Vol I: Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse Between China
China
and the Western Nations Previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route_. London: Hakluyt Society. Accessed 21 September 2016, pp 29-31. * ^ Yule, Henry (1915). Henri Cordier (ed.), _Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Vol I: Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse Between China
China
and the Western Nations Previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route_. London: Hakluyt Society. Accessed 21 September 2016, p. 29; also footnote #4 on p. 29. * ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
permanent exhibit notice. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Benn, 2. * ^ Ouyang, Xiu (5 April 2004). _Historical Records of the Five Dynasties_. Richard L. Davis, translator. Columbia University Press. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-231-50228-3 . * ^ John Lagerwey; Pengzhi Lü (30 October 2009). _Early Chinese Religion: The Period of Division (220-589 Ad)_. BRILL. pp. 84–. ISBN 90-04-17585-7 . * ^ *Watson, Burton (1971). _CHINESE LYRICISM: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century_. (New York: Columbia University Press). ISBN 0-231-03464-4 , p. 109.

FURTHER READING

* Bingham, Woodbridge. 1941. _The Founding of the T'ang_ The Sui dynasty: The Unification of China. A.D. 581-617_. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-394-49187-4 ; 0-394-32332-7._ * Wright, Arthur F. (1979). "The Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
(581–617)". In Twitchett, Dennis. _The Cambridge History of China, Volume 3: Sui and T'ang China, 589–906, Part I_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 48–149. ISBN 978-0-521-21446-9 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to SUI DYNASTY _.

* Classical Imperial China

Preceded by Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
DYNASTIES IN CHINESE HISTORY 581–619 Succeeded by Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty

* v * t * e

Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
topics

TOPICS

* Three Departments and Six Ministries * Goguryeo–Sui War * Third Chinese domination of Vietnam
Vietnam

.