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Syrmia
Syrmia
(Serbo-Croatian: Srem/Срем, Srijem/Сријем) is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain
Pannonian Plain
in Europe, which lies between the Danube
Danube
and Sava
Sava
rivers. The majority of Syrmia
Syrmia
is located in the Srem and South Bačka
Bačka
districts of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
in Serbia. A smaller area around Novi Beograd, Zemun, and Surčin
Surčin
belongs to the City of Belgrade. The remaining part of Syrmia is divided between multiple municipalities in Serbia
Serbia
and Vukovar-Srijem County
Vukovar-Srijem County
in Croatia.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Governance 3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Roman era 3.3 Byzantine era 3.4 Middle Ages 3.5 Early modern period 3.6 19th century 3.7 Recent history

4 Demographics 5 Geography

5.1 Borders 5.2 Bordering regions 5.3 Cities 5.4 Municipalities 5.5 Mountains

6 See also 7 References 8 Sources

Etymology[edit]

Srem coat of arms

The word "Syrmia" is derived from the ancient city of Sirmium
Sirmium
(now Sremska Mitrovica). Sirmium
Sirmium
was a Celtic or Illyrian town founded in the third century BC. Srem in Serbian (Serbian Cyrillic: Срем) and Srijem in Croatian are used to designate the region. Other names for the region include:

Latin: Syrmia
Syrmia
or Sirmium German: Syrmien Hungarian: Szerémség or Szerém Slovak: Sriem Rusyn: Срим Turkish: Sirem Ukrainian: Срем, also Срім or Срим French: Syrmie Italian: Sirmia Greek: Syrmia, Σύρμια

Governance[edit]

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Map of the Syrmia
Syrmia
region

Over centuries, Syrmia
Syrmia
has been ruled by many different entities. These include the Roman Empire, the Hun Empire, the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the Gepid Kingdom, the Lombard state, the Byzantine Empire, the Avar Khaganate, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire, Pannonian Croatia, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, Austria-Hungary, the State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1945, on the advice of the Ðilas Commission, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia assigned the eastern part of Syrmia
Syrmia
to the People's Republic of Serbia and the western part to the People's Republic of Croatia. The westernmost part of Syrmia
Syrmia
is in eastern Croatia
Croatia
in Vukovar-Srijem, while the majority of Syrmia
Syrmia
is part of Republic of Serbia. History[edit]

Map of Indo-European Vučedol culture
Vučedol culture
centred in Syrmia
Syrmia
(3000-2400 BC).

Ancient Indo-European peoples in Syrmia.

Prehistory[edit] Between 3000 BC and 2400 BC, Syrmia
Syrmia
was at the centre of Indo-European Vučedol culture.[1] Roman era[edit]

Ancient Roman cities in Syrmia

Sirmium
Sirmium
was conquered by Romans in the first century BC and became the economic and political capital of Pannonia. In 6 AD, there was an uprising of the indigenous peoples against Roman rule. However, ten later Roman Emperors
Roman Emperors
were born in Sirmium
Sirmium
or nearby. They included Herennius Etruscus
Herennius Etruscus
(227-251), Hostilian
Hostilian
(230?-251), Decius
Decius
Traian (249-251), Claudius II
Claudius II
(268-270), Quintillus
Quintillus
(270), Aurelian (270-275), Probus (276-282), Maximianus Herculius (285-310), Constantius II
Constantius II
(337-361) and Gratian
Gratian
(367-383). These emperors were mostly Romanised Illyrians. Byzantine era[edit] In the 6th century AD, Pannonia, was a province of the Byzantine Empire. Through vassal arrangements, Sermia fell under control of various rulers. In the 7th century AD, the ruler of Syrmia
Syrmia
was Kuber, a Bulgar
Bulgar
leader, who was a vassal of the Avars. In the early 9th century AD, Syrmia
Syrmia
was part of the Slavic state of Pannonian Croatia. The ruler, Prince Ljudevit Posavski
Ljudevit Posavski
lost control to the Franks. In 827 AD the Bulgars returned and continued to rule after a peace treaty in 845 AD. In the 11th century, the ruler of Syrmia
Syrmia
was Duke Sermon, vassal of the Bulgarian emperor, Samuil. There had been Bulgar
Bulgar
resistance to Byantine rule. This collapsed and Sermon, who refused to capitulate was captured and killed by Constantine Diogenes. A new but ultimately short lived area of governance named the Thema of Sirmium
Sirmium
was established. It included the region of Syrmia
Syrmia
and what is now Mačva. Middle Ages[edit] In the 12th century, the region was controlled by the Kingdom of Hungary. On 3 March 1229, the acquisition of Syrmia
Syrmia
was confirmed by Papal bull. Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
wrote, "[Margaretha] soror…regis Ungarie [acquired] terram…ulterior Sirmia".[2] In 1231, The Duke of Syrmia was Giletus. In the 1200s, the territory around Syrmia
Syrmia
was divided into two counties: Syrmia
Syrmia
in the east and Vukovar
Vukovar
in the west. In the 13th century, between 1282 and 1316, Syrmia
Syrmia
was ruled by Stefan Dragutin of Serbia.[3][4][unreliable source?] Initially, Dragutin was a vassal of Hungary but later ruled independently. Dragutin died in 1316, and was succeeded by his son, Stefan Vladislav II (1316–1325). In 1324, Vladislav II was defeated by Stefan Uroš III Dečanski of Rascia. Lower Syrmia
Syrmia
became the subject of dispute between the Kingdoms of Rascia
Rascia
and Hungary.

Realm of Stefan Dragutin.

Realms of Stefan Dragutin
Stefan Dragutin
and Ugrin Csák.

In 1404, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
ceded part of Syrmia
Syrmia
to Stefan Lazarević of Serbia
Serbia
and then to Đurađ Branković. From 1459, the Hungarian kings endorsed the House of Branković
House of Branković
and later, the Berislavići Grabarski family as the titular heads of the Serbian Despotate
Serbian Despotate
of which Syrmia
Syrmia
was a part. They resided in Kupinik (modern Kupinovo). The local rulers included Vuk Grgurević
Vuk Grgurević
(1471 to 1485); Đorđe Branković
Đorđe Branković
(1486 to 1496), Jovan Branković (1496 to 1502), Ivaniš Berislavić (1504 to 1514), and Stjepan Berislavić (1520 to 1535). In 1522, the last of the titular Serbian despots in Syrmia, Stjepan Berislavić, moved to Slavonia, ahead of invading Ottoman forces. Another important local governor was Laurence of Ilok, Duke of Syrmia
Syrmia
(1477 to 1524), who reigned over large parts of the region from Ilok. Early modern period[edit] In 1521, parts of Syrmia
Syrmia
fell to the Ottomans and by 1538, the entire region was under Ottoman control. Between 1527 and 1530, Radoslav Čelnik ruled Syrmia
Syrmia
as an Ottoman vassal. The area of Ottoman administration in Syrmia
Syrmia
was known as the Sanjak of Syrmia. In 1699, the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
took western Syrmia
Syrmia
from the Ottomans as part of the Treaty of Karlowitz.[5] Until the Treaty of Passarowitz at the end of the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18, remainder of Syrmia was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier.[6] In 1745, the County of Syrmia
Syrmia
was established as part of the Habsburg's Kingdom of Slavonia.

Sirmie and Walko counties, 1370

Duchy of Syrmia
Syrmia
of Radoslav Čelnik, 1527 to 1530

Sanjak of Syrmia, 1568 to 1571

Habsburg-Ottoman frontier in Syrmia, 1699

19th century[edit]

Syrmia
Syrmia
county, Austria-Hungary, coat of arms

In 1807, the Tican's Rebellion, a Syrmian peasant uprising, occurred on Ruma
Ruma
estate and in the village of Voganj
Voganj
in Ilok
Ilok
estate. In 1848 and 1849, most of Syrmia
Syrmia
was part of the Serbian Voivodship, a Serb
Serb
autonomous region within the Austrian Empire. From 1849 and 1860, Northern Syrmia, including Ilok
Ilok
and Ruma
Ruma
were part of the Voivodship of Serbia
Serbia
and Tamiš Banat. After 1860, the County of Syrmia
Syrmia
was re-established and returned to the Kingdom of Slavonia. In 1868, the Kingdom of Slavonia
Slavonia
became part of Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
in the Kingdom of Hungary. Recent history[edit] On 29 October 1918, Syrmia
Syrmia
became a part of the newly independent State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs. On 24 November 1918, the Assembly of Syrmia
Syrmia
proclaimed the unification of Serb-populated parts of Syrmia with the Kingdom of Serbia. However, from 1 December 1918, all of Syrmia
Syrmia
was made a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes. From 1918 to 1922, Syrmia
Syrmia
remained within the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and from 1922 to 1929, Syrmia
Syrmia
was a province (oblast). In 1929, after a new territorial division, Syrmia
Syrmia
was divided between Danube
Danube
Banovina and Drina Banovina, in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
and in 1931, it was divided between Danube
Danube
Banovina and Sava
Sava
Banovina. In 1939, the western part of Syrmia
Syrmia
was included into the newly formed Banovina of Croatia. In 1941, Syrmia
Syrmia
was occupied by the World War II
World War II
Axis powers
Axis powers
and its entire territory was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia. In 1945, with the creation of new borders, eastern Syrmia
Syrmia
became part of Vojvodina, while western Syrmia
Syrmia
became part of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia
Croatia
declared its independence. Serbs
Serbs
in western Syrmia declared an autonomous region called the "Serbian Autonomous Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia". This region was one of the two Serbian autonomous regions that formed the Republic of Serbian Krajina. The autonomous regions lasted until 1995.

Serbian Voivodship, 1848

The County of Syrmia
Syrmia
within Croatia-Slavonia, 1881

Liberated partisan territory, late 1942

Syrmian frontline prior to April 1945

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographic history of Syrmia

Serb
Serb
soldier in Syrmia, 1742

In 2002, the population of Syrmia
Syrmia
in Serbia
Serbia
was 790,697.[7] 668,745 (84.58%) were Serb. In 2001, the population of the Croatian Vukovar-Srijem county
Vukovar-Srijem county
was 204,768.[8] The census showed, that Croats made up 78.3% of total population, Serbs
Serbs
15.5%, Hungarians
Hungarians
1%, Rusyns 0.9% and others. Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Serbia, Geography of Croatia, and Geography of Vojvodina Borders[edit]

Srem District
Srem District
in Vojvodina.

Vukovar-Srijem county
Vukovar-Srijem county
within Croatia.

The present international border of the region of Syrmia
Syrmia
was drawn in 1945 by the Đilas commission. It divided the Yugoslav constituent republic of Croatia
Croatia
and the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, itself part of Serbia, within Yugoslavia. Milovan Đilas, a Montenegrin and then a confidante of Josip Broz Tito, drew the border according to demographic criteria, which explains why the Croatian town of Ilok
Ilok
on the Danube, with a Croat majority, lies east of Šid
Šid
in Serbia, with a Serb
Serb
majority. The border drawn in 1945 was very similar to the 1931-1939 border between the Danube
Danube
Banovina and the Sava
Sava
Banovina within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Bordering regions[edit]

Bačka
Bačka
to the north Banat
Banat
to the east Šumadija
Šumadija
the south-east Mačva
Mačva
to the south Semberija
Semberija
to the south-west Slavonia
Slavonia
to the west. The border between Syrmia
Syrmia
and Slavonia
Slavonia
is unclear. It runs approximately along a line through Vukovar, Vinkovci, and Županja
Županja
or it follows the Bosut, Barica and Vuka rivers.

Cities[edit]

Map showing cities and towns in Serbian part of Syrmia.

List of cities in Syrmia
Syrmia
(with population):

Serbia

Belgrade
Belgrade
city region

Novi Beograd
Novi Beograd
(217,180) Zemun
Zemun
(146,172) Batajnica
Batajnica
(48,600) Surčin
Surčin
(14,209) Dobanovci (8,114)

Vojvodina

Sremska Mitrovica
Sremska Mitrovica
(39,041) Ruma
Ruma
(32,125) Inđija
Inđija
(26,244) Stara Pazova
Stara Pazova
(18,628) Šid
Šid
(16,301) Petrovaradin
Petrovaradin
(13,917) Sremska Kamenica
Sremska Kamenica
(11,140) Sremski Karlovci
Sremski Karlovci
(8,839) Beočin
Beočin
(8,037) Irig (4,854)

Croatia

Vinkovci
Vinkovci
(33,239) Vukovar
Vukovar
(30,126) Županja
Županja
(13,775) Ilok
Ilok
(5,897)

Petrovaradin, Sremska Kamenica, Sremski Karlovci
Sremski Karlovci
and Beočin
Beočin
are geographically located in Syrmia, but they are part of South Bačka District. Municipalities[edit] Municipalities in Serbian Syrmia:

Šid Sremska Mitrovica Irig Ruma Inđija Stara Pazova Pećinci Novi Beograd Zemun Surčin Sremski Karlovci Petrovaradin Beočin

The Syrmian villages of Neštin
Neštin
and Vizić
Vizić
are part of the municipality of Bačka
Bačka
Palanka, the main part of which is in Bačka. Several settlements that are part of the municipality of Sremska Mitrovica are located in Syrmia
Syrmia
in Mačva. Municipalities and villages in Croatian Syrmia:

Vukovar Ilok Vinkovci Županja Otok Trpinja Borovo Tordinci Markušica Jarmina Ivankovo Vođinci Stari Mikanovci Babina Greda Cerna Gradište Andrijaševci Privlaka Bošnjaci Drenovci Gunja Vrbanja Nijemci Tovarnik Lovas Tompojevci Stari Jankovci Negoslavci Bogdanovci Nuštar

Mountains[edit] Syrmia's principal mountain is Fruška Gora. Its highest peak is Crveni Čot at 539 m. See also[edit]

Srem District Methodius Stratiev Vukovar-Srijem County Syrmia
Syrmia
County Sanjak of Syrmia Kingdom of Srem Theme of Sirmium Sirmium Vojvodina Slavonia Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Srem Roman Catholic Diocese of Srijem

References[edit]

^ Syrmia[permanent dead link], vjesnik.hr; accessed 13 April 2015. ^ "Margit of Hungary" FMG Accessed 13 April 2015. ^ Veselinović R. Istorija Srpske pravoslavne crkve sa narodnom istorijom I Belgrade, 1969. p18. ^ Grujić R. Pravoslavna Srpska crkva, Kragujevac, 1989, p22. ^ Stoye J. Marsigli's Europe, 1680-1730 Yale University Press, 1994 p185 ISBN 0300055420, 9780300055429 Accessed at Google Books 3 August 2016. ^ Ingrao, Samardžić & Pešalj 2011, p. 193. ^ Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova 2002. Knjiga 1: Nacionalna ili etnička pripadnost po naseljima. Srbija, Republički zavod za statistiku Beograd 2003; ISBN 86-84433-51-3 ^ Census Archived 2006-05-01 at the Wayback Machine.

Sources[edit]

Mih. J. Miladinović (1903). Istorija Srema. Štamp. D. Dimitrijevića.  Miladinovi J (December 2013). Istorija Srema. HardPress. ISBN 978-1-314-69554-0.  Petar Milošević (1981). Srem u prošlosti. Novinsko-izdavačka radna organizacija "Sremske novine.".  Žarko Atanacković (1968). Srem u narodnooslobodilačkom ratu i socijalističkoj revoluciji. Šimanovci, Mesna zajednica-Mesni odbor SUB NOR-a.  Đorđe Cvejić; Jovan Babović; Miodrag Živković (1982). Srem u samoupravnoj socijalističkoj Jugoslaviji 1945-1981. NIO Poslovna politika.  Slavko Gavrilović (1979). Srem od kraja XVII do sredine XVIII veka. Filozofski fakultet u Novom Sadu, Institut za istoriju.  Mihailo Dinić. Sredjnevekovni Srem.  Миодраг Матицки (2007). Срем кроз векове: слојеви култура Фрушке горе и Срема : зборник радова. Вукова Задужбина. ISBN 978-86-902961-5-6.  Слободан Ћурчић (2012). Атлас насеља Војводине: Срем. Матица српска. ISBN 978-86-7946-108-7.  Fodor, Pál; Dávid, Géza, eds. (2000). Ottomans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest. BRILL.  Ingrao, Charles; Samardžić, Nikola; Pešalj, Jovan, eds. (2011). The Peace of Passarowitz, 1718. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. 

v t e

Geographical regions of Serbia

Azbukovica Bačka Banat Belica Binačko Pomoravlje* Braničevo Deliblatska Peščara Dobrič Drenica* Goljak Gora* Gornje Livade Gornji Breg Gruža Homolje Ibarski Kolašin* Izmornik* Jablanica Jadar Jasenica Kačer Kolubara Komarani Kopaonik Kosanica Kosmaj Kosovo* Kosovo field* Kosovsko Pomoravlje* Kozjačija Kučaj Lepenica Lešnica Levač Ljig Lugomir Lugovi* Lužnica Mačva Malo Kosovo* Metohija* Metohijski Podgor* Mlava Morava Valley Moravac Negotinska Krajina Obica* Opolje* Pančevački Rit Pčinja Pešter Pocerina Podlužje Podrimlje Podrinje Podunavlje Polimlje Pomoravlje Pomorišje Posavina Potisje Prekoruplje* Preševo Valley Prizenski Has* Prizrenski Podgor* Rađevina Rasina Raška Rugovo* Sandžak Šajkaška Sirinićka župa* Šopluk Sredačka župa* Srem Stari Vlah Stig Šumadija Šumadijska Kolubara Svrljig Tamnava Telečka Temnić Timočka Krajina Toplica Užička Crna Gora Valjevska Kolubara Veliki Rit Visok Vlasina Zaglavak Zlatibor

(*) indicates location within Kosovo

v t e

Regions of Croatia

Principal historical regions

Croatia
Croatia
proper Dalmatia Slavonia Istria

Smaller regions

Croatia
Croatia
proper

Banovina Bilogora Croatian Littoral Gorski Kotar Kordun Krbava Kvarner Gulf Lika Međimurje Moslavina Pokuplje Prigorje Turopolje Vinodol Zagorje Žumberak

Dalmatia

Bukovica Konavle Kosinj Ravni kotari Zagora

Slavonia

Cvelferija Požega Valley Spačva Syrmia Podunavlje

Other

Baranya Podravina Posavina

Category Commons category

v t e

Historical regions of Serbia

Banat Braničevo Ibarski Kolašin Kačer Kosovo field Levač Mačva Metohija Opolje Sirinićka župa Sredačka župa Pomorišje Raška Sandžak Syrmia Šajkaška

Coordinates: 45°10′12″N 19°17′17″E / 45.170°N 19.288°E / 45.170; 19.288

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