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St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
(Irish: Faiche Stiabhna)[1] is a city centre public park in Dublin, Ireland. The current landscape of the park was designed by William Sheppard. It was officially re-opened to the public on Tuesday, 27 July 1880 by Lord Ardilaun.[2][3] The park is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, and to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies as well as a stop on one of Dublin's Luas
Luas
tram lines. It is often informally called Stephen's Green. At 22 acres (89,000 m2), it is the largest of the parks in Dublin's main Georgian garden squares. Others include nearby Merrion Square and Fitzwilliam Square. The park is rectangular, surrounded by streets that once formed major traffic arteries through Dublin
Dublin
city centre, although traffic management changes implemented in 2004 during the course of the Luas works[4] have greatly reduced the volume of traffic. These four bordering streets are called, respectively, St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
North, St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
South, St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
East and St Stephen's Green West.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Evolution of the Park's Design

2 Park layout 3 Notable addresses 4 Transport 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External links

History[edit]

Photochrom print showing the green at the end of the 19th century

Until 1663 St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
was a marshy common on the edge of Dublin, used for grazing. In that year Dublin
Dublin
Corporation, seeing an opportunity to raise much needed revenue, decided to enclose the centre of the common and to sell land around the perimeter for building.[5] The park was enclosed with a wall in 1664. The houses built around the Green were rapidly replaced by new buildings in the Georgian style and by the end of the eighteenth century the Green was a place of resort for the better-off of the city. Much of the present-day landscape of the square comprises modern buildings, some in a replica Georgian style, and relatively little survives from the 18th and 19th centuries.

Fusiliers' Arch, erected in 1907

In 1814 control of St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
passed to Commissioners for the local householders, who redesigned its layout and replaced the walls with railings.[6] After the death of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
suggested that St Stephen's Green be renamed Albert Green and have a statue of Albert at its centre, a suggestion rejected with indignation by the Dublin Corporation and the people of the city, to the Queen's chagrin.[7] Access to the Green was restricted to local residents, until 1877, when Parliament passed an Act to reopen St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
to the public, at the initiative of Sir A.E. Guinness, a member of the Guinness brewing family who lived at St Anne's Park, Raheny
Raheny
and at Ashford Castle. He later paid for the laying out of the Green in approximately its current form, which took place in 1880, and gave it to the Corporation, as representatives of the people. By way of thanks the city commissioned a statue of him, which faces the College of Surgeons. His brother Edward lived at Iveagh House, which his descendants gave in 1939 to the Department of External Affairs (now the Department of Foreign Affairs). During the Easter Rising
Easter Rising
of 1916, a group of insurgents made up mainly of members of the Irish Citizen Army, under the command of Commandant Michael Mallin, his second-in-command Kit Poole, and Constance Markievicz, established a position in St Stephen's Green.[5] They numbered between 200 and 250.[8] They confiscated motor vehicles to establish road blocks on the streets that surround the park, and dug defensive positions in the park itself. This approach differed from that of taking up positions in buildings, adopted elsewhere in the city. It proved to have been unwise when elements of the British Army took up positions in the Shelbourne Hotel, at the northeastern corner of St Stephen's Green, overlooking the park, from which they could shoot down into the entrenchments.[5] Finding themselves in a weak position, the Volunteers withdrew to the Royal College of Surgeons on the west side of the Green.[8] During the Rising, fire was temporarily halted to allow the park's groundsman to feed the local ducks.[9] The park is now operated by the Office of Public Works on behalf of the Irish state.[10] Evolution of the Park's Design[edit]

St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
fountain in summer

The landscaping of the park has undergone three major changes since its inception. Its first major change occurred in 1670: two rows of lime trees were planted around the perimeter, functioning as its first enclosure. At this time, the park was only accessible to the wealthy residents who owned plots around the park.[2] In 1815 the park was redesigned by the Dublin
Dublin
city surveyor Arthur Neville. In his redesign, he added winding pathways and iron fences. At this time, the park was still closed to the public.[2] During the 1860s, the campaign to make the park publicly accessible was underway, and the city engineer, George W. Hemans,[11] proposed a new design to make the park as walkable and as functionally practical as possible. This included creating four gates at each corner of the park that would be linked by the extant pathways designed by Neville. This plan was eventually abandoned, most likely due to the fact that Hemans was employed by Dublin
Dublin
Corporation. However, many of Hemans' designs, like the addition of the gates and connecting pathways, were included in the final plans submitted by William Sheppard, the principal designer responsible for the landscape of the park as we know it today, and engineer A.L. Cousins, sponsored by Lord Ardilaun. Ardilaun also played a significant role in the planning and importing of the exotic trees and plants that would be installed in the park.[2] Park layout[edit]

Map of Green with some key features: (A) Fusiliers' Arch
Fusiliers' Arch
(B) O'Donovan Rossa (C) O'Connell Bridge (D) WolfeTone & Famine Memorial (E) Lord Ardilaun
Lord Ardilaun
(F) Markievicz (G) Playground (H) Bandstand
Bandstand
(I) Three Fates

O'Donovan Rossa memorial

Three Fates statue

Statue of George II, which stood from 1758 to 1937

While the central park of St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
is one of three ancient commons in the city, its current layout owes much to the restorations of the 1800s (see History above). The grounds are roughly rectangular, measuring (approximately) 550 by 450 metres, and are centred on a formal garden. One of the more unusual aspects of the park lies on the north west corner of this central area, a garden for the blind with scented plants, which can withstand handling, and are labelled in Braille. Further north again (and spanning much of the length of the park) is a large lake. Home to ducks and other water fowl, the lake is fed by an artificial water fall, spanned by O'Connell bridge, and fronted by an ornamental gazebo. The lakes in the park are fed from the Grand Canal at Portobello. To the south side of the main garden circle is more open heath surrounding a bandstand, and often frequented by lunching students, workers and shoppers on Dublin's sunnier days. There is also a playground (separated into junior and senior areas) which was refurbished in 2010. Other notable features include:

the Fusiliers' Arch
Fusiliers' Arch
at the Grafton Street
Grafton Street
corner which commemorates the Royal Dublin
Dublin
Fusiliers who died in the Second Boer War. a fountain representing the Three Fates inside the Leeson Street
Leeson Street
gate. The statue was designed by Joseph Wackerle
Joseph Wackerle
in bronze in 1956. It was a gift from the German people in thanks for Irish help to refugee children following World War II. Up to five hundred children found foster-homes in Ireland in a project named Operation Shamrock. a seated statue of Lord Ardilaun
Lord Ardilaun
on the western side, the man who gave the Green to the city, facing the Royal College of Surgeons which he also sponsored (again, see History above) the Yeats memorial garden with a sculpture by Henry Moore a bust of James Joyce
James Joyce
facing his former university at Newman House a memorial to the Fenian
Fenian
leader Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa
Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa
near the Grafton Street
Grafton Street
entrance a bronze statue at the Merrion Row corner of Theobald Wolfe Tone, the leader of the 1798 rebellion. a memorial to the Great Famine of 1845–1850 by Edward Delaney a bust of Constance Markievicz
Constance Markievicz
on the south of the central garden (see History above) a statue of Robert Emmet
Robert Emmet
standing opposite his birthplace (now demolished) at No 124. a memorial bust of Thomas Kettle, fatality of the Great War. The attempt to erect a commemorative portrait bust of Kettle was beset by controversy until it was finally placed, without official unveiling, in the centre section.

Notable addresses[edit]

Iveagh House

Interior of Stephen's Green Shopping Centre.

Iveagh House
Iveagh House
on the South side was created from the joining of two earlier houses (numbers 80 and 81) by Benjamin Guinness
Benjamin Guinness
in the 1860s. It was donated to the Irish State by the Guinness family
Guinness family
in 1939, and now houses the main offices of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Also on the South side of St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
are Newman House (numbers 85 and 86, after John Henry Newman) and University Church. These are home to the Catholic University of Ireland, which was founded in the 19th Century. It is linked with University College Dublin, but is no longer active educationally in its own right. The Unitarian Church, Dublin, built in the Gothic revival
Gothic revival
style, is located on the West side of St Stephen's Green. Also on the West side is the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (number 123), home to the oldest of the Republic of Ireland's six medical schools. On the West side, at the top of Grafton Street, is the Stephen's Green Shopping Centre, built in October 1988. It was, at the time, Ireland's largest shopping centre. Its style was intended to represent a conservatory on the side facing the Green and to mirror the brickwork design of the opposing Gaiety Theatre on South King Street. On the North side of St Stephen's Green, there were four[5] but are now two clubs (originally gentlemen's clubs): the Hibernian United Services Club (number 8, closed in 2002), the Stephen's Green Hibernian Club (number 9, originally the Stephen's Green Club, prior to its merger with the Hibernian United Services Club), the "Friendly Brothers of St Patrick" (number 22, now closed) and the Kildare Street and University Club (number 17). This side of the Green also has the historic Shelbourne Hotel
Shelbourne Hotel
and the recently opened Little Museum of Dublin, which is housed in a restored Georgian townhouse. Loreto College, St Stephen's Green, one of Ireland's best-known fee-paying schools for girls, is located at number 53, on the East side of the Green. St Vincent's Hospital, now located in a suburb on the south side of Dublin, was formerly located in buildings on the East side of St Stephen's Green and on Leeson Street. Transport[edit] Dublin
Dublin
Bus routes 7b, 7d, 11, 32x, 37, 41x, 44, 46a, 61, 84x, 145 and 757 all have stops along the east side of the square The Green line of the Luas
Luas
tram system stops at the St Stephen's Green stop on the western side of the park, with Luas
Luas
Cross City services continuing to Broombridge station in Cabra.[12][13] See also[edit]

List of streets and squares in Dublin

Notes[edit]

^ "Sraidainmneacha Bhaile Atha Cliath" (PDF). Dublin
Dublin
City Council. Retrieved 30 November 2014.  ^ a b c d "Report on St Stephen's Green" (PDF). UCD School of Archaeology.  ^ "Heritage Ireland: St Stephens Green". www.heritageireland.ie. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2017.  ^ "Roadworks on St Stephen's Green
St Stephen's Green
to reverse traffic flow and restrict movement". The Irish Times. 6 June 2004. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2014.  ^ a b c d Casey, Christine (2006). Dublin: The City Within the Grand and Royal Canals and the Circular Road with the Phoenix Park. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10923-8.  ^ "Archiseek.com – St Stephen's Green, Dublin". Archiseek.com. Archived from the original on 11 January 2008.  ^ "A queen's welcome: Victoria's stormy affair with Ireland". Irish Examiner. 26 June 2010.  ^ a b "The 1916 Rising: Personalities and Perspectives – Stephens Green" (PDF). National Library of Ireland. Retrieved 30 November 2014.  ^ Michael O'Sullivan, Bernard O'Neill: The Shelbourne and its people (Blackwater Press 1999), p.45 ISBN 1-84131-442-0 ^ "OPW Heritage Ireland Site – St Stephens Green page". HeritageIreland.ie (OPW). Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.  ^ "Dictionary of Irish Architects - HEMANS, GEORGE WILLOUGHBY". Dia.ie. 1926-11-13. Retrieved 2013-12-28.  ^ "Green light given to Luas
Luas
link-up, first passengers 2017 – RTÉ News". Rte.ie. 3 August 2012. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.  ^ "Taoiseach launches new Luas
Luas
Cross City service in Dublin". RTÉ. 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Commons
has media related to St. Stephen's Green.

Stephen's Green Shopping Centre
Stephen's Green Shopping Centre
Website A virtual walking tour of Stephen's Green

v t e

Squares of Dublin
Dublin
City

Georgian

Fitzwilliam Square Merrion Square Mount Pleasant Square Mountjoy Square Parnell Square

Victorian

Belgrave Square Dartmouth Square Kenilworth Square Pearse Square

Other

College Green Eaton Square Grosvenor Square Ormond Square St Stephen's Green Wilton Place Wolfe Tone Square

v t e

Parks in Dublin

Albert College Park Belcamp Park Botanic Gardens Bull Island Bushy Park The Cabbage Garden Corkagh Park Dodder Park Fairview Park Fitzwilliam Square Father Collins Park Garden of Remembrance Herbert Park Irish National War Memorial Gardens Irishtown Nature Park Iveagh Gardens Killiney Hill
Killiney Hill
Park Lansdowne Valley Park Marlay Park Merrion Square Mountjoy Square Palmerston Park People's Park Phoenix Park Saint Anne's Park Saint Enda's Park Saint Stephen's Green Tymon Park

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