* FET y de las JONS (from 1937) * FE de la JONS (1936–37) * CT (1936–37) * CEDA (1936–37) * RE (1936–37)
* _ Italy * Portugal * Germany * Foreign volunteers
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS
Francisco Largo Caballero
* 450,000 infantry * 350 aircraft * 200 tanks
* 600,000 infantry * 600 aircraft * 290 tanks
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
175,000 killed in action 110,000 killed in action
* 610,000 dead * 450,000 fled
* v * t * e
BACKGROUND JULY 1936 UPRISING MELILLA
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
HISTORY OF SPAIN
* Transition to democracy
* Colonial history * Economic history * Military history
* v * t * e
EVENTS LEADING TO WORLD WAR II
Pacification of Libya 1923–1932
Franco-Soviet-Czech Pact 1935
Spanish Civil War 1936–39
Anti-Comintern Pact 1936
Munich crisis 1938
German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939
German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939
British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939
Invasion of Albania Apr. 1939
Pact of Steel May 1939
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939
* v * t * e
The SPANISH CIVIL WAR, (Spanish : _Guerra Civil Española_), widely
The war began after a _pronunciamiento _ (declaration of opposition)
by a group of generals of the
Spanish Republican Armed Forces ,
originally under the leadership of
The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate
in Morocco ,
The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and
west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937. They also
The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred. Organized purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces to consolidate the future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans. The extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied.
* 1 Background
* 2 Military coup
* 2.1 Preparations * 2.2 Beginning of the coup * 2.3 Outcome
* 3 Combatants
* 3.1 Republicans * 3.2 Nationalists * 3.3 Other factions
* 4 Foreign involvement
* 4.1 Support for the Nationalists
* 4.1.1 Germany * 4.1.2 Italy * 4.1.3 Portugal * 4.1.4 Others
* 4.2 Support for the Republicans
* 5 Course of the war
* 5.1 1936 * 5.2 1937 * 5.3 1938 * 5.4 1939
* 6 Evacuation of children
* 7 Atrocities
* 7.1 Nationalists * 7.2 Republicans
* 8 Social revolution * 9 Art and propaganda * 10 Timeline * 11 People * 12 Political parties and organizations * 13 See also
* 14 References
* 14.1 Notes * 14.2 Citations * 14.3 Bibliography and books by noted authors
* 15 Further reading
* 16 External links
* 16.1 Films, images and sounds * 16.2 Miscellaneous documents * 16.3 Diverse references and citations * 16.4 Academics and governments * 16.5 Archives
Main article: Background of the Spanish Civil War
The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain. Those in favour of
reforming Spain's government vied for political power with
conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some
liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish
Constitution of 1812 , sought to limit the power of the monarchy of
In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II
House of Bourbon
The revolutionary committee headed by
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora became
the provisional government, with Alcalá-Zamora as president and head
of state . The republic had broad support from all segments of
society. In May, an incident where a taxi driver was attacked outside
a monarchist club sparked anti-clerical violence throughout
Fascism remained a reactive threat, helped by controversial reforms to the military. In December a new reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution was declared. It included strong provisions enforcing a broad secularization of the Catholic country, which many moderate committed Catholics opposed. Republican Manuel Azaña became prime minister of a minority government in October 1931. In 1933 the parties of the right won the general elections , largely owing to the anarchists\' abstention from the vote, increased right-wing resentment of the incumbent government caused by a controversial decree implementing land reform, the Casas Viejas incident , and the formation of a right-wing alliance, Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (CEDA). The recent enfranchisement of women, most of whom voted for centre-right parties, was also a contributing factor.
Events in the period following November 1933, called the "black two years", seemed to make a civil war more likely. Alejandro Lerroux of the Radical Republican Party (RRP) formed a government, reversing changes made under the previous administration and granting amnesty to the collaborators of the unsuccessful uprising by General José Sanjurjo in August 1932. Some monarchists joined with the then fascist-nationalist Falange Española y de las JONS ("Falange") to help achieve their aims. Open violence occurred in the streets of Spanish cities, and militancy continued to increase, reflecting a movement towards radical upheaval, rather than peaceful democratic means as solutions.
In the last months of 1934, two government collapses brought members of the CEDA into the government. Farm workers' wages were cut in half, and the military was purged of Republican members. A popular front alliance was organized, which narrowly won the 1936 elections . Azaña led a weak minority government, but soon replaced Zamora as president in April. Prime Minister Santiago Casares Quiroga ignored warnings of a military conspiracy involving several generals, who decided that the government had to be replaced to prevent the dissolution of Spain.
Main article: Spanish coup of July 1936
_ They shall not pass!_ Republican banner in
The Republican government acted to remove suspect generals from
influential posts. Franco was sacked as chief of staff and transferred
to command of the
On 12 June, Prime Minister Casares Quiroga met General
Juan Yagüe ,
who falsely convinced Casares of his loyalty to the republic. Mola
began serious planning in the spring. Franco was a key player because
of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and as
the man who suppressed the Asturian miners\' strike of 1934 . He was
well respected in the Army of Africa, the Army's toughest troops. He
wrote a cryptic letter to Casares on 23 June, suggesting that the
military was disloyal, but could be restrained if he were put in
charge. Casares did nothing, failing to arrest or buy off Franco.
British sympathizers with the rebels (who were associated with the
Secret Intelligence Service ) chartered a Dragon Rapide
aircraft to transport Franco from the
On 12 July 1936,
Assault Guard Captain Fernando Condés was a close personal friend of Castillo. The next day, he led his squad to arrest José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones , founder of CEDA, as a reprisal for Castillo's murder. But he was not at home, so they went to the house of José Calvo Sotelo , a leading Spanish monarchist and a prominent parliamentary conservative. Luis Cuenca, a member of the arresting group and a Socialist, summarily executed Calvo Sotelo by shooting him in the back of the neck. Hugh Thomas concludes that Condés intended to arrest Sotelo and that Cuenca acted on his own initiative, although he acknowledges other sources that dispute this finding.
Massive reprisals followed. The killing of Calvo Sotelo with police involvement aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the government's opponents on the right. Although the nationalist generals were already in the advanced stages of a planned uprising, the event provided a catalyst and a public justification for their coup.
The Socialists and Communists, led by Indalecio Prieto , demanded that arms be distributed to the people before the military took over. The prime minister was hesitant.
BEGINNING OF THE COUP
General map of the
Spanish Civil War
Initial Nationalist zone – Jul 1936 Nationalist advance to Sep 1936 Nationalist advance to Oct 1937 Nationalist advance to Nov 1938 Nationalist advance to Feb 1939 Last area under Republican control Main Nationalist centres Main Republican centres Land battles Naval battles Bombed cities Concentration camps Massacres Refugee camps
The uprising's timing was fixed at 17 July, at 17:01, agreed to by
the leader of the Carlists,
Manuel Fal Conde . However, the timing
was changed—the men in the
Spanish protectorate in Morocco were to
rise up at 05:00 on 18 July and those in
Control over Spanish Morocco was all but certain. The plan was
discovered in Morocco on 17 July, which prompted the conspirators to
enact it immediately. Little resistance was encountered. In total, the
rebels shot 189 people. Goded and Franco immediately took control of
the islands to which they were assigned. On 18 July, Casares Quiroga
refused an offer of help from the CNT and Unión General de
Trabajadores (UGT), leading the groups to proclaim a general
strike—in effect, mobilizing. They opened weapons caches, some
buried since the 1934 risings. The paramilitary security forces often
waited to see the outcome of militia action before either joining or
suppressing the rebellion. Quick action by either the rebels or
anarchist militias was often enough to decide the fate of a town.
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
The rebels failed to take any major cities with the critical
The government retained control of
Málaga , Jaén , and
In Madrid, the rebels were hemmed into the Montaña barracks , which
fell with considerable bloodshed. Republican leader Casares Quiroga
was replaced by
José Giral , who ordered the distribution of weapons
among the civilian population. This facilitated the defeat of the
army insurrection in the main industrial centres, including Madrid,
The rebels termed themselves _Nacionales_, normally translated "Nationalists", although the former implies "true Spaniards" rather than a nationalistic cause . The result of the coup was a nationalist area of control containing 11 million of Spain's population of 25 million. The Nationalists had secured the support of around half of Spain's territorial army, some 60,000 men, joined by the Army of Africa, made up of 35,000 men, and a little under half of Spain's militaristic police forces, the Assault Guards, the Civil Guards , and the Carabineers . Republicans controlled under half of the rifles and about a third of both machine guns and artillery pieces.
The Spanish Republican Army had just 18 tanks of a sufficiently modern design, and the Nationalists took control of 10. Naval capacity was uneven, with the Republicans retaining a numerical advantage, but with the Navy's top commanders and two of the most modern ships, heavy cruisers _Canarias _ —captured at the Ferrol shipyard—and _Baleares _, in Nationalist hands. The Spanish Republican Navy suffered from the same problems as the army—many officers had defected or had been killed after trying to do so. Two-thirds of air capability was retained by the government—however, the whole of the Republican Air Force was very outdated.
The war was cast by Republican sympathizers as a struggle between tyranny and freedom, and by Nationalist supporters as communist and anarchist "red hordes" versus "Christian civilization". Nationalists also claimed they were bringing security and direction to an ungoverned and lawless country. Spanish politics, especially on the left, were quite fragmented, since socialists and communists supported the republic. During the republic, anarchists had mixed opinions, but major groups opposed the Nationalists during the Civil War. The Nationalists, in contrast, were united by their fervent opposition to the Republican government and presented a more unified front. Republican and Nationalist conscription age limits
The coup divided the armed forces fairly evenly. One historical estimate suggests that there were some 87,000 troops loyal to the government and some 77,000 joining the insurgency, though some historians suggest that the Nationalist figure should be revised upwards and that it probably amounted to some 95,000.
During the first few months both armies were joined in high numbers
by volunteers; unfortunately, there are no scholarly estimates
available. Starting August both sides launched own and similarly
scaled conscription schemes, resulting in further massive growth of
their armies. Finally, final months of 1936 recorded arrival of
The armies kept growing. The principal source of manpower was conscription; both sides continued and expanded their schemes, the Nationalists drafting somewhat more aggressively, and there was little room left for volunteering. Foreigners hardly contributed to further growth; on the Nationalist side the Italians scaled down their engagement, while on the Republican side influx of new interbrigadistas hardly made up for losses, suffered by these units on the front. At the turn of 1937/1938 both armies achieved numerical parity and equalled about 700,000 each.
Throughout 1938 the principal if not exclusive source of new men was
draft; at this stage it was the Republicans who conscripted more
aggressively. In mid-year, just prior to the Battle of Ebro, the
Republicans achieved their all-time high commanding the army of
slightly above 800,000 people; this was already no match for the
Nationalists, who numbered 880,000. The Battle of Ebro, fall of
The total number of Spaniards serving in the Republican forces was officially stated as 917,000; latest scholarly work estimates the actual number as "well over 1 million men" (1.2m?), though earlier historiographical studies claimed the Republican total (including foreigners) of 1.75m. The total number of Spaniards serving in the Nationalist units is currently estimated at "nearly 1 million men", though earlier works claimed (foreigners included) the total of 1.26m.
Main article: Republican faction (Spanish Civil War) Flags of the Popular Front (left) and CNT/FAI (right)
Only two countries openly and fully supported the Republic: Mexico
and the USSR. From them, especially the USSR, the Republic received
diplomatic support, volunteers, and the ability to purchase weapons.
Other countries remained neutral, said neutrality being a great source
of distress to the intelligentsia in the
The Republic's supporters within
This faction was called variously _leales_ "Loyalists" by supporters,
"Republicans", the "Popular Front", or "the government" by all
parties; and/or _los rojos_ "the Reds" by their opponents.
Republicans were supported by urban workers, agricultural labourers,
and parts of the middle class. Republican volunteers at
The conservative, strongly Catholic Basque country, along with Galicia and the more left-leaning Catalonia, sought autonomy or independence from the central government of Madrid. The Republican government allowed for the possibility of self-government for the two regions, whose forces were gathered under the People\'s Republican Army (_Ejército Popular Republicano_, or EPR), which was reorganized into mixed brigades after October 1936.
A few well-known people fought on the Republican side, such as
George Orwell (who wrote _Homage to
The _Nacionales_ or Nationalists—also called "insurgents", "rebels", or, by opponents, _Franquistas_ or "fascists" (see: the Nationalist faction )—feared national fragmentation and opposed the separatist movements. They were chiefly defined by their anti-communism , which galvanized diverse or opposed movements like falangists and monarchists. Their leaders had a generally wealthier, more conservative, monarchist, landowning background.
The Nationalist side included the Carlists and Alfonsists , Spanish nationalists, the fascist Falange, and most conservatives and monarchist liberals. Virtually all Nationalist groups had strong Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy. The Nationals included the majority of the Catholic clergy and practitioners (outside of the Basque region), important elements of the army, most large landowners, and many businessmen. Italian troops manning a 10 cm howitzer at Guadalajara , 1937
One of the rightists\' principal motives was to confront the anti-clericalism of the Republican regime and to defend the Catholic Church , which had been targeted by opponents, including Republicans, who blamed the institution for the country's ills. The Church was against the Republicans' liberal principles, which were fortified by the Spanish Constitution of 1931. Prior to the war, during the Asturian miners' strike of 1934, religious buildings were burnt and at least 100 clergy, religious civilians, and pro-Catholic police were killed by revolutionaries.
Franco had brought in the mercenaries of Spain's colonial Army of Africa (Spanish : _Ejército de África_ or Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí) and reduced the miners to submission by heavy artillery attacks and bombing raids. The Spanish Legion committed atrocities—many men, women and children were killed, and the army carried out summary executions of leftists. The repression in the aftermath was brutal. In Asturias, prisoners were tortured.
Articles 24 and 26 of the 1931 constitution had banned the Society of Jesus . This proscription deeply offended many within the conservative fold. The revolution in the Republican zone at the outset of the war, in which 7,000 clergy and thousands of lay people were killed, deepened Catholic support for the Nationalists.
The Moroccan _Fuerzas
Catalan and Basque nationalists were not univocal.
nationalists sided with the Republicans, while
Main articles: Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War and International relations (1919–1939) Poster from the socialist trade union , UGT , showing a caricature of a foreign-supported Franco followed by a general, a capitalist and a priest
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
League of Nations
SUPPORT FOR THE NATIONALISTS
German involvement in the Spanish Civil War _
Members of the
Condor Legion , a unit composed of volunteers from the
German Air Force (
German involvement began days after fighting broke out in July 1936.
German involvement was further manifested through undertakings such
Operation Ursula , a
U-boat undertaking, and contributions from the
Kriegsmarine . The Legion spearheaded many Nationalist victories,
particularly in aerial combat, while
A total of approximately 16,000 German citizens fought in the war, with approximately 300 killed, though no more than 10,000 participated at any one time. German aid to the Nationalists amounted to approximately £43,000,000 ($215,000,000) in 1939 prices, 15.5 percent of which was used for salaries and expenses and 21.9 percent for direct delivery of supplies to Spain, while 62.6 percent was expended on the Condor Legion. In total, Germany provided the Nationalists with 600 planes and 200 tanks.
The Estado Novo regime of Portuguese Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar played an important role in supplying Franco's forces with ammunition and logistical help. Despite its discreet direct military involvement – restrained to a somewhat "semi-official" endorsement, by its authoritarian regime, of a volunteer force of up to 20,000, so-called " Viriatos " – for the whole duration of the conflict, Portugal was instrumental in providing the Nationalists with organizational skills and reassurance from the Iberian neighbour to Franco and his allies that no interference would hinder the supply traffic directed to the Nationalist cause.
Romanian volunteers were led by
Ion Moța , deputy-leader of the Iron
Guard ("Legion of the Archangel Michael"), whose group of Seven
Despite the Irish government's prohibition against participating in
the war, around 600 Irishmen, followers of Irish political activist
Irish Republican Army leader Eoin O\'Duffy , known as the "Irish
Brigade" , went to
SUPPORT FOR THE REPUBLICANS
The Etkar André battalion of the
Many non-Spaniards, often affiliated with radical communist or
socialist entities, joined the
Significant numbers of volunteers came from in the French Third
Republic (10,000), Nazi Germany, the
Federal State of Austria (5,000)
Kingdom of Italy (3,350). More than 1000 each came from the
Over 500 Romanians fought on the Republican side, including Romanian
Communist Party members
Petre Borilă and
Valter Roman . About 145
Review of Soviet armored fighting vehicles used to equip the
Republican Populist Army during the
Spanish Civil War
Though General Secretary
Joseph Stalin had signed the
Non-Intervention Agreement , the
Stalin also created Section X of the
The process of shipping arms from Russia to
The Republic paid for Soviet arms with official Bank of
The USSR sent a number of military advisers to
Another significant Soviet involvement was the activity of the
People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (
Mexico's most important contributions to the Spanish Republic was its
diplomatic help, as well as the sanctuary the nation arranged for
Republican refugees, including Spanish intellectuals and orphaned
children from Republican families. Some 50,000 took refuge, primarily
Fearing it might spark a civil war inside France, the leftist
"Popular Front" government in France did not send direct support to
the Republicans. French Prime Minister
On 1 August 1936 a pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted
Blum, demanding that he send aircraft to the Republicans, at the same
time as right-wing politicians attacked Blum for supporting the
Republic and being responsible for provoking Italian intervention on
the side of Franco. Germany informed the French ambassador in Berlin
that Germany would hold France responsible if it supported "the
manoeuvres of Moscow" by supporting the Republicans. On 21 August
1936, France signed the Non-Intervention Agreement. However, the Blum
government provided aircraft to the Republicans through covert means
Potez 540 bomber aircraft (nicknamed the "Flying Coffin") by
Spanish Republican pilots),
Dewoitine aircraft, and
Loire 46 fighter
aircraft being sent from 7 August 1936 to December of that year to
Republican forces. The French also sent pilots and engineers to the
Republicans. Also, until 8 September 1936, aircraft could freely pass
from France into
André Malraux was a strong supporter of the
republican cause; he tried to organise a volunteer air force
(Escadrile Espana) on the republican side but as a practical organiser
and squadron leader he was somewhat idealistic and inefficient. The
Regular Spanish Air force commander
Andres Garcia La Calle was openly
critical of Malraux's military efficiency but recognized his
usefulness as a propagandist. His novel _L'Espoir_ and the film
version he produced and directed (_Espoir: Sierra de
Even after covert support by France to the Republicans ended in
December 1936, the possibility of French intervention against the
Nationalists remained a serious possibility throughout the war. German
intelligence reported to Franco and the Nationalists that the French
military was engaging in open discussions about intervention in the
war through French military intervention in
Besides the generally Republican-oriented sympathies and support in
France, some right-wing extremists sided with Franco, most notably the
La Cagoule who were instrumental in sabotaging ships
transporting guns and civil relief equipment to Republican
COURSE OF THE WAR
A large air and sealift of Nationalist troops in Spanish Morocco was organized to the southwest of Spain. Coup leader Sanjurjo was killed in a plane crash on 20 July, leaving an effective command split between Mola in the North and Franco in the South. This period also saw the worst actions of the so-called "Red " and "White Terrors " in Spain. On 21 July, the fifth day of the rebellion, the Nationalists captured the central Spanish naval base , located in Ferrol, Galicia.
A rebel force under Colonel
Alfonso Beorlegui Canet , sent by General
Mola and Colonel Esteban García, undertook the Campaign of Gipuzkoa
from July to September. The capture of
The Republic proved ineffective militarily, relying on disorganized
revolutionary militia. The Republican government under Giral resigned
on 4 September, unable to cope with the situation, and was replaced by
On the Nationalist side, Franco was chosen as chief military
commander at a meeting of ranking generals at
In October, the Francoist troops launched a major offensive toward
Madrid, reaching it in early November and launching a major assault
on the city on 8 November. The Republican government was forced to
With his ranks swelled by Italian troops and Spanish colonial
soldiers from Morocco, Franco made another attempt to capture Madrid
in January and February 1937, but was again unsuccessful. The Battle
Málaga started in mid-January, and this Nationalist offensive in
Spain's southeast would turn into a disaster for the Republicans, who
were poorly organised and armed. The city was taken by Franco on 8
February. The consolidation of various militias into the Republican
Army had started in December 1936. The main Nationalist advance to
A similar Nationalist offensive, the
Battle of Guadalajara
The "War in the North" began in mid-March, with the
April and May saw the
May Days , infighting among Republican groups
in Catalonia. The dispute was between an ultimately victorious
government –Communist forces and the anarchist CNT. The disturbance
pleased Nationalist command, but little was done to exploit Republican
divisions. After the fall of Guernica, the Republican government
began to fight back with increasing effectiveness. In July, it made a
move to recapture
Mola, Franco's second-in-command, was killed on 3 June, in an airplane accident. In early July, despite the earlier loss at the Battle of Bilbao , the government launched a strong counter-offensive to the west of Madrid, focusing on Brunete . The Battle of Brunete , however, was a significant defeat for the Republic, which lost many of its most accomplished troops. The offensive led to an advance of 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi), and left 25,000 Republican casualties.
A Republican offensive against
The Battle of Teruel was an important confrontation. The city, which had formerly belonged to the Nationalists, was conquered by Republicans in January. The Francoist troops launched an offensive and recovered the city by 22 February, but Franco was forced to rely heavily on German and Italian air support.
On 7 March, Nationalists launched the
Aragon Offensive , and by 14
April they had pushed through to the Mediterranean, cutting the
Republican-held portion of
The Republican government then launched an all-out campaign to
reconnect their territory in the
Battle of the Ebro , from 24 July
until 26 November, where Franco personally took command. The campaign
was unsuccessful, and was undermined by the Franco-British appeasement
of Hitler in Munich . The agreement with Britain effectively destroyed
Republican morale by ending hope of an anti-fascist alliance with
Western powers. The retreat from the Ebro all but determined the
final outcome of the war. Eight days before the new year, Franco
threw massive forces into an invasion of
Franco's troops conquered
On 26 March, the Nationalists started a general offensive, on 28
March the Nationalists occupied
After the end of the war, there were harsh reprisals against Franco's former enemies. Thousands of Republicans were imprisoned and at least 30,000 executed. Other calculations of these deaths range from 50,000 to 200,000, depending on which killings are included. Many others were put to forced labour , building railways, drying out swamps, and digging canals.
Hundreds of thousands of Republicans fled abroad, with some 500,000
fleeing to France. Refugees were confined in internment camps of the
French Third Republic, such as
Camp Gurs or
Camp Vernet , where 12,000
Republicans were housed in squalid conditions. In his capacity as
consul in Paris, Chilean poet and politician
Of the 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs, farmers and others who could
not find relations in France were encouraged by the Third Republic, in
agreement with the Franquist government, to return to Spain. The great
majority did so and were turned over to the Franquist authorities in
Irún . From there, they were transferred to the
Miranda de Ebro camp
for "purification" according to the Law of Political Responsibilities
. After the proclamation by Marshal
Philippe Pétain of the Vichy
regime , the refugees became political prisoners, and the French
police attempted to round up those who had been liberated from the
camp. Along with other "undesirable" people, the
Spaniards were sent
Drancy internment camp before being deported to
After the official end of the war, guerrilla warfare was waged on an
irregular basis by the
Spanish Maquis well into the 1950s, gradually
reduced by military defeats and scant support from the exhausted
population. In 1944, a group of republican veterans, who also fought
EVACUATION OF CHILDREN
Main article: Evacuation of children in the Spanish Civil War Children preparing for evacuation, some giving the Republican salute. The Republicans showed a raised fist whereas the Nationalists gave the Roman salute .
The Republicans oversaw the evacuation of 30,000–35,000 children
from their zone, starting with Basque areas, from which 20,000 were
evacuated. Their destinations included the
Twenty-six republicans were assassinated by Franco\'s Nationalists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, between August and September 1936. This mass grave is located at the small town of Estépar , in Northern Spain. The excavation occurred in July–August 2014.
Death totals remain debated. British historian
Antony Beevor wrote in
his history of the Civil War that Franco's ensuing "white terror "
resulted in the deaths of 200,000 people and that the "red terror "
killed 38,000. Julius Ruiz contends that, "Although the figures
remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in
the Republican zone, with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including
50,000 after the war) in Nationalist
In 2008 a Spanish judge, Baltasar Garzón , opened an investigation into the executions and disappearances of 114,266 people between 17 July 1936 and December 1951. Among the executions investigated was that of the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca , whose body has never been found. Mention of García Lorca's death was forbidden during Franco's regime.
Recent research has started to locate mass graves , using a combination of witness testimony, remote sensing and forensic geophysics techniques.
The view of historians, including Helen Graham , Paul Preston , Antony Beevor , Gabriel Jackson and Hugh Thomas , is that the mass executions behind the Nationalists lines were organized and approved by the Nationalists rebel authorities, while the executions behind the Republican lines were the result of the breakdown of the Republican state and anarchy:
Though there was much wanton killing in rebel Spain, the idea of the _limpieza_, the "cleaning up", of the country from the evils which had overtaken it, was a disciplined policy of the new authorities and a part of their programme of regeneration. In republican Spain, most of the killing was the consequence of anarchy, the outcome of a national breakdown, and not the work of the state, although some political parties in some cities abetted the enormities, and some of those responsible ultimately rose to positions of authority. – Hugh Thomas
Nationalist atrocities, which authorities frequently ordered so as to eradicate any trace of "leftism" in Spain, were common. The notion of a _limpieza_ (cleansing) formed an essential part of the rebel strategy, and the process began immediately after an area had been captured. According to historian Paul Preston, the minimum number of those executed by the rebels is 130,000, and is likely to have been far higher, with other historians placing the figure at 200,000 dead. The violence was carried out in the rebel zone by the military, the Civil Guard and the Falange in the name of the regime.
Many such acts were committed by reactionary groups during the first
weeks of the war. This included the execution of schoolteachers,
because the efforts of the
Second Spanish Republic
Nationalist forces massacred civilians in Seville, where some 8,000
people were shot; 10,000 were killed in Cordoba ; 6,000–12,000 were
Badajoz after more than one thousand of landowners and
conservatives were killed by the revolutionaries. In Granada, where
working-class neighborhoods were hit with artillery and right-wing
squads were given free rein to kill government sympathizers, at least
2,000 people were murdered. In February 1937, over 7,000 were killed
after the capture of
Málaga . When
Nationalists also murdered Catholic clerics. In one particular incident, following the capture of Bilbao, they took hundreds of people, including 16 priests who had served as chaplains for the Republican forces, to the countryside or graveyards and murdered them.
Franco's forces also persecuted Protestants, including murdering 20 Protestant ministers. Franco's forces were determined to remove the "Protestant heresy" from Spain. The Nationalists also persecuted Basques, as they strove to eradicate Basque culture. According to Basque sources, some 22,000 Basques were murdered by Nationalists immediately after the Civil War.
The Nationalist side conducted aerial bombing of cities in Republican
territory, carried out mainly by the
See also: Red Terror (Spain) _ "Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Communist militiamen. The photograph in the London Daily Mail _ had the caption "Spanish Reds' war on religion".
According to the Nationalists, an estimated 55,000 civilians died in Republican-held territories. This is considered excessive by Antony Beevor. However, it was much less than the half a million claimed during the war. The deaths would form the prevailing outside opinion of the republic up until the bombing of Guernica.
The Republican government was anticlerical, and supporters attacked
and murdered Roman Catholic clergy in reaction to the news of military
revolt. In his 1961 book, Spanish archbishop Antonio Montero Moreno ,
who at the time was director of the journal _Ecclesia_, wrote that
6,832 were killed during the war, including 4,184 priests, 2,365 monks
and friars, and 283 nuns, in addition to 13 bishops, a figure accepted
by historians, including Beevor. Some sources claim that by the
conflict's end, 20 percent of the nation's clergy had been killed,
The "Execution" of the
Sacred Heart of Jesus
Like clergy, civilians were executed in Republican territories. Some
civilians were executed as suspected Falangists. Others died in acts
of revenge after Republicans heard of massacres carried out in the
Nationalist zone. Air raids committed against Republican cities were
another driving factor. Shopkeepers and industrialists were shot if
they did not sympathize with the Republicans, and were usually spared
if they did. Fake justice was sought through a commission , known in
Russia as _checas_. The
As pressure mounted with the increasing success of the Nationalists,
many civilians were executed by councils and tribunals controlled by
competing Communist and anarchist groups. Some members of the latter
were executed by Soviet-advised communist functionaries in Catalonia,
as recounted by George Orwell's description of the purges in Barcelona
in 1937 in _Homage to
In the Andalusian town of
Thirty-eight thousand people were killed in the Republican zone
during the war, 17,000 of whom were killed in
Main article: Spanish
In the anarchist-controlled areas,
As the war progressed, the government and the communists were able to exploit their access to Soviet arms to restore government control over the war effort, through diplomacy and force. Anarchists and the Workers\' Party of Marxist Unification (_Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista_, POUM) were integrated into the regular army, albeit with resistance. The POUM Trotskyists were outlawed and falsely denounced as an instrument of the fascists. In the _ May Days _ of 1937, many thousands of anarchist and communist Republican soldiers fought for control of strategic points in Barcelona.
The pre-war Falange was a small party of some 30,000–40,000 members. It also called for a social revolution that would have seen Spanish society transformed by National Syndicalism . Following the execution of its leader, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, by the Republicans, the party swelled in size to several hundred thousand members. The leadership of the Falange suffered 60 percent casualties in the early days of the civil war, and the party was transformed by new members and rising new leaders, called _camisas nuevas_ ("new shirts"), who were less interested in the revolutionary aspects of National Syndicalism. Subsequently, Franco united all fighting groups into the Traditionalist Spanish Falange and the National Syndicalist Offensive Juntas (Spanish : _Falange Española Tradicionalista de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista_, FET y de las JONS).
The 1930s also saw
ART AND PROPAGANDA
_ In Catalonia, a square near the
Throughout the course of the Spanish Civil War, people all over the
world were exposed to the goings-on and effects of it on its people
not only through standard art, but also through propaganda . Motion
pictures, posters, books, radio programs, and leaflets are a few
examples of this media art that was so influential during the war.
Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed
Spaniards a way to spread awareness about their war all over the
world. A film co-produced by famous early-twentieth century authors
Ernest Hemingway and
Lillian Hellman was used as a way to
advertise Spain's need for military and monetary aid. This film, _The
Spanish Earth _, premiered in America in July 1937. In 1938, George
Orwell 's _Homage to
Leading works of sculpture include Alberto Sánchez Pérez 's _El pueblo español tiene un camino que conduce a una estrella_ ("The Spanish People Have a Path that Leads to a Star"), a 12.5m monolith constructed out of plaster representing the struggle for a socialist utopia; Julio González\'s _La Montserrat_, an anti-war work which shares its title with a mountain near Barcelona, is created from a sheet of iron which has been hammered and welded to create a peasant mother carrying a small child in one arm and a sickle in the other. and Alexander Calder 's _Fuente de mercurio_ (Mercury Fountain) a protest work by the American against the Nationalist forced control of Almadén and the mercury mines there.
As to other works of art, Pablo Picasso painted _Guernica_ in 1937, taking inspiration from the bombing of Guernica, and in Leonardo da Vinci 's _ The Battle of Anghiari _. _Guernica_, like many important Republican masterpieces, was featured at the 1937 International Exhibition in Paris. The work's size (11 ft by 25.6 ft) grabbed much attention and cast the horrors of the mounting Spanish civil unrest into a global spotlight. The painting has since been heralded as an anti-war work and a symbol of peace in the 20th century.
Joan Miró created _El Segador_ (The Reaper), formally titled _El
campesino catalán en rebeldía_ (Catalan peasant in revolt), which
spans some 18 feet by 12 feet and depicted a peasant brandishing a
sickle in the air, to which Miró commented that "The sickle is not a
communist symbol. It is the reaper's symbol, the tool of his work,
and, when his freedom is threatened, his weapon." This work, also
featured at the 1937 International Exhibition in Paris, was shipped
back to the Spanish Republic's capital in
Spanish Civil War
1868 Overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon
1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicates throne ending the short-lived First Spanish Republic
1874 (December) Restoration of the Bourbons
1909 Tragic Week in Barcelona
1923 Military coup brings Miguel Primo de Rivera to power
1930 (January) Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns
1931 (12 April) Municipal elections, King Alfonso XIII abdicates.
1931 (June) Elections return large majority of Republicans and Socialists
1931 (October) Republican Manuel Azaña becomes prime minister of a minority government
1931 (December) New reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution is declared
1932 (August) Unsuccessful uprising by General José Sanjurjo
1933 Beginning of the "black two years"
1936 (April) Popular Front alliance wins election and Azaña replaces Zamora as president
1936 (14 April) During a military parade commemorating the 5 years of the second republic, Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes is shot in the back by anarchist/socialist agitators. Riots break out at the funeral
1936 (12 June) Prime Minister Casares Quiroga meets General Joan Yague
1936 (5 July) Aircraft chartered to take Franco from the Canary Islands to Morocco
1936 (12 July) Assault Guard Lieutenant Jose Castillo is murdered after he violently put down the riots that broke out at the funeral of Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes
1936 (13 July) Opposition leader Jose Calvo Sotelo is arrested and murdered by the socialist Assault Guards (Guardia de Asalto), freemason police officer Burillo also blamed.
1936 (14 July) Franco arrives in Morocco
1936 (17 July) Military coup gains control over Spanish Morocco
1936 (17 July) Official beginning of the war
1936 (20 July) Coup leader Sanjurjo is killed in a plane crash
1936 (21 July) Nationalists capture the central Spanish naval base
(7 August) "Execution" of the
Sacred Heart of Jesus
(4 September) The Republican government under Giral resigns, and is
replaced by a mostly
1936 (5 September) Nationalists take Irun
1936 (15 September) Nationalists take San Sebastian
1936 (21 September) Franco chosen as chief military commander at Salamanca
1936 (27 September) Franco's troops relieve the Alcazar in Toledo
1936 (29 September) Franco proclaims himself Caudillo
1936 (17 October) Nationalists from Galicia relieve the besieged town of Oviedo
1936 (November) Bombing of Madrid
(8 November) Franco launches major assault on
1936 (6 November) Republican government is forced to move to Valencia from Madrid
1937 Nationalists capture most of Spain's northern coastline
1937 (6 February) Battle of Jarama begins
1937 (8 February) Malaga falls to Franco's forces
1937 (March) War in the North begins
Battle of Guadalajara
1937 (26 April) Bombing of Guernica
1937 (21 May) 4,000 Basque children taken to the UK
1937 (3 June) Mola, Franco's second-in-command, is killed
1937 (July) Republicans move to recapture Segovia
1937 (6 July) Battle of Brunete begins
(August) Franco invades
1937 (24 August) Battle of Belchite begins
1937 (October) Gijon falls to Franco's troops
(November) Republican government forced to move to
1938 Nationalists capture large parts of Catalonia
1938 (January) Battle of Teruel, conquered by Republicans
1938 (22 February) Franco recovers Teruel
(7 March) Nationalists launch the
1938 (16 March) Bombing of Barcelona
1938 (May) Republican sue for peace, Franco demands unconditional surrender
1938 (24 July) Battle of the Ebro begins
1938 (24 December) Franco throws massive force into invasion of Catalonia
1939 Beginning of General Francisco Franco's rule
1939 (2 February) Girona falls to Franco
1939 (27 February) UK and France recognize the Franco regime
1939 (6 March) Prime minister Juan Negrin flees to France
1939 (28 March) Nationalists occupy Madrid
1939 (31 March) Nationalists control all Spanish territory
1939 (1 April) Last Republican forces surrender
1939 (1 April) Official ending of the war
1975 Ending of General Francisco Franco's rule with his death in November 20, La Paz hospital, Madrid
See also: List of people of the Spanish Civil War
FIGURES IDENTIFIED WITH THE REPUBLICAN SIDE _Politicians or military_
Manuel Azaña (Republican)
Santiago Carrillo (Communist)
Julio Álvarez del Vayo (Socialist)
Valentin González (_"El Campesino"_) (Communist)
Dolores Ibarruri (_"La Pasionaria"_) (Communist)
Francisco Largo Caballero
OTHERS IDENTIFIED WITH THE REPUBLICAN SIDE (INCLUDING VOLUNTEERS)
W. H. Auden (poet)
Robert Capa (photojournalist)
Dezső Révai (photojournalist)
Pablo Casals (cellist, conductor)
Federico García Lorca (poet, dramatist – assassinated)
Martha Gellhorn (writer, journalist)
Egon Erwin Kisch (writer, journalist)
Pablo Picasso (painter, sculptor)
Rafael Alberti (poet, communist)
Ernest Hemingway (author, journalist)
John Dos Passos (novelist)
Jose Robles (academic, activist)
Laurie Lee (poet, novelist, screenwriter)
George Orwell (novelist, journalist)
Luis Buñuel (filmmaker, close to anarchism in thoughts and
Miguel Hernández (poet)
FIGURES IDENTIFIED WITH THE NATIONALIST SIDE _Military_
Millán Astray (Spain)
POLITICAL PARTIES AND ORGANIZATIONS
POLITICAL PARTIES AND ORGANIZATIONS IN THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR
THE POPULAR FRONT (REPUBLICAN) SUPPORTERS OF THE POPULAR FRONT (REPUBLICAN) NATIONALISTS (FRANCOIST)
The Popular Front was an electoral alliance formed between various left-wing and centrist parties for elections to the Cortes in 1936, in which the alliance won a majority of seats.
* UR (UNIóN REPUBLICANA - REPUBLICAN UNION ): Led by Diego
Martínez Barrio, formed in 1934 by members of the PRR, who had
resigned in objection to Alejandro Lerroux's coalition with the CEDA.
It drew its main support from skilled workers and progressive
* IR (IZQUIERDA REPUBLICANA - REPUBLICAN LEFT ): Led by former Prime
Manuel Azaña after his Republican Action party merged with
Santiago Casares Quiroga's Galician independence party and the Radical
* PSOE (PARTIDO SOCIALISTA OBRERO ESPAñOL - SPANISH SOCIALIST WORKERS\\' PARTY ): Formed in 1879, its alliance with Acción Republicana in municipal elections in 1931 saw a landslide victory that led to the King's abdication and the creation of the Second Republic. The two parties won the subsequent general election, but the PSOE left the coalition in 1933. At the time of the Civil War, the PSOE was split between a right wing under Indalecio Prieto and Juan Negrín, and a left wing under Largo Caballero. Following the Popular Front victory, it was the second largest party in the Cortes, after the CEDA. It supported the ministries of Azaña and Quiroga, but did not actively participate until the Civil War began. It had majority support amongst urban manual workers.
* UGT (UNIóN GENERAL DE TRABAJADORES - GENERAL UNION OF WORKERS): The socialist trade union. The UGT was formally linked to the PSOE, and the bulk of the union followed Caballero. * FEDERACION DE JUVENTUDES SOCIALISTAS (FEDERATION OF SOCIALIST YOUTH)
* PSUC (PARTIT SOCIALISTA UNIFICAT DE CATALUNYA - UNIFIED SOCIALIST
PARTY OF CATALONIA ): An alliance of various socialist parties in
Catalonia, formed in the summer of 1936, controlled by the PCE.
* JSU (JUVENTUDES SOCIALISTAS UNIFICADAS - UNIFIED SOCIALIST YOUTH
): Militant youth group formed by the merger of the
* POUM (PARTIDO OBRERO DE UNIFICACIóN MARXISTA - WORKER\'S PARTY OF MARXIST UNIFICATION): An anti-Stalinist revolutionary communist party of former Trotskyists formed in 1935 by Andreu Nin.
* JCI (JUVENTUD COMUNISTA IBéRICA - IBERIAN COMMUNIST YOUTH ): the POUM's youth movement.
* PS (PARTIDO SINDICALISTA - SYNDICALIST PARTY ): a moderate splinter group of CNT.
* UNIóN MILITAR REPUBLICANA ANTIFASCISTA (REPUBLICAN ANTI-FASCIST MILITARY UNION): Formed by military officers in opposition to the Unión Militar Española.
* _ANARCHIST GROUPS._ The anarchists boycotted the 1936 Cortes election and initially opposed the Popular Front government, but joined during the Civil War when Largo Caballero became Prime Minister.
* CNT (CONFEDERACIóN NACIONAL DEL TRABAJO - NATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF LABOUR): The confederation of anarcho-syndicalist trade unions. * FAI (FEDERACIóN ANARQUISTA IBéRICA - IBERIAN ANARCHIST FEDERATION): The federation of anarchist groups, very active in the Republican militias. * MUJERES LIBRES (FREE WOMEN): The anarchist feminist organisation. * FIJL (FEDERACIóN IBéRICA DE JUVENTUDES LIBERTARIAS - IBERIAN FEDERATION OF LIBERTARIAN YOUTH )
* _CATALAN NATIONALISTS._
* ESTAT CATALà (CATALAN STATE): Catalan separatist party created back in 1922. Founding part of ERC in 1931, it sided with the Republican faction during the war.
* _BASQUE NATIONALISTS._
* PNV (PARTIDO NACIONALISTA VASCO - BASQUE NATIONALIST PARTY ): A
Catholic Christian Democrat party under José Antonio Aguirre , which
campaigned for greater autonomy or independence for the Basque region.
Held seats in the Cortes and supported the Popular Front government
before and during the Civil War. Put its religious disagreement with
the Popular Front aside for a promised Basque autonomy.
* ANV (ACCIóN NACIONALISTA VASCA - BASQUE NATIONALIST ACTION ): A
* SRI (SOCORRO ROJO INTERNACIONAL - INTERNATIONAL RED AID ): Communist organization allied with the Comintern that provided considerable aid to Republican civilians and soldiers. * INTERNATIONAL BRIGADES : pro-Republican military units made up of anti-fascist Socialist, Communist and anarchist volunteers from different countries.
Virtually all Nationalist groups had very strong Roman Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy.
* UNIóN MILITAR ESPAñOLA (SPANISH MILITARY UNION) - a conservative
political organisation of officers in the armed forces, including
outspoken critics of the Republic like Francisco Franco. Formed in
1934, the UME secretly courted fascist Italy from its inception.
Already conspiring against the Republic in January 1936, after the
electoral victory of the Popular Front in February it plotted a coup
with monarchist and fascist groups in Spain. In the run-up to the
Civil War, it was led by
* _ALFONSIST MONARCHIST_ - supported the restoration of Alfonso XIII. Many army officers, aristocrats, and landowners were Alfonsine, but there was little popular support.
* RENOVACIóN ESPAñOLA (SPANISH RESTORATION) - the main Alfonsine political party.
* ACCIóN ESPAñOLA (SPANISH ACTION) - an integral nationalist party led by José Calvo Sotelo, formed in 1933 around a journal of the same name edited by political theorist and journalist Ramiro de Maeztu .
* BLOQUE NACIONAL (NATIONAL BLOCK) - the militia movement founded by Calvo Sotelo.
* _CARLIST MONARCHIST_ - supported Alfonso Carlos I de Borbón y
Austria-Este 's claim to the Spanish throne and saw the Alfonsine line
as having been weakened by
Liberalism . After Alfonso Carlos died
without issue, the
Carlists split - some supporting Carlos' appointed
regent, Francisco-Xavier de Borbón-Parma , others supporting Alfonso
XIII or the Falange. The
Carlists were clerical hard-liners led by the
aristocracy, with a populist base amongst the farmers and rural
* COMUNIóN TRADICIONALISTA (TRADITIONALIST COMMUNION) - the Carlist political party
* REQUETéS (VOLUNTEERS) - militia movement. * PELAYOS - militant youth movement, named after Pelayo of Asturias . * MARGARITAS - women's movement, named after Margarita de Borbón-Parma , wife of Carlist pretender Charles VII (1868-1909).
* FALANGE (PHALANX):
* FE (FALANGE ESPAñOLA DE LAS JONS) - created by a merger in 1934 of two fascist organisations, Primo de Rivera's Falange (Phalanx), founded in 1933, and Ramiro Ledesma 's Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Assemblies of National-Syndicalist Offensive), founded in 1931. It became a mass movement when it was joined by members of Acción Popular and by Acción Católica , led by Ramón Serrano Súñer.
* OJE (ORGANIZACIóN JUVENIL ESPAñOLA) - militant youth movement. * SECCIóN FEMENINA (FEMININE SECTION) - women's movement in labour of Social Aid.
* FALANGE ESPAñOLA TRADICIONALISTA Y DE LAS JONS - created by a merger in 1937 of the FE and the Carlist party, bringing the remaining political and militia components of the Nationalist side under Franco's ultimate authority.
* CEDA - coalition party founded by José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones whose ideology ranged from Christian democracy to conservative . Although they supported Franco's rebellion, the party was dissolved in 1937, after most members and militants joined FE and Gil-Robles went to exile.
* JUVENTUDES DE ACCIóN POPULAR , also known as the JAP. The fascistised youth wing of the CEDA. In 1936 they suffered a drain of militants, who joined the Falange.
List of foreign ships wrecked or lost in the Spanish Civil War
* Catholicism in the
Second Spanish Republic
* ^ Also known as THE CRUSADE (Spanish : _La Cruzada_) among Nationalists, the FOURTH CARLIST WAR (Spanish : _Cuarta Guerra Carlista_) among Carlists , and THE REBELLION (Spanish : _La Rebelión_) or UPRISING (Spanish : _Sublevación_) among Republicans. * ^ Known in Spanish as the _Falange Española de las JONS_. * ^ Westwell (2004) gives a figure of 500 million Reichmarks. * ^ Since Beevor (2006). p. 82. suggests 7,000 members of some 115,000 clergy were killed, the proportion could well be lower. * ^ See variously: Bennett, Scott, _Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963_, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 2003; Prasad, Devi, _War is A Crime Against Humanity: The Story of War Resisters' International_, London, WRI, 2005. Also see Hunter, Allan, _White Corpsucles in Europe,_ Chicago, Willett, Clark and Brown, H. Runham, _Spain: A Challenge to Pacifism,_ London, The Finsbury Press, 1937.
* ^ Thomas (1961). p. 491.
* ^ Thomas (1961). p. 488.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sandler, Stanley (2002). _Ground Warfare: An
International Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. p. 160.
* ^ The number of casualties is disputed; estimates generally
suggest that between 500,000 and 1 million people were killed. Over
the years, historians kept lowering the death figures, and modern
research concludes that 500,000 deaths is the correct figure. Thomas
Barria-Norton, _The Spanish Civil War_ (2001), pp. xviii & 899–901,
* ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 410–11. Beevor notes that around 150,000
had returned by 1939.
* ^ Payne (2012). p. 231.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Payne (1973). pp. 200–203.
* ^ Beevor (2006). p. 88.
* ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 86–87.
* ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 260–271.
* ^ Julius Ruiz. _El Terror Rojo_ (2011). pp. 200–211.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 7.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 19.
* ^ Thomas (1961). p. 13.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 21.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 22.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 24.
* ^ Fraser (1979). pp. 38–39.
* ^ Preston (2006). pp. 24–26.
* ^ Thomas (1961). p. 15.
* ^ Preston (2006). pp. 32–33.
* ^ Beevor (2006). p. 15.
* ^ Thomas (1961). p. 16.
* ^ Beevor (2006) p. 20-22.
* ^ Beevor (2006). p. 20.
* ^ Beevor (2006) p. 23.
* ^ Preston (2006). pp. 38–39.
* ^ Beevor (2006) p.26.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 50.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 42.
* ^ Beevor (2006). p. 22.
* ^ Preston (2006). pp. 45–48.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 53.
* ^ Thomas (1961). p. 47.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 61.
* ^ Casanova (2010). p. 90.
* ^ Preston (2006). pp. 54–55.
* ^ Hansen, Edward C. (2 January 1984). "The Anarchists of Casas
* ^ Tremlett, Giles (1 December 2003). "
* ^ Graham (2005). p. 30.
* ^ Preston (2006). p. 307.
* ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 86–87.
* ^ Jackson (1967). p. 305.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Thomas (2001). p. 268.
* ^ Beevor (2006). p. 98
Paul Preston (19 January 2008). "
Paul Preston lecture: The
Crimes of Franco" (PDF). Retrieved 16 August 2011.
* ^ Beevor (2006). p. 94.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Beevor (2006). pp. 88–89.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 89.
* ^ Preston (2007). p. 121.
* ^ Jackson (1967). p. 377.
* ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 253–255.
* ^ Santos et al. (1999). p. 229.
* ^ Preston (2006). pp. 120–123.
* ^ Beevor (2006). p. 91.
* ^ Balfour, Sebastian. "
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND BOOKS BY NOTED AUTHORS
* Alpert, Michael (2004) . _A New International History of the
Spanish Civil War_. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN
* Benton, Gregor; Pieke, Frank N. (1998). _The Chinese in Europe_.
Macmillan. p. 390. ISBN 0-333-66913-4 . Retrieved 14 July 2010.
* Bieter, John; Bieter, Mark (2003). _An Enduring Legacy: The Story
of Basques in Idaho_. University of Nevada Press. ISBN
* Bolloten, Burnett (1979). _The Spanish Revolution. The Left and
the Struggle for Power during the Civil War_. University of North
Carolina. ISBN 1-84212-203-7 .
* Borkenau, Franz (1937). _The Spanish Cockpit : an Eye-Witness
Account of the Political and Social Conflicts of the Spanish Civil
War_. London: Faber and Faber.
* Bowen, Wayne H (2006). _
* Brouè, Pierre (1988). _The
FILMS, IMAGES AND SOUNDS