The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, often pronounced //; Javanese: ꦣꦲꦺꦫꦃꦲꦶꦯ꧀ꦡꦶꦩꦺꦮꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ) is a provincial-level autonomous region of Indonesia in the southern Java. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south, as well as sharing all the land borders to the province of Central Java. Ruled by the Yogyakarta Sultanate, the region is the only officially recognised monarchy within the government of Indonesia. The city of Yogyakarta is the capital and the economic center of the region.
The Yogyakarta Sultanate has been established since 1755 and provided an unwavering support for Indonesia's independence during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945–1949). As a first-level division in Indonesia, Yogyakarta is governed by Sultan Hamengkubuwono as the governor and Prince Paku Alam as the vice governor. With a land area of 3,185.8 km², it is the second-smallest province of Indonesia after Jakarta.
The Sultanate has existed in various forms through prehistory, and survived through the rule of the Dutch and the 1942 invasion of the Dutch East Indies by the Japanese Empire. In August 1945 Indonesia's first president, Sukarno proclaimed the independence of the Indonesian Republic, and by September of that year, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and duke Sri Paku Alam VIII had sent letters to Sukarno expressing their support for the newly-born nation of Indonesia, in which they acknowledged the Yogyakarta Sultanate as part of the Indonesian Republic. The Sunanate of Surakarta did the same, and both of the Javanese kingdoms were awarded special status as special regions within Indonesian Republic. However, due to a leftist anti-royalist uprising in Surakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta lost its special administrative status in 1946 and was absorbed into the province of Central Java.
Yogyakarta's overwhelming support and the Sultan's patriotism were essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949). The city of Yogyakarta became the capital of the Indonesian Republic from January 1946 to December 1948 after the fall of Jakarta to the Dutch. Later, the Dutch also invaded Yogyakarta causing the Indonesian Republic's capital to be transferred again to Bukittinggi in West Sumatra on 19 December 1948. In return for Yogyakarta's support, the declaration of Special Authority over Yogyakarta was granted in full in 1950 and Yogyakarta was given the status as a Special Administrative Region, making Yogyakarta the only region headed by a monarchy in Indonesia.
The Special Region was struck by a 6.3-magnitude earthquake on 27 May 2006, killing 5,782 people, injuring approximately 36,000 and leaving 600,000 people homeless. The region of Bantul suffered the most damage and deaths.
The Special Region is located near the southern coast of Java, surrounded on three sides by the province of Central Java, and with the Indian Ocean on the south side. The population at the 2010 Census was 3,452,390 people, but according to the latest official estimate (January 2014) has risen to 3,594,290. It has an area of 3,133.15 km2, making it the second-smallest area of the provinces in Indonesia, after the Jakarta Capital Region. Along with surrounding areas in Central Java, it has some of the highest population densities of Java.
Mount Merapi is located to the immediate north of the city of Yogyakarta and Sleman Regency. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It last erupted in October–November 2010, killing and injuring many people and temporarily displacing approximately 100,000 residents.
Indonesia has numbers of geo-heritage sites in Yogyakarta Special Region. It has been declared by Geological Agency of the Energy and Natural Resources Ministry. The sites consists of 9 sites: Eosen limestone in Gamping (Sleman regency), pillow lava in Berbah (Sleman), pre-historic volcanic sediment in Candi Ijo, Prambanan (Sleman), sand dunes in Parangtritis Beach (Bantul regency), Kiskendo cave and former manganese mining site in Kleripan (Kulonprogo regency), the prehistoric volcano in Nglanggeran (Gunungkidul regency), Wediombo-Siung beaches (Gunungkidul) and Bioturbasi site in Kalingalang (Gunungkidul). The most unusual one is pillow lava in Berbah (Sleman) which is a big, rough black rock lays on the bank of narrow Dengkeng River. The prehistoric volcano in Nglanggeran (Gunungkidul regency) has already been developed as a tourist destination.
|Yogyakarta City||Yogyakarta City||32.50||396,700||433,539||388,627||404,003||0.861 (Very High)|
|Bantul Regency||Bantul||508.13||781,000||859,968||911,503||947,568||0.794 (High)|
|Gunung Kidul Regency||Wonosari||1,431.42||670,400||681,554||675,382||702,104||0.692 (Medium)|
|Kulon Progo Regency||Wates||586.28||371,000||373,757||388,869||404,155||0.737 (High)|
|Sleman Regency||Sleman||574.82||901,400||988,277||1,093,110||1,136,360||0.834 (Very High)|
Located within the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the city of Yogyakarta is known as a center of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry and puppet shows. It is also one of Indonesia's most renowned centers of higher education. At the city's center is the Sultan's palace called the kraton. While the city sprawls in all directions from the kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north.
Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport and New Yogyakarta International Airport which will be open for minimum operations at the end of April 2019. There are two train stations: Lempuyangan Station and Yogyakarta railway station.
|Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010|
Yogyakarta is considered one of the major hubs that links the west-east main railway route in Java island. Tugu railway station is the main train station located in center, and Lempuyangan train station is the second train station in the city. The two stations have own schedule from and to other cities in Java island. To the south, in the Bantul region, is the Giwangan bus station, the largest bus station in Indonesia. The centre of metropolitan Yogyakarta is surrounded by a ring road.
Since 2008, the Special Region of Yogyakarta launched bus rapid transit system, the Trans Jogja, which connects many places in and around Yogyakarta city, including the airport and Prambanan temple. Today, Trans Jogja has reached other points in the south-side of the city
Yogyakarta is home to more than 100 institutions of higher education in Indonesia, the highest number of higher education institutions of any province in Indonesia. Hence, Yogyakarta earned its nickname "Kota Pelajar" (The City of Students).
Yogyakarta is the home of the first established state university in Indonesia, the Gadjah Mada University.
The Special Region is also the home of the first-established private university in Indonesia, the Islamic University of Indonesia, which was founded in 1945. The Indonesia Institute of Arts, the first-established university in fine arts, is also in the region. Other large universities include State Islamic University of Yogyakarta, University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa in Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta State University, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta and University of Atma Jaya Yogyakarta.
Yogyakarta Special Region have signed sister province relationship or friendly ties agreement with region/state:
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