Substantial form


A theory of substantial forms asserts that forms (or ideas) organize matter and make it
intelligibleIntelligibility may refer to: *Mutual intelligibility, in linguistics *Intelligibility (communication) *Intelligibility (philosophy) See also

*Immaterialism, in philosophy *Incorporeality {{disambiguation ...
. Substantial forms are the source of properties, order, unity, identity, and information about objects. The concept of substantial forms dominates
ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, marking the end of the Greek Dark Ages The Greek Dark Ages is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the beginning of Archa ...
medieval philosophy ; picture from the '' Hortus deliciarum'' of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century). Medieval philosophy is the philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, exis ...
, but has fallen out of favour in modern philosophy. The idea of substantial forms has been abandoned for a
mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), p ...
, or "bottom-up" theory of organization. However, such mechanistic treatments have been criticized for the same reasons
atomism Atomism (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million ...
has received criticism, viz., for merely denying the existence of certain kinds of substantial forms in favor of others (here, that of atoms, which are then thought to be arranged into things possessing accidental forms) and not denying substantial forms as such, an impossible move.


Platonic forms

Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the ...

maintains in the ''
Phaedo ''Phædo'' or ''Phaedo'' (; el, wikt:Φαίδων, Φαίδων, ''Phaidōn'' ), also known to ancient readers as ''On The Soul'', is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the ''Republic (Plato), Republic'' and the ...

'' regarding our knowledge of equals:
:Do they qual thingsseem to us to be equal in the same sense as what is Equal itself? Is there some deficiency in their being such as the Equal, or is there not? ... :Whenever someone, on seeing something, realizes that that which he now sees wants to be like some other reality but falls short and cannot be like that other since it is inferior, do we agree that the one who thinks this must have prior knowledge of that to which he says it is like, but deficiently so? ... :We must then possess knowledge of the Equal before that time when we first saw the equal objects and realized that all these objects strive to be like the Equal but are deficient in this.

Aristotelian forms

Aristotle was the first to distinguish between Matter (philosophy), matter (''hyle'') and form (''morphe''). For Aristotle, matter is the undifferentiated primal element: it is rather that from which things develop than a thing in itself. The development of particular things from this germinal matter consists in differentiation, the acquiring of particular forms of which the knowable universe consists (cf. Formal cause). The perfection of the form of a thing is its entelechy in virtue of which it attains its fullest realization of function (''De anima'', ii. 2). Thus, the entelechy of the human body, body is the soul. The origin of the differentiation process is to be sought in a Unmoved mover, prime mover, i.e. pure form entirely separate from all matter, eternal, unchangeable, operating not by its own activity but by the impulse which its own absolute existence excites in matter.

Early adoption

Both Platonic and Aristotelian forms appear in
medieval philosophy ; picture from the '' Hortus deliciarum'' of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century). Medieval philosophy is the philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, exis ...
. Medieval theologians, newly exposed to Aristotle's philosophy, applied hylomorphism to Christianity, such as to the transubstantiation of the Eucharist's bread and wine to the body and blood of Jesus. Theologians such as Duns Scotus developed Christian applications of hylomorphism. The Aristotelian conception of form was adopted by the Scholastics, to whom, however, its origin in the observation of the physical universe was an entirely foreign idea. The most remarkable adaptation is probably that of Aquinas, who distinguished the spiritual world with its subsistent forms (formae separatae) from the material with its inherent forms which exist only in combination with matter.


René Descartes, Descartes, referring to substantial forms, says:
They were introduced by philosophers solely to account for the proper action of natural things, of which they were supposed to be the principles and bases ... But no natural action at all can be explained by these substantial forms, since their defenders admit that they are occult, and that they do not understand them themselves. If they say that some action proceeds from a substantial form, it is as if they said it proceeds from something they do not understand; which explains nothing.

Response to criticism

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Leibniz made efforts to return to forms. Substantial forms, in the strictest sense for Leibniz, are primitive active forces and are required for his metaphysics. In the ''Discourse on Metaphysics'' (§10):
[...] the belief in substantial forms has a certain basis in fact, but that these forms effect no changes in the phenomena and must not be employed for the explanation of particular events.


{{Authority control Platonism Aristotelianism Concepts in metaphysics Philosophy of Aristotle