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(i)

Nationalist victory

* End of the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
* Establishment of Francoist Spain
Spain

BELLIGERENTS

REPUBLICANS

* CNT /FAI * Popular Front * UGT * Generalitat of Catalonia * EC * EG (1936–37) * PG * International Brigades
International Brigades

SUPPORTED BY

* Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Mexico
Mexico
* Foreign volunteers

NATIONALISTS

* FET y de las JONS (from 1937) * FE de la JONS (1936–37) * CT (1936–37) * CEDA (1936–37) * RE (1936–37)

SUPPORTED BY

* _ Italy * Portugal * Germany * Foreign volunteers

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

REPUBLICAN LEADERS

* Manuel Azaña * Julián Besteiro * Francisco Largo Caballero
Francisco Largo Caballero
* Juan Negrín * Indalecio Prieto * Vicente Rojo Lluch * José Miaja
José Miaja
* Juan Modesto * Juan Hernández Saravia * Carlos Romero Giménez * Buenaventura Durruti † * Lluís Companys * José Antonio Aguirre

NATIONALIST LEADERS

* José Sanjurjo
José Sanjurjo
† * Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
† * Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
* Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
* Juan Yagüe * Miguel Cabanellas † * Manuel Goded Llopis † * Manuel Hedilla * Manuel Fal Conde * Mohamed Meziane

STRENGTH

1938 STRENGTH:

* 450,000 infantry * 350 aircraft * 200 tanks

1938 STRENGTH:

* 600,000 infantry * 600 aircraft * 290 tanks

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

175,000 killed in action 110,000 killed in action

* 610,000 dead * 450,000 fled

* v * t * e

Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War

BACKGROUND JULY 1936 UPRISING MELILLA Seville
Seville
1ST BARCELONA Cuartel de la Montaña Gijón Oviedo
Oviedo
Cuartel de Loyola 1936 German intervention GUADARRAMA Alcázar EXTREMADURA Convoy de la victoria Almendralejo Sigüenza Mérida Badajoz Majorca Sierra Guadalupe Córdoba GIPUZKOA Monte Pelado Talavera Irún Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza Cerro Muriano Cape Espartel Seseña MADRID Ciudad Universitaria 1st Corunna Road Villarreal Ursula_ _ACEITUNA _ Lopera 2nd Corunna Road 1937 3rd Corunna Road Málaga JARAMA Cape Machichaco GUADALAJARA Pozoblanco WAR IN THE NORTH BISCAY Durango Jaén Guernica
Guernica
2ND BARCELONA _Deutschland_ Almería Segovia
Segovia
Huesca Bilbao
Bilbao
Albarracín BRUNETE Santander ZARAGOZA 1st Belchite ASTURIAS El Mazuco Cape Cherchell Sabiñánigo TERUEL 1938 Alfambra Cape Palos ARAGON 2nd Belchite 3rd Barcelona
Barcelona
Caspe Lérida 1st Gandesa SEGRE LEVANTE Balaguer Los Blázquez Alicante Granollers Bielsa MERIDA POCKET EBRO 2nd Gandesa _Cantabria_ Cabra 1939 CATALONIA Valsequillo La Garriga Minorca Cartagena _Olite_ FINAL OFFENSIVE

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF SPAIN

Early history

* Prehistoric Iberia * Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula * Carthaginian Iberia * Hispania
Hispania
* Roman conquest of Hispania
Hispania
* Romanization of Hispania
Hispania

Medieval

* Suebic kingdom * Visigothic kingdom
Visigothic kingdom
* Byzantine Spania * Umayyad conquest of Hispania
Hispania
* Al-Andalus / Reconquista
Reconquista

Early modern

* Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
* Age of Expansion * Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
* Golden Age * Enlightenment

Modern

* Napoleonic Spain
Spain
/ War of Independence * Cádiz Cortes / 1812 Constitution * Independence of Spanish America * Reaction and Revolution
Revolution
* Spanish confiscation * First Republic * Restoration * Disaster of 1898 * Second Republic * Civil War * Francoist Spain
Spain

Contemporary

* Transition to democracy * Spain
Spain
since 1975

By topic

* Colonial history * Economic history * Military history

TIMELINE

Spain
Spain
portal

* v * t * e

EVENTS LEADING TO WORLD WAR II

Pacification of Libya 1923–1932

Japanese invasion of Manchuria
Japanese invasion of Manchuria
1931

Franco-Soviet-Czech Pact 1935

Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
1935–36

Remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936

Spanish Civil War 1936–39

Anti-Comintern Pact 1936

Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
1937

Anschluss 1938

Munich crisis 1938

German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939

German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939

British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939

Invasion of Albania Apr. 1939

Pact of Steel May 1939

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939

* v * t * e

The SPANISH CIVIL WAR, (Spanish : _Guerra Civil Española_), widely known in Spain
Spain
simply as THE CIVIL WAR (Spanish : _Guerra Civil_) or THE WAR (Spanish : _La Guerra_), took place from 1936 to 1939. The Republicans , who were loyal to the democratic, left -leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
, in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, fought against the Nationalists , a Falangist , Carlist , and largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
. Although the war is often portrayed as a struggle between democracy and fascism , historians consider it more accurately described as a struggle between leftist revolution and rightist counter-revolution. Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco then ruled Spain
Spain
for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975.

The war began after a _pronunciamiento _ (declaration of opposition) by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces , originally under the leadership of José Sanjurjo
José Sanjurjo
, against the elected, leftist government of the Second Spanish Republic, at the time under the leadership of President
President
Manuel Azaña . The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (_Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas_, or CEDA), monarchists such as the religious conservative (Catholic) Carlists , and the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista , a fascist group. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists.

The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco , Pamplona
Pamplona
, Burgos
Burgos
, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
, Valladolid
Valladolid
, Cádiz , Córdoba , and Seville
Seville
. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid
Madrid
, Barcelona
Barcelona
, Valencia
Valencia
, Bilbao
Bilbao
, and Málaga —did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain
Spain
was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions and soldiers from Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Fascist Italy , while the Republican (Loyalist) side received support from the Communist Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and leftist populist Mexico
Mexico
. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and France, operated an official policy of non-intervention .

The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937. They also besieged Madrid
Madrid
and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After large parts of Catalonia
Catalonia
were captured in 1938 and 1939, the war ended with the victory of the Nationalists and the exile of thousands of leftist Spaniards, many of whom fled to refugee camps in southern France. Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime.

The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred. Organized purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces to consolidate the future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans. The extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 2 Military coup

* 2.1 Preparations * 2.2 Beginning of the coup * 2.3 Outcome

* 3 Combatants

* 3.1 Republicans * 3.2 Nationalists * 3.3 Other factions

* 4 Foreign involvement

* 4.1 Support for the Nationalists

* 4.1.1 Germany * 4.1.2 Italy * 4.1.3 Portugal * 4.1.4 Others

* 4.2 Support for the Republicans

* 4.2.1 International Brigades
International Brigades
* 4.2.2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* 4.2.3 Mexico
Mexico
* 4.2.4 France

* 5 Course of the war

* 5.1 1936 * 5.2 1937 * 5.3 1938 * 5.4 1939

* 6 Evacuation of children

* 7 Atrocities

* 7.1 Nationalists * 7.2 Republicans

* 8 Social revolution * 9 Art and propaganda * 10 Timeline * 11 People * 12 Political parties and organizations * 13 See also

* 14 References

* 14.1 Notes * 14.2 Citations * 14.3 Bibliography and books by noted authors

* 15 Further reading

* 16 External links

* 16.1 Films, images and sounds * 16.2 Miscellaneous documents * 16.3 Diverse references and citations * 16.4 Academics and governments * 16.5 Archives

BACKGROUND

Main article: Background of the Spanish Civil War

The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain. Those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812 , sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain
Spain
and to establish a liberal state. The reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government. Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874. Until the 1850s, the economy of Spain
Spain
was primarily based on agriculture. There was little development of a bourgeois industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful; a small number of people held large estates called _latifundia _ as well as all the important government positions. King Amadeo I of Spain
Spain

In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military (led by General Joan Prim ) concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy , abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, and the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Alejandro Lerroux , Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party , helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia , where poverty was particularly acute. Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona
Barcelona
in 1909.

Spain
Spain
was neutral in World War I
World War I
. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, and military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuccessful. Popular perception of communism as a major threat significantly increased during this period. In 1923 a military coup brought Miguel Primo de Rivera to power; as a result, Spain
Spain
transitioned to government by military dictatorship. Support for the Rivera regime gradually faded, and he resigned in January 1930. He was replaced by General Dámaso Berenguer , who was in turn himself replaced by Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas ; both men continued a policy of rule by decree. There was little support for the monarchy in the major cities. Consequently, King Alfonso XIII gave in to popular pressure for the establishment of a republic in 1931 and called municipal elections for 12 April of that year. The socialist and liberal republicans won almost all the provincial capitals, and following the resignation of Aznar's government, King Alfonso XIII fled the country. At this time, the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
was formed and would remain in power until the culmination of the Spanish Civil War. Niceto Alcalá-Zamora in 1931

The revolutionary committee headed by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora became the provisional government, with Alcalá-Zamora as president and head of state . The republic had broad support from all segments of society. In May, an incident where a taxi driver was attacked outside a monarchist club sparked anti-clerical violence throughout Madrid
Madrid
and south-west Spain
Spain
. The government's slow response disillusioned the right and reinforced their view that the Republic was determined to persecute the church. In June and July the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) called several strikes , which led to a violent incident between CNT members and the Civil Guard and a brutal crackdown by the Civil Guard and the army against the CNT in Seville
Seville
. This led many workers to believe the Spanish Second Republic was just as oppressive as the monarchy and the CNT announced their intention of overthrowing it via revolution . Elections in June 1931 returned a large majority of Republicans and Socialists . With the onset of the Great Depression , the government attempted to assist rural Spain
Spain
by instituting an eight-hour day and giving land tenure to farm workers.

Fascism remained a reactive threat, helped by controversial reforms to the military. In December a new reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution was declared. It included strong provisions enforcing a broad secularization of the Catholic country, which many moderate committed Catholics opposed. Republican Manuel Azaña became prime minister of a minority government in October 1931. In 1933 the parties of the right won the general elections , largely owing to the anarchists\' abstention from the vote, increased right-wing resentment of the incumbent government caused by a controversial decree implementing land reform, the Casas Viejas incident , and the formation of a right-wing alliance, Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (CEDA). The recent enfranchisement of women, most of whom voted for centre-right parties, was also a contributing factor.

Events in the period following November 1933, called the "black two years", seemed to make a civil war more likely. Alejandro Lerroux of the Radical Republican Party (RRP) formed a government, reversing changes made under the previous administration and granting amnesty to the collaborators of the unsuccessful uprising by General José Sanjurjo in August 1932. Some monarchists joined with the then fascist-nationalist Falange Española y de las JONS ("Falange") to help achieve their aims. Open violence occurred in the streets of Spanish cities, and militancy continued to increase, reflecting a movement towards radical upheaval, rather than peaceful democratic means as solutions.

In the last months of 1934, two government collapses brought members of the CEDA into the government. Farm workers' wages were cut in half, and the military was purged of Republican members. A popular front alliance was organized, which narrowly won the 1936 elections . Azaña led a weak minority government, but soon replaced Zamora as president in April. Prime Minister Santiago Casares Quiroga ignored warnings of a military conspiracy involving several generals, who decided that the government had to be replaced to prevent the dissolution of Spain.

MILITARY COUP

Main article: Spanish coup of July 1936

PREPARATIONS

_ They shall not pass!_ Republican banner in Madrid
Madrid
reading " Fascism wants to conquer Madrid. Madrid
Madrid
shall be fascism's grave." during the siege of 1936–39 Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1936

The Republican government acted to remove suspect generals from influential posts. Franco was sacked as chief of staff and transferred to command of the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
. Manuel Goded Llopis was removed as inspector general and was made general of the Balearic Islands . Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
was moved from head of the Army of Africa to military commander of Pamplona
Pamplona
in Navarre
Navarre
. This, however, allowed Mola to direct the mainland uprising. General Jose Sanjurjo became the figurehead of the operation and helped reach an agreement with the Carlists. Mola was chief planner and second in command. José Antonio Primo de Rivera was put in prison in mid-March in order to restrict the Falange. However, government actions were not as thorough as they might have been, and warnings by the Director of Security and other figures were not acted upon.

On 12 June, Prime Minister Casares Quiroga met General Juan Yagüe , who falsely convinced Casares of his loyalty to the republic. Mola began serious planning in the spring. Franco was a key player because of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and as the man who suppressed the Asturian miners\' strike of 1934 . He was well respected in the Army of Africa, the Army's toughest troops. He wrote a cryptic letter to Casares on 23 June, suggesting that the military was disloyal, but could be restrained if he were put in charge. Casares did nothing, failing to arrest or buy off Franco. British sympathizers with the rebels (who were associated with the British Secret Intelligence Service ) chartered a Dragon Rapide aircraft to transport Franco from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
to Spanish Morocco . The plane flew to the Canaries on 11 July, and Franco arrived in Morocco on 19 July.

On 12 July 1936, Falangists in Madrid
Madrid
murdered a police officer, Lieutenant José Castillo of the Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard). Castillo was a Socialist
Socialist
party member who among other activities was giving military training to the UGT youth. Castillo had led the Assault Guards that violently suppressed the riots after the funeral of _Guardia Civil_ lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes. (Los Reyes had been shot by anarchists during the 14 April military parade commemorating the five years of the Republic.)

Assault Guard Captain Fernando Condés was a close personal friend of Castillo. The next day, he led his squad to arrest José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones , founder of CEDA, as a reprisal for Castillo's murder. But he was not at home, so they went to the house of José Calvo Sotelo , a leading Spanish monarchist and a prominent parliamentary conservative. Luis Cuenca, a member of the arresting group and a Socialist, summarily executed Calvo Sotelo by shooting him in the back of the neck. Hugh Thomas concludes that Condés intended to arrest Sotelo and that Cuenca acted on his own initiative, although he acknowledges other sources that dispute this finding.

Massive reprisals followed. The killing of Calvo Sotelo with police involvement aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the government's opponents on the right. Although the nationalist generals were already in the advanced stages of a planned uprising, the event provided a catalyst and a public justification for their coup.

The Socialists and Communists, led by Indalecio Prieto , demanded that arms be distributed to the people before the military took over. The prime minister was hesitant.

BEGINNING OF THE COUP

General map of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(1936–39)

Initial Nationalist zone – Jul 1936 Nationalist advance to Sep 1936 Nationalist advance to Oct 1937 Nationalist advance to Nov 1938 Nationalist advance to Feb 1939 Last area under Republican control Main Nationalist centres Main Republican centres Land battles Naval battles Bombed cities Concentration camps Massacres Refugee camps

The uprising's timing was fixed at 17 July, at 17:01, agreed to by the leader of the Carlists, Manuel Fal Conde . However, the timing was changed—the men in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco were to rise up at 05:00 on 18 July and those in Spain
Spain
proper a day later so that control of Spanish Morocco could be achieved and forces sent back to the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
to coincide with the risings there. The rising was intended to be a swift coup d'état, but the government retained control of most of the country.

Control over Spanish Morocco was all but certain. The plan was discovered in Morocco on 17 July, which prompted the conspirators to enact it immediately. Little resistance was encountered. In total, the rebels shot 189 people. Goded and Franco immediately took control of the islands to which they were assigned. On 18 July, Casares Quiroga refused an offer of help from the CNT and Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), leading the groups to proclaim a general strike—in effect, mobilizing. They opened weapons caches, some buried since the 1934 risings. The paramilitary security forces often waited to see the outcome of militia action before either joining or suppressing the rebellion. Quick action by either the rebels or anarchist militias was often enough to decide the fate of a town. General Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
managed to secure Seville
Seville
for the rebels, arresting a number of other officers.

OUTCOME

The rebels failed to take any major cities with the critical exception of Seville
Seville
, which provided a landing point for Franco's African troops, and the primarily conservative and Catholic areas of Old Castile
Old Castile
and León , which fell quickly. Cádiz was taken for the rebels, with the help of the first troops from the Army of Africa.

The government retained control of Málaga , Jaén , and Almería . In Madrid, the rebels were hemmed into the Montaña barracks , which fell with considerable bloodshed. Republican leader Casares Quiroga was replaced by José Giral , who ordered the distribution of weapons among the civilian population. This facilitated the defeat of the army insurrection in the main industrial centres, including Madrid, Barcelona
Barcelona
, and Valencia
Valencia
, but it allowed anarchists to take control of Barcelona
Barcelona
along with large swathes of Aragón and Catalonia. General Goded surrendered in Barcelona
Barcelona
and was later condemned to death. The Republican government ended up controlling almost all of the east coast and central area around Madrid, as well as most of Asturias
Asturias
, Cantabria
Cantabria
and part of the Basque Country in the north.

The rebels termed themselves _Nacionales_, normally translated "Nationalists", although the former implies "true Spaniards" rather than a nationalistic cause . The result of the coup was a nationalist area of control containing 11 million of Spain's population of 25 million. The Nationalists had secured the support of around half of Spain's territorial army, some 60,000 men, joined by the Army of Africa, made up of 35,000 men, and a little under half of Spain's militaristic police forces, the Assault Guards, the Civil Guards , and the Carabineers . Republicans controlled under half of the rifles and about a third of both machine guns and artillery pieces.

The Spanish Republican Army had just 18 tanks of a sufficiently modern design, and the Nationalists took control of 10. Naval capacity was uneven, with the Republicans retaining a numerical advantage, but with the Navy's top commanders and two of the most modern ships, heavy cruisers _Canarias _ —captured at the Ferrol shipyard—and _Baleares _, in Nationalist hands. The Spanish Republican Navy suffered from the same problems as the army—many officers had defected or had been killed after trying to do so. Two-thirds of air capability was retained by the government—however, the whole of the Republican Air Force was very outdated.

COMBATANTS

The war was cast by Republican sympathizers as a struggle between tyranny and freedom, and by Nationalist supporters as communist and anarchist "red hordes" versus "Christian civilization". Nationalists also claimed they were bringing security and direction to an ungoverned and lawless country. Spanish politics, especially on the left, were quite fragmented, since socialists and communists supported the republic. During the republic, anarchists had mixed opinions, but major groups opposed the Nationalists during the Civil War. The Nationalists, in contrast, were united by their fervent opposition to the Republican government and presented a more unified front. Republican and Nationalist conscription age limits

The coup divided the armed forces fairly evenly. One historical estimate suggests that there were some 87,000 troops loyal to the government and some 77,000 joining the insurgency, though some historians suggest that the Nationalist figure should be revised upwards and that it probably amounted to some 95,000.

During the first few months both armies were joined in high numbers by volunteers; unfortunately, there are no scholarly estimates available. Starting August both sides launched own and similarly scaled conscription schemes, resulting in further massive growth of their armies. Finally, final months of 1936 recorded arrival of foreign troops, International Brigades
International Brigades
joining the Republicans and Italian CTV, German Legion Condor and Portuguese Viriatos joining the Nationalists. The result was that in April 1937 there were some 360,000 soldiers in the Republican ranks and some 290,000 in the Nationalist ones.

The armies kept growing. The principal source of manpower was conscription; both sides continued and expanded their schemes, the Nationalists drafting somewhat more aggressively, and there was little room left for volunteering. Foreigners hardly contributed to further growth; on the Nationalist side the Italians scaled down their engagement, while on the Republican side influx of new interbrigadistas hardly made up for losses, suffered by these units on the front. At the turn of 1937/1938 both armies achieved numerical parity and equalled about 700,000 each.

Throughout 1938 the principal if not exclusive source of new men was draft; at this stage it was the Republicans who conscripted more aggressively. In mid-year, just prior to the Battle of Ebro, the Republicans achieved their all-time high commanding the army of slightly above 800,000 people; this was already no match for the Nationalists, who numbered 880,000. The Battle of Ebro, fall of Catalonia
Catalonia
and collapsing discipline produced massive shrinking of the Republican troops. In late February 1939 their army was 400,000 compared to more than double that number of Nationalists. In the moment of their final victory, the latter commanded over 900,000 troops.

The total number of Spaniards serving in the Republican forces was officially stated as 917,000; latest scholarly work estimates the actual number as "well over 1 million men" (1.2m?), though earlier historiographical studies claimed the Republican total (including foreigners) of 1.75m. The total number of Spaniards serving in the Nationalist units is currently estimated at "nearly 1 million men", though earlier works claimed (foreigners included) the total of 1.26m.

REPUBLICANS

Main article: Republican faction (Spanish Civil War) Flags of the Popular Front (left) and CNT/FAI (right)

Only two countries openly and fully supported the Republic: Mexico and the USSR. From them, especially the USSR, the Republic received diplomatic support, volunteers, and the ability to purchase weapons. Other countries remained neutral, said neutrality being a great source of distress to the intelligentsia in the United States
United States
and United Kingdom, and to a lesser extent in other European countries and to Marxists worldwide. This distress led to the International Brigades
International Brigades
, thousands of foreigners of all nationalities who voluntarily went to Spain
Spain
to aid the Republic in the fight; they meant a great deal to morale but militarily were not very significant.

The Republic's supporters within Spain
Spain
ranged from centrists who supported a moderately-capitalist liberal democracy to revolutionary anarchists who opposed the Republic but sided with it against the coup forces. Their base was primarily secular and urban but also included landless peasants and was particularly strong in industrial regions like Asturias
Asturias
, the Basque country, and Catalonia
Catalonia
.

This faction was called variously _leales_ "Loyalists" by supporters, "Republicans", the "Popular Front", or "the government" by all parties; and/or _los rojos_ "the Reds" by their opponents. Republicans were supported by urban workers, agricultural labourers, and parts of the middle class. Republican volunteers at Teruel
Teruel
, 1936

The conservative, strongly Catholic Basque country, along with Galicia and the more left-leaning Catalonia, sought autonomy or independence from the central government of Madrid. The Republican government allowed for the possibility of self-government for the two regions, whose forces were gathered under the People\'s Republican Army (_Ejército Popular Republicano_, or EPR), which was reorganized into mixed brigades after October 1936.

A few well-known people fought on the Republican side, such as English novelist George Orwell (who wrote _Homage to Catalonia
Catalonia
_ (1938), an account of his experiences in the war) and Canadian thoracic surgeon Norman Bethune , who developed a mobile blood-transfusion service for front-line operations. Simone Weil added herself for a while to the anarchist columns of Buenaventura Durruti, though fellow fighters feared she might inadvertently shoot them because she was shortsighted, and tried to avoid taking her on missions. By the account of her biographer Simone Petrement, Weil was evacuated from the front after a matter of weeks because of an injury sustained in a cooking accident.

NATIONALISTS

Main article: Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War) Flags of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (left) and the Carlist Requetés (right)

The _Nacionales_ or Nationalists—also called "insurgents", "rebels", or, by opponents, _Franquistas_ or "fascists" (see: the Nationalist faction )—feared national fragmentation and opposed the separatist movements. They were chiefly defined by their anti-communism , which galvanized diverse or opposed movements like falangists and monarchists. Their leaders had a generally wealthier, more conservative, monarchist, landowning background.

The Nationalist side included the Carlists and Alfonsists , Spanish nationalists, the fascist Falange, and most conservatives and monarchist liberals. Virtually all Nationalist groups had strong Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy. The Nationals included the majority of the Catholic clergy and practitioners (outside of the Basque region), important elements of the army, most large landowners, and many businessmen. Italian troops manning a 10 cm howitzer at Guadalajara , 1937

One of the rightists\' principal motives was to confront the anti-clericalism of the Republican regime and to defend the Catholic Church , which had been targeted by opponents, including Republicans, who blamed the institution for the country's ills. The Church was against the Republicans' liberal principles, which were fortified by the Spanish Constitution of 1931. Prior to the war, during the Asturian miners' strike of 1934, religious buildings were burnt and at least 100 clergy, religious civilians, and pro-Catholic police were killed by revolutionaries.

Franco had brought in the mercenaries of Spain's colonial Army of Africa (Spanish : _Ejército de África_ or Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí) and reduced the miners to submission by heavy artillery attacks and bombing raids. The Spanish Legion committed atrocities—many men, women and children were killed, and the army carried out summary executions of leftists. The repression in the aftermath was brutal. In Asturias, prisoners were tortured.

Articles 24 and 26 of the 1931 constitution had banned the Society of Jesus . This proscription deeply offended many within the conservative fold. The revolution in the Republican zone at the outset of the war, in which 7,000 clergy and thousands of lay people were killed, deepened Catholic support for the Nationalists.

The Moroccan _Fuerzas Regulares
Regulares
Indígenas _ joined the rebellion and played a significant role in the civil war.

OTHER FACTIONS

Catalan and Basque nationalists were not univocal. Left-wing Catalan nationalists sided with the Republicans, while Conservative
Conservative
Catalan nationalists were far less vocal in supporting the government due to anti-clericalism and confiscations occurring in areas within its control. Basque nationalists , heralded by the conservative Basque Nationalist Party , were mildly supportive of the Republican government, although some in Navarre
Navarre
sided with the uprising for the same reasons influencing conservative Catalans. Notwithstanding religious matters, Basque nationalists, who were for the most part Catholic, generally sided with the Republicans, although the PNV, Basque nationalist party, was reported passing the plans of Bilbao defenses to the nationalists, in an attempt to reduce the duration and casualties of siege.

FOREIGN INVOLVEMENT

Main articles: Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War and International relations (1919–1939) Poster from the socialist trade union , UGT , showing a caricature of a foreign-supported Franco followed by a general, a capitalist and a priest

The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
exposed political divisions across Europe. The right and the Catholics supported the Nationalists as a way to stop the expansion of Bolshevism . On the left, including labor unions, students and intellectuals, the war represented a necessary battle to stop the spread of fascism. Antiwar and pacifist sentiment was strong in many countries, leading to warnings that the Civil War had the potential of escalating into a second world war. In this respect, the war was an indicator of the growing instability across Europe.

The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
involved large numbers of non-Spanish citizens who participated in combat and advisory positions. Britain and France led a political alliance of 27 nations that promised non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
, including an embargo on all arms to Spain. The United States
United States
unofficially went along. Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
signed on officially, but ignored the embargo. The attempted suppression of imported materiel was largely ineffective, however, and France especially was accused of allowing large shipments to Republican troops. The clandestine actions of the various European powers were, at the time, considered to be risking another world war , alarming antiwar elements across the world.

The League of Nations
League of Nations
' reaction to the war was influenced by a fear of communism, and was insufficient to contain the massive importation of arms and other war resources by the fighting factions. Although a Non-Intervention Committee was formed, its policies accomplished little and its directives were ineffective.

SUPPORT FOR THE NATIONALISTS

Germany

Main article: German involvement in the Spanish Civil War _ Members of the Condor Legion , a unit composed of volunteers from the German Air Force ( Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
_) and from the German Army (_Heer _).

German involvement began days after fighting broke out in July 1936. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
quickly sent in powerful air and armored units to assist the Nationalists. The war provided combat experience with the latest technology for the German military. However, the intervention also posed the risk of escalating into a world war for which Hitler was not ready. He therefore limited his aid, and instead encouraged Benito Mussolini to send in large Italian units.

Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
's actions included the formation of the multitasking Condor Legion , a unit composed of volunteers from the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
and the German Army (_Heer _) from July 1936 to March 1939. The Condor Legion proved to be especially useful in the 1936 Battle of the Toledo . Germany moved the Army of Africa to mainland Spain
Spain
in the war's early stages. German operations slowly expanded to include strike targets, most notably – and controversially – the bombing of Guernica
Guernica
which, on 26 April 1937, killed 200 to 300 civilians. Germany also used the war to test out new weapons, such as the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Stukas and Junkers Ju-52 transport Trimotors (used also as Bombers), which showed themselves to be effective.

German involvement was further manifested through undertakings such as Operation Ursula , a U-boat undertaking, and contributions from the Kriegsmarine . The Legion spearheaded many Nationalist victories, particularly in aerial combat, while Spain
Spain
further provided a proving ground for German tank tactics. The training which German units provided to the Nationalist forces would prove valuable. By the War's end, perhaps 56,000 Nationalist soldiers, encompassing infantry, artillery, aerial and naval forces, had been trained by German detachments.

A total of approximately 16,000 German citizens fought in the war, with approximately 300 killed, though no more than 10,000 participated at any one time. German aid to the Nationalists amounted to approximately £43,000,000 ($215,000,000) in 1939 prices, 15.5 percent of which was used for salaries and expenses and 21.9 percent for direct delivery of supplies to Spain, while 62.6 percent was expended on the Condor Legion. In total, Germany provided the Nationalists with 600 planes and 200 tanks.

Italy

After Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
's request and with encouragement from Hitler, Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
joined the war. While the conquest of Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
made Italy confident in its power, a Spanish ally would nonetheless help secure Italian control of the Mediterranean Theater of Operations
Mediterranean Theater of Operations
. The Royal Italian Navy (Italian : '_Regia Marina_) played a substantial role in the Mediterranean blockade, and ultimately Italy supplied machine guns, artillery, aircraft, tankettes , the Aviazione Legionaria
Aviazione Legionaria
, and the Corpo Truppe Volontarie (CTV) to the Nationalist cause. The Italian CTV would, at its peak, supply the Nationalists with 50,000 men. Italian warships took part in breaking the Republican navy's blockade of Nationalist-held Spanish Morocco and took part in naval bombardment of Republican-held Málaga, Valencia, and Barcelona. In total, Italy provided the Nationalists with 660 planes, 150 tanks, 800 artillery pieces, 10,000 machine guns, and 240,000 rifles.

Portugal

The Estado Novo regime of Portuguese Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar played an important role in supplying Franco's forces with ammunition and logistical help. Despite its discreet direct military involvement – restrained to a somewhat "semi-official" endorsement, by its authoritarian regime, of a volunteer force of up to 20,000, so-called " Viriatos " – for the whole duration of the conflict, Portugal was instrumental in providing the Nationalists with organizational skills and reassurance from the Iberian neighbour to Franco and his allies that no interference would hinder the supply traffic directed to the Nationalist cause.

Others

The Conservative
Conservative
government of the UK maintained a position of strong neutrality and was supported by elites and the media, while the far left mobilized aid to the Republic. The government refused to allow arms shipments and sent warships to try to stop shipments. It became a crime to volunteer to fight in Spain, but about 4,000 went anyway. Intellectuals strongly favoured the Republicans. Many visited Spain, hoping to find authentic anti-fascism. They had little impact on the government, and could not shake the strong public mood for peace. The Labour Party was split, with its Catholic element favouring the Nationalists. It officially endorsed the boycott and expelled a faction that demanded support for the Republican cause; but it finally voiced some support to Loyalists.

Romanian volunteers were led by Ion Moța , deputy-leader of the Iron Guard ("Legion of the Archangel Michael"), whose group of Seven Legionaries visited Spain
Spain
in December 1936 to ally their movement with the Nationalists.

Despite the Irish government's prohibition against participating in the war, around 600 Irishmen, followers of Irish political activist and Irish Republican Army leader Eoin O\'Duffy , known as the "Irish Brigade" , went to Spain
Spain
to fight alongside Franco. The majority of the volunteers were Catholics, and according to O'Duffy had volunteered to help the Nationalists fight against communism.

SUPPORT FOR THE REPUBLICANS

International Brigades

The Etkar André battalion of the International Brigades
International Brigades
.

Many non-Spaniards, often affiliated with radical communist or socialist entities, joined the International Brigades
International Brigades
, believing that the Spanish Republic was a front line in the war against fascism. The units represented the largest foreign contingent of those fighting for the Republicans. Roughly 40,000 foreign nationals fought with the Brigades, though no more than 18,000 were in the conflict at any given time. They claimed to represent 53 nations.

Significant numbers of volunteers came from in the French Third Republic (10,000), Nazi Germany, the Federal State of Austria (5,000) and the Kingdom of Italy (3,350). More than 1000 each came from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, the United States
United States
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the Second Polish Republic , the Kingdom of Yugoslavia , the Kingdom of Hungary and Canada
Canada
. The Thälmann Battalion , a group of Germans, and the Garibaldi Battalion , a group of Italians, distinguished their units during the Siege of Madrid . Americans fought in units such as the XV International Brigade ("Abraham Lincoln Brigade"), while Canadians joined the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion .

Over 500 Romanians fought on the Republican side, including Romanian Communist Party members Petre Borilă and Valter Roman . About 145 men from Ireland
Ireland
formed the Connolly Column , which was immortalized by Irish folk singer Christy Moore in the song "Viva la Quinta Brigada ". Some Chinese joined the Brigades; the majority of them eventually returned to China, but some went to prison or to French refugee camps, and a handful remained in Spain.

Soviet Union

Review of Soviet armored fighting vehicles used to equip the Republican Populist Army during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War

Though General Secretary Joseph Stalin had signed the Non-Intervention Agreement , the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
contravened the League of Nations embargo by providing material assistance to the Republican forces, becoming their only source of major weapons. Unlike Hitler and Mussolini, Stalin tried to do this covertly. Estimates of materiel provided by the USSR to the Republicans vary between 634 and 806 planes, 331 and 362 tanks, and 1034 and 1895 artillery pieces.

Stalin also created Section X of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
military to head the weapons shipment operation, called Operation X. Despite Stalin's interest in aiding the Republicans, the quality of arms was inconsistent. On one hand, many of the rifles and field guns provided were old, obsolete or otherwise of limited use (some dated back to the 1860s). On the other hand, the T-26 and BT-5 tanks were modern and effective in combat. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
supplied aircraft that were in current service with their own forces, but the aircraft provided by Germany to the Nationalists proved superior by the end of the war.

The process of shipping arms from Russia to Spain
Spain
was extremely slow. Many shipments were lost or arrived only partially matching what had been authorized. Stalin ordered shipbuilders to include false decks in the original designs of ships and, while at sea, Soviet captains employed deceptive flags and paint schemes to evade detection by the Nationalists.

The Republic paid for Soviet arms with official Bank of Spain
Spain
gold reserves, 176 tonnes of which was transferred through France. This would later be the frequent subject of Franquist propaganda, under the term " Moscow gold ". The cost of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
arms was more than the value of Spain's gold reserves, which had been the fourth-largest in the world, estimated at US $500 million (1936 prices),

The USSR sent a number of military advisers to Spain
Spain
(2,000 –3,000 ), and, while Soviet troops were fewer than 500 men at a time, Soviet volunteers often operated Soviet-made tanks and aircraft, particularly at the beginning of the war. In addition, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
directed Communist parties around the world to organize and recruit the International Brigades.

Another significant Soviet involvement was the activity of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs ( NKVD
NKVD
) inside the Republican rearguard. Communist figures including Vittorio Vidali ("Comandante Contreras"), Iosif Grigulevich , Mikhail Koltsov and, most prominently, Aleksandr Mikhailovich Orlov led operations that included the murders of Catalan anti-stalinist Communist politician Andreu Nin and independent left-wing activist José Robles . Another NKVD-led operation. was the shooting down (in December 1936) of the French aircraft in which the delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Georges Henny , carried extensive documentation on the Paracuellos massacres to France.

Mexico

Unlike the United States
United States
and major Latin American governments, such as the ABC nations and Peru
Peru
, Mexico
Mexico
supported the Republicans. Mexico
Mexico
refused to follow the French-British non-intervention proposals, furnishing $2,000,000 in aid and material assistance, which included 20,000 rifles and 20 million cartridges.

Mexico's most important contributions to the Spanish Republic was its diplomatic help, as well as the sanctuary the nation arranged for Republican refugees, including Spanish intellectuals and orphaned children from Republican families. Some 50,000 took refuge, primarily in Mexico
Mexico
City and Morelia
Morelia
, accompanied by $300 million in various treasures still owned by the Left.

France

Fearing it might spark a civil war inside France, the leftist "Popular Front" government in France did not send direct support to the Republicans. French Prime Minister Léon Blum
Léon Blum
was sympathetic to the republic, fearing that the success of Nationalist forces in Spain would result in the creation of an ally state of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Fascist Italy, an alliance that would nearly encircle France. Right-wing politicians opposed any aid and attacked the Blum government. In July 1936, British officials convinced Blum not to send arms to the Republicans and, on 27 July, the French government declared that it would not send military aid, technology or forces to assist the Republican forces. However, Blum made clear that France reserved the right to provide aid should it wish to the Republic: "We could have delivered arms to the Spanish Government , a legitimate government... We have not done so, in order not to give an excuse to those who would be tempted to send arms to the rebels ."

On 1 August 1936 a pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted Blum, demanding that he send aircraft to the Republicans, at the same time as right-wing politicians attacked Blum for supporting the Republic and being responsible for provoking Italian intervention on the side of Franco. Germany informed the French ambassador in Berlin that Germany would hold France responsible if it supported "the manoeuvres of Moscow" by supporting the Republicans. On 21 August 1936, France signed the Non-Intervention Agreement. However, the Blum government provided aircraft to the Republicans through covert means with Potez 540 bomber aircraft (nicknamed the "Flying Coffin") by Spanish Republican pilots), Dewoitine aircraft, and Loire 46 fighter aircraft being sent from 7 August 1936 to December of that year to Republican forces. The French also sent pilots and engineers to the Republicans. Also, until 8 September 1936, aircraft could freely pass from France into Spain
Spain
if they were bought in other countries.

French novelist André Malraux was a strong supporter of the republican cause; he tried to organise a volunteer air force (Escadrile Espana) on the republican side but as a practical organiser and squadron leader he was somewhat idealistic and inefficient. The Regular Spanish Air force commander Andres Garcia La Calle was openly critical of Malraux's military efficiency but recognized his usefulness as a propagandist. His novel _L'Espoir_ and the film version he produced and directed (_Espoir: Sierra de Teruel
Teruel
_) were a great help for the Republican cause in France.

Even after covert support by France to the Republicans ended in December 1936, the possibility of French intervention against the Nationalists remained a serious possibility throughout the war. German intelligence reported to Franco and the Nationalists that the French military was engaging in open discussions about intervention in the war through French military intervention in Catalonia
Catalonia
and the Balearic Islands. In 1938 Franco feared an immediate French intervention against a potential Nationalist victory in Spain
Spain
through French occupation of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and Spanish Morocco.

Besides the generally Republican-oriented sympathies and support in France, some right-wing extremists sided with Franco, most notably the members of La Cagoule who were instrumental in sabotaging ships transporting guns and civil relief equipment to Republican Spain
Spain
in French ports.

COURSE OF THE WAR

1936

Map showing Spain
Spain
in September 1936: Area under Nationalist control Area under Republican control Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1936

A large air and sealift of Nationalist troops in Spanish Morocco was organized to the southwest of Spain. Coup leader Sanjurjo was killed in a plane crash on 20 July, leaving an effective command split between Mola in the North and Franco in the South. This period also saw the worst actions of the so-called "Red " and "White Terrors " in Spain. On 21 July, the fifth day of the rebellion, the Nationalists captured the central Spanish naval base , located in Ferrol, Galicia.

A rebel force under Colonel Alfonso Beorlegui Canet , sent by General Mola and Colonel Esteban García, undertook the Campaign of Gipuzkoa from July to September. The capture of Gipuzkoa
Gipuzkoa
isolated the Republican provinces in the north. On 5 September, the Nationalists closed the French border to the Republicans in the battle of Irún . On 15 September San Sebastián , home to a divided Republican force of anarchists and Basque nationalists, was taken by Nationalist soldiers. The Nationalists then advanced toward their capital, Bilbao
Bilbao
, but were halted by Republican militias on the border of Biscay
Biscay
at the end of September.

The Republic proved ineffective militarily, relying on disorganized revolutionary militia. The Republican government under Giral resigned on 4 September, unable to cope with the situation, and was replaced by a mostly Socialist
Socialist
organization under Francisco Largo Caballero
Francisco Largo Caballero
. The new leadership began to unify central command in the republican zone.

On the Nationalist side, Franco was chosen as chief military commander at a meeting of ranking generals at Salamanca
Salamanca
on 21 September, now called by the title _Generalísimo _. Franco won another victory on 27 September when his troops relieved the siege of the Alcázar in Toledo , which had been held by a Nationalist garrison under Colonel José Moscardó Ituarte since the beginning of the rebellion, resisting thousands of Republican troops, who completely surrounded the isolated building. Moroccans and elements of the Spanish Legion came to the rescue. Two days after relieving the siege, Franco proclaimed himself _ Caudillo _ ("chieftain", the Spanish equivalent of the Italian Duce and the German Führer -meaning: 'director') while forcibly unifying the various and diverse falangist, Royalist and other elements within the Nationalist cause. The diversion to Toledo gave Madrid
Madrid
time to prepare a defense, but was hailed as a major propaganda victory and personal success for Franco. On October 1, 1936 General Franco was confirmed head of state and armies in Burgos. A similar dramatic success for the Nationalists occurred on 17 October, when troops coming from Galicia relieved the besieged town of Oviedo
Oviedo
, in Northern Spain.

In October, the Francoist troops launched a major offensive toward Madrid, reaching it in early November and launching a major assault on the city on 8 November. The Republican government was forced to shift from Madrid
Madrid
to Valencia, outside the combat zone, on 6 November. However, the Nationalists' attack on the capital was repulsed in fierce fighting between 8 and 23 November. A contributory factor in the successful Republican defense was the effectiveness of the Fifth Regiment and later the arrival of the International Brigades, though only an approximate 3,000 foreign volunteers participated in the battle. Having failed to take the capital, Franco bombarded it from the air and, in the following two years, mounted several offensives to try to encircle Madrid, beginning the three-year Siege of Madrid . The Second Battle of the Corunna Road , a Nationalist offensive to the northwest, pushed Republican forces back, but failed to isolate Madrid. The battle lasted into January.

1937

Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1937 Map showing Spain
Spain
in October 1937: Area under Nationalist control Area under Republican control

With his ranks swelled by Italian troops and Spanish colonial soldiers from Morocco, Franco made another attempt to capture Madrid in January and February 1937, but was again unsuccessful. The Battle of Málaga started in mid-January, and this Nationalist offensive in Spain's southeast would turn into a disaster for the Republicans, who were poorly organised and armed. The city was taken by Franco on 8 February. The consolidation of various militias into the Republican Army had started in December 1936. The main Nationalist advance to cross the Jarama
Jarama
and cut the supply to Madrid
Madrid
by the Valencia
Valencia
road, termed the Battle of Jarama , led to heavy casualties (6,000–20,000) on both sides. The operation's main objective was not met, though Nationalists gained a modest amount of territory.

A similar Nationalist offensive, the Battle of Guadalajara
Battle of Guadalajara
, was a more significant defeat for Franco and his armies. This was the only publicised Republican victory of the war. Franco used Italian troops and blitzkrieg tactics; while many strategists blamed Franco for the rightists' defeat, the Germans believed it was the former at fault for the Nationalists' 5,000 casualties and loss of valuable equipment. The German strategists successfully argued that the Nationalists needed to concentrate on vulnerable areas first. Ruins of Guernica
Guernica
.

The "War in the North" began in mid-March, with the Biscay
Biscay
Campaign . The Basques suffered most from the lack of a suitable air force. On 26 April, the Condor Legion bombed the town of Guernica, killing 200–300 and causing significant damage. The destruction had a significant effect on international opinion. The Basques retreated.

April and May saw the May Days , infighting among Republican groups in Catalonia. The dispute was between an ultimately victorious government –Communist forces and the anarchist CNT. The disturbance pleased Nationalist command, but little was done to exploit Republican divisions. After the fall of Guernica, the Republican government began to fight back with increasing effectiveness. In July, it made a move to recapture Segovia
Segovia
, forcing Franco to delay his advance on the Bilbao
Bilbao
front, but for only two weeks. A similar Republican attack, the Huesca Offensive , failed similarly.

Mola, Franco's second-in-command, was killed on 3 June, in an airplane accident. In early July, despite the earlier loss at the Battle of Bilbao , the government launched a strong counter-offensive to the west of Madrid, focusing on Brunete . The Battle of Brunete , however, was a significant defeat for the Republic, which lost many of its most accomplished troops. The offensive led to an advance of 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi), and left 25,000 Republican casualties.

A Republican offensive against Zaragoza
Zaragoza
was also a failure. Despite having land and aerial advantages, the Battle of Belchite , a place lacking any military interest, resulted in an advance of only 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and the loss of much equipment. Franco invaded Aragón in August and took the city of Santander . With the surrender of the Republican army in the Basque territory came the Santoña Agreement . Gijón finally fell in late October in the Asturias Offensive . Franco had effectively won in the north. At November's end, with Franco's troops closing in on Valencia, the government had to move again, this time to Barcelona.

1938

Map showing Spain
Spain
in July 1938: Area under Nationalist control Area under Republican control Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1938–39

The Battle of Teruel was an important confrontation. The city, which had formerly belonged to the Nationalists, was conquered by Republicans in January. The Francoist troops launched an offensive and recovered the city by 22 February, but Franco was forced to rely heavily on German and Italian air support.

On 7 March, Nationalists launched the Aragon Offensive , and by 14 April they had pushed through to the Mediterranean, cutting the Republican-held portion of Spain
Spain
in two. The Republican government attempted to sue for peace in May, but Franco demanded unconditional surrender, and the war raged on. In July, the Nationalist army pressed southward from Teruel
Teruel
and south along the coast toward the capital of the Republic at Valencia, but was halted in heavy fighting along the XYZ Line , a system of fortifications defending Valencia.

The Republican government then launched an all-out campaign to reconnect their territory in the Battle of the Ebro , from 24 July until 26 November, where Franco personally took command. The campaign was unsuccessful, and was undermined by the Franco-British appeasement of Hitler in Munich . The agreement with Britain effectively destroyed Republican morale by ending hope of an anti-fascist alliance with Western powers. The retreat from the Ebro all but determined the final outcome of the war. Eight days before the new year, Franco threw massive forces into an invasion of Catalonia
Catalonia
.

1939

Main article: Spanish Civil War, 1938–39 Map showing Spain
Spain
in February 1939: Area under Nationalist control Area under Republican control

Franco's troops conquered Catalonia
Catalonia
in a whirlwind campaign during the first two months of 1939. Tarragona
Tarragona
fell on 15 January, followed by Barcelona
Barcelona
on 26 January and Girona on 2 February. On 27 February, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France recognized the Franco regime. Franco declares the end of the war. However, small pockets of Republicans fought on.

Only Madrid
Madrid
and a few other strongholds remained for the Republican forces. On 5 March 1939 the Republican army, led by the Colonel Segismundo Casado and the politician Julián Besteiro , rose against the prime minister Juan Negrín and formed the National Defence Council _(Consejo Nacional de Defensa_ or _CND)_ to negotiate a peace deal. Negrín fled to France on 6 March, but the Communist troops around Madrid
Madrid
rose against the junta, starting a brief civil war within the civil war. Casado defeated them, and began peace negotiations with the Nationalists, but Franco refused to accept anything less than unconditional surrender.

On 26 March, the Nationalists started a general offensive, on 28 March the Nationalists occupied Madrid
Madrid
and, by 31 March, they controlled all Spanish territory. Franco proclaimed victory in a radio speech aired on 1 April, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered.

After the end of the war, there were harsh reprisals against Franco's former enemies. Thousands of Republicans were imprisoned and at least 30,000 executed. Other calculations of these deaths range from 50,000 to 200,000, depending on which killings are included. Many others were put to forced labour , building railways, drying out swamps, and digging canals.

Hundreds of thousands of Republicans fled abroad, with some 500,000 fleeing to France. Refugees were confined in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp Gurs or Camp Vernet , where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions. In his capacity as consul in Paris, Chilean poet and politician Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
organized the immigration to Chile
Chile
of 2,200 Republican exiles in France using the ship _ SS Winnipeg _.

Of the 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs, farmers and others who could not find relations in France were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Franquist government, to return to Spain. The great majority did so and were turned over to the Franquist authorities in Irún . From there, they were transferred to the Miranda de Ebro camp for "purification" according to the Law of Political Responsibilities . After the proclamation by Marshal Philippe Pétain of the Vichy regime , the refugees became political prisoners, and the French police attempted to round up those who had been liberated from the camp. Along with other "undesirable" people, the Spaniards were sent to the Drancy internment camp before being deported to Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. About 5,000 Spaniards died in the Mauthausen concentration camp .

After the official end of the war, guerrilla warfare was waged on an irregular basis by the Spanish Maquis well into the 1950s, gradually reduced by military defeats and scant support from the exhausted population. In 1944, a group of republican veterans, who also fought in the French resistance
French resistance
against the Nazis, invaded the Val d\'Aran in northwest Catalonia, but were defeated after 10 days.

EVACUATION OF CHILDREN

Main article: Evacuation of children in the Spanish Civil War Children preparing for evacuation, some giving the Republican salute. The Republicans showed a raised fist whereas the Nationalists gave the Roman salute .

The Republicans oversaw the evacuation of 30,000–35,000 children from their zone, starting with Basque areas, from which 20,000 were evacuated. Their destinations included the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the USSR, and many other locations in Europe, along with Mexico. On 21 May 1937, around 4,000 Basque children were taken to the UK on the aging steamship _SS Habana_ from the Spanish port of Santurtzi
Santurtzi
. This was against initial opposition from both the government and charitable groups, who saw the removal of children from their native country as potentially harmful. On arrival two days later in Southampton
Southampton
, the children were dispersed all over England, with over 200 children accommodated in Wales. The upper age limit was initially set at 12, but raised to 15. By mid-September, all of _los niños_, as they became known, had found homes with families. Most were repatriated to Spain
Spain
after the war, but some 250 still remained in Britain by the end of the Second World War in 1945.

ATROCITIES

Twenty-six republicans were assassinated by Franco\'s Nationalists at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, between August and September 1936. This mass grave is located at the small town of Estépar , in Northern Spain. The excavation occurred in July–August 2014.

Death totals remain debated. British historian Antony Beevor wrote in his history of the Civil War that Franco's ensuing "white terror " resulted in the deaths of 200,000 people and that the "red terror " killed 38,000. Julius Ruiz contends that, "Although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone, with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain
Spain
". Spanish Civil War grave sites. Location of known burial places. Colors refer to the type of intervention that has been carried out. GREEN: No Interventions Undertaken so far. WHITE: Missing grave. YELLOW: Transferred to the Valle de los Caídos . RED: Fully or Partially Exhumed. BLUE STAR: Valle de los Caídos. Source: Ministry of Justice of Spain
Spain

In 2008 a Spanish judge, Baltasar Garzón , opened an investigation into the executions and disappearances of 114,266 people between 17 July 1936 and December 1951. Among the executions investigated was that of the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca , whose body has never been found. Mention of García Lorca's death was forbidden during Franco's regime.

Recent research has started to locate mass graves , using a combination of witness testimony, remote sensing and forensic geophysics techniques.

The view of historians, including Helen Graham , Paul Preston , Antony Beevor , Gabriel Jackson and Hugh Thomas , is that the mass executions behind the Nationalists lines were organized and approved by the Nationalists rebel authorities, while the executions behind the Republican lines were the result of the breakdown of the Republican state and anarchy:

Though there was much wanton killing in rebel Spain, the idea of the _limpieza_, the "cleaning up", of the country from the evils which had overtaken it, was a disciplined policy of the new authorities and a part of their programme of regeneration. In republican Spain, most of the killing was the consequence of anarchy, the outcome of a national breakdown, and not the work of the state, although some political parties in some cities abetted the enormities, and some of those responsible ultimately rose to positions of authority. – Hugh Thomas

NATIONALISTS

See also: White Terror (Spain) Nationalist SM.81 aircraft bomb Madrid
Madrid
in late November 1936.

Nationalist atrocities, which authorities frequently ordered so as to eradicate any trace of "leftism" in Spain, were common. The notion of a _limpieza_ (cleansing) formed an essential part of the rebel strategy, and the process began immediately after an area had been captured. According to historian Paul Preston, the minimum number of those executed by the rebels is 130,000, and is likely to have been far higher, with other historians placing the figure at 200,000 dead. The violence was carried out in the rebel zone by the military, the Civil Guard and the Falange in the name of the regime.

Many such acts were committed by reactionary groups during the first weeks of the war. This included the execution of schoolteachers, because the efforts of the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
to promote laicism and displace the Church from schools by closing religious educational institutions were considered by the Nationalists as an attack on the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Extensive killings of civilians were carried out in the cities captured by the Nationalists, along with the execution of unwanted individuals. These included non-combatants such as trade-unionists , Popular Front politicians, suspected Freemasons , Basque, Catalan, Andalusian , and Galician Nationalists, Republican intellectuals, relatives of known Republicans, and those suspected of voting for the Popular Front. Bombing in Barcelona
Barcelona
, 1938

Nationalist forces massacred civilians in Seville, where some 8,000 people were shot; 10,000 were killed in Cordoba ; 6,000–12,000 were killed in Badajoz after more than one thousand of landowners and conservatives were killed by the revolutionaries. In Granada, where working-class neighborhoods were hit with artillery and right-wing squads were given free rein to kill government sympathizers, at least 2,000 people were murdered. In February 1937, over 7,000 were killed after the capture of Málaga . When Bilbao
Bilbao
was conquered, thousands of people were sent to prison. There were fewer executions than usual, however, because of the effect Guernica
Guernica
left on Nationalists' reputations internationally. The numbers killed as the columns of the Army of Africa devastated and pillaged their way between Seville
Seville
and Madrid
Madrid
are particularly difficult to calculate.

Nationalists also murdered Catholic clerics. In one particular incident, following the capture of Bilbao, they took hundreds of people, including 16 priests who had served as chaplains for the Republican forces, to the countryside or graveyards and murdered them.

Franco's forces also persecuted Protestants, including murdering 20 Protestant ministers. Franco's forces were determined to remove the "Protestant heresy" from Spain. The Nationalists also persecuted Basques, as they strove to eradicate Basque culture. According to Basque sources, some 22,000 Basques were murdered by Nationalists immediately after the Civil War.

The Nationalist side conducted aerial bombing of cities in Republican territory, carried out mainly by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
volunteers of the Condor Legion and the Italian air force volunteers of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie: Madrid, Barcelona
Barcelona
, Valencia, Guernica
Guernica
, Durango , and other cities were attacked. The Bombing of Guernica was the most controversial.

REPUBLICANS

See also: Red Terror (Spain) _ "Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Communist militiamen. The photograph in the London Daily Mail _ had the caption "Spanish Reds' war on religion".

According to the Nationalists, an estimated 55,000 civilians died in Republican-held territories. This is considered excessive by Antony Beevor. However, it was much less than the half a million claimed during the war. The deaths would form the prevailing outside opinion of the republic up until the bombing of Guernica.

The Republican government was anticlerical, and supporters attacked and murdered Roman Catholic clergy in reaction to the news of military revolt. In his 1961 book, Spanish archbishop Antonio Montero Moreno , who at the time was director of the journal _Ecclesia_, wrote that 6,832 were killed during the war, including 4,184 priests, 2,365 monks and friars, and 283 nuns, in addition to 13 bishops, a figure accepted by historians, including Beevor. Some sources claim that by the conflict's end, 20 percent of the nation's clergy had been killed, The "Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Sacred Heart of Jesus
by Communist militiamen at Cerro de los Ángeles near Madrid, on 7 August 1936, was the most infamous of widespread desecration of religious property. In dioceses where the Republicans had general control, a large proportion – often a majority – of secular priests were killed.

Like clergy, civilians were executed in Republican territories. Some civilians were executed as suspected Falangists. Others died in acts of revenge after Republicans heard of massacres carried out in the Nationalist zone. Air raids committed against Republican cities were another driving factor. Shopkeepers and industrialists were shot if they did not sympathize with the Republicans, and were usually spared if they did. Fake justice was sought through a commission , known in Russia as _checas_. The Puente Nuevo
Puente Nuevo
bridge, Ronda. Both Nationalists and Republicans are claimed to have thrown prisoners from the bridge to their deaths in the canyon.

As pressure mounted with the increasing success of the Nationalists, many civilians were executed by councils and tribunals controlled by competing Communist and anarchist groups. Some members of the latter were executed by Soviet-advised communist functionaries in Catalonia, as recounted by George Orwell's description of the purges in Barcelona in 1937 in _Homage to Catalonia
Catalonia
_, which followed a period of increasing tension between competing elements of the Catalan political scene. Some individuals fled to friendly embassies, which would house up to 8,500 people during the war.

In the Andalusian town of Ronda
Ronda
, 512 suspected Nationalists were executed in the first month of the war. Communist Santiago Carrillo Solares was accused of the killing of Nationalists in the Paracuellos massacre near Paracuellos del Jarama
Jarama
. Pro-Soviet Communists committed numerous atrocities against fellow Republicans, including other Marxists: André Marty , known as the Butcher of Albacete
Albacete
, was responsible for the deaths of some 500 members of the International Brigades. Andreu Nin, leader of the POUM (Workers' Party of Marxist Unification), and many other prominent POUM members, were murdered by the Communists, with the help of the USSR's NKVD.

Thirty-eight thousand people were killed in the Republican zone during the war, 17,000 of whom were killed in Madrid
Madrid
or Catalonia within a month of the coup. Whilst the Communists were forthright in their support of extrajudicial killings, much of the Republican side was appalled by the murders. Azaña came close to resigning. He, alongside other members of Parliament and a great number of other local officials, attempted to prevent Nationalist supporters being lynched. Some of those in positions of power intervened personally to stop the killings.

SOCIAL REVOLUTION

Main article: Spanish Revolution
Revolution
of 1936 Women at the Siege of the Alcázar in Toledo, 1936

In the anarchist-controlled areas, Aragon
Aragon
and Catalonia, in addition to the temporary military success, there was a vast social revolution in which the workers and peasants collectivised land and industry and set up councils parallel to the paralyzed Republican government. This revolution was opposed by the Soviet-supported communists who, perhaps surprisingly, campaigned against the loss of civil property rights.

As the war progressed, the government and the communists were able to exploit their access to Soviet arms to restore government control over the war effort, through diplomacy and force. Anarchists and the Workers\' Party of Marxist Unification (_Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista_, POUM) were integrated into the regular army, albeit with resistance. The POUM Trotskyists were outlawed and falsely denounced as an instrument of the fascists. In the _ May Days _ of 1937, many thousands of anarchist and communist Republican soldiers fought for control of strategic points in Barcelona.

The pre-war Falange was a small party of some 30,000–40,000 members. It also called for a social revolution that would have seen Spanish society transformed by National Syndicalism . Following the execution of its leader, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, by the Republicans, the party swelled in size to several hundred thousand members. The leadership of the Falange suffered 60 percent casualties in the early days of the civil war, and the party was transformed by new members and rising new leaders, called _camisas nuevas_ ("new shirts"), who were less interested in the revolutionary aspects of National Syndicalism. Subsequently, Franco united all fighting groups into the Traditionalist Spanish Falange and the National Syndicalist Offensive Juntas (Spanish : _Falange Española Tradicionalista de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista_, FET y de las JONS).

The 1930s also saw Spain
Spain
become a focus for pacifist organizations, including the Fellowship of Reconciliation , the War Resisters League , and the War Resisters\' International . Many people including, as they are now called, the "insumisos" ("defiant ones", conscientious objectors ) argued and worked for non-violent strategies. Prominent Spanish pacifists, such as Amparo Poch y Gascón and José Brocca , supported the Republicans. Brocca argued that Spanish pacifists had no alternative but to make a stand against fascism. He put this stand into practice by various means, including organizing agricultural workers to maintain food supplies, and through humanitarian work with war refugees.

ART AND PROPAGANDA

_ In Catalonia, a square near the Barcelona
Barcelona
waterfront named Plaça George Orwell_.

Throughout the course of the Spanish Civil War, people all over the world were exposed to the goings-on and effects of it on its people not only through standard art, but also through propaganda . Motion pictures, posters, books, radio programs, and leaflets are a few examples of this media art that was so influential during the war. Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed Spaniards a way to spread awareness about their war all over the world. A film co-produced by famous early-twentieth century authors such as Ernest Hemingway and Lillian Hellman was used as a way to advertise Spain's need for military and monetary aid. This film, _The Spanish Earth _, premiered in America in July 1937. In 1938, George Orwell 's _Homage to Catalonia
Catalonia
_, a personal account of his experiences and observations in the war, was published in the United Kingdom.

Leading works of sculpture include Alberto Sánchez Pérez 's _El pueblo español tiene un camino que conduce a una estrella_ ("The Spanish People Have a Path that Leads to a Star"), a 12.5m monolith constructed out of plaster representing the struggle for a socialist utopia; Julio González\'s _La Montserrat_, an anti-war work which shares its title with a mountain near Barcelona, is created from a sheet of iron which has been hammered and welded to create a peasant mother carrying a small child in one arm and a sickle in the other. and Alexander Calder 's _Fuente de mercurio_ (Mercury Fountain) a protest work by the American against the Nationalist forced control of Almadén and the mercury mines there.

As to other works of art, Pablo Picasso painted _Guernica_ in 1937, taking inspiration from the bombing of Guernica, and in Leonardo da Vinci 's _ The Battle of Anghiari _. _Guernica_, like many important Republican masterpieces, was featured at the 1937 International Exhibition in Paris. The work's size (11 ft by 25.6 ft) grabbed much attention and cast the horrors of the mounting Spanish civil unrest into a global spotlight. The painting has since been heralded as an anti-war work and a symbol of peace in the 20th century.

Joan Miró created _El Segador_ (The Reaper), formally titled _El campesino catalán en rebeldía_ (Catalan peasant in revolt), which spans some 18 feet by 12 feet and depicted a peasant brandishing a sickle in the air, to which Miró commented that "The sickle is not a communist symbol. It is the reaper's symbol, the tool of his work, and, when his freedom is threatened, his weapon." This work, also featured at the 1937 International Exhibition in Paris, was shipped back to the Spanish Republic's capital in Valencia
Valencia
following the Exhibition, but has since gone missing or has been destroyed.

TIMELINE

Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
Timeline

DATE EVENT

1868 Overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon

1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicates throne ending the short-lived First Spanish Republic

1874 (December) Restoration of the Bourbons

1909 Tragic Week in Barcelona

1923 Military coup brings Miguel Primo de Rivera to power

1930 (January) Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns

1931 (12 April) Municipal elections, King Alfonso XIII abdicates.

1931 (14 April) Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
is formed with Niceto Alcala-Zamora as President
President
and Head of State

1931 (June) Elections return large majority of Republicans and Socialists

1931 (October) Republican Manuel Azaña becomes prime minister of a minority government

1931 (December) New reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution is declared

1932 (August) Unsuccessful uprising by General José Sanjurjo

1933 Beginning of the "black two years"

1934 Asturias
Asturias
uprising

1936 (April) Popular Front alliance wins election and Azaña replaces Zamora as president

1936 (14 April) During a military parade commemorating the 5 years of the second republic, Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes is shot in the back by anarchist/socialist agitators. Riots break out at the funeral

1936 (12 June) Prime Minister Casares Quiroga meets General Joan Yague

1936 (5 July) Aircraft chartered to take Franco from the Canary Islands to Morocco

1936 (12 July) Assault Guard Lieutenant Jose Castillo is murdered after he violently put down the riots that broke out at the funeral of Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes

1936 (13 July) Opposition leader Jose Calvo Sotelo is arrested and murdered by the socialist Assault Guards (Guardia de Asalto), freemason police officer Burillo also blamed.

1936 (14 July) Franco arrives in Morocco

1936 (17 July) Military coup gains control over Spanish Morocco

1936 (17 July) Official beginning of the war

1936 (20 July) Coup leader Sanjurjo is killed in a plane crash

1936 (21 July) Nationalists capture the central Spanish naval base

1936 (7 August) "Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Sacred Heart of Jesus
by Communist militiamen at Cerro de los Angeles in Getafe

1936 (4 September) The Republican government under Giral resigns, and is replaced by a mostly Socialist
Socialist
organization under Largo Caballero

1936 (5 September) Nationalists take Irun

1936 (15 September) Nationalists take San Sebastian

1936 (21 September) Franco chosen as chief military commander at Salamanca

1936 (27 September) Franco's troops relieve the Alcazar in Toledo

1936 (29 September) Franco proclaims himself Caudillo

1936 (17 October) Nationalists from Galicia relieve the besieged town of Oviedo

1936 (November) Bombing of Madrid

1936 (8 November) Franco launches major assault on Madrid
Madrid
that is unsuccessful

1936 (6 November) Republican government is forced to move to Valencia from Madrid

1937 Nationalists capture most of Spain's northern coastline

1937 (6 February) Battle of Jarama begins

1937 (8 February) Malaga falls to Franco's forces

1937 (March) War in the North begins

1937 (8 March) Battle of Guadalajara
Battle of Guadalajara
begins

1937 (26 April) Bombing of Guernica

1937 (21 May) 4,000 Basque children taken to the UK

1937 (3 June) Mola, Franco's second-in-command, is killed

1937 (July) Republicans move to recapture Segovia

1937 (6 July) Battle of Brunete begins

1937 (August) Franco invades Aragon
Aragon
and takes the city of Santander

1937 (24 August) Battle of Belchite begins

1937 (October) Gijon falls to Franco's troops

1937 (November) Republican government forced to move to Barcelona
Barcelona
from Valencia

1938 Nationalists capture large parts of Catalonia

1938 (January) Battle of Teruel, conquered by Republicans

1938 (22 February) Franco recovers Teruel

1938 (7 March) Nationalists launch the Aragon
Aragon
Offensive

1938 (16 March) Bombing of Barcelona

1938 (May) Republican sue for peace, Franco demands unconditional surrender

1938 (24 July) Battle of the Ebro begins

1938 (24 December) Franco throws massive force into invasion of Catalonia

1939 Beginning of General Francisco Franco's rule

1939 (15 January) Tarragona
Tarragona
falls to Franco

1939 (26 January) Barcelona
Barcelona
falls to Franco

1939 (2 February) Girona falls to Franco

1939 (27 February) UK and France recognize the Franco regime

1939 (6 March) Prime minister Juan Negrin flees to France

1939 (28 March) Nationalists occupy Madrid

1939 (31 March) Nationalists control all Spanish territory

1939 (1 April) Last Republican forces surrender

1939 (1 April) Official ending of the war

1975 Ending of General Francisco Franco's rule with his death in November 20, La Paz hospital, Madrid

PEOPLE

See also: List of people of the Spanish Civil War

FIGURES IDENTIFIED WITH THE REPUBLICAN SIDE _Politicians or military_

* Manuel Azaña (Republican) * Santiago Carrillo (Communist) * Julio Álvarez del Vayo (Socialist) * Valentin González (_"El Campesino"_) (Communist) * Dolores Ibarruri (_"La Pasionaria"_) (Communist) * Francisco Largo Caballero
Francisco Largo Caballero
(Socialist) * Diego Martínez Barrio (Republican) * Juan Negrín (Socialist) * Andrés Nin (Communist) * Indalecio Prieto (Socialist) * Buenaventura Durruti (Anarchist)

OTHERS IDENTIFIED WITH THE REPUBLICAN SIDE (INCLUDING VOLUNTEERS)

* W. H. Auden (poet) * Robert Capa (photojournalist) * Dezső Révai (photojournalist) * Pablo Casals (cellist, conductor) * Federico García Lorca (poet, dramatist – assassinated) * Martha Gellhorn (writer, journalist) * Egon Erwin Kisch (writer, journalist) * Pablo Picasso (painter, sculptor) * Rafael Alberti (poet, communist) * Ernest Hemingway (author, journalist) * John Dos Passos (novelist) * Jose Robles (academic, activist) * Laurie Lee (poet, novelist, screenwriter) * George Orwell (novelist, journalist) * Luis Buñuel (filmmaker, close to anarchism in thoughts and aestethics) * Miguel Hernández (poet) * Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
(poet) * Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez (journalist, philosopher) * Žikica Jovanović Španac (Socialist)

FIGURES IDENTIFIED WITH THE NATIONALIST SIDE _Military_

* Millán Astray (Spain) * Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
(Spain) * Miguel Cabanellas (Spain) * José Sanjurjo
José Sanjurjo
(Spain) * Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
(Spain) * Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
(Spain, received money from UK embassy to lobby against Spain
Spain
joining the Axis in World War II) * Juan Yagüe (Spain) * Hugo Sperrle
Hugo Sperrle
(Germany) * Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma (Germany) * Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (Germany) * Mario Roatta (Italy) * Ettore Bastico
Ettore Bastico
(Italy)

_Non-military_

* Pedro Muñoz Seca (playwright – assassinated) * Ramón Serrano Súñer (politician, Franco's brother in law, favorable to Germans)

POLITICAL PARTIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

POLITICAL PARTIES AND ORGANIZATIONS IN THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR

THE POPULAR FRONT (REPUBLICAN) SUPPORTERS OF THE POPULAR FRONT (REPUBLICAN) NATIONALISTS (FRANCOIST)

The Popular Front was an electoral alliance formed between various left-wing and centrist parties for elections to the Cortes in 1936, in which the alliance won a majority of seats.

* UR (UNIóN REPUBLICANA - REPUBLICAN UNION ): Led by Diego Martínez Barrio, formed in 1934 by members of the PRR, who had resigned in objection to Alejandro Lerroux's coalition with the CEDA. It drew its main support from skilled workers and progressive businessmen. * IR (IZQUIERDA REPUBLICANA - REPUBLICAN LEFT ): Led by former Prime Minister Manuel Azaña after his Republican Action party merged with Santiago Casares Quiroga's Galician independence party and the Radical Socialist
Socialist
Republican Party (PRRS). It drew its support from skilled workers, small businessmen, and civil servants. Azaña led the Popular Front and became president of Spain. The IR formed the bulk of the first government after the Popular Front victory with members of the UR and the ERC. * ERC (ESQUERRA REPUBLICANA DE CATALUNYA - REPUBLICAN LEFT OF CATALONIA ): Created from the merging of the separatist _Estat Català _ (Catalan State) and the Catalan Republican Party in 1931. It controlled the autonomous government of Catalonia
Catalonia
during the republican period. Throughout the war it was led by Lluís Companys , also president of the Generalitat of Catalonia .

* PSOE (PARTIDO SOCIALISTA OBRERO ESPAñOL - SPANISH SOCIALIST WORKERS\\' PARTY ): Formed in 1879, its alliance with Acción Republicana in municipal elections in 1931 saw a landslide victory that led to the King's abdication and the creation of the Second Republic. The two parties won the subsequent general election, but the PSOE left the coalition in 1933. At the time of the Civil War, the PSOE was split between a right wing under Indalecio Prieto and Juan Negrín, and a left wing under Largo Caballero. Following the Popular Front victory, it was the second largest party in the Cortes, after the CEDA. It supported the ministries of Azaña and Quiroga, but did not actively participate until the Civil War began. It had majority support amongst urban manual workers.

* UGT (UNIóN GENERAL DE TRABAJADORES - GENERAL UNION OF WORKERS): The socialist trade union. The UGT was formally linked to the PSOE, and the bulk of the union followed Caballero. * FEDERACION DE JUVENTUDES SOCIALISTAS (FEDERATION OF SOCIALIST YOUTH)

* PSUC (PARTIT SOCIALISTA UNIFICAT DE CATALUNYA - UNIFIED SOCIALIST PARTY OF CATALONIA ): An alliance of various socialist parties in Catalonia, formed in the summer of 1936, controlled by the PCE. * JSU (JUVENTUDES SOCIALISTAS UNIFICADAS - UNIFIED SOCIALIST YOUTH ): Militant youth group formed by the merger of the Socialist
Socialist
and the Communist youth groups. Its leader, Santiago Carrillo, came from the Socialist
Socialist
Youth, but had secretly joined the Communist Youth prior to merger, and the group was soon dominated by the PCE. * PCE (PARTIDO COMUNISTA DE ESPAñA - COMMUNIST PARTY OF SPAIN ): Led by José Díaz in the Civil War, it had been a minor party during the early years of the Republic, but grew in importance during the war.

* POUM (PARTIDO OBRERO DE UNIFICACIóN MARXISTA - WORKER\'S PARTY OF MARXIST UNIFICATION): An anti-Stalinist revolutionary communist party of former Trotskyists formed in 1935 by Andreu Nin.

* JCI (JUVENTUD COMUNISTA IBéRICA - IBERIAN COMMUNIST YOUTH ): the POUM's youth movement.

* PS (PARTIDO SINDICALISTA - SYNDICALIST PARTY ): a moderate splinter group of CNT.

* UNIóN MILITAR REPUBLICANA ANTIFASCISTA (REPUBLICAN ANTI-FASCIST MILITARY UNION): Formed by military officers in opposition to the Unión Militar Española.

* _ANARCHIST GROUPS._ The anarchists boycotted the 1936 Cortes election and initially opposed the Popular Front government, but joined during the Civil War when Largo Caballero became Prime Minister.

* CNT (CONFEDERACIóN NACIONAL DEL TRABAJO - NATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF LABOUR): The confederation of anarcho-syndicalist trade unions. * FAI (FEDERACIóN ANARQUISTA IBéRICA - IBERIAN ANARCHIST FEDERATION): The federation of anarchist groups, very active in the Republican militias. * MUJERES LIBRES (FREE WOMEN): The anarchist feminist organisation. * FIJL (FEDERACIóN IBéRICA DE JUVENTUDES LIBERTARIAS - IBERIAN FEDERATION OF LIBERTARIAN YOUTH )

* _CATALAN NATIONALISTS._

* ESTAT CATALà (CATALAN STATE): Catalan separatist party created back in 1922. Founding part of ERC in 1931, it sided with the Republican faction during the war.

* _BASQUE NATIONALISTS._

* PNV (PARTIDO NACIONALISTA VASCO - BASQUE NATIONALIST PARTY ): A Catholic Christian Democrat party under José Antonio Aguirre , which campaigned for greater autonomy or independence for the Basque region. Held seats in the Cortes and supported the Popular Front government before and during the Civil War. Put its religious disagreement with the Popular Front aside for a promised Basque autonomy. * ANV (ACCIóN NACIONALISTA VASCA - BASQUE NATIONALIST ACTION ): A leftist Socialist
Socialist
party, which at the same time campaigned for independence of the Basque region. * STV (SOLIDARIDAD DE TRABAJADORES VASCOS - BASQUE WORKERS\\' SOLIDARITY ): A trade union in the Basque region, with a Catholic clerical tradition combined with moderate socialist tendencies.

* SRI (SOCORRO ROJO INTERNACIONAL - INTERNATIONAL RED AID ): Communist organization allied with the Comintern that provided considerable aid to Republican civilians and soldiers. * INTERNATIONAL BRIGADES : pro-Republican military units made up of anti-fascist Socialist, Communist and anarchist volunteers from different countries.

Virtually all Nationalist groups had very strong Roman Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy.

* UNIóN MILITAR ESPAñOLA (SPANISH MILITARY UNION) - a conservative political organisation of officers in the armed forces, including outspoken critics of the Republic like Francisco Franco. Formed in 1934, the UME secretly courted fascist Italy from its inception. Already conspiring against the Republic in January 1936, after the electoral victory of the Popular Front in February it plotted a coup with monarchist and fascist groups in Spain. In the run-up to the Civil War, it was led by Emilio Mola
Emilio Mola
and José Sanjurjo, and latterly Franco.

* _ALFONSIST MONARCHIST_ - supported the restoration of Alfonso XIII. Many army officers, aristocrats, and landowners were Alfonsine, but there was little popular support.

* RENOVACIóN ESPAñOLA (SPANISH RESTORATION) - the main Alfonsine political party.

* ACCIóN ESPAñOLA (SPANISH ACTION) - an integral nationalist party led by José Calvo Sotelo, formed in 1933 around a journal of the same name edited by political theorist and journalist Ramiro de Maeztu .

* BLOQUE NACIONAL (NATIONAL BLOCK) - the militia movement founded by Calvo Sotelo.

* _CARLIST MONARCHIST_ - supported Alfonso Carlos I de Borbón y Austria-Este 's claim to the Spanish throne and saw the Alfonsine line as having been weakened by Liberalism . After Alfonso Carlos died without issue, the Carlists split - some supporting Carlos' appointed regent, Francisco-Xavier de Borbón-Parma , others supporting Alfonso XIII or the Falange. The Carlists were clerical hard-liners led by the aristocracy, with a populist base amongst the farmers and rural workers of Navarre
Navarre
providing the militia.

* COMUNIóN TRADICIONALISTA (TRADITIONALIST COMMUNION) - the Carlist political party

* REQUETéS (VOLUNTEERS) - militia movement. * PELAYOS - militant youth movement, named after Pelayo of Asturias . * MARGARITAS - women's movement, named after Margarita de Borbón-Parma , wife of Carlist pretender Charles VII (1868-1909).

* FALANGE (PHALANX):

* FE (FALANGE ESPAñOLA DE LAS JONS) - created by a merger in 1934 of two fascist organisations, Primo de Rivera's Falange (Phalanx), founded in 1933, and Ramiro Ledesma 's Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Assemblies of National-Syndicalist Offensive), founded in 1931. It became a mass movement when it was joined by members of Acción Popular and by Acción Católica , led by Ramón Serrano Súñer.

* OJE (ORGANIZACIóN JUVENIL ESPAñOLA) - militant youth movement. * SECCIóN FEMENINA (FEMININE SECTION) - women's movement in labour of Social Aid.

* FALANGE ESPAñOLA TRADICIONALISTA Y DE LAS JONS - created by a merger in 1937 of the FE and the Carlist party, bringing the remaining political and militia components of the Nationalist side under Franco's ultimate authority.

* CEDA - coalition party founded by José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones whose ideology ranged from Christian democracy to conservative . Although they supported Franco's rebellion, the party was dissolved in 1937, after most members and militants joined FE and Gil-Robles went to exile.

* JUVENTUDES DE ACCIóN POPULAR , also known as the JAP. The fascistised youth wing of the CEDA. In 1936 they suffered a drain of militants, who joined the Falange.

SEE ALSO

* List of foreign ships wrecked or lost in the Spanish Civil War * Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
* _ The Falling Soldier _ * Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War * List of war films and TV specials# Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
(1936–1939) * List of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War * List of surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War * Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War * Polish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War * Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War * European Civil War * Spain
Spain
in World War II
World War II
* SS Cantabria (1919) * Pacifism in Spain
Spain
* Spanish Republican Armed Forces * Art and culture in Francoist Spain
Spain

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Soviet Union
portal * Spain
Spain
portal * War portal

* Anarchism portal * Fascism portal * Communism
Communism
portal * Conservatism portal * Liberalism portal * Socialism
Socialism
portal

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ Also known as THE CRUSADE (Spanish : _La Cruzada_) among Nationalists, the FOURTH CARLIST WAR (Spanish : _Cuarta Guerra Carlista_) among Carlists , and THE REBELLION (Spanish : _La Rebelión_) or UPRISING (Spanish : _Sublevación_) among Republicans. * ^ Known in Spanish as the _Falange Española de las JONS_. * ^ Westwell (2004) gives a figure of 500 million Reichmarks. * ^ Since Beevor (2006). p. 82. suggests 7,000 members of some 115,000 clergy were killed, the proportion could well be lower. * ^ See variously: Bennett, Scott, _Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963_, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 2003; Prasad, Devi, _War is A Crime Against Humanity: The Story of War Resisters' International_, London, WRI, 2005. Also see Hunter, Allan, _White Corpsucles in Europe,_ Chicago, Willett, Clark and Brown, H. Runham, _Spain: A Challenge to Pacifism,_ London, The Finsbury Press, 1937.

CITATIONS

* ^ Thomas (1961). p. 491. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 488. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sandler, Stanley (2002). _Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. * ^ The number of casualties is disputed; estimates generally suggest that between 500,000 and 1 million people were killed. Over the years, historians kept lowering the death figures, and modern research concludes that 500,000 deaths is the correct figure. Thomas Barria-Norton, _The Spanish Civil War_ (2001), pp. xviii & 899–901, inclusive. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 410–11. Beevor notes that around 150,000 had returned by 1939. * ^ Payne (2012). p. 231. * ^ _A_ _B_ Payne (1973). pp. 200–203. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 88. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 86–87. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 260–271. * ^ Julius Ruiz. _El Terror Rojo_ (2011). pp. 200–211. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 7. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 19. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 13. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 21. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 22. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 24. * ^ Fraser (1979). pp. 38–39. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 24–26. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 15. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 32–33. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 15. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 16. * ^ Beevor (2006) p. 20-22. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 20. * ^ Beevor (2006) p. 23. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 38–39. * ^ Beevor (2006) p.26. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 50. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 42. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 22. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 45–48. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 53. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 47. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 61. * ^ Casanova (2010). p. 90. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 54–55. * ^ Hansen, Edward C. (2 January 1984). "The Anarchists of Casas Viejas ( Book
Book
Review)". _Ethnohistory_. 31 (3): 235–236. doi :10.2307/482644 . Retrieved 13 August 2015. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 27. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 66–67. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 67–68. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 63–65. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 62. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 69–70. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 70. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 83. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 78. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Preston (2006). p. 81. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 82–83. * ^ Payne (1973). p. 642. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 93. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Preston (2006). p. 94. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Preston (1983). pp. 4–10. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 94–95. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 95. * ^ _A_ _B_ Preston (2006). p. 96. * ^ Alpert, Michael _BBC History Magazine_ April 2002 * ^ _A_ _B_ Preston (2006). p. 98. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Preston (2006), p. 99. * ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 196–198, 309 * ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 196–198, 309. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 126. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 55–56. * ^ _A_ _B_ Preston (2006). p. 102. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 56. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 56–57. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 58–59. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 59. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 60–61. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 62. * ^ Chomsky (1969). * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 69. * ^ Beevor (2001) pp. 55-61 * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 102–3. * ^ Westwell (2004). p. 9. * ^ _A_ _B_ Howson (1998). p. 28. * ^ Westwell (2004). p. 10. * ^ Howson (1998). p. 20. * ^ _A_ _B_ Howson (1998). p. 21. * ^ Alpert, Michael (2008). _La guerra civil española en el mar_. Barcelona: Crítica. ISBN 978-84-8432-975-6 . * ^ Howson (1998). pp. 21–22. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Beevor (2006). Chapter 21. * ^ Beevor (1982). pp. 42–43. * ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1970), _The Spanish Revolution_, OCLC
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54588 , p. 315 * ^ Payne (1970), p. 315 * ^ Payne (1970), pp. 329-330 * ^ Payne (2012), p. 188 * ^ Payne (2012), p. 299 * ^ Payne (1970), p. 360 * ^ Payne (1987), p. 244 * ^ _A_ _B_ Payne (1970), p. 343 * ^ Salas Larrazábal, Ramón (1980), _Datos exactos de la Guerra civil_, ISBN 9788430026944 , pp. 288-289 * ^ Larrazábal (1980), pp. 288-289 * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 30–33. * ^ Howson (1997). p. 2. * ^ Cohen (2012). pp. 164–165. * ^ Thomas (1987). pp. 86–90. * ^ _Orden, circular, creando un Comisariado general de Guerra con la misión que se indica_ (PDF ) (in Spanish). IV. Gaceta de Madrid: diario oficial de la República. 16 October 1936. p. 355. * ^ Dawson (2013). p. 85. * ^ Alpert (2013). p. 167. * ^ Pétrement, Simone (1988). _Simone Weil: A Life_. Schocken Books. pp. 271–278. ISBN 978-0-8052-0862-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Howson (1998). pp.1–2. * ^ Werstein (1969) p. 44 * ^ Payne (1973) p. 637. * ^ Coverdale (2002). p. 148. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 79. * ^ Payne (2008). p. 13. * ^ Rooney, Nicola. "The role of the Catholic hierarchy in the rise to power of General Franco" (PDF). Queen's University, Belfast. * ^ "Morocco tackles painful role in Spain\'s past," _Reuters_ 14 January 2009. * ^ Peers, E. Allison; Hogan, James (December 1936). "The Basques and the Spanish Civil War" (PDF). _Studies: an Irish Quarterly Review_. Irish Province of the Society of Jesus. 25 (100): 540–542. ISSN 0039-3495 . * ^ Zara Steiner, The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933–1939 (Oxford History of Modern Europe) (2013), pp 181–251. * ^ Emanuel Adler and Vincent Pouliot (2011). _International Practices_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 184–85. ISBN 978-1-139-50158-3 . doi :10.1017/CBO9780511862373 . * ^ Stone (1997). p. 133. * ^ "Spain:Business & Blood". Time . 19 April 1937. Retrieved 3 August 2011. * ^ Jackson (1974). p. 194. * ^ Stoff (2004). p. 194. * ^ Zara Steiner, _The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933–1939_ (2013) pp 181–251 * ^ _A_ _B_ Westwell (2004). p. 87. * ^ "The legacy of Guernica". _BBC website_. BBC. 26 April 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2011. * ^ Musciano, Walter. "Spanish Civil War: German Condor Legion\'s Tactical Air Power", History Net, 2004. Retrieved on 2 July 2015. * ^ Westwell (2004). p. 88. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Thomas (1961). p. 634. * ^ Thomas, Hugh. (2001). _The Spanish Civil War._ Penguin Books. London. p. 937 * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 135–6. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 199. * ^ Balfour, Sebastian; Preston, Paul (2009). _ Spain
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and the great powers in the twentieth century_. London, UK; New York, USA: Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-415-18078-8 . * ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 938–939. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 116, 133, 143, 148, 174, 427. * ^ _A_ _B_ Thomas (1961). p. 635. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 198. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 116. * ^ David Deacon, _British News Media and the Spanish Civil War_ (2008) p 171 * ^ Richard Overy, _The Twilight Years: The Paradox of Britain Between the Wars_ (2009) pp 319–40 * ^ A. J. P. Taylor, _English History 1914–1945_ (1965) pp 393–98 * ^ Othen (2008). p. 102. * ^ Casanova (2010). p. 225. * ^ Mittermaier (2010). p. 195. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Thomas (1961). p. 637. * ^ Thomas (1961). pp. 638–639. * ^ Deletant (1999). p. 20. * ^ "Review of O\'Riordan\'s memoir". * ^ Benton, Pieke (1998). p. 215. * ^ Howson (1998). p. 125. * ^ Payne (2004). p. 156. * ^ _A_ _B_ Payne (2004). pp. 156–157. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). pp. 152–153. * ^ Howson (1998). pp. 126–129. * ^ Howson (1998). p. 134. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 153–154. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 163. * ^ Graham (2005). p. 92. * ^ Thomas (2003). p. 944. * ^ Richardson (2015). pp. 31–40 * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 273. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 246. * ^ VIDAL, Cesar. _La guerra que gano Franco._ Madrid, 2008. p.256 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Beevor (2006). pp. 139–14. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 291. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 412–413. * ^ _A_ _B_ Alpert (1994). p. 14. * ^ Alpert (1994). pp. 14–15. * ^ Alpert (1994). pp. 20, 23. * ^ _A_ _B_ Alpert (1994). p. 41. * ^ _A_ _B_ Alpert (1994). p. 43. * ^ "Potez 540/542". * ^ Alpert (1994). pp. 46–47. * ^ Werstein (1969). p. 139. * ^ Alpert (1994). p. 47. * ^ Payne (2008). p. 28. * ^ Lukeš, Goldstein (1999). p. 176. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 71. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 96. * ^ Thomas (1961). p. 162. * ^ Red: Beevor (2006). pp. 81–87. * ^ White: Beevor (2006). pp. 88–94. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 73–74. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 116–117. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 144 * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 146–147. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 143 * ^ Timmermans, Rodolphe. 1937. Heroes of the Alcazar. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 121 * ^ Casanova (2010). p. 109. * ^ Cleugh (1962). p. 90. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 150 * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 177 * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 171. * ^ Comín Colomer, Eduardo (1973); El 5º Regimiento de Milicias Populares. Madrid. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 177–183. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 191–192. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 200–201. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 202. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 208–215. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 216–221. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 222. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 223–226. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 228. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 229. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 231–232. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 233. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). pp. 263–273. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 277. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 235. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 277–284. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 296–299. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 237. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 237–238. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 302. * ^ Payne (1973). * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 315–322. * ^ Thomas (2003). pp. 820–821. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 346–7. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). pp. 349–359. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 362. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 374. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 376. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 378. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 380. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 386. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 391–392. * ^ Thomas (2003), pp. 879–882. * ^ Beevor (2001). p. 256 * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 394–395. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 396–397. * ^ Derby (2009). p. 28. * ^ Professor Hilton (27 October 2005). "Spain: Repression under Franco after the Civil War". Cgi.stanford.edu. Retrieved 24 June 2009.

* ^ Tremlett, Giles (1 December 2003). " Spain
Spain
torn on tribute to victims of Franco". London: Guardian. Retrieved 24 June 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 405. * ^ Caistor, Nick (28 February 2003). " Spanish Civil War
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fighters look back". BBC News. Retrieved 24 June 2009. * ^ _Winnipeg, el poema que cruzó el Atlántico_ (in Spanish) * ^ _A_ _B_ Film documentary on the website of the _Cité nationale de l\'histoire de l\'immigration _ (in French) * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 421–422. * ^ "The Roman salute characteristic of Italian fascism was first adopted by the PNE and the JONS, later spreading to the Falange and other extreme right groups, before it became the official salute in Franco's Spain. The JAP salute, which consisted of stretching the right arm horizontally to touch the left shoulder enjoyed only relatively little acceptance. The gesture of the raised fist, so widespread among left-wing workers' groups, gave rise to more regimented variations, such as the salute with the fist on one's temple, characteristic of the German _Rotfront _, which was adopted by the republican Popular Army". The Splintering of Spain, p. 36–37 * ^ _A_ _B_ Daniel Kowalsky. "The Evacuation of Spanish Children to the Soviet Union". _Gutenburg E_. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 16 August 2011. * ^ "History of the arrival of the Basque Children to England in 1937". _BasqueChildren.org_. Basque Children of '37 Association. Retrieved 16 August 2011. * ^ "Wales and the refugee children of the Basque country". _BBC Wales_. 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2016-05-27. * ^ Buchanan (1997). pp. 109–110. * ^ "Los Niños of Southampton". _The Dustbin of History_. Retrieved 2016-05-29. * ^ "Men of La Mancha". The Economist. 22 June 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2011. * ^ Julius Ruiz (2007). "Defending the Republic: The García Atadell Brigade in Madrid, 1936". _Journal of Contemporary History_. 42 (1): 97. doi :10.1177/0022009407071625 . * ^ "Spanish judge opens case into Franco\'s atrocities". New York Times. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2009. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 92. * ^ Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; Rubio-Melendi, David; Martínez-Velasco, Antxoka; Pringle, Jamie K.; Aguilera, Hector-David. "Discovery of a mass grave from the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
using Ground Penetrating Radar and forensic archaeology". _Forensic Science International_. 267: e10–e17. doi :10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.05.040 .

* ^ Graham (2005). p. 30. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 307. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 86–87. * ^ Jackson (1967). p. 305. * ^ _A_ _B_ Thomas (2001). p. 268. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 98 * ^ Paul Preston (19 January 2008). " Paul Preston lecture: The Crimes of Franco" (PDF). Retrieved 16 August 2011. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 94. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Beevor (2006). pp. 88–89. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 89. * ^ Preston (2007). p. 121. * ^ Jackson (1967). p. 377. * ^ Thomas (2001). pp. 253–255. * ^ Santos et al. (1999). p. 229. * ^ Preston (2006). pp. 120–123. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 91. * ^ Balfour, Sebastian. " Spain
Spain
from 1931 to the Present". _Spain: a History._ Ed. Raymond Carr. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 257. Print. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 93. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 236–237. * ^ Preston (2006). p. 302. * ^ Bieter, Bieter (2003). p. 91. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). pp. 82–83. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 82. * ^ Seidman (2011). p. 205. * ^ Wieland (2002). p. 47. * ^ Westwell (2004). p. 31. * ^ "Shots of War: Photojournalism During the Spanish Civil War". Orpheus.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 24 June 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 81. * ^ Antonio Montero Moreno, Historia de la persecucion religiosa en Espana 1936–1939 (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1961) * ^ Payne (1973). p. 649. * ^ Bowen (2006). p. 22. * ^ Ealham, Richards (2005). pp. 80, 168. * ^ Hubert Jedin; John Dolan (1981). _History of the Church_. Continuum. p. 607. ISBN 978-0-86012-092-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Beevor (2006). p. 84. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Beevor (2006). p. 85. * ^ Preston (2006). * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 83. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Thomas (1961). p. 176. * ^ Beevor (2006). pp. 172–173. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 161. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Beevor (2006). pp. 272–273. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). p. 87. * ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor (2006). pp. 102–122. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 40. * ^ Payne (1999). p. 151. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 253. * ^ Arnaud Imatz, "La vraie mort de Garcia Lorca" 2009 40 NRH, 31–34, pp. 32–33. * ^ Beevor (2006). p. 255. * ^ Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, El pueblo español tiene un camino que conduce a una estrella (maqueta) (There Is a Way for the Spanish People That Leads to a Star ). * ^ Museum of Modern Art. * ^ Pablo Picasso. * ^ SUNY Oneota, Picasso´s Guernica. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stanley Meisler, For Joan Miro, Painting and Poetry Were the Same. * ^ TATE, 'The Reaper': Miró's Civil War protest.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND BOOKS BY NOTED AUTHORS

* Alpert, Michael (2004) . _A New International History of the Spanish Civil War_. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-1171-1 . OCLC
OCLC
155897766 . * Alpert, Michael (2013). _The Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02873-9 . * Beevor, Antony (2001) . _The Spanish Civil War_. London: Penguin Group. ISBN 0-14-100148-8 . * Beevor, Antony (2006) . _The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939_. London: Weidenfield & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84832-1 .

* Benton, Gregor; Pieke, Frank N. (1998). _The Chinese in Europe_. Macmillan. p. 390. ISBN 0-333-66913-4 . Retrieved 14 July 2010. * Bieter, John; Bieter, Mark (2003). _An Enduring Legacy: The Story of Basques in Idaho_. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-568-4 . * Bolloten, Burnett (1979). _The Spanish Revolution. The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War_. University of North Carolina. ISBN 1-84212-203-7 . * Borkenau, Franz (1937). _The Spanish Cockpit : an Eye-Witness Account of the Political and Social Conflicts of the Spanish Civil War_. London: Faber and Faber. * Bowen, Wayne H (2006). _ Spain
Spain
During World War II_. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-1658-8 . * Brenan, Gerald (1993) . _ The Spanish Labyrinth : an account of the social and political background of the Civil War_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39827-5 . OCLC
OCLC
38930004 . * Buchanan, Tom (1997). _Britain and the Spanish Civil War_. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45569-3 . * Casanova, Julián (2010). _The Spanish Republic and Civil War_. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-73780-7 . * Cleugh, James (1962). _Spanish Fury: The Story of a Civil War_. London: Harrap. OCLC
OCLC
2613142 . * Cohen, Yehuda (2012). _The Spanish: Shadows of Embarrassment_. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-392-8 . * Coverdale, John F. (2002). _Uncommon faith: the early years of Opus Dei, 1928–1943_. New York: Scepter. ISBN 978-1-889334-74-5 . * Cox, Geoffrey (1937). _The Defence of Madrid_. London: Victor Gollancz. OCLC
OCLC
4059942 . * Dawson, Ashley (2013). _The Routledge Concise History of Twentieth-century British Literature_. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57245-3 . * Derby, Mark (2009). _Kiwi Companeros: New Zealand and the Spanish Civil War_. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. ISBN 978-1-877257-71-1 . * Ealham, Chris; Richards, Michael (2005). _The Splintering of Spain_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82178-0 . doi :10.1017/CBO9780511497025 . * Graham, Helen (2005). _The Spanish Civil War: A very short introduction_. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280377-1 . doi :10.1093/actrade/9780192803771.001.0001 . * Hemingway, Ernest (1938). _The Fifth Column_. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 978-0-684-10238-2 . * Hemingway, Ernest (1940). _For Whom The Bell Tolls_. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-80335-7 . * Howson, Gerald (1998). _Arms for Spain_. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-24177-1 . OCLC
OCLC
231874197 . * Jackson, Gabriel (1965). _The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931–1939_. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00757-8 . OCLC
OCLC
185862219 . * Jackson, Gabriel (1974). _The Cruel Years: The Story of the Spanish Civil War_. New York: John Day. * Kisch, Egon Erwin (1939). _The three cows (translated from the German by Stewart Farrar )_. London: Fore Publications. * Koestler, Arthur (1983). _Dialogue with death_. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-34776-5 . OCLC
OCLC
16604744 . * Kowalsky, Daniel (2008). _Stalin and the Spanish Civil War_. New York: Columbia University Press. * Lukeš, Igor; Goldstein, Erik, eds. (1999). _The Munich Crisis, 1938: Prelude to World War II_. London, UK; Portland, Oregon, USA: Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-8056-9 . * Majfud, Jorge (2016). "Rescuing Memory: the Humanist Interview with Noam Chomsky". The Humanist. * Mittermaier, Ute Anne (2010). "Charles Donnelly, 'Dark Star' of Irish Poetry and Reluctant Hero of the Irish Left". In Clark, David; Álavez, Rubén Jarazo. _'To Banish Ghost and Goblin': New Essays on Irish Culture_. Oleiros (La Coruña): Netbiblo. pp. 191–200. ISBN 978-0-521-73780-7 . * Orwell, George (2000) . _Homage to Catalonia_. London: Penguin, Martin Secker & Warburg. ISBN 0-14-118305-5 . OCLC
OCLC
42954349 . * Othen, Christopher (2008). _Franco's International Brigades: Foreign Volunteers and Fascist Dictators in the Spanish Civil War_. London: Reportage Press. * Payne, Stanley G. (2012). _The Spanish Civil War_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-17470-1 . * Payne, Stanley G. (2004). _The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism_. New Haven; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10068-X . OCLC
OCLC
186010979 . * Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain
Spain
and Portugal (Print Edition): chapters 25 & 26". _University of Wisconsin Press_. Library of Iberian resources online. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2007. * Payne, Stanley G. (1999). _ Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977_. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-16564-7 . * Payne, Stanley G. (2008). _Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II_. New Haven, CT : Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12282-4 . * Preston, Paul (1978). _The Coming of the Spanish Civil War_. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-23724-2 . OCLC
OCLC
185713276 . * Preston, Paul (1996) . _A Concise history of the Spanish Civil War_. London: Fontana. ISBN 978-0-00-686373-1 . OCLC
OCLC
231702516 . * Preston, Paul (2006). _The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution, and Revenge_. New York: WW. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-32987-9 . * Radosh, Ronald ; Habeck, Mary; Sevostianov, Grigory (2001). _Spain betrayed: the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the Spanish Civil War_. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08981-3 . OCLC
OCLC
186413320 . * Richardson, R. Dan (2015) . _ Comintern Army: The International Brigades and the Spanish Civil War_. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-6437-3 . * O\'Riordan, Michael (2005). _The Connolly Column_. Pontypool, Wales: Warren & Pell. * Rust, William (2003) . _Britons in Spain: A History of the British Battalion of the XV International Brigade_ (reprint). Pontypool, Wales: Warren & Pell. * Santos, Juliá; Casanova, Julián ; Solé I Sabaté, Josep Maria; Villarroya, Joan; Moreno, Francisco (1999). _Victimas de la guerra civil_ (in Spanish). Madrid: Temas de Hoy. * Seidman, Michael (2011). _The Victorious Counter-revolution: The Nationalist Effort in the Spanish Civil War_. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-24964-6 . * Stoff, Laurie (2004). _Spain_. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. * Taylor, F. Jay (1971) . _The United States
United States
and the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939_. New York: Bookman Associates. ISBN 978-0-374-97849-5 . * Thomas, Hugh (2003) . _The Spanish Civil War_. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-101161-0 . OCLC
OCLC
248799351 . * Werstein, Irving (1969). _The Cruel Years: The Story of the Spanish Civil War_. New York: Julian Messner. * Westwell, Ian (2004). _Condor Legion: The Wehrmacht's Training Ground_. Ian Allan.

FURTHER READING

* Brouè, Pierre (1988). _The Revolution
Revolution
and the Civil War in Spain_. Chicago: Haymarket. OCLC
OCLC
1931859515 . * Carr, Sir Raymond (2001) . _The Spanish Tragedy: The Civil War in Perspective_. Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-84212-203-7 . * Doyle, Bob (2006). _Brigadista: an Irishman's fight against fascism_. Dublin: Currach Press. ISBN 1-85607-939-2 . OCLC
OCLC
71752897 . * Francis, Hywel (2006). _Miners against Fascism: Wales and the Spanish Civil War_. Pontypool, Wales (NP4 7AG): Warren and Pell. * Graham, Helen (2002). _The Spanish republic at war, 1936–1939_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45932-X . OCLC 231983673 . * Graham, Helen (1988). "The Spanish Socialist
Socialist
Party in Power and the Government of Juan Negrín, 1937–9". _European History Quarterly_. 18 (2): 175–206. doi :10.1177/026569148801800203 . . * Ibarruri, Dolores (1976). _They Shall Not Pass: the Autobiography of La Pasionaria (translated from El Unico Camino)_. New York: International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0468-2 . OCLC
OCLC
9369478 . * Jellinek, Frank (1938). _The Civil War in Spain_. London: Victor Gollanz (Left Book
Book
Club). * Kowalsky, Daniel (2004). _La Union Sovietica y la Guerra Civil Espanola_. Barcelona: Critica. ISBN 84-8432-490-7 . OCLC
OCLC
255243139 . * Low, Mary; Juan Breá (1979) . _Red Spanish Notebook_. San Francisco: City Lights Books (originally by Martin Secker & Warburg). ISBN 0-87286-132-5 . OCLC
OCLC
4832126 . * Monteath, Peter (1994). _The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
in literature, film, and art: an international Bibliography of secondary literature_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29262-0 . * Pérez de Urbel, Justo (1993). _Catholic Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939_, trans. by Michael F. Ingrams. Kansas City, MO: Angelus Press. ISBN 0-935952-96-9 * Preston, Paul (2012) . _The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain_. London: Harper Press. ISBN 978-0-00-255634-7 . * Puzzo, Dante Anthony (1962). _ Spain
Spain
and the Great Powers, 1936–1941_. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press (originally Columbia University Press, N.Y.). ISBN 0-8369-6868-9 . OCLC
OCLC
308726 . * Southworth, Herbert Rutledge (1963). _El mito de la cruzada de Franco_ (in Spanish). Paris: Ruedo Ibérico. ISBN 84-8346-574-4 . * Wheeler, George; Jack Jones (2003). Leach, David, ed. _To Make the People Smile Again: a Memoir of the Spanish Civil War_. Newcastle upon Tyne: Zymurgy Publishing. ISBN 1-903506-07-7 . OCLC
OCLC
231998540 . * Wilson, Ann (1986). _Images of the Civil War_. London: Allen & Unwin. * De Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro Franco and the Spanish Civil War, Routledge, London, 2001

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