Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of
unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or
threat of harm in an individual.
Suffering is the basic element
that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena. The
opposite of suffering is pleasure or happiness.
Suffering is often categorized as physical or mental. It may
come in all degrees of intensity, from mild to intolerable. Factors of
duration and frequency of occurrence usually compound that of
intensity. Attitudes toward suffering may vary widely, in the sufferer
or other people, according to how much it is regarded as avoidable or
unavoidable, useful or useless, deserved or undeserved.
Suffering occurs in the lives of sentient beings in numerous manners,
often dramatically. As a result, many fields of human activity are
concerned with some aspects of suffering. These aspects may include
the nature of suffering, its processes, its origin and causes, its
meaning and significance, its related personal, social, and cultural
behaviors, its remedies, management, and uses.
4 Arts and literature
5 Social sciences
6 Biology, neurology, psychology
7 Health care
8 Relief and prevention in society
10 See also
11 Selected bibliography
12 Notes and references
The word suffering is sometimes used in the narrow sense of physical
pain, but more often it refers to mental pain, or more often yet it
refers to pain in the broad sense, i.e. to any unpleasant feeling,
emotion or sensation. The word pain usually refers to physical pain,
but it is also a common synonym of suffering. The words pain and
suffering are often used both together in different ways. For
instance, they may be used as interchangeable synonyms. Or they may be
used in 'contradistinction' to one another, as in "pain is physical,
suffering is mental", or "pain is inevitable, suffering is optional".
Or they may be used to define each other, as in "pain is physical
suffering", or "suffering is severe physical or mental pain".
Qualifiers, such as physical, mental, emotional, and psychological,
are often used to refer to certain types of pain or suffering. In
particular, mental pain (or suffering) may be used in relationship
with physical pain (or suffering) for distinguishing between two wide
categories of pain or suffering. A first caveat concerning such a
distinction is that it uses physical pain in a sense that normally
includes not only the 'typical sensory experience of physical pain'
but also other unpleasant bodily experiences including air hunger,
hunger, vestibular suffering, nausea, sleep deprivation, and itching.
A second caveat is that the terms physical or mental should not be
taken too literally: physical pain or suffering, as a matter of fact,
happens through conscious minds and involves emotional aspects, while
mental pain or suffering happens through physical brains and, being an
emotion, involves important physiological aspects.
The word unpleasantness, which some people use as a synonym of
suffering or pain in the broad sense, may be used to refer to the
basic affective dimension of pain (its suffering aspect), usually in
contrast with the sensory dimension, as for instance in this sentence:
"Pain-unpleasantness is often, though not always, closely linked to
both the intensity and unique qualities of the painful sensation."
Other current words that have a definition with some similarity to
suffering include distress, unhappiness, misery, affliction, woe, ill,
discomfort, displeasure, disagreeableness.
Part of a series on
Julien Offray de La Mettrie
Theodorus the Atheist
Aristippus the Younger
Metrodorus of Lampsacus
Zeno of Sidon
Schools of hedonism
Paradox of hedonism
Hedonism, as an ethical theory, claims that good and bad consist
ultimately in pleasure and pain. Many hedonists, in accordance with
Epicurus and contrarily to popular perception of his doctrine,
advocate that we should first seek to avoid suffering and that the
greatest pleasure lies in a robust state of profound tranquility
(ataraxia) that is free from the worrisome pursuit or the unwelcome
consequences of ephemeral pleasures.
For Stoicism, the greatest good lies in reason and virtue, but the
soul best reaches it through a kind of indifference (apatheia) to
pleasure and pain: as a consequence, this doctrine has become
identified with stern self-control in regard to suffering.
Part of a series on
Claude Adrien Helvétius
John Stuart Mill
Richard Mervyn Hare
Types of utilitarianism
Mere addition paradox
Paradox of hedonism
Rational choice theory
Jeremy Bentham developed hedonistic utilitarianism, a popular doctrine
in ethics, politics, and economics. Bentham argued that the right act
or policy was that which would cause "the greatest happiness of the
greatest number". He suggested a procedure called hedonic or felicific
calculus, for determining how much pleasure and pain would result from
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill improved and promoted the doctrine of
hedonistic utilitarianism. Karl Popper, in The Open Society and Its
Enemies, proposed a negative utilitarianism, which prioritizes the
reduction of suffering over the enhancement of happiness when speaking
of utility: "I believe that there is, from the ethical point of view,
no symmetry between suffering and happiness, or between pain and
pleasure. (...) human suffering makes a direct moral appeal for help,
while there is no similar call to increase the happiness of a man who
is doing well anyway." David Pearce, for his part, advocates a
utilitarianism that aims straightforwardly at the abolition of
suffering through the use of biotechnology (see more details below in
section Biology, neurology, psychology). Another aspect worthy of
mention here is that many utilitarians since Bentham hold that the
moral status of a being comes from its ability to feel pleasure and
pain: therefore, moral agents should consider not only the interests
of human beings but also those of (other) animals. Richard Ryder came
to the same conclusion in his concepts of 'speciesism' and 'painism'.
Peter Singer's writings, especially the book Animal Liberation,
represent the leading edge of this kind of utilitarianism for animals
as well as for people.
Another doctrine related to the relief of suffering is humanitarianism
(see also humanitarian principles, humanitarian aid, and humane
society). "Where humanitarian efforts seek a positive addition to the
happiness of sentient beings, it is to make the unhappy happy rather
than the happy happier. (...) [Humanitarianism] is an ingredient in
many social attitudes; in the modern world it has so penetrated into
diverse movements (...) that it can hardly be said to exist in
Pessimists hold this world to be mainly bad, or even the worst
possible, plagued with, among other things, unbearable and unstoppable
suffering. Some identify suffering as the nature of the world, and
conclude that it would be better if life did not exist at all. Arthur
Schopenhauer recommends us to take refuge in things like art,
philosophy, loss of the will to live, and tolerance toward
Friedrich Nietzsche, first influenced by Schopenhauer, developed
afterward quite another attitude, arguing that the suffering of life
is productive, exalting the will to power, despising weak compassion
or pity, and recommending us to embrace willfully the 'eternal return'
of the greatest sufferings.
Philosophy of pain is a philosophical specialty that focuses on
physical pain and is, through that, relevant to suffering in general.
Suffering plays an important role in a number of religions, regarding
matters such as the following: consolation or relief; moral conduct
(do no harm, help the afflicted, show compassion); spiritual
advancement through life hardships or through self-imposed trials
(mortification of the flesh, penance, ascetism); ultimate destiny
(salvation, damnation, hell).
Theodicy deals with the problem of evil,
which is the difficulty of reconciling the existence of an omnipotent
and benevolent god with the existence of evil: a quintessential form
of evil, for many people, is extreme suffering, especially in innocent
children, or in creatures destined to an eternity of torments (see
problem of hell).
The 'Four Noble Truths' of
Buddhism are about dukkha, a term often
translated as suffering. They state the nature of suffering, its
cause, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation, the Noble
Buddhism considers liberation from dukkha and the
practice of compassion (karuna) as basic for leading a holy life and
Hinduism holds that suffering follows naturally from personal negative
behaviors in one’s current life or in a past life (see karma in
Hinduism). One must accept suffering as a just consequence and as
an opportunity for spiritual progress. Thus the soul or true self,
which is eternally free of any suffering, may come to manifest itself
in the person, who then achieves liberation (moksha). Abstinence from
causing pain or harm to other beings (ahimsa) is a central tenet of
Suffering is thought to be an inclusive effect of human
experience. Beyond this, Hindus are looking to achieve enlightenment
and end human suffering by answering questions about life. This will
lead to a unity in God as well as find the meaning of their suffering,
ultimately achieving bliss.
Christianity also believes that human suffering plays an important
role in religion.
Suffering is only to be thought of as a positive
experience in the case of achieving a higher meaning of life, such as
Jesus suffering for the lives of other people as was the case during
Suffering is the time to find God and value faith while
doing so. This allows Christians to face reality of human experience
with suffering and find an understanding in the divine.
Hinduism and Christianity embrace similar aspects in suffering. Both
religions realize the need for God as well as the moral significance
for God that suffering provides. This allows enlightenment to be
reached and suffering to be seen in the conditions that faith entails
rather than an issue. These human experiences with suffering in both
Hinduism and Christianity help educators to emphasize the need for
dialogue and religious education in schools.
In Islam, the faithful must endure suffering with hope and faith, not
resist or ask why, accept it as Allah's will and submit to it as a
test of faith (Allah never asks more than can be endured). One must
also work to alleviate suffering of others, as well as one's own.
Suffering is also seen as a blessing in
Islam for the mankind .
Through the gift of suffering the Veil of Forgetfulness is torn apart
and the sufferer remembers God and connects with him. When people
suffer God makes them think of him. Several Islamic Prophet Muhammad's
traditions state that, suffering expunges the sins of mankind and
cleanses their soul for the immense reward in afterlife.
Book of Job
Book of Job reflects on the nature and meaning of
suffering. It is supplemented in the Hebrew bible by the passages
found in the Book of Isaiah and the Book of Jeremiah which elaborate
the emotional and physical suffering of a conquered nation with its
vanquished inhabitants forced into the suffering of exile and
captivity in a foreign land.
In the New Testament, suffering is portrayed both in the life of Jesus
portrayed in the Synoptics, which narrate the suffering of the
crucifixion, and in the post-Easter narratives. The suffering
associated with punishment is further portrayed in the Apocalypse of
John where suffering at the scene of the Last Judgment is depicted as
the just recompense for sin and wrongdoing. Pope John Paul II wrote
"On the Christian Meaning of Human Suffering". This meaning
revolves around the notion of redemptive suffering.
According to the Bahá'í Faith, all suffering is a brief and
temporary manifestation of physical life, whose source is the material
aspects of physical existence, and often attachment to them, whereas
only joy exists in the spiritual worlds. In the words of
`Abdu'l-Bahá, "All these examples are to show you that the trials
which beset our every step, all our sorrow, pain, shame and grief, are
born in the world of matter; whereas the spiritual Kingdom never
causes sadness. A man living with his thoughts in this Kingdom knows
perpetual joy. The ills all flesh is heir to do not pass him by, but
they only touch the surface of his life, the depths are calm and
serene." (Paris Talks, p. 110).
Arts and literature
Artistic and literary works often engage with suffering, sometimes at
great cost to their creators or performers. The Literature, Arts, and
Medicine Database offers a list of such works under the categories
art, film, literature, and theater. Be it in the tragic, comic or
other genres, art and literature offer means to alleviate (and perhaps
also exacerbate) suffering, as argued for instance in Harold
Suffering and the remedy of art.
Landscape with the Fall of Icarus
by Pieter Brueghel the Elder
This Brueghel painting is among those that inspired W. H. Auden's poem
Musée des Beaux Arts :
About suffering they were never wrong,
The Old Masters; how well, they understood
Its human position; how it takes place
While someone else is eating or opening a window or just walking dully
In Breughel's Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away
Quite leisurely from the disaster; (...) 
Social suffering, according to
Arthur Kleinman and others, describes
"collective and individual human suffering associated with life
conditions shaped by powerful social forces". Such suffering is an
increasing concern in medical anthropology, ethnography, mass media
analysis, and Holocaust studies, says Iain Wilkinson, who is
developing a sociology of suffering.
Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential
Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a work by
the Union of International Associations. Its main databases are about
world problems (56,564 profiles), global strategies and solutions
(32,547 profiles), human values (3,257 profiles), and human
development (4,817 profiles). It states that "the most fundamental
entry common to the core parts is that of pain (or suffering)" and
"common to the core parts is the learning dimension of new
understanding or insight in response to suffering".
Ralph G.H. Siu, an American author, urged in 1988 the "creation of a
new and vigorous academic discipline, called panetics, to be devoted
to the study of the infliction of suffering", The International
Society for Panetics was founded in 1991 to study and develop ways to
reduce the infliction of human suffering by individuals acting through
professions, corporations, governments, and other social groups.
In economics, the following notions relate not only to the matters
suggested by their positive appellations, but to the matter of
suffering as well: Well-being or Quality of life, Welfare economics,
Happiness economics, Gross National Happiness, Genuine Progress
In law, "
Pain and suffering" is a legal term that refers to the mental
distress or physical pain endured by a plaintiff as a result of injury
for which the plaintiff seeks redress. Assessments of pain and
suffering are required to be made for attributing legal awards. In the
Western world these are typical made by juries in a discretionary
fashion and are regarded as subjective, variable, and difficult to
predict, for instance in the US, UK, Australia, and New
Zealand. See also, in US law, Negligent infliction of emotional
distress and Intentional infliction of emotional distress.
Biology, neurology, psychology
Suffering and pleasure are respectively the negative and positive
affects, or hedonic tones, or valences that psychologists often
identify as basic in our emotional lives. The evolutionary role of
physical and mental suffering, through natural selection, is
primordial: it warns of threats, motivates coping (fight or flight,
escapism), and reinforces negatively certain behaviors (see
punishment, aversives). Despite its initial disrupting nature,
suffering contributes to the organization of meaning in an
individual's world and psyche. In turn, meaning determines how
individuals or societies experience and deal with suffering.
Neuroimaging sheds light on the seat of suffering
Many brain structures and physiological processes are involved in
suffering. Various hypotheses try to account for the experience of
suffering. One of these, the pain overlap theory takes note,
thanks to neuroimaging studies, that the cingulate cortex fires up
when the brain feels suffering from experimentally induced social
distress or physical pain as well. The theory proposes therefore that
physical pain and social pain (i.e. two radically differing kinds of
suffering) share a common phenomenological and neurological basis.
According to David Pearce’s online manifesto The Hedonistic
Imperative, suffering is the avoidable result of Darwinian genetic
design. Pearce promotes replacing the pain/pleasure axis with a
robot-like response to noxious stimuli or with gradients of
bliss, through genetic engineering and other technical scientific
Hedonistic psychology, affective science, and affective
neuroscience are some of the emerging scientific fields that could in
the coming years focus their attention on the phenomenon of suffering.
Disease and injury may contribute to suffering in humans and animals.
For example, suffering may be a feature of mental or physical illness
such as borderline personality disorder and occasionally in
Health care addresses this suffering in many
ways, in subfields such as medicine, clinical psychology,
psychotherapy, alternative medicine, hygiene, public health, and
through various health care providers.
Health care approaches to suffering, however, remain problematic.
Physician and author Eric Cassell, widely cited on the subject of
attending to the suffering person as a primary goal of medicine, has
defined suffering as "the state of severe distress associated with
events that threaten the intactness of the person". Cassell
writes: "The obligation of physicians to relieve human suffering
stretches back to antiquity. Despite this fact, little attention is
explicitly given to the problem of suffering in medical education,
research or practice." Mirroring the traditional body and mind
dichotomy that underlies its teaching and practice, medicine strongly
distinguishes pain from suffering, and most attention goes to the
treatment of pain. Nevertheless, physical pain itself still lacks
adequate attention from the medical community, according to numerous
reports. Besides, some medical fields like palliative care, pain
management (or pain medicine), oncology, or psychiatry, do somewhat
address suffering 'as such'. In palliative care, for instance, pioneer
Cicely Saunders created the concept of 'total pain' ('total suffering'
say now the textbooks), which encompasses the whole set of
physical and mental distress, discomfort, symptoms, problems, or needs
that a patient may experience hurtfully.
Relief and prevention in society
Since suffering is such a universal motivating experience, people,
when asked, can relate their activities to its relief and prevention.
Farmers, for instance, may claim that they prevent famine, artists may
say that they take our minds off our worries, and teachers may hold
that they hand down tools for coping with life hazards. In certain
aspects of collective life, however, suffering is more readily an
explicit concern by itself. Such aspects may include public health,
human rights, humanitarian aid, disaster relief, philanthropy,
economic aid, social services, insurance, and animal welfare. To these
can be added the aspects of security and safety, which relate to
precautionary measures taken by individuals or families, to
interventions by the military, the police, the firefighters, and to
notions or fields like social security, environmental security, and
Philosopher Leonard Katz wrote: "But Nature, as we now know, regards
ultimately only fitness and not our happiness (...), and does not
scruple to use hate, fear, punishment and even war alongside affection
in ordering social groups and selecting among them, just as she uses
pain as well as pleasure to get us to feed, water and protect our
bodies and also in forging our social bonds."
People make use of suffering for specific social or personal purposes
in many areas of human life, as can be seen in the following
In arts, literature, or entertainment, people may use suffering for
creation, for performance, or for enjoyment. Entertainment
particularly makes use of suffering in blood sports, violence in the
media, or violent video games. A more or less great amount of
suffering is involved in body art. The most common forms of body art
include tattooing, body piercing, scarification, human branding.
Another form of body art is a sub-category of performance art, in
which for instance the body is mutilated or pushed to its physical
In business and various organizations, suffering may be used for
constraining humans or animals into required behaviors.
In a criminal context, people may use suffering for coercion, revenge,
In interpersonal relationships, especially in places like families,
schools, or workplaces, suffering is used for various motives,
particularly under the form of abuse and punishment. In another
fashion related to interpersonal relationships, the sick, or victims,
or malingerers, may use suffering more or less voluntarily to get
primary, secondary, or tertiary gain.
In law, suffering is used for punishment (see penal law ); victims may
refer to what legal texts call "pain and suffering" to get
compensation; lawyers may use a victim's suffering as an argument
against the accused; an accused's or defendant's suffering may be an
argument in their favor; authorities at times use light or heavy
torture in order to get information or a confession.
In the news media, suffering is often the raw material.
In personal conduct, people may use suffering for themselves, in a
positive way. Personal suffering may lead, if bitterness,
depression, or spitefulness is avoided, to character-building,
spiritual growth, or moral achievement; realizing the extent or
gravity of suffering in the world may motivate one to relieve it and
may give an inspiring direction to one's life. Alternatively, people
may make self-detrimental use of suffering. Some may be caught in
compulsive reenactment of painful feelings in order to protect them
from seeing that those feelings have their origin in unmentionable
past experiences; some may addictively indulge in disagreeable
emotions like fear, anger, or jealousy, in order to enjoy pleasant
feelings of arousal or release that often accompany these emotions;
some may engage in acts of self-harm aimed at relieving otherwise
unbearable states of mind.
In politics, there is purposeful infliction of suffering in war,
torture, and terrorism; people may use nonphysical suffering against
competitors in nonviolent power struggles; people who argue for a
policy may put forward the need to relieve, prevent or avenge
suffering; individuals or groups may use past suffering as a political
lever in their favor.
In religion, suffering is used especially to grow spiritually, to
expiate, to inspire compassion and help, to frighten, to punish.
In rites of passage (see also hazing, ragging), rituals that make use
of suffering are frequent.
In science, humans and animals are subjected on purpose to aversive
experiences for the study of suffering or other phenomena.
In sex, especially in a context of sadism and masochism or BDSM,
individuals may use a certain amount of physical or mental suffering
(e.g. pain, humiliation).
In sports, suffering may be used to outperform competitors or oneself;
see sports injury, and no pain, no gain; see also blood sport and
violence in sport as instances of pain-based entertainment.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human suffering.
Look up suffering in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Suffering
Topics related to suffering
Physical pain-related topics
Pain in animals ·
Pain in invertebrates ·
Pain (philosophy) · Psychogenic pain · Chronic pain
Evil · Problem of evil · Hell · Good and evil:
Compassion fatigue · Pity ·
Mercy · Sympathy · Empathy
Cruelty · Schadenfreude · Sadistic personality
disorder · Abuse · Physical abuse · Psychological
or emotional abuse · Self-harm ·
Cruelty to animals
Euthanasia · Animal euthanasia · Suicide
Other related topics
Dukkha · Weltschmerz · Negative affectivity ·
Psychological pain · Amor fati · Dystopia ·
Victimology · Penology · Pleasure ·
pleasure · Happiness · Hedonic treadmill · Wild
Joseph A. Amato. Victims and Values: A History and a Theory of
Suffering. New York: Praeger, 1990. ISBN 0-275-93690-2
James Davies. The Importance of Suffering: the value and meaning of
emotional discontent. London: Routledge ISBN 0-415-66780-1
Cynthia Halpern. Suffering, Politics, Power: a Genealogy in Modern
Political Theory. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.
Suffering and Moral Responsibility. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-515495-9
David B. Morris. The Culture of Pain. Berkeley: University of
California, 2002. ISBN 0-520-08276-1
Elaine Scarry. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-19-504996-9
Ronald Anderson. World
Suffering and Quality of Life, Social
Indicators Research Series, Volume 56, 2015.
ISBN 978-94-017-9669-9; Also: Human
Suffering and Quality of
Life, SpringerBriefs in Well-Being and Quality of Life Research, 2014.
Notes and references
^ See 'Terminology'. See also the entry 'Pleasure' in Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, which begins with this paragraph:
"Pleasure, in the inclusive usages most important in moral psychology,
ethical theory, and the studies of mind, includes all joy and
gladness — all our feeling good, or happy. It is often
contrasted with similarly inclusive pain or suffering, which is
similarly thought of as including all our feeling bad." It should be
mentioned that most encyclopedias, like the one mentioned above and
Britannica, do not have an article about suffering and describe pain
in the physical sense only.
^ For instance, Wayne Hudson in Historicizing Suffering, Chapter 14 of
Perspectives on Human
Suffering (Jeff Malpas and Norelle Lickiss,
editors, Springer, 2012) : "According to the standard account
suffering is a universal human experience described as a negative
basic feeling or emotion that involves a subjective character of
unpleasantness, aversion, harm or threat of harm to body or mind
(Spelman 1997; Cassell 1991)."
^ Examples of physical suffering: pain of various types, excessive
heat, excessive cold, itching, hunger, thirst, nausea, air hunger,
Archived from the original on September 26, 2008. Retrieved September
11, 2008. Missing or empty title= (help). Other examples are
given by L. W. Sumner, on page 103 of Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics:
"Think for a moment of the many physical symptoms which, when
persistent, can make our lives miserable: nausea, hiccups, sneezing,
dizziness, disorientation, loss of balance, itching, 'pins and
needles', 'restless legs', tics, twitching, fatigue, difficulty in
breathing, and so on."
^ Mental suffering can also be called psychological or emotional (see
Psychological pain). Examples of mental suffering: depression (mood) /
hopelessness, grief, sadness / loneliness / heartbreak, disgust,
irritation, anger, jealousy, envy, craving or yearning, frustration,
anguish, angst, fear, anxiety / panic, shame / guilt, regret,
embarrassment / humiliation, restlessness.
^ Donald D. Price, Central Neural Mechanisms that Interrelate Sensory
Affective Dimensions of Pain, ‘’Molecular Interventions’’
^ Crane Brinton, article Humanitarianism, Encyclopaedia of the Social
^ Kane, P.V. History of the Dharmaśāstras Vol. 4 p. 38
^ Baring, Rito (March 1, 2010). "Analyzing Empirical Notions of
Suffering: Advancing Youth Dialogue and Education". Religious
Education. 105 (02): 157–172. doi:10.1080/00344081003645145.
Retrieved 30 September 2014. (subscription required)
Suffering an Islamic point of
^ Isaiah, Chapter 10.
^ On the Christian Meaning of Human
Suffering Archived September 30,
2005, at the Wayback Machine..
^ Schweizer, Harold (1997).
Suffering and the remedy of art. Albany,
N.Y: State University of New York Press.
^ W.H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts (1938) in Collected Poems p. 179
(E. Mendelson ed. 1976)
^ Social suffering. Daedalus. Proc Amer Acad Arts Sciences
^ Iain Wilkinson, Suffering – A Sociological Introduction,
Polity Press, 2005
^ "School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research". Archived
from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved July 31,
^ "Encyclopedia of world problems and human potential project –
Union of International Associations (UIA)". Uia.be.
^ Ralph G.H. Siu, Panetics − The Study of the Infliction of
Suffering, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 28 No. 3, Summer
1988. See also Ralph G. H. Siu, Panetics Trilogy, Washington: The
International Society for Panetics, 1994, ISBN 1-884437-00-1.
^ "ISP". Panetics.info. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
^ Ronen Avraham. "Putting a Price on Pain-And-
Suffering Damages: A
Critique of the Current Approaches and a Preliminary Peoposal for
Change" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2012.
Retrieved February 17, 2013.
^ Personal injuries - Citizens Advice Scotland
^ Giovanna Colombetti, Appraising Valence Archived September 25, 2007,
at the Wayback Machine., Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (8-10),
pp. 106–129 (2005).
Pain Overlap Theory" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
February 29, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
^ The Hedonistic Imperative: Table Of Contents
^ See Vanity Fair interview with Pearce
^ See Life in the Far North - An information-theoretic perspective on
^ Kahneman, D., E. Diener and N. Schwartz (eds.) Well-being: The
Foundations of Hedonistic Psychology, Russell Sage Foundation, 1999
^ Fertuck, EA.; Jekal, A.; Song, I.; Wyman, B.; Morris, MC.; Wilson,
ST.; Brodsky, BS.; Stanley, B. (December 2009). "Enhanced 'Reading the
Mind in the Eyes' in borderline personality disorder compared to
healthy controls". Psychological Medicine. 39 (12): 1979–1988.
doi:10.1017/S003329170900600X. PMC 3427787 .
^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (4th
ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. 1994.
^ Wilson, KG.; Chochinov, HM.; McPherson, CJ.; LeMay, K.; Allard, P.;
Chary, S.; Gagnon, PR.; Macmillan, K.; De Luca, M.; O'Shea, F.; Kuhl,
D.; Fainsinger, RL. (May 1, 2007). "
Suffering With Advanced Cancer".
Journal of Clinical Oncology. 25 (13): 1691–1697.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2006.08.6801. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
^ Eric J Cassell, The Nature of
Suffering and the Goals of Medicine,
^ See for instance the National
Pain Care Policy Act of 2007 Archived
May 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
^ See Existential pain — an entity, a provocation, or a
challenge? in Journal of
Pain Symptom and Management, Volume 27, Issue
3, Pages 241-250 (March 2004)
^ Katz, Leonard David (2000). Evolutionary origins of morality:
cross-disciplinary perspectives. Devon: Imprint Academic. pp. xv.
^ This observation is common. See for instance Public Acts: Disruptive
Readings on Making Curriculum Public, by Jose Francisco
Ibáñez-Carrasco, Erica R. Meiners, Suzanne De Castell: "In our era
of information saturation, media uses pain, suffering, and desire to
distract and to create spectacular roadkill out of poverty, deviancy,
and violence (...)" (available at
See also for instance
Arthur Kleinman about the uses and abuses of
images of suffering in the media.
^ See for instance Viktor Frankl's Man's Search for Meaning
^ Fukuyama, Francis (2002). Our posthuman future: consequences of the
biotechnology revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Mono no aware
Pain and nociception
Muscle soreness: Acute / Delayed onset
Congenital insensitivity to pain
II congenital sensory neuropathy
III familial dysautonomia
IV congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis
V congenital insensitivity to pain with partial anhidrosis
Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder
Low back pain
Low back pain (LBP)
Cold pressor test
Grimace scale (animals)
Hot plate test
Tail flick test
Philosophy of pain
Ethics of care
Good and evil
Suffering or Pain
Augustine of Hippo
Georg W. F. Hegel
John Stuart Mill
G. E. Moore
J. L. Mackie
G. E. M. Anscombe
R. M. Hare
Robert Merrihew Adams
Ethics of eating meat
Ethics of technology
Ethics in religion
History of ethics
Philosophy of law