Syrmia (Serbo-Croatian: Srem/Срем, Srijem/Сријем) is a
fertile region of the
Pannonian Plain in Europe, which lies between
Sava rivers. The majority of
Syrmia is located in the
Srem and South
Bačka districts of the Autonomous Province of
Vojvodina in Serbia. A smaller area around Novi Beograd, Zemun, and
Surčin belongs to the City of Belgrade. The remaining part of Syrmia
is divided between multiple municipalities in
Vukovar-Srijem County in Croatia.
3.2 Roman era
3.3 Byzantine era
3.4 Middle Ages
3.5 Early modern period
3.6 19th century
3.7 Recent history
5.2 Bordering regions
6 See also
Srem coat of arms
The word "Syrmia" is derived from the ancient city of
Sirmium was a Celtic or Illyrian town founded in
the third century BC.
Srem in Serbian (Serbian Cyrillic: Срем) and Srijem in Croatian
are used to designate the region. Other names for the region include:
Syrmia or Sirmium
Hungarian: Szerémség or Szerém
Ukrainian: Срем, also Срім or Срим
Greek: Syrmia, Σύρμια
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Map of the
Syrmia has been ruled by many different entities.
These include the Roman Empire, the Hun Empire, the Ostrogothic
Kingdom, the Gepid Kingdom, the Lombard state, the Byzantine Empire,
the Avar Khaganate, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire,
Pannonian Croatia, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, the
Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, Austria-Hungary, the State of
Croats and Serbs, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of
Croats and Slovenes, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1945, on the advice of
the Ðilas Commission, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
assigned the eastern part of
Syrmia to the People's Republic of Serbia
and the western part to the People's Republic of Croatia. The
westernmost part of
Syrmia is in eastern
Croatia in Vukovar-Srijem,
while the majority of
Syrmia is part of Republic of Serbia.
Map of Indo-European
Vučedol culture centred in
Ancient Indo-European peoples in Syrmia.
Between 3000 BC and 2400 BC,
Syrmia was at the centre of Indo-European
Ancient Roman cities in Syrmia
Sirmium was conquered by Romans in the first century BC and became the
economic and political capital of Pannonia. In 6 AD, there was an
uprising of the indigenous peoples against Roman rule. However, ten
Roman Emperors were born in
Sirmium or nearby. They included
Herennius Etruscus (227-251),
Claudius II (268-270),
Quintillus (270), Aurelian
(270-275), Probus (276-282), Maximianus Herculius (285-310),
Constantius II (337-361) and
Gratian (367-383). These emperors were
mostly Romanised Illyrians.
In the 6th century AD, Pannonia, was a province of the Byzantine
Empire. Through vassal arrangements, Sermia fell under control of
various rulers. In the 7th century AD, the ruler of
Syrmia was Kuber,
Bulgar leader, who was a vassal of the Avars. In the early 9th
Syrmia was part of the Slavic state of Pannonian Croatia.
The ruler, Prince
Ljudevit Posavski lost control to the Franks. In 827
AD the Bulgars returned and continued to rule after a peace treaty in
In the 11th century, the ruler of
Syrmia was Duke Sermon, vassal of
the Bulgarian emperor, Samuil. There had been
Bulgar resistance to
Byantine rule. This collapsed and Sermon, who refused to capitulate
was captured and killed by Constantine Diogenes. A new but ultimately
short lived area of governance named the Thema of
established. It included the region of
Syrmia and what is now Mačva.
In the 12th century, the region was controlled by the Kingdom of
Hungary. On 3 March 1229, the acquisition of
Syrmia was confirmed by
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX wrote, "[Margaretha] soror…regis Ungarie
[acquired] terram…ulterior Sirmia". In 1231, The Duke of Syrmia
was Giletus. In the 1200s, the territory around
Syrmia was divided
into two counties:
Syrmia in the east and
Vukovar in the west.
In the 13th century, between 1282 and 1316,
Syrmia was ruled by Stefan
Dragutin of Serbia.[unreliable source?] Initially, Dragutin was
a vassal of Hungary but later ruled independently. Dragutin died in
1316, and was succeeded by his son, Stefan Vladislav II (1316–1325).
In 1324, Vladislav II was defeated by Stefan Uroš III Dečanski of
Syrmia became the subject of dispute between the
Rascia and Hungary.
Realm of Stefan Dragutin.
Stefan Dragutin and Ugrin Csák.
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor ceded part of
Syrmia to Stefan
Serbia and then to Đurađ Branković.
From 1459, the Hungarian kings endorsed the
House of Branković
House of Branković and
Berislavići Grabarski family as the titular heads of the
Serbian Despotate of which
Syrmia was a part. They resided in Kupinik
(modern Kupinovo). The local rulers included
Vuk Grgurević (1471 to
Đorđe Branković (1486 to 1496),
Jovan Branković (1496 to
Ivaniš Berislavić (1504 to 1514), and Stjepan Berislavić
(1520 to 1535). In 1522, the last of the titular Serbian despots in
Syrmia, Stjepan Berislavić, moved to Slavonia, ahead of invading
Ottoman forces. Another important local governor was Laurence of Ilok,
Syrmia (1477 to 1524), who reigned over large parts of the
region from Ilok.
Early modern period
In 1521, parts of
Syrmia fell to the Ottomans and by 1538, the entire
region was under Ottoman control. Between 1527 and 1530, Radoslav
Syrmia as an Ottoman vassal. The area of Ottoman
Syrmia was known as the Sanjak of Syrmia.
In 1699, the
Habsburg Monarchy took western
Syrmia from the Ottomans
as part of the Treaty of Karlowitz. Until the Treaty of Passarowitz
at the end of the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18, remainder of Syrmia
was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. In 1745, the County of
Syrmia was established as part of the Habsburg's Kingdom of Slavonia.
Sirmie and Walko counties, 1370
Syrmia of Radoslav Čelnik, 1527 to 1530
Sanjak of Syrmia, 1568 to 1571
Habsburg-Ottoman frontier in Syrmia, 1699
Syrmia county, Austria-Hungary, coat of arms
In 1807, the Tican's Rebellion, a Syrmian peasant uprising, occurred
Ruma estate and in the village of
In 1848 and 1849, most of
Syrmia was part of the Serbian Voivodship, a
Serb autonomous region within the Austrian Empire. From 1849 and 1860,
Northern Syrmia, including
Ruma were part of the Voivodship
Serbia and Tamiš Banat.
After 1860, the County of
Syrmia was re-established and returned to
the Kingdom of Slavonia. In 1868, the Kingdom of
Slavonia became part
Slavonia in the Kingdom of Hungary.
On 29 October 1918,
Syrmia became a part of the newly independent
State of Slovenes,
Croats and Serbs. On 24 November 1918, the Assembly
Syrmia proclaimed the unification of Serb-populated parts of Syrmia
with the Kingdom of Serbia. However, from 1 December 1918, all of
Syrmia was made a part of the Kingdom of Serbs,
Croats and Slovenes.
From 1918 to 1922,
Syrmia remained within the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
and Slovenes and from 1922 to 1929,
Syrmia was a province (oblast). In
1929, after a new territorial division,
Syrmia was divided between
Danube Banovina and Drina Banovina, in the
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia and
in 1931, it was divided between
Danube Banovina and
Sava Banovina. In
1939, the western part of
Syrmia was included into the newly formed
Banovina of Croatia.
Syrmia was occupied by the
World War II
World War II
Axis powers and its
entire territory was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia. In
1945, with the creation of new borders, eastern
Syrmia became part of
Vojvodina, while western
Syrmia became part of Croatia.
Croatia declared its independence.
Serbs in western Syrmia
declared an autonomous region called the "Serbian Autonomous Region of
Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia". This region was one of
the two Serbian autonomous regions that formed the Republic of Serbian
Krajina. The autonomous regions lasted until 1995.
Serbian Voivodship, 1848
The County of
Syrmia within Croatia-Slavonia, 1881
Liberated partisan territory, late 1942
Syrmian frontline prior to April 1945
Main article: Demographic history of Syrmia
Serb soldier in Syrmia, 1742
In 2002, the population of
Serbia was 790,697. 668,745
(84.58%) were Serb. In 2001, the population of the Croatian
Vukovar-Srijem county was 204,768. The census showed, that Croats
made up 78.3% of total population,
Hungarians 1%, Rusyns
0.9% and others.
See also: Geography of Serbia, Geography of Croatia, and Geography of
Srem District in Vojvodina.
Vukovar-Srijem county within Croatia.
The present international border of the region of
Syrmia was drawn in
1945 by the Đilas commission. It divided the Yugoslav constituent
Croatia and the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, itself
part of Serbia, within Yugoslavia.
Milovan Đilas, a Montenegrin and then a confidante of Josip Broz
Tito, drew the border according to demographic criteria, which
explains why the Croatian town of
Ilok on the Danube, with a Croat
majority, lies east of
Šid in Serbia, with a
Serb majority. The
border drawn in 1945 was very similar to the 1931-1939 border between
Danube Banovina and the
Sava Banovina within the Kingdom of
Bačka to the north
Banat to the east
Šumadija the south-east
Mačva to the south
Semberija to the south-west
Slavonia to the west. The border between
unclear. It runs approximately along a line through Vukovar, Vinkovci,
Županja or it follows the Bosut, Barica and Vuka rivers.
Map showing cities and towns in Serbian part of Syrmia.
List of cities in
Syrmia (with population):
Belgrade city region
Novi Beograd (217,180)
Sremska Mitrovica (39,041)
Stara Pazova (18,628)
Sremska Kamenica (11,140)
Sremski Karlovci (8,839)
Petrovaradin, Sremska Kamenica,
Sremski Karlovci and
geographically located in Syrmia, but they are part of South Bačka
Municipalities in Serbian Syrmia:
The Syrmian villages of
Vizić are part of the
Bačka Palanka, the main part of which is in Bačka.
Several settlements that are part of the municipality of Sremska
Mitrovica are located in
Syrmia in Mačva.
Municipalities and villages in Croatian Syrmia:
Syrmia's principal mountain is Fruška Gora. Its highest peak is
Crveni Čot at 539 m.
Sanjak of Syrmia
Kingdom of Srem
Theme of Sirmium
Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Srem
Roman Catholic Diocese of Srijem
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istorijom I Belgrade, 1969. p18.
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Nacionalna ili etnička pripadnost po naseljima. Srbija, Republički
zavod za statistiku Beograd 2003; ISBN 86-84433-51-3
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Miladinovi J (December 2013). Istorija Srema. HardPress.
Petar Milošević (1981). Srem u prošlosti. Novinsko-izdavačka radna
organizacija "Sremske novine.".
Žarko Atanacković (1968). Srem u narodnooslobodilačkom ratu i
socijalističkoj revoluciji. Šimanovci, Mesna zajednica-Mesni odbor
Đorđe Cvejić; Jovan Babović; Miodrag Živković (1982). Srem u
samoupravnoj socijalističkoj Jugoslaviji 1945-1981. NIO Poslovna
Slavko Gavrilović (1979). Srem od kraja XVII do sredine XVIII veka.
Filozofski fakultet u Novom Sadu, Institut za istoriju.
Mihailo Dinić. Sredjnevekovni Srem.
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слојеви култура Фрушке горе и
Срема : зборник радова. Вукова
Задужбина. ISBN 978-86-902961-5-6.
Слободан Ћурчић (2012). Атлас насеља
Војводине: Срем. Матица српска.
Fodor, Pál; Dávid, Géza, eds. (2000). Ottomans, Hungarians, and
Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of
Ottoman Conquest. BRILL.
Ingrao, Charles; Samardžić, Nikola; Pešalj, Jovan, eds. (2011). The
Peace of Passarowitz, 1718. West Lafayette: Purdue University
Geographical regions of Serbia
Užička Crna Gora
(*) indicates location within Kosovo
Regions of Croatia
Principal historical regions
Historical regions of Serbia
Coordinates: 45°10′12″N 19°17′17″E / 45.170°N
19.288°E / 45.170; 19.288
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