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Sphecomyrminae
Sphecomyrminae
is an extinct subfamily of ants in family Formicidae known from a series of Cretaceous
Cretaceous
fossils found in North America, Europe, and Asia.[1] Sphecomyrminae
Sphecomyrminae
contains ten genera, divided into two tribes, Haidomyrmecini[2] and Sphecomyrmini. The tribe Haidomyrmecini contains the four genera Ceratomyrmex, Haidomyrmex, Haidomyrmodes, Haidoterminus
Haidoterminus
and Linguamyrmex, while Sphecomyrmini contains Baikuris, Cretomyrma, Dlusskyidris, Sphecomyrma, and Zigrasimecia.[2][3][4] The genus Sphecomyrmodes
Sphecomyrmodes
was formerly placed into Sphecomyrmini; however, in 2016, it was made a synonym of the stem group genus Gerontoformica, which is considered incertae sedis in Formicidae.[5][6] Sphecomyrminae
Sphecomyrminae
is the most basal of the Formicidae
Formicidae
subfamilies, but has not been included in several recent phylogenetic studies of the family.[2] Symplesiomorphies of the subfamily include the structure of the antenna, which has a short basal segment and a flexible group of segments below the antenna tip. The petiole is low and rounded, with an unrestricted gaster and the presence of a metapleural gland.[1] The subfamily is characterized by three major synapomorphies, the short pedicel, a second flagellar segment that is double the length of the other antenna segments, and the loss of the apical end of the CuA veins in the wings of adult males.[1]

Contents

1 History and classification 2 Tribes and genera 3 References 4 External links

History and classification[edit] The single Haidomyrmodes
Haidomyrmodes
species, Haidomyrmodes
Haidomyrmodes
mammathus, is known from fossil insects that are inclusions in transparent chunks of French amber. The genus was first described by paleoentomologists Vincent Perrichot and André Nel in 2008.[2] The sister genus, Haidomyrmex, is more diverse with three described species, Haidomyrmex cerberus, Haidomyrmex
Haidomyrmex
scimitarus and Haidomyrmex
Haidomyrmex
zigrasi, all described from fossils in Burmese amber. While the type specimen of Haidomyrmex
Haidomyrmex
cerberus was collected in the early 1900s and deposited in the Natural History Museum in London, a description of the specimen did not occur until 1996 with a paper by the Russian paleoentomologist Gennady M. Dlussky. Both H. scimitarus and H. zigrasi were described in the same 2012 paper by Phillip Barden and David Grimaldi.[7] The third genus, Haidoterminus, and its single species, Haidoterminus cippus, were described in 2013 from Canadian amber. This extended the age range for the tribe by an additional 20 million years into the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
and expanded the geographic range into North America.[3] In the sphecomyrmins, Baikuris
Baikuris
is known from four species. Both B. mandibularis, and B. miriabilis were described in 1987 by Dlussky from a group of fossil males found in Taymyr amber while the third species, B. casei, was described in 1997 from New Jersey amber. A fourth species was described from Charentes amber as B. maximus.[8] Both Cretomyrma species, C. arnoldii and C. unicornis are also described from Taymyr amber specimens, with their descriptions being published by Dlussky in 1975. In the same descriptive paper as Cretomyrma was another new monotypic genus, which Dlussky named "Palaeomyrmex"; however, this name was already preoccupied by Palaeomyrmex, which Oswald Heer
Oswald Heer
described in 1865, and the Taymyr amber genus was given a new name, Dlusskyidris, in 1994 by B. Bolton.[1] Fossils belonging to the subfamily were first discovered in exposures of the Santonian[9] Magothy Formation at Cliffwood Beach, New Jersey
Cliffwood Beach, New Jersey
in 1966. The fossils were described in 1967 by Edward O. Wilson
Edward O. Wilson
and William L. Brown, who placed the new genus Sphecomyrma
Sphecomyrma
and species Sphecomyrma freyi
Sphecomyrma freyi
into the new subfamily Sphecomyrminae.[10] A second species of Sphecomyrma was described by Wilson in 1985 based on fossils found in Canadian amber from the Foremost Formation
Foremost Formation
in Alberta.[1] The third known species, S. mesaki was described in 2005 from New Jersey amber of the Raritan Formation.[2] The eighth genus of the subfamily, Zigrasimecia, was studied by Barden and Grimaldi with its description being published in 2013. The genus contains the type species Zigrasimecia
Zigrasimecia
tonsora, which is known from a solitary dealate female preserved in Burmese amber. While noting the close relationship between Zigrasimecia
Zigrasimecia
and Sphecomyrmodes, Barden and Grimaldi did not specifically place Zigrasimecia
Zigrasimecia
into any Sphecomyrminae
Sphecomyrminae
tribe.[4] In a later publication, Perrichot (2014) described the second species of Zigrasimecia, Z. ferox, and placed this genus in the tribe Sphecomyrmini.[11] Tribes and genera[edit] A 2017 study recognized three tribes, Haidomyrmecini, Sphecomyrmini, and Zigrasimeciini and included the genera formerly placed in Armaniidae within the tribe Sphecomyrmini.[12]

Sphecomyrminae
Sphecomyrminae
Wilson & Brown, 1967

Haidomyrmecini Bolton, 2003

Haidoterminus
Haidoterminus
cippus

Ceratomyrmex
Ceratomyrmex
Perrichot, Wang & Engel, 2016 Haidomyrmex
Haidomyrmex
Dlussky, 1996 Haidomyrmodes
Haidomyrmodes
Perrichot, Nel, et al., 2008 Haidoterminus
Haidoterminus
McKellar, Glasier & Engel, 2013 Linguamyrmex
Linguamyrmex
Barden & Grimaldi, 2017

Sphecomyrmini Wilson, Carpenter & Brown, 1967

Armania Dlussky, 1983 Baikuris
Baikuris
Dlussky, 1987 Cretomyrma Dlussky, 1975 Dlusskyidris
Dlusskyidris
Bolton, 1994 Orapia Dlussky, Brothers & Rasnitsyn, 2004 Pseudarmania Dlussky, 1983 Sphecomyrma
Sphecomyrma
Wilson & Brown, 1967

Zigrasimecia
Zigrasimecia
tonsora

Zigrasimeciini Borysenko, 2017

Boltonimecia Borysenko, 2017 Zigrasimecia
Zigrasimecia
Barden & Grimaldi, 2013

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. (1997). "New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Cretaceous
Cretaceous
amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3208: 1–43.  ^ a b c d e Perrichot, V.; Nel, A.; Néraudeau, D.; Lacau, S.; Guyot, T. (2008). "New fossil ants in French Cretaceous
Cretaceous
amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Naturwissenschaften. 95 (2): 91–97. doi:10.1007/s00114-007-0302-7. PMID 17828384.  ^ a b McKellar, R. C.; Glasier, J. R. N.; Engel, M. S. (2013). "A new trap-jawed ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Haidomyrmecini) from Canadian Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
amber". Canadian Entomologist. 145: 454–465. doi:10.4039/tce.2013.23.  ^ a b Barden, P.; Grimaldi, D. (2013). "A New Genus of Highly Specialized Ants in Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Burmese Amber
Amber
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3681 (4): 405–412. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3681.4.5. PMID 25232618.  ^ Barden, P.; Grimaldi, D.A. (2016). "Adaptive radiation in socially advanced stem-group ants from the Cretaceous". Current Biology. 26 (4): 515–521. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.060. PMID 26877084.  ^ Barden, P; Herhold, H. W.; Grimaldi, D. A. (2017). "A new genus of hell ants from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Haidomyrmecini) with a novel head structure". Systematic Entomology. 42 (4): 837–846. doi:10.1111/syen.12253.  ^ Barden, P.; Grimaldi, D. (2012). "Rediscovery of the bizarre Cretaceous
Cretaceous
ant Haidomyrmex
Haidomyrmex
Dlussky (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with two new species" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3755: 1–16. doi:10.1206/3755.2.  ^ Perrichot, V (2015). "A new species of Baikuris
Baikuris
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Sphecomyrminae) in mid- Cretaceous
Cretaceous
amber from France". Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Research. 52: 585–590. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.03.005.  ^ USGS Magothy Formation entry ^ Wilson, E. O.; Carpenter, F. M.; Brown, W. L. (1966). "The First Mesozoic Ant, with the Description of a New Subfamily" (PDF). Psyche. 74 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1155/1967/89604. Retrieved 2008-04-06.  ^ Vincent Perrichot (2014). "A new species of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
ant Zigrasimecia
Zigrasimecia
based on the worker caste reveals placement of the genus in the Sphecomyrminae
Sphecomyrminae
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Myrmecological News. 19: 165–169.  ^ Borysenko, L.H. (2017). "Description of a new genus of primitive ants from Canadian amber, with the study of relationships between stem- and crown-group ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Insecta Mundi. 570: 1–57. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Sphecomyrminae
Sphecomyrminae
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Ant
Ant
taxonomy

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Family Formicidae

Subfamilies

Extant

Agroecomyrmecinae Amblyoponinae Aneuretinae Apomyrminae Dolichoderinae Dorylinae Ectatomminae Formicinae Heteroponerinae Leptanillinae Martialinae Myrmeciinae Myrmicinae Paraponerinae Ponerinae Proceratiinae Pseudomyrmecinae

Fossil

†Armaniinae †Brownimeciinae †Formiciinae †Sphecomyrminae

Genera

List of ant genera

incertae sedis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q3966629 EoL: 2738634 Fossilworks: 177902

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