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The States Reorganisation Act, 1956
States Reorganisation Act, 1956
was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.[1] Although additional changes to India's state boundaries have been made since 1956, the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change in state boundaries since the independence of India
India
in 1947. The Act came into effect at the same time as the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956,[2] which (among other things) restructured the constitutional framework for India's existing states and the requirements to pass the States Reorganisation Act, 1956
States Reorganisation Act, 1956
under the provisions of Part I of the Constitution of India, Articles 3 & 4.

Contents

1 Political integration after independence and the Constitution of 1950 2 The movement for linguistic states 3 The States Reorganisation Commission 4 Related changes by other legislation 5 Effect of the changes

5.1 States 5.2 Union territories

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Political integration after independence and the Constitution of 1950[edit]

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Main article: Political integration of India

Administrative divisions of India
India
in 1951

The British Indian Empire, which included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, was divided into two types of territories: the Provinces of British India, which were governed directly by British officials responsible to the Governor-General of India; and princely states, under the rule of local hereditary rulers who recognised British suzerainty in return for local autonomy, in most cases as established by treaty. As a result of the reforms of the early 20th century, most of the British provinces had directly elected legislatures as well as governors, although some of the smaller provinces were governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the Governor-General. Major reforms put forward by the British in the 1930s also recognised the principle of federalism, which was carried forward into the governance of independent India. On 15 August 1947, British India
British India
was granted independence as the separate dominions of India
India
and Pakistan. The British dissolved their treaty relations with more than five hundred princely states, who were encouraged to accede to either India
India
or Pakistan, while under no compulsion to do so. Most of the states acceded to India, and a few to Pakistan. Bhutan, Hyderabad and Kashmir opted for independence, although the armed intervention of India
India
conquered Hyderabad and brought it into the Indian Union.

South Indian states prior to the States Reorganisation Act

Between 1947 and about 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The Government of India
India
Act 1935 remained the constitutional law of India pending adoption of a new Constitution. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India
India
a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[3] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states and a class of territories:

Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
(formerly Central Provinces and Berar), Madras, Orissa, Punjab (formerly East Punjab), Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(formerly the United Provinces), and West Bengal. Part B states, which were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India. The eight Part B states were Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan, Saurashtra, and Travancore-Cochin. Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The ten Part C states were Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Cutch, Manipur, Tripura, and Vindhya Pradesh. The sole Part D territory[4] was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government.

The movement for linguistic states[edit] The demand for states on linguistic basis was developed even before India
India
achieved independence from British rule. In 1895, a first-of-its-kind linguistic movement started in what is now Odisha. The movement got intensified in later years with the demand for a separate Orissa Province
Orissa Province
to be formed by bifurcating the existing Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa Province.[5][6] Due to the efforts of Madhusudan Das, the Father of Oriya nationalism, the movement eventually bore fruit in 1936, when Orissa Province
Orissa Province
became the first Indian state (pre-independence) organized on a linguistic basis. The post-independence period saw the ascent of political movements for the creation of new states developed on linguistic lines. The movement to create a Telugu-speaking state out of the northern portion of Madras State
Madras State
gathered strength in the years after independence, and in 1953, the 16 northern, Telugu-speaking districts of Madras State became the new State of Andhra.It was after the hunger strike of Potti Sriramalu. Other small changes were made to state boundaries during the 1950-1956 period. The small state of Bilaspur was merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954, and Chandernagore, a former enclave of French India, was incorporated into West Bengal
West Bengal
in 1955. But post independence, the first state created on a linguistic basis was Andhra in 1953, created out of the Telugu-speaking northern parts of Madras State. The States Reorganisation Commission[edit] Main article: States Reorganisation Commission The States Reorganization Commission was preceded by the Linguistic Provinces Commission (aka Dhar Commission) in 1948 In December 1953, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
appointed the States Reorganisation Commission to reorganise the Indian states. It was headed by the retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Fazal Ali. The other two members of the commission were H. N. Kunzru and K. M. Panikkar. The efforts of this commission were overseen by Govind Ballabh Pant, who served as the Home Minister
Home Minister
from December 1954. The commission submitted a report on September 30, 1955, recommending the reorganisation of India's states. The Parliament debated the Commission report. Subsequently, bills making changes to the constitution and reorganising the states were passed.[7]

India
India
after 1956

Related changes by other legislation[edit] The States Reorganisation Act was enacted on 31 August 1956. Before it came into effect on 1 November, an important amendment was made to the Constitution of India. Under the Seventh Amendment, the existing distinction among Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D states was abolished. The distinction between Part A and Part B states was removed, becoming known simply as "states". A new type of entity, the Union Territory, replaced the classification as a Part C or Part D state. A further Act also came into effect on 1 November, transferring certain territories from Bihar
Bihar
to West Bengal.[8] Effect of the changes[edit] The following list sets out the states and union territories of India as reorganised on 1 November 1956: States[edit]

Andhra Pradesh: formed by the merger of Andhra State
Andhra State
(1953-56) with the Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
(1948–56). Assam: No change of boundary in 1956. Bihar: reduced slightly by the transfer of minor territories to West Bengal. Bombay State: the state was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and Marathwada
Marathwada
region of Hyderabad State. The southernmost districts of the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
were transferred to Mysore State. Jammu and Kashmir: No change of boundary in 1956. Kerala: formed by the merger of Travancore-Cochin
Travancore-Cochin
state with the Malabar district
Malabar district
and Kasaragod
Kasaragod
taluk of South Canara
South Canara
district of the Madras Presidency. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, Kanyakumari district was transferred to Madras State. Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal State
Bhopal State
were merged into Madhya Pradesh; the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division were transferred to Bombay State. Madras State: Malabar District
Malabar District
was transferred to the new state of Kerala, and a new union territory, Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands, was created. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, Kanyakumari district
Kanyakumari district
was added to the state. Mysore State: enlarged by the addition of Coorg State
Coorg State
and the Kannada speaking districts from western Madras Presidency, southern Bombay Presidency and western Hyderabad State. Orissa: No change of boundary in 1956. Punjab: enlarged by addition of the Patiala and East Punjab
East Punjab
States Union. Rajasthan: enlarged by the addition of Ajmer state and parts of Bombay and Madhya Bharat
Madhya Bharat
states. Uttar Pradesh: No change of boundary in 1956. West Bengal: enlarged by addition of minor territory previously forming part of Bihar.

Union territories[edit]

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Delhi Manipur Tripura Himachal Pradesh Laccadive, Minicoy & Amindivi Islands

See also[edit]

Unification of Karnataka Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 Bihar
Bihar
Reorganisation Act, 2000 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2000 Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2000 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2014 List of proposed states and territories of India Administrative divisions of India

States and union territories of India

Political integration of India

References[edit]

^ "Explainer: The reorganization of states in India
India
and why it happened".  ^ "Seventh Amendment". Indiacode.nic.in. Retrieved 2011-11-19.  ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India.  ^ http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/amend/amend7.htm ^ "Demand of separate province for Oriya". The Telegraph.  ^ States Politics in India.  ^ "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly.  ^ Bihar
Bihar
and West Bengal
West Bengal
(Transfer of Territories) Act, 1956

External links[edit]

Text of the Act

v t e

Indian legislation

Constitution of India
Constitution of India
(amendments) Indian Penal Code Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 Acts of the Parliament Ordinance

In Force

Consumer

Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 Consumer Protection Act, 1986 Essential Commodities Act Essential Services Maintenance Act

Corruption

Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets) and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015 Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011

Criminal

Armed Forces ( Special
Special
Powers) Act Armed Forces Tribunal Act, 2007 Arms Act, 1959 Army Act, 1950 Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act Indian Evidence Act Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 National Security Act (India) Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

Education

Indian Institutes of Management Act, 2017 Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007 Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 University Grants Commission Act, 1956

Environment

Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act Biological Diversity Act, 2002 CAMPA bill Environment Protection Act, 1986 Indian Forest Act, 1927 National Green Tribunal Act Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001 Wildlife Protection Act, 1972

Financial

Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016 Banking Regulation Act, 1949 Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act Depositories Act The Electricity Act, 2003 Expenditure Tax Act, 1987 Finance Act (India) Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 Foreign Contribution Regulation Act Foreign Exchange Management Act Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 Government Securities Act, 2006 Indian Contract Act, 1872 Indian Stamp Act, 1899 Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 Insurance Act, 1938 Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 2014 Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 The Competition Act, 2002 The High Denomination Bank Notes (Demonetisation) Act, 1978 The Income-tax Act, 1961 Transfer of Property Act 1882 Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976

Healthcare

Central Council of Homoeopathy Act, 1973 Clinical Establishments (Registration and Regulation) Act, 2010 Dentist Act Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954 Indian Medical Council Act Mental Health Act, 1987 Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985

Labour

Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, 1976 Factories Act,1948, India Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 Interstate Migrant Workmen Act 1979 Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017 Minimum Wages Act 1948 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 Unorganised Workers' Social Security Act 2008

Personal

Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act (1956) Majority Act (India) Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act Hindu Succession Act, 1956 Special
Special
Marriage Act, 1954 The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act 1986

Social

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act National Food Security Act, 2013 Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994 The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 Street Vendors Act, 2014

State Laws

Anti-Superstition and Black Magic Act The Bombay Prohibition Act, 1949 Bombay Prohibition (Gujarat Amendment) 2009 Chhattisgarh Food Security Act, 2012 Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act The Gujarat Local Authorities Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2009 Puducherry Prevention of Anti-Social Activities Act

State Reorganisation

Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2014 Bihar
Bihar
Reorganisation Act, 2000 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2000 Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 States Reorganisation Act, 1956 Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2000

Terrorism

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act

Transportation

Aircraft Act Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 National Waterways Act, 2016 Inland Vessels Act Metro Railways Act, 1978 Metro Railway Act, 2002

Organisation / Body

Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 Companies Act 2013 Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008 Indian Trusts Act, 1882 Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996 Reserve Bank of India
India
Act, 1934 The Indian Partnership Act, 1932 Societies Registration Act, 1860 The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008

Repeal

Repealing and Amending Act, 2015 Repealing and Amending (Second) Act, 2015 Repealing and Amending Act, 2016 Repealing and Amending Act, 2017 Repealing and Amending (Second) Act, 2017

Other

All India
India
Services Act, 1951 Delimitation Act Enemy Property Act, 1968 Information Technology Act, 2000 Nuclear Liability Act Official Secrets Act (India) Representation of the People Act, 1951 Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 Right to Information Act, 2005 State Emblem of India
India
(Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005 The Foreigners Act, 1946

Repealed

Pre-Independence

Age of Consent Act, 1891 Caste Disabilities Removal Act, 1850 Criminal Tribes Act Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856 English Education Act 1835 Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act, 1907

Post-Independence

Anti-Copying Act, 1992 Foreign Exchange Regulation Act Gift Tax Act, 1958 Illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunal) Act, 1983 Interest Tax Act, 1974 Maintenance of Internal Security Act Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act The Gold (Control) Act, 1968 Wealth Tax Act, 1957

Bills

Proposed

Foreign Education Providers Bill, 2013 Geospatial Information Regulation Bill Gujarat Control of Organised Crime Act Marriage Laws Amendment Bill Road Transport and Safety Bill Uniform civil code

Lapsed

Judges Assets Bill Women'

.